WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep survey evolution

  1. Deep CCD survey - galaxy luminosity and color evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging and photometric observations of a statistically complete sample of galaxies in 12 high-latitude fields, obtained in the BJ (360-520 nm), R (580-720 nm) and I (780-1100 nm) bands using CCD detectors on the 4-m telescopes at CTIO and KPNO, are reported. The data are presented in extensive graphs and sample images and analyzed in detail with reference to theoretical models of galactic origin and evolution. The galaxy number-count slopes, d(log N)/dm, are found to be sub-Euclidean, varying from 0.34 in the I band to 0.45 in the BJ band, where the corrected counts appear to saturate at about 27 mag. The predictions of no-evolution models are shown to underpredict the counts at 25 mag (BJ) by a factor of 5-15 and the extragalactic background light from all galaxies (6.8 x 10 to the -6th erg/sq cm sec sr micron at 450 nm) by a factor greater than 2. 114 references

  2. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1987-01-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references

  3. Evolution of galaxies clustering in the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneux, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The recent surveys of the Universe highlighted the presence of structures in the matter distribution, such as filaments and voids. To study the evolution of the galaxy spatial distribution, it is necessary to know their accurate position in a three dimensional space. This thesis took place within the framework of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). Its goal is to measure some 100000 redshifts to study the formation and evolution of the galaxies and large scale structures of the Universe up to z∼5. After having made a review of our knowledge of the galaxies distribution, then introduced the VVDS, I present the measurement and the evolution of the real-space two-point correlation function from the first epoch data of the VVDS, the largest sample of 10759 spectra ever acquired up to I_A_B = 24. I developed a whole set of programs made available to the VVDS consortium to easily measure the clustering length of galaxies in a given redshift range, with its associated errors, correcting the effects of the VVDS observing strategy. This tool enabled to measure the evolution of the real space correlation function of the global galaxies population up to z=2. I then extended this study dividing the full galaxies sample by spectral type and color. Finally, combining the GALEX data to the VVDS has allowed me to measure the clustering of an ultraviolet-selected sample of galaxies up to z∼1. This is the first time that such measurements are carried out on such a so long range of cosmic time. The results presented in this thesis are thus establishing a new reference in the field. (author) [fr

  4. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  5. WFIRST: Science from Deep Field Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton; Foley, Ryan; WFIRST Deep Field Working Group

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will enable deep field imaging across much larger areas than those previously obtained with Hubble, opening up completely new areas of parameter space for extragalactic deep fields including cosmology, supernova and galaxy evolution science. The instantaneous field of view of the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) is about 0.3 square degrees, which would for example yield an Ultra Deep Field (UDF) reaching similar depths at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to that obtained with Hubble, over an area about 100-200 times larger, for a comparable investment in time. Moreover, wider fields on scales of 10-20 square degrees could achieve depths comparable to large HST surveys at medium depths such as GOODS and CANDELS, and would enable multi-epoch supernova science that could be matched in area to LSST Deep Drilling fields or other large survey areas. Such fields may benefit from being placed on locations in the sky that have ancillary multi-band imaging or spectroscopy from other facilities, from the ground or in space. The WFIRST Deep Fields Working Group has been examining the science considerations for various types of deep fields that may be obtained with WFIRST, and present here a summary of the various properties of different locations in the sky that may be considered for future deep fields with WFIRST.

  6. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. IX. Evolution of galaxy merger fraction since z ≈ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventou, E.; Contini, T.; Bouché, N.; Epinat, B.; Brinchmann, J.; Bacon, R.; Inami, H.; Lam, D.; Drake, A.; Garel, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Pello, R.; Steinmetz, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Carollo, M.

    2017-11-01

    We provide, for the first time, robust observational constraints on the galaxy major merger fraction up to z ≈ 6 using spectroscopic close pair counts. Deep Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) are used to identify 113 secure close pairs of galaxies among a parent sample of 1801 galaxies spread over a large redshift range (0.2 separation limit of 109.5 M⊙ or the median value of stellar mass computed in each redshift bin. Overall, the major close pair fraction for low-mass and massive galaxies follows the same trend. These new, homogeneous, and robust estimates of the major merger fraction since z ≈ 6 are in good agreement with recent predictions of cosmological numerical simulations. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programmes 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045(B).

  7. ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: CO LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC DENSITY OF MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, Manuel; Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Bouwens, Rychard [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Da Cunha, Elisabete [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Daddi, Emanuele [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Ivison, R. J.; Popping, Gergö [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Riechers, Dominik [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Smail, Ian R. [6 Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Swinbank, Mark [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-053121 Bonn (Germany); Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo, E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-12-10

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to z  ∼ 4.5. This study is based on galaxies that have been selected solely through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted “knee” of the CO luminosity function (around 5 × 10{sup 9} K km s{sup −1} pc{sup 2}). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to z  ∼ 0, with more CO-luminous galaxies present at z  ∼ 2. The observed galaxies at z  ∼ 2 also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a drop by a factor of 3–10 from z  ∼ 2 to z  ∼ 0 (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at z  > 3. This trend is similar to the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density. The latter therefore appears to be at least partly driven by the increased availability of molecular gas reservoirs at the peak of cosmic star formation ( z  ∼ 2).

  8. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stern, D.; Griffith, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Gorjian, V.; Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, A.; Eisenstein, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Ivison, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg. 2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 10 5 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  9. A 6-cm deep sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomalont, E.B.; Kellermann, K.I.; Wall, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In order to extend radio source counts to lower flux density, the authors have used the VLA to survey a small region of sky at 4.885 GHz (6 cm) to a limiting flux density of 50 μJy. Details of this deep survey are given in the paper by kellermann et al. (these proceedings). In addition, they have observed 10 other nearby fields to a limiting flux density of 350 μJy in order to provide better statistics on sources of intermediate flux density. (Auth.)

  10. Deep Echo State Network (DeepESN): A Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The study of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and, in particular, of deep Reservoir Computing (RC) is gaining an increasing research attention in the neural networks community. The recently introduced deep Echo State Network (deepESN) model opened the way to an extremely efficient approach for designing deep neural networks for temporal data. At the same time, the study of deepESNs allowed to shed light on the intrinsic properties of state dynamics developed by hierarchical compositions ...

  11. AGES: THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Eisenstein, D. J.; Caldwell, N.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Forman, W. R.; Green, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cool, R. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, B. T.; Dey, A. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, Bryant Space Science Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) is a redshift survey covering, in its standard fields, 7.7 deg{sup 2} of the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The final sample consists of 23,745 redshifts. There are well-defined galaxy samples in 10 bands (the B{sub W} , R, I, J, K, IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m, and MIPS 24 {mu}m bands) to a limiting magnitude of I < 20 mag for spectroscopy. For these galaxies, we obtained 18,163 redshifts from a sample of 35,200 galaxies, where random sparse sampling was used to define statistically complete sub-samples in all 10 photometric bands. The median galaxy redshift is 0.31, and 90% of the redshifts are in the range 0.085 < z < 0.66. Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) were selected as radio, X-ray, IRAC mid-IR, and MIPS 24 {mu}m sources to fainter limiting magnitudes (I < 22.5 mag for point sources). Redshifts were obtained for 4764 quasars and galaxies with AGN signatures, with 2926, 1718, 605, 119, and 13 above redshifts of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. We detail all the AGES selection procedures and present the complete spectroscopic redshift catalogs and spectral energy distribution decompositions. Photometric redshift estimates are provided for all sources in the AGES samples.

  12. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L.; Arendt, R.; Barmby, P.; Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P.; Bell, E. F.; Bouwens, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Croton, D.; Davé, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Finlator, K.; Grogin, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg 2 to a depth of 26 AB mag (3σ) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 ± 1.0 and 4.4 ± 0.8 nW m –2 sr –1 at 3.6 and 4.5 μm to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  13. Quasi-periodicity in deep redshift surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, R. van de

    1991-01-01

    The recent result by Broadhurst et al., (1990. Nature 343, 726) showing a striking, nearly periodic, galaxy redshift distribution in a narrow pencil-beam survey, is explained within the Voronoi cellular model of clustering of galaxies. Galaxies, whose luminosities are selected from a Schechter luminosity function, are placed randomly within the walls of this cellular model. Narrow and deep, magnitude-limited, pencil-beam surveys through these structures are simulated. Some 15 per cent of these beams show that observed regular pattern, with a spacing between the peaks of the order of 105 h -1 -150 h -1 Mpc, but most pencil-beams show peaks in the redshift distribution without periodicity, so we may conclude that, even within a cellular universe, periodicity is not a common phenomenon. (author)

  14. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A.; De Breuck, C.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Poggianti, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z phot = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z phot = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M * = (8 ± 1) × 10 10 M ☉ , although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M H distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  15. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Straße, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Knudsen, K. K. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Poggianti, B. M., E-mail: j.m.simpson@dur.ac.uk [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z {sub phot} = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M {sub *} = (8 ± 1) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M{sub H} distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  16. The Gemini Deep Planet Survey - GDPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Marois, C; Nadeau, D; Oppenheimer, B R; Roche, P F; Rigaut, F; Graham, J R; Jayawardhana, R; Johnstone, D; Kalas, P G; Macintosh, B; Racine, R

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of the Gemini Deep Planet Survey, a near-infrared adaptive optics search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around nearby young stars. The observations were obtained with the Altair adaptive optics system at the Gemini North telescope and angular differential imaging was used to suppress the speckle noise of the central star. Detection limits for the 85 stars observed are presented, along with a list of all faint point sources detected around them. Typically, the observations are sensitive to angular separations beyond 0.5-inch with 5{sigma} contrast sensitivities in magnitude difference at 1.6 {micro}m of 9.6 at 0.5-inch, 12.9 at 1-inch, 15 at 2-inch, and 16.6 at 5-inch. For the typical target of the survey, a 100 Myr old K0 star located 22 pc from the Sun, the observations are sensitive enough to detect planets more massive than 2 M{sub Jup} with a projected separation in the range 40-200 AU. Depending on the age, spectral type, and distance of the target stars, the minimum mass that could be detected with our observations can be {approx}1 M{sub Jup}. Second epoch observations of 48 stars with candidates (out of 54) have confirmed that all candidates are unrelated background stars. A detailed statistical analysis of the survey results, which provide upper limits on the fractions of stars with giant planet or low mass brown dwarf companions, is presented. Assuming a planet mass distribution dn/dm {proportional_to} m{sup -1.2} and a semi-major axis distribution dn/da {proportional_to} a{sup -1}, the upper limits on the fraction of stars with at least one planet of mass 0.5-13 M{sub Jup} are 0.29 for the range 10-25 AU, 0.13 for 25-50 AU, and 0.09 for 50-250 AU, with a 95% confidence level; this result is weakly dependent on the semi-major axis distribution power-law index. Without making any assumption on the mass and semi-major axis distributions, the fraction of stars with at least one brown dwarf companion having a semi-major axis in the

  17. Origin and evolution of deep brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Alessandro eSironi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes how the electrical stimulation, used since antiquity to modulate the nervous system, has been a fundamental tool of neurophysiologic investigation in the second half of the 18th century and was subsequently used by the early 20th century, even for therapeutic purposes. In mid-20th century the advent of stereotactic procedures has allowed the drift from lesional to stimulating technique of deep nuclei of the brain for therapeutic purposes. In this way, DBS was born, that, over the last two decades, has led to positive results for the treatment of medically refractory Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia. In recent years, the indications for therapeutic use of DBS have been extended to epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome, psychiatric diseases (depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some kinds of headache, eating disorders and the minimally conscious state. The potentials of the DBS for therapeutic use are fascinating, but there are still many unresolved technical and ethical problems, concerning the identification of the targets for each disease, the selection of the patients and the evaluation of the results.

  18. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dahlen, Tomas; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Haeussler, Boris; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; van der Wel, Arjen; Villforth, Carolin; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan, Hao-Jing; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the

  19. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F Biddle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Manhes et al. 2011, Martiny et al. 2006. Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org.

  20. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  1. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  2. Survey on deep learning for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philippe; Noblet, Vincent; Mazzara, Christophe; Lallement, Alex

    2018-05-17

    More than 50% of cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, either exclusively or in combination with other methods. The planning and delivery of radiotherapy treatment is a complex process, but can now be greatly facilitated by artificial intelligence technology. Deep learning is the fastest-growing field in artificial intelligence and has been successfully used in recent years in many domains, including medicine. In this article, we first explain the concept of deep learning, addressing it in the broader context of machine learning. The most common network architectures are presented, with a more specific focus on convolutional neural networks. We then present a review of the published works on deep learning methods that can be applied to radiotherapy, which are classified into seven categories related to the patient workflow, and can provide some insights of potential future applications. We have attempted to make this paper accessible to both radiotherapy and deep learning communities, and hope that it will inspire new collaborations between these two communities to develop dedicated radiotherapy applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of the large Deep Space Network antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, William A.

    1991-12-01

    The evolution of the largest antenna of the US NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The design, performance analysis, and measurement techniques, beginning with its initial 64-m operation at S-band (2295 MHz) in 1966 and continuing through the present ka-band (32-GHz) operation at 70 m, is described. Although their diameters and mountings differ, these parabolic antennas all employ a Cassegrainian feed system, and each antenna dish surface is constructed of precision-shaped perforated-aluminum panels that are secured to an open steel framework

  4. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85725 (United States); Howell, Steve B., E-mail: ridgway@noao.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, P.O. Box 1, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteria—a process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the sky—Galactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ∼10{sup 5} high latitude (|b| > 20°) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20° is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ∼3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ∼1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10{sup 5} per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  5. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A.; Howell, Steve B.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteria—a process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the sky—Galactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ∼10 5 high latitude (|b| > 20°) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20° is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ∼3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ∼1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10 5 per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  6. DEEP 21 cm H I OBSERVATIONS AT z ∼ 0.1: THE PRECURSOR TO THE ARECIBO ULTRA DEEP SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudling, Wolfram; Zwaan, Martin; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Meyer, Martin; Catinella, Barbara; Minchin, Robert; Calabretta, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; O'Neil, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The 'ALFA Ultra Deep Survey' (AUDS) is an ongoing 21 cm spectral survey with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. AUDS will be the most sensitive blind survey undertaken with Arecibo's 300 MHz Mock spectrometer. The survey searches for 21 cm H I line emission at redshifts between 0 and 0.16. The main goals of the survey are to investigate the H I content and probe the evolution of H I gas within that redshift region. In this paper, we report on a set of precursor observations with a total integration time of 53 hr. The survey detected a total of eighteen 21 cm emission lines at redshifts between 0.07 and 0.15 in a region centered around α 2000 ∼ 0 h , δ ∼ 15 0 42'. The rate of detection is consistent with the one expected from the local H I mass function. The derived relative H I density at the median redshift of the survey is ρ H I [z = 0.125] = (1.0 ± 0.3)ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is the H I density at zero redshift.

  7. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  8. THE VLA SURVEY OF CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH. V. EVOLUTION AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SUB-MILLIJANSKY RADIO SOURCES AND THE ISSUE OF RADIO EMISSION IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, P.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Miller, N.; Kellermann, K. I.; Tozzi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions of the radio sources belonging to the Chandra Deep Field South Very Large Array survey, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 43 μJy at the field center and redshift ∼5 and which includes the first radio-selected complete sample of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use a new, comprehensive classification scheme based on radio, far- and near-IR, optical, and X-ray data to disentangle star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from AGNs and radio-quiet from radio-loud AGNs. We confirm our previous result that SFGs become dominant only below 0.1 mJy. The sub-millijansky radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of SFGs and radio-quiet AGNs evolving at a similar, strong rate; non-evolving low-luminosity radio galaxies; and declining radio powerful (P ∼> 3 x 10 24 W Hz -1 ) AGNs. Our results suggest that radio emission from radio-quiet AGNs is closely related to star formation. The detection of compact, high brightness temperature cores in several nearby radio-quiet AGNs can be explained by the coexistence of two components, one non-evolving and AGN related and one evolving and star formation related. Radio-quiet AGNs are an important class of sub-millijansky sources, accounting for ∼30% of the sample and ∼60% of all AGNs, and outnumbering radio-loud AGNs at ∼< 0.1 mJy. This implies that future, large area sub-millijansky surveys, given the appropriate ancillary multiwavelength data, have the potential of being able to assemble vast samples of radio-quiet AGNs, bypassing the problems of obscuration that plague the optical and soft X-ray bands.

  9. Evolution of Indoor Positioning Technologies: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Brena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning systems (IPS use sensors and communication technologies to locate objects in indoor environments. IPS are attracting scientific and enterprise interest because there is a big market opportunity for applying these technologies. There are many previous surveys on indoor positioning systems; however, most of them lack a solid classification scheme that would structurally map a wide field such as IPS, or omit several key technologies or have a limited perspective; finally, surveys rapidly become obsolete in an area as dynamic as IPS. The goal of this paper is to provide a technological perspective of indoor positioning systems, comprising a wide range of technologies and approaches. Further, we classify the existing approaches in a structure in order to guide the review and discussion of the different approaches. Finally, we present a comparison of indoor positioning approaches and present the evolution and trends that we foresee.

  10. A survey on deep learning in medical image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litjens, Geert; Kooi, Thijs; Bejnordi, Babak Ehteshami; Setio, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso; Ciompi, Francesco; Ghafoorian, Mohsen; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; van Ginneken, Bram; Sánchez, Clara I

    2017-12-01

    Deep learning algorithms, in particular convolutional networks, have rapidly become a methodology of choice for analyzing medical images. This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared in the last year. We survey the use of deep learning for image classification, object detection, segmentation, registration, and other tasks. Concise overviews are provided of studies per application area: neuro, retinal, pulmonary, digital pathology, breast, cardiac, abdominal, musculoskeletal. We end with a summary of the current state-of-the-art, a critical discussion of open challenges and directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. THE GALAXY OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Caldwell, Nelson; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Moustakas, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We present the galaxy optical luminosity function for the redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.75 from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey, a spectroscopic survey of 7.6 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Our statistical sample is composed of 12,473 galaxies with known redshifts down to I = 20.4 (AB). Our results at low redshift are consistent with those from Sloan Digital Sky Survey; at higher redshift, we find strong evidence for evolution in the luminosity function, including differential evolution between blue and red galaxies. We find that the luminosity density evolves as (1 + z){sup (0.54{+-}0.64)} for red galaxies and (1 + z){sup (1.64{+-}0.39)} for blue galaxies.

  12. Origin and evolution of the deep thermochemical structure beneath Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, N; Williams, S; Müller, R D; Gurnis, M; Bower, D J

    2017-01-18

    A unique structure in the Earth's lowermost mantle, the Perm Anomaly, was recently identified beneath Eurasia. It seismologically resembles the large low-shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the Pacific, but is much smaller. This challenges the current understanding of the evolution of the plate-mantle system in which plumes rise from the edges of the two LLSVPs, spatially fixed in time. New models of mantle flow over the last 230 million years reproduce the present-day structure of the lower mantle, and show a Perm-like anomaly. The anomaly formed in isolation within a closed subduction network ∼22,000 km in circumference prior to 150 million years ago before migrating ∼1,500 km westward at an average rate of 1 cm year -1 , indicating a greater mobility of deep mantle structures than previously recognized. We hypothesize that the mobile Perm Anomaly could be linked to the Emeishan volcanics, in contrast to the previously proposed Siberian Traps.

  13. Collective Landmarks for Deep Time: A New Tool for Evolution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Evolution is a fundamental, organising concept in biology, yet there is widespread resistance to evolution among US students and there are rising creationist challenges in Europe. Resistance to evolution is linked to lack of understanding of the age of the Earth. An understanding of deep time is thus essential for effective biology education.…

  14. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  15. Simulation of deep one- and two-dimensional redshift surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J.R. III

    1991-01-01

    We show that slice or pencil-beam redshift surveys of galaxies can be simulated in a box with non-equal sides. This method saves a lot of computer time and memory while providing essentially the same results as from whole-cube simulations. A 2457.6-h -1 Mpc-long rod (out to a redshift z = 0.58 in two opposite directions) is simulated using the standard biased Cold Dark Matter model as an example to mimic the recent deep pencil-beam surveys by Broadhurst et al. The structures (spikes) we see in these simulated samples occur when the narrow pencil-beam pierces walls, filaments and clusters appearing randomly along the line-of-sight. We have applied a statistical test for goodness of fit to a periodic lattice to the observations and the simulations. (author)

  16. Deep fracturing of granite bodies. Literature survey, geostructural and geostatistic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Blanchin, R.

    1986-01-01

    This report deals with investigations about deep fracturing of granite bodies, which were performed within two cost-sharing contracts between the Commission of the European Communities, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres. The aim of this work was to study the evolution of fracturing in granite from the surface to larger depths, so that guidelines can be identified in order to extrapolate, at depth, the data obtained from surface investigations. These guidelines could eventually be used for feasibility studies about radioactive waste disposal. The results of structural and geostatistic investigations about the St. Sylvestre granite, as well as the literature survey about fractures encountered in two long Alpine galleries (Mont-Blanc tunnel and Arc-Isere water gallery), in the 1000 m deep borehole at Auriat, and in the Bassies granite body (Pyrenees) are presented. These results show that, for radioactive waste disposal feasibility studies: 1. The deep state of fracturing in a granite body can be estimated from results obtained at the surface; 2. Studying only the large fault network would be insufficient, both for surface investigations and for studies in deep boreholes and/or in underground galleries; 3. It is necessary to study orientations and frequencies of small fractures, so that structural mapping and statistical/geostatistical methods can be used in order to identify zones of higher and lower fracturing

  17. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z approx. 8 - 1.5. It will image > 250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Tele8cope, from the mid-UV to near-IR, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10(exp 9) solar mass to z approx. 2, reaching the knee of the UV luminosity function of galaxies to z approx. 8. The survey covers approximately 800 square arc minutes and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5(sigma) point-source limit H =27.7mag) covers approx. 125 square arcminutes within GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS) and covers the full area to a 50(sigma) point-source limit of H ? or approx. = 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultradeep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered "wedding cake" approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design.

  18. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [CEOU—Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair, E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  19. Simulation of deep one- and two-dimensional redshift surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. Richard, III

    1991-03-01

    It is shown that slice or pencil-beam redshift surveys of galaxies can be simulated in a box with nonequal sides. This method saves a lot of computer time and memory while providing essentially the same results as from whole-cube simulations. A 2457.6/h Mpc-long rod (out to a redshift z = 0.58 in two opposite directions) is simulated using the standard biased cold dark matter model as an example to mimic the recent deep pencil-beam surveys by Broadhurst et al. (1990). The structures (spikes) seen in these simulated samples occur when the narrow pencil-beam pierces walls, filaments, and clusters appearing randomly along the line-of-sight. A statistical test for goodness of fit to a periodic lattice has been applied to the observations and the simulations. It is found that the statistical significance level (P = 15.4 percent) is not strong enough to reject the null hypothesis that the observations and the simulations were drawn at random from the same set.

  20. Modeling Wind Wave Evolution from Deep to Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    W.H. Hui, 1979; Nonlinear energy transfer in narrow gravity wave spectrum. Proc. Roy. Soc. London A368, 239–265. Gagnaire-Renou, E., M. Benoit , and P...at the 2013 WISE meeting, Camp Springs, MA , USA. Smit P. B. and T. T. Janssen, 2013; The evolution of inhomogeneous wave statistics through a

  1. The KMOS Deep Survey: Dynamical Measurements of Star-Forming Galaxies at z 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Owen; Cirasuolo, Michele; Harrison, Chris; McLure, Ross; Dunlop, James; Swinbank, Mark; Johnson, Helen; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Sharples, Ray

    2017-07-01

    This poster present dynamical measurements from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Deep Survey (KDS), which is comprised of 78 typical star-forming galaxies at z = 3.5 in the mass range 9.0 isolated. The results suggest that the rotation-dominated galaxies in the sample are offset to lower velocities at fixed stellar mass and have higher velocity dispersions than star-forming galaxies in the local and intermediate redshift universe. Only 1/3 of the galaxies in the sample are dominated by rotation, which hints that random motions are playing an increasingly significant role in supporting the dynamical mass in the systems. When searching for evolution in scaling relations, such as the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation, it is important to take these random motions into account.

  2. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis’ evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of ‘stable fixers’ (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships. PMID:24912610

  3. THE SUBSTELLAR POPULATION OF {sigma} ORIONIS: A DEEP WIDE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejar, V. J. S.; Rebolo, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martin, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Caballero, J. A.; Barrado, D. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Mundt, R.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L., E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: ege@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: rrl@iac.es, E-mail: caballero@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: barrado@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: mundt@mpia.de, E-mail: calj@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    We present a deep I, Z photometric survey covering a total area of 1.12 deg{sup 2} of the {sigma} Orionis cluster and reaching completeness magnitudes of I = 22 and Z = 21.5 mag. From I, I - Z color-magnitude diagrams we have selected 153 candidates that fit the previously known sequence of the cluster. They have magnitudes in the range I = 16-23 mag, which corresponds to a mass interval from 0.1 down to 0.008 M{sub Sun} at the most probable age of {sigma} Orionis (2-4 Myr). Using J-band photometry, we find that 124 of the 151 candidates within the completeness of the optical survey (82%) follow the previously known infrared photometric sequence of the cluster and are probably members. We have studied the spatial distribution of the very low mass stars and brown dwarf population of the cluster and found that there are objects located at distances greater than 30 arcmin to the north and west of {sigma} Orionis that probably belong to different populations of the Orion's Belt. For the 102 bona fide {sigma} Orionis cluster member candidates, we find that the radial surface density can be represented by a decreasing exponential function ({sigma}={sigma}{sub 0}e{sup -r/r{sub 0}}) with a central density of {sigma}{sub 0} = 0.23 {+-} 0.03 objects arcmin{sup -2} and a characteristic radius of r{sub 0} = 9.5 {+-} 0.7 arcmin. From a statistical comparison with Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the spatial distribution of the objects located at the same distance from the center of the cluster is compatible with a Poissonian distribution and, hence, that very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are not mainly forming aggregations or sub-clustering. Using near-infrared JHK-band data from Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey and mid-infrared data from Infrared Array Camera/Spitzer, we find that about 5%-9% of the brown dwarf candidates in the {sigma} Orionis cluster have K-band excesses and 30% {+-} 7% of them show mid-infrared excesses at

  4. THE GALAXY OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Moustakas, John

    2012-01-01

    We present the galaxy optical luminosity function for the redshift range 0.05 2 in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Our statistical sample is composed of 12,473 galaxies with known redshifts down to I = 20.4 (AB). Our results at low redshift are consistent with those from Sloan Digital Sky Survey; at higher redshift, we find strong evidence for evolution in the luminosity function, including differential evolution between blue and red galaxies. We find that the luminosity density evolves as (1 + z) (0.54±0.64) for red galaxies and (1 + z) (1.64±0.39) for blue galaxies.

  5. Generative Models in Deep Learning: Constraints for Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Maximilian Dennis; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-01-01

    New techniques are essential to make advances in the field of galaxy evolution. Recent developments in the field of artificial intelligence and machine learning have proven that these tools can be applied to problems far more complex than simple image recognition. We use these purely data driven approaches to investigate the process of star formation quenching. We show that Variational Autoencoders provide a powerful method to forward model the process of galaxy quenching. Our results imply that simple changes in specific star formation rate and bulge to disk ratio cannot fully describe the properties of the quenched population.

  6. White Dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Data Release 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Freytag, B.; Bergeron, P.; Kalirai, J. S.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2014-06-01

    We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000 K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0 Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40 km s-1 3.0 and 5.0 Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T eff (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.

  7. A Survey on Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, G.J.; Kooi, T.; Ehteshami Bejnordi, B.; Setio, A.A.A.; Ciompi, F.; Ghafoorian, M.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Ginneken, B. van; Sanchez, C.I.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning algorithms, in particular convolutional networks, have rapidly become a methodology of choice for analyzing medical images. This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared

  8. Evolution of completion tools gravel pack systems for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Hightower, Chad; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Conventional gravel pack or frac pack completions typically require the use of wash pipe to act as a conduit for fluid returns as well as to carry a shifting mechanism to open or close a return port. Using properly sized wash pipe can enhance the placement of the gravel across the entire annular space and the formation. It can also be used in conjunction with a shifting mechanism and a sliding sleeve to force the fluid returns to pass through the bottom of the screen. It can allow a wash-down capability while running the assembly into an open hole. In specialty systems, it can even act as a pumping conduit for post-gravel pack stimulation. However, the use of wash pipe, especially in long horizontal wells, means the loss of valuable rig time due to make up and break out of the wash pipe, or recovery if the wash pipe is stuck. Economic considerations, along with completion efficiencies, are especially important on deep water completions. Not using wash pipe reduces rig time, generating significant cost savings, and also eliminates the risk of a fishing operation. This paper reviews conventional wash pipe applications and describes new systems that accomplish the same goal with a minimum amount of wash pipe or no wash pipe at all. (author)

  9. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

  10. The Ejecta Evolution of Deep Impact: Insight from Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) probe impacted comet 9P/Tempel 1 at an angle of ~30° from local horizontal with a velocity of 10.2 km/s. Examination of the resulting ballistic (e.g., non-vapor driven) ejecta revealed phenomena that largely followed expectations from laboratory investigations of oblique impacts into low-density porous material, including a downrange bias, uprange zone of avoidance, and cardioid (curved) rays (Schultz, et al, 2005, 2007). Modeling of the impact based on canonical models and scaling laws (Richardson, et al, 2007) allowed a first-order reconstruction of the event, but did not fully represent the three-dimensional nature of the ejecta flow-field in an oblique impact essential for interpretation of the DI data. In this study, we present new experimental measurements of the early-time ejecta dynamics in oblique impacts that allow a more complete reconstruction of the ballistic ejecta from the impact, including visualization of the DI encounter and predictions for the upcoming re-encounter with Tempel 1. A suite of hypervelocity 30° impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) for the purpose of interpreting the Deep Impact event. A technique based on Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) permitted non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity within the ejecta curtain. The PTV system developed at the AVGR utilizes a laser light sheet projected parallel to the impact surface to illuminate horizontal “slices” of the ejecta curtain that are then recorded by multiple cameras. Particle displacement between successive frames and cameras allows determination of the three-component velocity of the ejecta curtain. Pioneering efforts with a similar technique (Anderson, et al, 2003, 2006) characterized the main-stage ejecta velocity distributions and demonstrated that asymmetries in velocity and ejection angle persist well into the far-field for oblique impacts. In this study, high-speed cameras

  11. The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red star-forming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.

  12. A deep imaging survey of the Pleiades with ROSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, J. R.; Caillault, J.-P.; Gagne, M.; Prosser, C. F.; Hartmann, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained deep ROSAT images of three regions within the Pleiades open cluster. We have detected 317 X-ray sources in these ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) images, 171 of which we associate with certain or probable members of the Pleiades cluster. We detect nearly all Pleiades members with spectral types later than G0 and within 25 arcminutes of our three field centers where our sensitivity is highest. This has allowed us to derive for the first time the luminosity function for the G, K, amd M dwarfs of an open cluster without the need to use statistical techniques to account for the presence of upper limits in the data sample. Because of our high X-ray detection frequency down to the faint limit of the optical catalog, we suspect that some of our unidentified X-ray sources are previously unknown, very low-mass members of Pleiades. A large fraction of the Pleiades members detected with ROSAT have published rotational velocities. Plots of L(sub X)/L(sub Bol) versus spectroscopic rotational velocity show tightly correlated `saturation' type relations for stars with ((B - V)(sub 0)) greater than or equal to 0.60. For each of several color ranges, X-ray luminosities rise rapidly with increasing rotation rate until c sin i approximately equal to 15 km/sec, and then remains essentially flat for rotation rates up to at least v sin i approximately equal to 100 km/sec. The dispersion in rotation among low-mass stars in the Pleiades is by far the dominant contributor to the dispersion in L(sub X) at a given mass. Only about 35% of the B, A, and early F stars in the Pleiades are detected as X-ray sources in our survey. There is no correlation between X-ray flux and rotation for these stars. The X-ray luminosity function for the early-type Pleiades stars appears to be bimodal -- with only a few exceptions, we either detect these stars at fluxes in the range found for low-mass stars or we derive X-ray limits below the level found for most Pleiades

  13. Chemical evolution of deep groundwaters in granites, information acquired from natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Ouzounian, G.

    1993-01-01

    A research program has been carried out for five years, concerning a major aspect of deep radioactive waste disposals: groundwaters in the host-rock. The following items have been examined: the exact composition of confined waters, excluding those which are found in highly conductive (even deep) fractures; evolution path from surface waters to confined waters; possible influence of the repository on the composition of groundwaters; possible influence of groundwaters on the elements which could escape the repository (major elements, trace elements, radioactive elements). The following methodology is used: groundwater sampling and analysis, identification of the major phenomena controlling element concentration in groundwaters, modelling, modelling validation. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. A deep redshift survey of field galaxies. Comments on the reality of the Butcher-Oemler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, David C.; Kron, Richard G.

    1987-01-01

    A spectroscopic survey of over 400 field galaxies has been completed in three fields for which we have deep UBVI photographic photometry. The galaxies typically range from B=20 to 22 and possess redshifts z from 0.1 to 0.5 that are often quite spiky in distribution. Little, if any, luminosity evolution is observed up to redshifts z approx 0.5. By such redshifts, however, an unexpectedly large fraction of luminous galaxies has very blue intrinsic colors that suggest extensive star formation; in contrast, the reddest galaxies still have colors that match those of present-day ellipticals.

  15. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  16. Deep, Broadband Spectral Line Surveys of Molecule-rich Interstellar Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Laas, Jacob C.; Zou, Luyao; Kroll, Jay A.; Rad, Mary L.; Hays, Brian M.; Sanders, James L.; Cross, Trevor N.; Wehres, Nadine; McGuire, Brett A. [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C.; Sumner, Matthew C., E-mail: susanna.widicus.weaver@emory.edu [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Spectral line surveys are an indispensable tool for exploring the physical and chemical evolution of astrophysical environments due to the vast amount of data that can be obtained in a relatively short amount of time. We present deep, broadband spectral line surveys of 30 interstellar clouds using two broadband λ  = 1.3 mm receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This information can be used to probe the influence of physical environment on molecular complexity. We observed a wide variety of sources to examine the relative abundances of organic molecules as they relate to the physical properties of the source (i.e., temperature, density, dynamics, etc.). The spectra are highly sensitive, with noise levels ≤25 mK at a velocity resolution of ∼0.35 km s{sup −1}. In the initial analysis presented here, column densities and rotational temperatures have been determined for the molecular species that contribute significantly to the spectral line density in this wavelength regime. We present these results and discuss their implications for complex molecule formation in the interstellar medium.

  17. South China Sea Tectonics and Magnetics: Constraints from IODP Expedition 349 and Deep-tow Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Xu, X.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest low-latitude marginal sea in the world. Its formation and evolution are linked to the complex continental-oceanic tectonic interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates. Despite its relatively small size and short history, the SCS has undergone nearly a complete Wilson cycle from continental break-up to seafloor spreading to subduction. In January-March 2014, Expedition 349 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilled five sites in the deep basin of the SCS. Three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) cored into oceanic basement near the fossil spreading center on the East and Southwest Subbasins, whereas Sites U1432 and U1435 are located near the northern continent/ocean boundary of the East Subbasin. Shipboard biostratigraphy based on microfossils preserved in sediment directly above or within basement suggests that the preliminary cessation age of spreading in both the East and Southwest Subbasins is around early Miocene (16-20 Ma); however, post-cruise radiometric dating is being conducted to directly date the basement basalt in these subbasins. Prior to the IODP drilling, high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2013 in the SCS with survey lines passing near the five IODP drilling sites. The deep-tow surveys revealed detailed patterns of the SCS magnetic anomalies with amplitude and spatial resolutions several times better than that of traditional sea surface measurements. Preliminary results reveal several episodes of magnetic reversal events that were not recognized by sea surface measurements. Together the IODP drilling and deep-tow magnetic surveys provide critical constraints for investigating the processes of seafloor spreading in the SCS and evolution of a mid-ocean ridge from active spreading to termination.

  18. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral ...... provide new insight into the evolution of galaxies, clusters of galaxies and AGN's.......The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral....... This spectroscopic X-ray survey will provide a large, statistically complete, sample of sources detected at high energies, more than an order of magnitude fainter than obtained by previous missions. The study of these sources will significantly improve our understanding not only of the origin of DXRB, but also...

  19. Deep Extragalactic VIsible Legacy Survey (DEVILS): Motivation, Design and Target Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Lagos, C. P.; Cortese, L.; Mannering, E.; Foster, C.; Lidman, C.; Hashemizadeh, A.; Koushan, S.; O'Toole, S.; Baldry, I. K.; Bilicki, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brown, M. J. I.; Bryant, J. J.; Catinella, B.; Croom, S. M.; Grootes, M. W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Jarvis, M. J.; Maddox, N.; Meyer, M.; Moffett, A. J.; Phillipps, S.; Taylor, E. N.; Windhorst, R. A.; Wolf, C.

    2018-06-01

    The Deep Extragalactic VIsible Legacy Survey (DEVILS) is a large spectroscopic campaign at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) aimed at bridging the near and distant Universe by producing the highest completeness survey of galaxies and groups at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < z < 1.0). Our sample consists of ˜60,000 galaxies to Y<21.2 mag, over ˜6 deg2 in three well-studied deep extragalactic fields (Cosmic Origins Survey field, COSMOS, Extended Chandra Deep Field South, ECDFS and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission Large-Scale Structure region, XMM-LSS - all Large Synoptic Survey Telescope deep-drill fields). This paper presents the broad experimental design of DEVILS. Our target sample has been selected from deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Y-band imaging (VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations, VIDEO and UltraVISTA), with photometry measured by PROFOUND. Photometric star/galaxy separation is done on the basis of NIR colours, and has been validated by visual inspection. To maximise our observing efficiency for faint targets we employ a redshift feedback strategy, which continually updates our target lists, feeding back the results from the previous night's observations. We also present an overview of the initial spectroscopic observations undertaken in late 2017 and early 2018.

  20. White dwarfs in the UKIRT infrared deep sky survey data release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Freytag, B.; Bergeron, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000 K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0 Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40 km s –1 ≤v tan ≤ 60 km s –1 . They are likely thick disk 10-11 Gyr old objects. In addition, we find a resolved double degenerate system with v tan ∼ 155 km s –1 and a cooling age between 3.0 and 5.0 Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T eff (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.

  1. Deep 20-GHz survey of the Chandra Deep Field South and SDSS Stripe 82: source catalogue and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Chhetri, Rajan; Ekers, Ronald D.; Mahony, Elizabeth K.; Murphy, Tara; Norris, Ray P.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Whittam, Imogen H.

    2014-04-01

    We present a source catalogue and first results from a deep, blind radio survey carried out at 20 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, with follow-up observations at 5.5, 9 and 18 GHz. The Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) deep pilot survey covers a total area of 5 deg2 in the Chandra Deep Field South and in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We estimate the survey to be 90 per cent complete above 2.5 mJy. Of the 85 sources detected, 55 per cent have steep spectra (α _{1.4}^{20} law spectra between 1.4 and 18 GHz, while the spectral indices of the flat- or inverted-spectrum sources tend to steepen with frequency. Among the 18 inverted-spectrum (α _{1.4}^{20} ≥ 0.0) sources, 10 have clearly defined peaks in their spectra with α _{1.4}^{5.5} > 0.15 and α 9^{18} Cambridge and Tenth Cambridge surveys: there is a shift towards a steeper-spectrum population when going from ˜1 Jy to ˜5 mJy, which is followed by a shift back towards a flatter-spectrum population below ˜5 mJy. The 5-GHz source-count model by Jackson & Wall, which only includes contributions from FRI and FRII sources, and star-forming galaxies, does not reproduce the observed flattening of the flat-spectrum counts below ˜5 mJy. It is therefore possible that another population of sources is contributing to this effect.

  2. Post-Palaeozoic evolution of weathered landsurfaces in Uganda by tectonically controlled deep weathering and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. G.; Howard, K. W. F.

    1998-11-01

    A model for the evolution of weathered landsurfaces in Uganda is developed using available geotectonic, climatic, sedimentological and chronological data. The model demonstrates the pivotal role of tectonic uplift in inducing cycles of stripping, and tectonic quiescence for cycles of deep weathering. It is able to account for the development of key landforms, such as inselbergs and duricrust-capped plateaux, which previous hypotheses of landscape evolution that are based on climatic or eustatic controls are unable to explain. Development of the Ugandan landscape is traced back to the Permian. Following late Palaeozoic glaciation, a trend towards warmer and more humid climates through the Mesozoic enabled deep weathering of the Jurassic/mid-Cretaceous surface in Uganda during a period of prolonged tectonic quiescence. Uplift associated with the opening South Atlantic Ocean terminated this cycle and instigated a cycle of stripping between the mid-Cretaceous and early Miocene. Deep weathering on the succeeding Miocene to recent (African) surface has occurred from Miocene to present but has been interrupted in the areas adjacent to the western rift where development of a new drainage base level has prompted cycles of stripping in the Miocene and Pleistocene.

  3. Large-scale transportation network congestion evolution prediction using deep learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Yinhai

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how congestion at one location can cause ripples throughout large-scale transportation network is vital for transportation researchers and practitioners to pinpoint traffic bottlenecks for congestion mitigation. Traditional studies rely on either mathematical equations or simulation techniques to model traffic congestion dynamics. However, most of the approaches have limitations, largely due to unrealistic assumptions and cumbersome parameter calibration process. With the development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Internet of Things (IoT), transportation data become more and more ubiquitous. This triggers a series of data-driven research to investigate transportation phenomena. Among them, deep learning theory is considered one of the most promising techniques to tackle tremendous high-dimensional data. This study attempts to extend deep learning theory into large-scale transportation network analysis. A deep Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Recurrent Neural Network architecture is utilized to model and predict traffic congestion evolution based on Global Positioning System (GPS) data from taxi. A numerical study in Ningbo, China is conducted to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Results show that the prediction accuracy can achieve as high as 88% within less than 6 minutes when the model is implemented in a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU)-based parallel computing environment. The predicted congestion evolution patterns can be visualized temporally and spatially through a map-based platform to identify the vulnerable links for proactive congestion mitigation.

  4. Large-scale transportation network congestion evolution prediction using deep learning theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Ma

    Full Text Available Understanding how congestion at one location can cause ripples throughout large-scale transportation network is vital for transportation researchers and practitioners to pinpoint traffic bottlenecks for congestion mitigation. Traditional studies rely on either mathematical equations or simulation techniques to model traffic congestion dynamics. However, most of the approaches have limitations, largely due to unrealistic assumptions and cumbersome parameter calibration process. With the development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS and Internet of Things (IoT, transportation data become more and more ubiquitous. This triggers a series of data-driven research to investigate transportation phenomena. Among them, deep learning theory is considered one of the most promising techniques to tackle tremendous high-dimensional data. This study attempts to extend deep learning theory into large-scale transportation network analysis. A deep Restricted Boltzmann Machine and Recurrent Neural Network architecture is utilized to model and predict traffic congestion evolution based on Global Positioning System (GPS data from taxi. A numerical study in Ningbo, China is conducted to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Results show that the prediction accuracy can achieve as high as 88% within less than 6 minutes when the model is implemented in a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based parallel computing environment. The predicted congestion evolution patterns can be visualized temporally and spatially through a map-based platform to identify the vulnerable links for proactive congestion mitigation.

  5. Real-Time Visualization System for Deep-Sea Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote robotic exploration holds vast potential for gaining knowledge about extreme environments, which is difficult to be accessed by humans. In the last two decades, various underwater devices were developed for detecting the mines and mine-like objects in the deep-sea environment. However, there are some problems in recent equipment, like poor accuracy of mineral objects detection, without real-time processing, and low resolution of underwater video frames. Consequently, the underwater objects recognition is a difficult task, because the physical properties of the medium, the captured video frames, are distorted seriously. In this paper, we are considering use of the modern image processing methods to determine the mineral location and to recognize the mineral actually within a little computation complex. We firstly analyze the recent underwater imaging models and propose a novel underwater optical imaging model, which is much closer to the light propagation model in the underwater environment. In our imaging system, we remove the electrical noise by dual-tree complex wavelet transform. And then we solve the nonuniform illumination of artificial lights by fast guided trilateral bilateral filter and recover the image color through automatic color equalization. Finally, a shape-based mineral recognition algorithm is proposed for underwater objects detection. These methods are designed for real-time execution on limited-memory platforms. This pipeline is suitable for detecting underwater objects in practice by our experiences. The initial results are presented and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed real-time visualization system.

  6. Time evolution of the Clay Barrier Chemistry in a HLW deep geological disposal in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, I.; Miguel, M. J.; Juncosa, R.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of a high level waste geological disposal is to guarantee the waste isolation from the biosphere, locking them away into very deep geological formations. The best way to assure the isolation is by means of a multiple barrier system. These barriers, in a serial disposition, should assure the confinement function of the disposal system. Two kinds of barriers are considered: natural barriers (geological formations) and engineered barriers (waste form, container and backfilling and sealing materials). Bentonite is selected as backfilling and sealing materials for HLW disposal into granite formations, due to its very low permeability and its ability to fill the remaining spaces. bentonite has also other interesting properties, such as, the radionuclide retention capacity by sorption processes. Once the clay barrier has been placed, the saturation process starts. The granite groundwater fills up the voids of the bentonite and because of the chemical interactions, the groundwater chemical composition varies. Near field processes, such as canister corrosion, waste leaching and radionuclide release, strongly depends on the water chemical composition. Bentonite pore water composition is such a very important feature of the disposal system and its determination and its evolution have great relevance in the HLW deep geological disposal performance assessment. The process used for the determination of the clay barrier pore water chemistry temporal evolution, and its influence on the performance assessment, are presented in this paper. (Author)

  7. Deep Sea Coral voucher sequence dataset - Identification of deep-sea corals collected during the 2009 - 2014 West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project resides in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Database. Deep-sea corals are often components of trawling bycatch, though their...

  8. Westerbork Ultra-Deep Survey of HI at z=0.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc; Deshev, Boris; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Poggianti, Bianca; Chung, Aeree; Cybulski, Ryan; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Montero-Castano, Maria; Morrison, Glenn; Schiminovich, David; Szomoru, Arpad; Yun, Min

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we present some preliminary observational results from the completed ultra-deep survey of 21cm emission from neutral hydrogen at redshifts z=0.164-0.224 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. In two separate fields, a total of 160 individual galaxies has been detected

  9. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  10. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - II. Gaussian processes and hybrid estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Building on the first paper in this series (Duncan et al. 2018), we present a study investigating the performance of Gaussian process photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. A Gaussian process redshift code is used to produce photo-z estimates targeting specific subsets of both the AGN population - infrared, X-ray and optically selected AGN - and the general galaxy population. The new estimates for the AGN population are found to perform significantly better at z > 1 than the template-based photo-z estimates presented in our previous study. Our new photo-z estimates are then combined with template estimates through hierarchical Bayesian combination to produce a hybrid consensus estimate that outperforms both of the individual methods across all source types. Photo-z estimates for radio sources that are X-ray sources or optical/IR AGN are significantly improved in comparison to previous template-only estimates - with outlier fractions and robust scatter reduced by up to a factor of ˜4. The ability of our method to combine the strengths of the two input photo-z techniques and the large improvements we observe illustrate its potential for enabling future exploitation of deep radio continuum surveys for both the study of galaxy and black hole co-evolution and for cosmological studies.

  11. Experimental palaeobiomechanics: What can engineering tell us about evolution in deep time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip

    2016-04-01

    What did Tyrannosaurus rex eat? This is the sort of question that immediately bombards any palaeontologist when interacting with the general public. Even among scientists, how extinct animals moved or fed is a major objective of the palaeobiological research agenda. The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the technology and experimental methods available for collecting biomechanical data, which has greatly improved out ability to examine the function of both live and extinct animals. With new technologies and methods come new pitfalls and opportunities. In this review, I address three aspects of experimental biomechanics that exemplify the challenges and opportunities it provides for addressing deep-time problems in palaeontology. 1) Interpretation: It has never been easier to acquire large amounts of high-quality biomechanical data on extinct animals. However, the lack of behavioural information means that interpreting this data can be problematic. We will never know precisely what a dinosaur ate, but we can explore what constraints there might have been on the mechanical function of its jaws. Palaeobiomechanics defines potential function and becomes especially effective when dealing with multiple examples. 2) Comparison: Understanding the potential function of one extinct animal is interesting; however, examining mechanical features across multiple taxa allows for a greater understanding of biomechanical variation. Comparative studies help identify common trends and underlying mechanical principles which can have long reaching influences on morphological evolution. 3) Evolution: The physical principles established through comparative biomechanical studies can be utilized in phylogenetic comparative methods in order to explore evolutionary morphology across clades. Comparative evolutionary biomechanics offers potential for exploring the evolution of functional systems in deep time utilizing experimental biomechanical data.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  13. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  14. A medium-deep Chandra and Subaru survey of the 13-h XMM/ROSAT deep survey area

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, I. M.; Gunn, K. F.; Newsam, A. M.; Mason, K. O.; Page, M. J.; Takata, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Sasseen, T.; Cordova, F.; Jones, L. R.; Loaring, N.

    2003-07-01

    We present the results of a Chandra ACIS-I survey of a high-latitude region at 13 h +38° which was earlier observed with ROSAT and which has recently been observed by XMM-Newton for 200 ks. XMM-Newton will provide good-quality X-ray spectra for over 200 sources with fluxes around the knee of the log N/ log S, which are responsible for the bulk of the X-ray background. The main aim of the Chandra observations is to provide arcsecond, or better, positions, and hence reliable identifications, for the XMM-Newton sources. The ACIS-I observations were arranged in a mosaic of four 30-ks pointings, covering almost all of the 15-arcmin radius XMM-Newton/ROSAT field. We detect 214 Chandra sources above a Cash likelihood statistic of 25, which approximates to 5σ significance, to a limiting flux of ~1.3 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 (0.5-7 keV). Optical counterparts are derived from a Subaru SuprimeCam image reaching to R~ 27. The very large majority of the Chandra sources have an optical counterpart, with the distribution peaking at 23 high LX/Lopt ratios, implying absorption at moderate redshift. Comparison with the earlier ROSAT survey shows that the accuracy of the ROSAT positions agrees very well with the predictions from simulations by McHardy et al. and that the large majority of the identifications were correct.

  15. Deep-towed CSEM survey of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannberg, P.; Constable, S.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are increasingly being used to remotely detect hydrate deposits in seafloor sediments. CSEM methods are sensitive to sediment pore space resistivity, such as when electrically resistive hydrate displaces the electrically conductive pore fluid, increasing the bulk resistivity of the sediment. In July 2017, a two-week research cruise using an upgraded and expanded "Vulcan" towed receiver system collected over 250 line km of data at four sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) thought to have hydrate bearing sediments. Hydrate bearing horizons at the survey sites ranged from 400-700 m below seafloor. Modeling suggested an array with source receiver offsets of up to 1600 m would be needed to properly image the deep hydrate. A deep towed electromagnetic transmitter outputting 270 Amps was towed 100 m above seafloor. Six Vulcan receivers, each recording three-axis electric field data, were towed at 200 m intervals from 600-1600 m behind the transmitter. The four sites surveyed, Walker Ridge 313, Orca Basin, Mad Dog, and Green Canyon 955, are associated with the upcoming GOM^2 coring operation scheduled for 2020. Wells at WR313 and GC955 were logged as part of a joint industry drilling project in 2009 and will be used to ground truth our inversion results. In 2008, WR313 and GC955 were surveyed using traditional CSEM seafloor receivers, accompanied by a single prototype Vulcan towed receiver. This prior survey will allow comparison of results from a seafloor receiver survey with those from a towed receiver survey. Seismic data has been collected at all the sites, which will be used to constrain inversions. In addition to the four hydrate sites surveyed, two lines were towed over Green Knoll, a deep-water salt dome located between Mad Dog and GC955. Presented here are initial results from our recent cruise.

  16. Geophysical evidence for melt in the deep lunar interior and implications for lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.; Connolly, J. A. D.; Pommier, A.; Noir, J.

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of lunar laser ranging and seismic data has yielded evidence that has been interpreted to indicate a molten zone in the lowermost mantle overlying a fluid core. Such a zone provides strong constraints on models of lunar thermal evolution. Here we determine thermochemical and physical structure of the deep Moon by inverting lunar geophysical data (mean mass and moment of inertia, tidal Love number, and electromagnetic sounding data) in combination with phase-equilibrium computations. Specifically, we assess whether a molten layer is required by the geophysical data. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that a region with high dissipation located deep within the Moon is required to explain the geophysical data. This region is located within the mantle where the solidus is crossed at a depth of ˜1200 km (≥1600°C). Inverted compositions for the partially molten layer (150-200 km thick) are enriched in FeO and TiO2 relative to the surrounding mantle. The melt phase is neutrally buoyant at pressures of ˜4.5-4.6 GPa but contains less TiO2 (<15 wt %) than the Ti-rich (˜16 wt %) melts that produced a set of high-density primitive lunar magmas (density of 3.4 g/cm3). Melt densities computed here range from 3.25 to 3.45 g/cm3 bracketing the density of lunar magmas with moderate-to-high TiO2 contents. Our results are consistent with a model of lunar evolution in which the cumulate pile formed from crystallization of the magma ocean as it overturned, trapping heat-producing elements in the lower mantle.

  17. The Origin of Stellar Species: constraining stellar evolution scenarios with Local Group galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbadhicary, Sumit; Badenes, Carles; Chomiuk, Laura; Maldonado, Jessica; Caprioli, Damiano; Heger, Mairead; Huizenga, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of the progenitors of many stellar species, such as supernovae, massive and low-mass He-burning stars, is limited because of many poorly constrained aspects of stellar evolution theory. For my dissertation, I have focused on using Local Group galaxy surveys to constrain stellar evolution scenarios by measuring delay-time distributions (DTD). The DTD is the hypothetical occurrence rate of a stellar object per elapsed time after a brief burst of star formation. It is the measured distribution of timescales on which stars evolve, and therefore serves as a powerful observational constraint on theoretical progenitor models. The DTD can be measured from a survey of stellar objects and a set of star-formation histories of the host galaxy, and is particularly effective in the Local Group, where high-quality star-formation histories are available from resolved stellar populations. I am currently calculating a SN DTD with supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to provide the strongest constraints on the progenitors of thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae. However, most SNRs do not have reliable age measurements and their evolution depends on the ambient environment. For this reason, I wrote a radio light curve model of an SNR population to extract the visibility times and rates of supernovae - crucial ingredients for the DTD - from an SNR survey. The model uses observational constraints on the local environments from multi-wavelength surveys, accounts for missing SNRs and employs the latest models of shock-driven particle acceleration. The final calculation of the SN DTD in the Local Group is awaiting completion of a systematic SNR catalog from deep radio-continuum images, now in preparation by a group led by Dr. Laura Chomiuk. I have also calculated DTDs for the LMC population of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables, which serve as important distance calibrators and stellar population tracers. We find that Cepheids can have delay-times between 10 Myrs - 1 Gyr

  18. Geophysical evidence for melt in the deep lunar interior and implications for lunar evolution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.; Connolly, J. A.; Pommier, A.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of lunar seismic and lunar laser ranging data has yielded evidence that has been interpreted to indicate a molten zone in the lower-most mantle and/or the outer core of the Moon. Such a zone would provide strong constraints on models of the thermal evolution of the Moon. Here we invert lunar geophysical data in combination with phase-equilibrium modeling to derive information about the thermo-chemical and physical structure of the deep lunar interior. Specifically, we assess whether a molten layer is required by the geophysical data and, if so, its likely composition and physical properties (e.g., density and seismic wave speeds). The data considered are mean mass and moment of inertia, second-degree tidal Love number, and frequency-dependent electromagnetic sounding data. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that a region with high dissipation located deep within the Moon is indeed required to explain the geophysical data. If this dissipative region is located within the mantle, then the solidus is crossed at a depth of ~1200 km (>1600 deg C). The apparent absence of far-side deep moonquakes (DMQs) is supporting evidence for a highly dissipative layer. Inverted compositions for the partially molten layer (typically 100--200 km thick) are enriched in FeO and TiO2 relative to the surrounding mantle. While the melt phase in >95 % of inverted models is neutrally buoyant at pressures of ~4.5--4.6 GPa, the melt contains less TiO2 (>~4 wt %) than the Ti-rich (~16 wt % TiO2) melts that produced a set of high-density primitive lunar magmas (~3.4 g/ccm). Melt densities computed here range from 3.3 to 3.4 g/ccm bracketing the density of lunar magmas with moderate-to-high TiO2 contents. Our results are consistent with a model of lunar evolution in which the cumulate pile formed from crystallization of the magma ocean as it overturned, trapping heat-producing elements in the lower mantle.

  19. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  20. A Dataset of Deep-Sea Fishes Surveyed by Research Vessels in the Waters around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of deep-sea fish fauna is hampered by a lack of data due to the difficulty and high cost incurred in its surveys and collections. Taiwan is situated along the edge of the Eurasia fig, at the junction of three Large Marine Ecosystems or Ecoregions of the East China Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines. As nearly two-thirds of its surrounding marine ecosystems are deep-sea environments, Taiwan is expected to hold a rich diversity of deep-sea fish. However, in the past, no research vessels were employed to collect fish data on site. Only specimens, caught by bottom trawl fishing in the waters hundreds of meters deep and missing precise locality information, were collected from Dasi and Donggang fishing harbors. Began in 2001, with the support of National Science Council, research vessels were made available to take on the task of systematically collecting deep-sea fish specimens and occurrence records in the waters surrounding Taiwan. By the end of 2006, a total of 3,653 specimens, belonging to 26 orders, 88 families, 198 genera and 366 species, were collected in addition to data such as sampling site geographical coordinates and water depth, and fish body length and weight. The information, all accessible from the “Database of Taiwan’s Deep-Sea Fauna and Its Distribution (http://deepsea.biodiv.tw/” as part of the “Fish Database of Taiwan,” can benefit the study of temporal and spatial changes in distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the context of global deep-sea biodiversity.

  1. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: DESIGN, OBSERVATIONS, DATA REDUCTION, AND REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Harker, Justin J.; Lai, Kamson; Coil, Alison L.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Yan Renbin; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z ∼ 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude M B = –20 at z ∼ 1 via ∼90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg 2 divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R AB = 24.1. Objects with z ∼ 0.7 to be targeted ∼2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z ∼ 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 Å doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm –1 grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R ∼ 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed through more than 2000 objects with duplicate

  2. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  3. Topographic signatures of deep-seated landslides and a general landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. M.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.

    2012-12-01

    A fundamental goal of studying earth surface processes is to disentangle the complex web of interactions among baselevel, climate, and rock properties that generate characteristic landforms. Mechanistic geomorphic transport laws can quantitatively address this goal, but no widely accepted law for landslides exists. Here, we propose a transport law for deep-seated landslides and demonstrate its utility using a two-dimensional numerical landscape evolution model informed by study areas in the Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand and the Eel River catchment, California. We define a non-dimensional landslide number, which is the ratio of uplift to landslide flow time scales, that predicts three distinct landscape types. The first is dominated by stochastic landsliding, whereby discrete landslide events episodically erode material at rates far exceeding the long term uplift rate. The second is characterized by steady landsliding, in which the landslide flux at any location remains constant through time and is largest at the steepest locations in the catchment. The third is not significantly affected by landsliding. In both the "stochastic landsliding" and "steady landsliding" regimes, increases in the non-dimensional landslide number systematically reduce catchment relief and widen valley spacing, producing long, quasi-planar, low angle hillslopes despite high uplift rates. The stochastic landsliding regime best captures the frequent observation that deep-seated landslides produce a large sediment flux from a small aerial extent while being active only a fraction of the time. We suggest that this model is adaptable to a wide range of geologic settings and may be useful for interpreting climate-driven changes in landslide behavior.

  4. Evolution and functional characterisation of melanopsins in a deep-sea chimaera (elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne I L Davies

    Full Text Available Non-visual photoreception in mammals is primarily mediated by two splice variants that derive from a single melanopsin (OPN4M gene, whose expression is restricted to a subset of retinal ganglion cells. Physiologically, this sensory system regulates the photoentrainment of many biological rhythms, such as sleep via the melatonin endocrine system and pupil constriction. By contrast, melanopsin exists as two distinct lineages in non-mammals, opn4m and opn4x, and is broadly expressed in a wide range of tissue types, including the eye, brain, pineal gland and skin. Despite these findings, the evolution and function of melanopsin in early vertebrates are largely unknown. We, therefore, investigated the complement of opn4 classes present in the genome of a model deep-sea cartilaginous species, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii, as a representative vertebrate that resides at the base of the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate lineage. We reveal that three melanopsin genes, opn4m1, opn4m2 and opn4x, are expressed in multiple tissues of the elephant shark. The two opn4m genes are likely to have arisen as a result of a lineage-specific duplication, whereas "long" and "short" splice variants are generated from a single opn4x gene. By using a heterologous expression system, we suggest that these genes encode functional photopigments that exhibit both "invertebrate-like" bistable and classical "vertebrate-like" monostable biochemical characteristics. We discuss the evolution and function of these melanopsin pigments within the context of the diverse photic and ecological environments inhabited by this chimaerid holocephalan, as well as the origin of non-visual sensory systems in early vertebrates.

  5. Evolution through cold and deep waters: the molecular phylogeny of the Lithodidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sally; Thatje, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this work are to use gene sequence data to assess the hypothesis that the Lithodinae arose from ancestors with uncalcified abdomens in shallow waters of the North-East Pacific, investigate the monophyly and interrelationships of genera within the Lithodinae and to estimate the scale and minimum number of biogeographic transitions from the shallow environment to the deep sea and vice versa. To do this, phylogenetic analysis from three mitochondrial and three nuclear markers was conducted using minimum evolution, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The Lithodinae as defined to include North Pacific genus Cryptolithodes may be paraphyletic, with the Hapalogastrinae and Cryptolithodes as sister taxa. This implies that the soft-bodied abdomen of the Hapalogastrinae might not be plesiomorphic for the Lithodidae. Paralomis, Lopholithodes, Phyllolithodes, Lithodes and Neolithodes share a common ancestor, from which the North Pacific Hapalogastrinae did not descend. Lithodid ancestors are likely to have had a north Pacific, shallow water distribution and to have had planktotrophic larvae. North Pacific genus Paralithodes is paraphyletic; P. brevipes is the most basal member of the genus (as sampled) while P. camtschaticus and P. platypus are more closely related to the genera Lithodes and Neolithodes. Genera Lithodes, Neolithodes and Paralomis (as sampled) are monophyletic if Glyptolithodes is included within Paralomis. Lopholithodes is closely related to, but not included within, the Paralomis genus. Paralomis is divided into at least two major lineages: one containing South Atlantic, West African, and Indian Ocean species, and the other containing Pacific and South American species. Several species of Paralomis do not resolve consistently with any other groups sampled, implying a complex and possibly rapid global evolution early in the history of the genus. Relationships within the Lithodes genus vary between analytical methods, suggesting that

  6. Survey and analysis of deep water mineral deposits using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, C.M.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.

    1991-01-01

    Present knowledge of the location, quality, quantity and recoverability of sea floor minerals is severely limited, particularly in the abyssal depths and deep water within the 200 mile Exclusion Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the U.S. Pacific Islands. To improve this understanding and permit exploitation of these mineral reserves much additional data is needed. This paper will discuss a sponsored program for extending existing proven nuclear survey methods currently used on the shallow continental margins of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico into the deeper waters of the Pacific. This nuclear technology can be readily integrated and extended to depths of 2000 m using the existing RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and the PISCESE V manned deep submersible vehicle (DSV) operated by The University of Hawaii's, Hawaii Underseas Research Laboratory (HURL). Previous papers by the authors have also proposed incorporating these nuclear analytical methods for survey of the deep ocean through the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUX). Such a vehicle could extend the use of passive nuclear instrument operation, in addition to conventional analytical methods, into the abyssal depths and do so with speed and economy not otherwise possible. The natural radioactivity associated with manganese nodules and crustal deposits is sufficiently above normal background levels to allow discrimination and quantification in near real time

  7. International Deep Planet Survey, 317 stars to determine the wide-separated planet frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicher, R.; Marois, C.; Macintosh, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Song, I.; Barman, T.; Patience, J.

    2013-09-01

    Since 2000, more than 300 nearby young stars were observed for the International Deep Planet Survey with adaptive optics systems at Gemini (NIRI/NICI), Keck (Nirc2), and VLT (Naco). Massive young AF stars were included in our sample whereas they have generally been neglected in first generation surveys because the contrast and target distances are less favorable to image substellar companions. The most significant discovery of the campaign is the now well-known HR 8799 multi-planet system. This remarkable finding allows, for the first time, an estimate of the Jovians planet population at large separations (further than a few AUs) instead of deriving upper limits. During my presentation, I will present the survey showing images of multiple stars and planets. I will then propose a statistic study of the observed stars deriving constraints on the Jupiter-like planet frequency at large separations.

  8. The CfA Einstein Observatory extended deep X-ray survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, F. A.; Murray, S. S.; Huchra, J.; Schild, R.; Burg, R.

    1991-01-01

    All IPC exposures in the Einstein Extended Deep X-ray Survey program have been reanalyzed. The current survey covers about 2.3 sq deg with a typical limiting sensitivity of about 5 x 10 to the -14th ergs/sq cm/s in the energy range from 0.8-3.5 keV. A total of 25 IPC sources are detected above a threshold of 4.5 sigma. A total of 18 are detected independently in the HRI, leading to the identification of six with stars and 11 with extragalactic objects. The remaining sources are classified as extragalactic. The population of identified extragalactic objects is dominated by QSOs, with one or two possible clusters. The basic conclusions of the original survey remain unchanged.

  9. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F. [KIPAC, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 29, Menlo Park, CA 94725 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Davis, Marc [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Konidaris, Nicholas; Lin, Lihwai [Astronomy Department, Caltech 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Noeske, Kai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosario, David J. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2012-05-20

    We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5 and 1295 groups at z > 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above {approx}300 km s{sup -1} to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.

  10. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Konidaris, Nicholas; Lin, Lihwai; Noeske, Kai; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin

    2012-01-01

    We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above ∼300 km s –1 to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.

  11. Deep time perspective on turtle neck evolution: chasing the Hox code by vertebral morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, Christine; Werneburg, Ingmar

    2017-08-21

    The unparalleled ability of turtle neck retraction is possible in three different modes, which characterize stem turtles, living side-necked (Pleurodira), and hidden-necked (Cryptodira) turtles, respectively. Despite the conservatism in vertebral count among turtles, there is significant functional and morphological regionalization in the cervical vertebral column. Since Hox genes play a fundamental role in determining the differentiation in vertebra morphology and based on our reconstruction of evolutionary genetics in deep time, we hypothesize genetic differences among the turtle groups and between turtles and other land vertebrates. We correlated anterior Hox gene expression and the quantifiable shape of the vertebrae to investigate the morphological modularity in the neck across living and extinct turtles. This permitted the reconstruction of the hypothetical ancestral Hox code pattern of the whole turtle clade. The scenario of the evolution of axial patterning in turtles indicates shifts in the spatial expression of HoxA-5 in relation to the reduction of cervical ribs in modern turtles and of HoxB-5 linked with a lower morphological differentiation between the anterior cervical vertebrae observed in cryptodirans. By comparison with the mammalian pattern, we illustrate how the fixed count of eight cervical vertebrae in turtles resulted from the emergence of the unique turtle shell.

  12. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; /UC, Berkeley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; /LBNL, NSD; Davis, Marc; /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Marinoni, Christian; /Brera Observ.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Faber, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; /Lick Observ.; Kaiser, Nick; /Hawaii U.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; /Lick Observ.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.

    2012-02-14

    We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.

  13. Short and long term evolution of deep giant submarine dunes in continental shelf environment: the example of the 'Banc du Four' (Western Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, M.; Le Roy, P.; Garlan, T.; Delacourt, C.; Thibaud, R.; Cancouet, R.; Graindorge, D.; Prunier, C.; Sukhovich, A.; Deschamps, A.

    2013-12-01

    The deep sandwave dynamics is still in debate. Understanding the migration processes and the resulting evolution of their 3D internal architecture are scientifically challenging. To address these questions we realized two swath bathymetry surveys complemented with seismic reflection across the large sandwaves field named 'Banc du Four'. It is located offshore the Western Brittany and is composed of more 500 dunes. Some of the dunes' wavelengths and heights exceed 1000m and 30m respectively placing them among the largest dunes ever described. Equilibrium laws obtained from our morphological analysis are not completely in agreement with those described in previous studies of similar structures in shallow waters. Relatively high migration velocities on deep continental shelves (from 3 to 20m.yr-1) attest of their still present dynamical equilibrium. Internal-external morphological and kinematical analyses show the existence of two different dynamic regimes. Interpretation of the seismic reflection data allowed reconstructing long-term evolution of the sandbank and the establishment of progressive connections between stepped submarine channels and tidal dynamics during the last sea-level rise.

  14. The UV galaxy luminosity function at z = 3-5 from the CFHT Legacy Survey Deep fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, R. F. J.; Hildebrandt, H.; Erben, T.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We measure and study the evolution of the UV galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z = 3-5 from the largest high-redshift survey to date, the Deep part of the CFHT Legacy Survey. We also give accurate estimates of the SFR density at these redshifts. Methods: We consider ~100 000 Lyman-break galaxies at z ≈ 3.1, 3.8 and 4.8 selected from very deep ugriz images of this data set and estimate their rest-frame 1600 Å luminosity function. Due to the large survey volume, cosmic variance plays a negligible role. Furthermore, we measure the bright end of the LF with unprecedented statistical accuracy. Contamination fractions from stars and low-z galaxy interlopers are estimated from simulations. From these simulations the redshift distributions of the Lyman-break galaxies in the different samples are estimated, and those redshifts are used to choose bands and calculate k-corrections so that the LFs are compared at the same rest-frame wavelength. To correct for incompleteness, we study the detection rate of simulated galaxies injected to the images as a function of magnitude and redshift. We estimate the contribution of several systematic effects in the analysis to test the robustness of our results. Results: We find the bright end of the LF of our u-dropout sample to deviate significantly from a Schechter function. If we modify the function by a recently proposed magnification model, the fit improves. For the first time in an LBG sample, we can measure down to the density regime where magnification affects the shape of the observed LF because of the very bright and rare galaxies we are able to probe with this data set. We find an increase in the normalisation, ϕ*, of the LF by a factor of 2.5 between z ≈ 5 and z ≈ 3. The faint-end slope of the LF does not evolve significantly between z ≈ 5 and z ≈ 3. We do not find a significant evolution of the characteristic magnitude in the studied redshift interval, possibly because of insufficient knowledge of the source

  15. Deep-tow magnetic survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J. H.; Searle, R. C.; Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.

    2011-12-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining magnetic data, geology mapping from side-scan sonar images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the side-scan images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. This allows us to hypothesis that magnetic anomalies are caused by serpentinized peridotites or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may results from fluid-rocks interaction along the detachment faults as well as from the repartition of the volcanic material and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in order to better constrain tectonic mechanisms that occur during the formation of this

  16. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - I. Template fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Williams, Wendy L.; Best, Philip N.; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis; Jarvis, Matt J.; Małek, Katarzyna; Oliver, S. J.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Smith, Daniel J. B.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of photometric redshift performance for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. Using two multiwavelength data sets, over the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Boötes and COSMOS fields, we assess photometric redshift (photo-z) performance for a sample of ∼4500 radio continuum sources with spectroscopic redshifts relative to those of ∼63 000 non-radio-detected sources in the same fields. We investigate the performance of three photometric redshift template sets as a function of redshift, radio luminosity and infrared/X-ray properties. We find that no single template library is able to provide the best performance across all subsets of the radio-detected population, with variation in the optimum template set both between subsets and between fields. Through a hierarchical Bayesian combination of the photo-z estimates from all three template sets, we are able to produce a consensus photo-z estimate that equals or improves upon the performance of any individual template set.

  17. LUMINOUS AND HIGH STELLAR MASS CANDIDATE GALAXIES AT z ≈ 8 DISCOVERED IN THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haojing; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Davé, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Papovich, Casey; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Reddy, Naveen; Siana, Brian D.; Cooray, Asantha R.; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2012-01-01

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z ≈ 8. Its two-tiered ''wide and deep'' strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z ≈ 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin 2 to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J 1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z ≈ 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z ≈ 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few × 10 9 M ☉ , from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z ≈ 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z ≈ 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  18. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution: an EMIR survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; I. Rodriguez, M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM 30 m telesco...

  19. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey COADD: 275 deg2 of deep Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging on stripe 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, James; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Dodelson, Scott; Hao, Jiangang; Jester, Sebastian; Johnston, David E.; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lin, Huan; Miknaitis, Gajus; Yanny, Brian; Strauss, Michael A.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Becker, Andrew C.; Ivezić, Željko; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the construction and characterization of the coaddition of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 ugriz imaging data. This survey consists of 275 deg 2 of repeated scanning by the SDSS camera over –50° ≤ α ≤ 60° and –1.°25 ≤ δ ≤ +1.°25 centered on the Celestial Equator. Each piece of sky has ∼20 runs contributing and thus reaches ∼2 mag fainter than the SDSS single pass data, i.e., to r ∼ 23.5 for galaxies. We discuss the image processing of the coaddition, the modeling of the point-spread function (PSF), the calibration, and the production of standard SDSS catalogs. The data have an r-band median seeing of 1.''1 and are calibrated to ≤1%. Star color-color, number counts, and PSF size versus modeled size plots show that the modeling of the PSF is good enough for precision five-band photometry. Structure in the PSF model versus magnitude plot indicates minor PSF modeling errors, leading to misclassification of stars as galaxies, as verified using VVDS spectroscopy. There are a variety of uses for this wide-angle deep imaging data, including galactic structure, photometric redshift computation, cluster finding and cross wavelength measurements, weak lensing cluster mass calibrations, and cosmic shear measurements.

  20. Structural setting and evolution of the Mensa and Thunder Horse intraslope basins, northern deep-water Gulf of Mexico: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, P.; Bouroullec, R.; Berg, A.A. van den; Lapinski, T.G.; Roesink, J.G.; Adson, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mensa and Thunder Horse intraslope minibasins in southcentralMississippi Canyon, northern deep-water Gulf ofMexico, had a linked structural evolution from the Early Cretaceous through the late Miocene. Analysis of the two minibasins illustrates the complexities of deep-water sedimentation and

  1. Scenario development of long-term evolution for deep hydrochemical conditions in Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ishii, Eiichi; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to estimate long-term hydrochemical evolution of deep underground is indispensable for the safe geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This study demonstrates the methodology by illustrating scenarios of past geological events, processes, and their interrelationships with present-day hydrochemical conditions. Besides, we infer long-term variations of groundwater chemistry at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, (the Wakkanai Formation (Fm) and the overlying Koetoi Fm: siliceous and diatomaceous mudstones). During various events in the geological past, such as deposition, compaction, uplift, and denudation, and the more recent Neotectonic activities in this area, highly permeable hydrogeological structures formed at depths not over than 400 m below ground level in the Wakkanai Fm. The hydrogeological system can be subdivided into three hydrogeological sub-systems: (1) overlying, relatively low permeability Koetoi Fm., (2) highly permeable, upper Wakkanai Fm at depths less than 400 m and (3) relatively low permeability Wakkanai Fm, at depths greater than 400 m. The present-day hydrochemical conditions in each sub-system have been influenced by hydrogeological properties and hydraulic conditions over a long period. In subsystems 1 and 2, recharging with meteoric water flushed connate seawater during uplifting and denudation during the last 1 Ma. In contrast, fossil seawater with one-third to one-half the salinity of present-day seawater has been preserved in subsystem 3. The relatively low permeability sequence in sub-system 3 was formed by the compaction of diatomaceous mudstone during subsidence prior to 1.0 Ma. After that, changes of climatic conditions and geographical features would not have influenced groundwater flow. The groundwater chemistry evolved from seawater during long-term geochemical diagenesis in a relatively closed system. The long

  2. A Survey: Time Travel in Deep Learning Space: An Introduction to Deep Learning Models and How Deep Learning Models Evolved from the Initial Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haohan; Raj, Bhiksha

    2015-01-01

    This report will show the history of deep learning evolves. It will trace back as far as the initial belief of connectionism modelling of brain, and come back to look at its early stage realization: neural networks. With the background of neural network, we will gradually introduce how convolutional neural network, as a representative of deep discriminative models, is developed from neural networks, together with many practical techniques that can help in optimization of neural networks. On t...

  3. Near-bottom Multibeam Survey Capabilities in the US National Deep Submergence Facility (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerger, D. R.; McCue, S. J.; Jason; Sentry Operations Groups

    2010-12-01

    The US National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) provides near-bottom multibeam mapping capabilities from the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry and the remotely operated vehicle Jason. These vehicles can be used to depths of 4500 and 6500m respectively. Both vehicles are equipped with Reson 7125 400khz multibeam sonars as well as compatible navigation equipment (inertial navigation systems, doppler velocity logs, and acoustic navigation systems). These vehicles have produced maps of rugged Mid-Ocean Ridge terrain in the Galapagos Rift, natural oil and gas seeps off the coast of Southern California, deep coral sites in the Gulf of Mexico, and sites for the Ocean Observing Initiative off the coast of Oregon. Multibeam surveys are conducted from heights between 20 and 80 meters, allowing the scientific user to select the tradeoff between resolution and coverage rate. In addition to conventional bathymetric mapping, the systems have used to image methane bubble plumes from natural seeps. This talk will provide summaries of these mapping efforts and describe the data processing pipeline used to produce maps shortly after each dive. Development efforts to reduce navigational errors and reconcile discrepancies between adjacent swaths will also be described.

  4. Using Gaia as an Astrometric Tool for Deep Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Schriefer, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Gaia DR1 positions are used to astrometrically calibrate three epochs' worth of Subaru SuprimeCam images in the fields of globular cluster NGC 2419 and the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Distortion-correction ``maps'' are constructed from a combination of offset dithers and reference to Gaia DR1. These are used to derive absolute proper motions in the field of NGC 2419. Notably, we identify the photometrically-detected Monoceros structure in the foreground of NGC 2419 as a kinematically-cold population of stars, distinct from Galactic-field stars. This project demonstrates the feasibility of combining Gaia with deep, ground-based surveys, thus extending high-quality astrometry to magnitudes beyond the limits of Gaia.

  5. On the formation and evolution of plasmoids: A survey of ISEE 3 geotail data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldwin, M.B.; Hughes, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    ISEE 3 magnetometer and electron plasma measurements from the 1983 Geotail Mission were surveyed to determine the magnetic and plasma properties of plasmoids and their evolution with distance downtail. Events were selected on the basis of a bipolar magnetic signature in either the geocentric solar magnetospheric B z and/or B y component; most had B z bipolar signatures. The authors found 366 events consistent with this signature while ISEE 3 was in the plasma sheet. Plasmoid length was determined using both the magnetometer and the electron plasma velocity data. They found the average length of plasmoids is 16.7 ± 13.0 R E , significantly smaller than previous estimates. Many plasmoids have a well-defined magnetic core field, characterized by a field strength maximum at the center of the pass through the structure. The size, velocity, magnetic core strength, and B z field amplitude of plasmoids do not depend on distance beyond 100 R E downtail. The average electron temperature inside plasmoids drops by a factor of 2 and the electron density increases by a factor of 2 as plasmoids propagate from near Earth distances (within 100 R E of the Earth) to the deep tail. They conclude that the stable size of the plasmoids, the density increase and the temperature decrease are consistent with a flux of cold electrons into the plasmoid. The strong correlation of interplanetary magnetic field B y an hour before the event with the strength and direction of B y observed inside plasmoids, the existence of events with the bipolar signature in both the B y and B z components, and the possible mass flux all are consistent with plasmoids being 'open' magnetic structures

  6. deepBase v2.0: identification, expression, evolution and function of small RNAs, LncRNAs and circular RNAs from deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Jun-Hao; Wu, Jie; Sun, Wen-Ju; Liu, Shun; Wang, Ze-Lin; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2016-01-04

    Small non-coding RNAs (e.g. miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (e.g. lincRNAs and circRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of various cellular processes. However, only a very small fraction of these enigmatic RNAs have been well functionally characterized. In this study, we describe deepBase v2.0 (http://biocenter.sysu.edu.cn/deepBase/), an updated platform, to decode evolution, expression patterns and functions of diverse ncRNAs across 19 species. deepBase v2.0 has been updated to provide the most comprehensive collection of ncRNA-derived small RNAs generated from 588 sRNA-Seq datasets. Moreover, we developed a pipeline named lncSeeker to identify 176 680 high-confidence lncRNAs from 14 species. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of various ncRNAs were profiled. We identified approximately 24 280 primate-specific, 5193 rodent-specific lncRNAs, and 55 highly conserved lncRNA orthologs between human and zebrafish. We annotated 14 867 human circRNAs, 1260 of which are orthologous to mouse circRNAs. By combining expression profiles and functional genomic annotations, we developed lncFunction web-server to predict the function of lncRNAs based on protein-lncRNA co-expression networks. This study is expected to provide considerable resources to facilitate future experimental studies and to uncover ncRNA functions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Deep-tow geophysical survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Sauter, D.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.

    2012-04-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the easternmost part of the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining multibeam bathymetric data, magnetic data, geology mapping from sidescan sonar (TOBI) images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the sidescan sonar images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. We investigate the possibility that magnetic anomalies are either caused by serpentinized peridotites and/or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may result from fluid-rock interactions along the detachment faults as well as from the occurrence of small sized and thin volcanic patches and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in

  8. Four faint T dwarfs from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Southern Stripe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Kuenley; Liu, Michael C.; Jiang, Linhua; Allers, Katelyn N.; Stark, Daniel P.; Bunker, Andrew; Fan, Xiaohui; Glazebrook, Karl; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2008-03-01

    We present the optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of four faint T dwarfs newly discovered from the UKIDSS first data release. The sample, drawn from an imaged area of ~136 deg2 to a depth of Y = 19.9 (5σ, Vega), is located in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Southern Equatorial Stripe, a region of significant future deep imaging potential. We detail the selection and followup of these objects, three of which are spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs ranging from type T2.5 to T7.5, and one is photometrically identified as early T. Their magnitudes range from Y = 19.01 to 19.88 with derived distances from 34 to 98 pc, making these among the coldest and faintest brown dwarfs known. The T7.5 dwarf appears to be single based on 0.05-arcsec images from Keck laser guide star adaptive optics. The sample brings the total number of T dwarfs found or confirmed by UKIDSS data in this region to nine, and we discuss the projected numbers of dwarfs in the future survey data. We estimate that ~240 early and late T dwarfs are discoverable in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) data, falling significantly short of published model projections and suggesting that initial mass functions and/or birth rates may be at the low end of possible models. Thus, deeper optical data have good potential to exploit the UKIDSS survey depth more fully, but may still find the potential Y dwarf sample to be extremely rare.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Rock Mass Damage Evolution During Deep-Buried Tunnel Excavation by Drill and Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wenbo; Hu, Yingguo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Presence of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) around a tunnel perimeter is of significant concern with regard to safety, stability, costs and overall performance of the tunnel. For deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast, it is generally accepted that a combination of effects of stress redistribution and blasting is mainly responsible for development of the EDZ. However, few open literatures can be found to use numerical methods to investigate the behavior of rock damage induced by the combined effects, and it is still far from full understanding how, when and to what degree the blasting affects the behavior of the EDZ during excavation. By implementing a statistical damage evolution law based on stress criterion into the commercial software LS-DYNA through its user-subroutines, this paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of the rock damage evolution of a deep-buried tunnel excavation, with a special emphasis on the combined effects of the stress redistribution of surrounding rock masses and the blasting-induced damage. Influence of repeated blast loadings on the damage extension for practical millisecond delay blasting is investigated in the present analysis. Accompanying explosive detonation and secession of rock fragments from their initial locations, in situ stress in the immediate vicinity of the excavation face is suddenly released. The transient characteristics of the in situ stress release and induced dynamic responses in the surrounding rock masses are also highlighted. From the simulation results, some instructive conclusions are drawn with respect to the rock damage mechanism and evolution during deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast.

  10. The subclonal structure and genomic evolution of oral squamous cell carcinoma revealed by ultra-deep sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Thomassen, Mads; Larsen, Martin J

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are very heterogeneous between patients; however the subclonal structure remains unexplored mainly due to studies using only a single biopsy per patient. To deconvolutethe clonal structure and describe the genomic cancer evolution......, we applied whole-exome sequencing combined with ultra-deep targeted sequencing on oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). From each patient, a set of biopsies was sampled from distinct geographical sites in primary tumor and lymph node metastasis.We demonstrate that the included OSCCs show a high...

  11. Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be a common product of the hierarchal growth of galaxies and gravitational wave sources at nano-Hz frequencies. We have performed a systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey for periodically varying quasars, which are predicted manifestations of SMBHBs, and identified 26 candidates that are periodically varying on the timescale of ~300-1000 days over the 4-year baseline of MDS. We continue to monitor them with the Discovery Channel Telescope and the LCO network telescopes and thus are able to extend the baseline to 3-8 cycles and break false positive signals due to stochastic, normal quasar variability. From our imaging campaign, five candidates show persistent periodic variability and remain strong SMBHB candidates for follow-up observations. We calculate the cumulative number rate of SMBHBs and compare with previous work. We also compare the gravitational wave strain amplitudes of the candidates with the capability of pulsar timing arrays and discuss the future capabilities to detect periodic quasar and SMBHB candidates with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  12. Geodynamics of kimberlites on a cooling Earth: Clues to plate tectonic evolution and deep volatile cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Smart, Katie; Torsvik, Trond; Massuyeau, Malcolm; de Wit, Mike

    2018-02-01

    Kimberlite magmatism has occurred in cratonic regions on every continent. The global age distribution suggests that this form of mantle melting has been more prominent after 1.2 Ga, and notably between 250-50 Ma, than during early Earth history before 2 Ga (i.e., the Paleoproterozoic and Archean). Although preservation bias has been discussed as a possible reason for the skewed kimberlite age distribution, new treatment of an updated global database suggests that the apparent secular evolution of kimberlite and related CO2-rich ultramafic magmatism is genuine and probably coupled to lowering temperatures of Earth's upper mantle through time. Incipient melting near the CO2- and H2O-bearing peridotite solidus at >200 km depth (1100-1400 °C) is the petrologically most feasible process that can produce high-MgO carbonated silicate melts with enriched trace element concentrations akin to kimberlites. These conditions occur within the convecting asthenospheric mantle directly beneath thick continental lithosphere. In this transient upper mantle source region, variable CHO volatile mixtures control melting of peridotite in the absence of heat anomalies so that low-degree carbonated silicate melts may be permanently present at ambient mantle temperatures below 1400 °C. However, extraction of low-volume melts to Earth's surface requires tectonic triggers. Abrupt changes in the speed and direction of plate motions, such as typified by the dynamics of supercontinent cycles, can be effective in the creation of lithospheric pathways aiding kimberlite magma ascent. Provided that CO2- and H2O-fluxed deep cratonic keels, which formed parts of larger drifting tectonic plates, existed by 3 Ga or even before, kimberlite volcanism could have been frequent during the Archean. However, we argue that frequent kimberlite magmatism had to await establishment of an incipient melting regime beneath the maturing continents, which only became significant after secular mantle cooling to below

  13. COOL WHITE DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN THE SECOND DATA RELEASE OF THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodieu, N.; Leggett, S. K.; Nitta, A.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have paired the second data release of the Large Area Survey of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey with the fifth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify 10 cool white dwarf candidates, from their photometry and astrometry. Of these 10, one was previously known to be a very cool white dwarf. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for seven of the candidates using the GMOS-N spectrograph on Gemini North, and have confirmed all seven as white dwarfs. Our photometry and astrometry indicate that the remaining two objects are also white dwarfs. The model analysis of the photometry and available spectroscopy shows that the seven confirmed new white dwarfs, and the two new likely white dwarfs, have effective temperatures in the range of T eff = 5400-6600 K. Our analysis of the previously known white dwarf confirms that it is cool, with T eff = 3800 K. The cooling age for this dwarf is 8.7 Gyr, while that for the nine ∼ 6000 K white dwarfs is 1.8-3.6 Gyr. We are unable to determine the masses of the white dwarfs from the existing data, and therefore we cannot constrain the total ages of the white dwarfs. The large cooling age for the coolest white dwarf in the sample, combined with its low estimated tangential velocity, suggests that it is an old member of the thin disk, or a member of the thick disk of the Galaxy, with an age of 10-11 Gyr. The warmer white dwarfs appear to have velocities typical of the thick disk or even halo; these may be very old remnants of low-mass stars, or they may be relatively young thin-disk objects with unusually high space motion.

  14. SCUBA-2 Ultra Deep Imaging EAO Survey (STUDIES): Faint-end Counts at 450 μm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lim, Chen-Fatt; Smail, Ian; Chapman, Scott C.; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Shim, Hyunjin; Kodama, Tadayuki; Almaini, Omar; Ao, Yiping; Blain, Andrew W.; Bourne, Nathan; Bunker, Andrew J.; Chang, Yu-Yen; Chao, Dani C.-Y.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Clements, David L.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cowley, William I.; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunlop, James S.; Geach, James E.; Goto, Tomotsugu; Jiang, Linhua; Ivison, Rob J.; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kohno, Kotaro; Kong, Xu; Lee, Chien-Hsu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Minju; Michałowski, Michał J.; Oteo, Iván; Sawicki, Marcin; Scott, Douglas; Shu, Xin Wen; Simpson, James M.; Tee, Wei-Leong; Toba, Yoshiki; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wang, Jun-Xian; Wang, Ran; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    The SCUBA-2 Ultra Deep Imaging EAO Survey (STUDIES) is a three-year JCMT Large Program aiming to reach the 450 μm confusion limit in the COSMOS-CANDELS region to study a representative sample of the high-redshift far-infrared galaxy population that gives rise to the bulk of the far-infrared

  15. FY 1998 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. 1/2. Survey of deep geothermal resource; 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    For the purpose of commercializing deep geothermal resource, a deep exploration well of 4000m class was drilled in the existing geothermal development area to survey the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the availability. Concretely, the deep geothermal exploration well was drilled for study in the Kakkonda area, Shizukuishi town, Iwate prefecture, to clarify the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the whole image of geothermal system. Consideration was made of the deep geothermal exploration method, systematization of deep high temperature drilling technology, and availability of deep geothermal resource. The results of the survey were summed up as follows: 1) general remarks; 2) deep exploration well drilling work; 3) details of the study. 1) and 2) were included in this report, and 3) in the next report. In 1), the items were as follows: the study plan/gist of study execution, the details and results of the deep geothermal resource survey, the outline of the deep exploration well drilling work, and the outline of the results of the FY 1998 study. In 2), the drilling work plan/the actual results of the drilling work were summed up. As to the results of the study, summarized were the acquisition of survey data on deep exploration well, heightening of accuracy of the deep geothermal resource exploration method, etc. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1998 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. 2/2. Survey of deep geothermal resource; 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    For the purpose of commercializing deep geothermal resource, a deep exploration well of 4000m class was drilled in the existing geothermal development area to survey the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the availability. Concretely, the deep geothermal exploration well was drilled for study in the Kakkonda area, Shizukuishi town, Iwate prefecture, to clarify the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the whole image of geothermal system. Consideration was made of the deep geothermal exploration method, systematization of deep high temperature drilling technology, and availability of deep geothermal resource. The results of the survey were summed up as follows: 1) general remarks; 2) deep exploration well drilling work; 3) details of the study. This report contained 3). In 3), the items were as follows: heightening of accuracy of the deep geothermal resource exploration method, making of a geothermal model in the Kakkonda area, study of deep drilling technology, study of deep fluid utilization technology, and making of a guide for deep geothermal resource exploration/development in the Kakkonda area. As to the technology of high temperature deep geothermal well drilling, studies were made of the borehole cooling method, mud water cooling method, survey of deterioration of casing with age, etc. (NEDO)

  17. UV Luminosity Functions at z~4, 5, and 6 from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and Other Deep Hubble Space Telescope ACS Fields: Evolution and Star Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, Marijn; Ford, Holland

    2007-12-01

    We use the ACS BViz data from the HUDF and all other deep HST ACS fields (including the GOODS fields) to find large samples of star-forming galaxies at z~4 and ~5 and to extend our previous z~6 sample. These samples contain 4671, 1416, and 627 B-, V-, and i-dropouts, respectively, and reach to extremely low luminosities [(0.01-0.04)L*z=3 or MUV~-16 to -17], allowing us to determine the rest-frame UV LF and faint-end slope α at z~4-6 to high accuracy. We find faint-end slopes α=-1.73+/-0.05, -1.66+/-0.09, and -1.74+/-0.16 at z~4, ~5, and ~6, respectively, suggesting that the faint-end slope is very steep and shows little evolution with cosmic time. We find that M*UV brightens considerably in the 0.7 Gyr from z~6 to ~4 (by ~0.7 mag from M*UV=-20.24+/-0.19 to -20.98+/-0.10). The observed increase in the characteristic luminosity over this range is almost identical to that expected for the halo mass function, suggesting that the observed evolution is likely due to the hierarchical coalescence and merging of galaxies. The evolution in φ* is not significant. The UV luminosity density at z~6 is modestly lower than (0.45+/-0.09 times) that at z~4 (integrated to -17.5 mag) although a larger change is seen in the dust-corrected SFR density. We thoroughly examine published LF results and assess the reasons for their wide dispersion. We argue that the results reported here are the most robust available. The extremely steep faint-end slopes α found here suggest that lower luminosity galaxies play a significant role in reionizing the universe. Finally, recent search results for galaxies at z~7-8 are used to extend our estimates of the evolution of M* from z~7-8 to z~4. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 9425, 9575, 9803, 9978, 10189, 10339, 10340, and 10632.

  18. A SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF PROTOCLUSTERS AT z ∼ 3–6 IN THE CFHTLS DEEP FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshikawa, Jun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niino, Yuu [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Overzier, Roderik [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ishikawa, Shogo; Onoue, Masafusa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ota, Kazuaki, E-mail: jun.toshikawa@nao.ac.jp [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    We present the discovery of three protoclusters at z ∼ 3–4 with spectroscopic confirmation in the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep Fields. In these fields, we investigate the large-scale projected sky distribution of z ∼ 3–6 Lyman-break galaxies and identify 21 protocluster candidates from regions that are overdense at more than 4 σ overdensity significance. Based on cosmological simulations, it is expected that more than 76% of these candidates will evolve into a galaxy cluster of at least a halo mass of 10{sup 14} M {sub ⊙} at z = 0. We perform follow-up spectroscopy for eight of the candidates using Subaru/FOCAS, Keck II/DEIMOS, and Gemini-N/GMOS. In total we target 462 dropout candidates and obtain 138 spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm three real protoclusters at z = 3–4 with more than five members spectroscopically identified and find one to be an incidental overdense region by mere chance alignment. The other four candidate regions at z ∼ 5–6 require more spectroscopic follow-up in order to be conclusive. A z = 3.67 protocluster, which has 11 spectroscopically confirmed members, shows a remarkable core-like structure composed of a central small region (<0.5 physical Mpc) and an outskirts region (∼1.0 physical Mpc). The Ly α equivalent widths of members of the protocluster are significantly smaller than those of field galaxies at the same redshift, while there is no difference in the UV luminosity distributions. These results imply that some environmental effects start operating as early as at z ∼ 4 along with the growth of the protocluster structure. This study provides an important benchmark for our analysis of protoclusters in the upcoming Subaru/HSC imaging survey and its spectroscopic follow-up with the Subaru/PFS that will detect thousands of protoclusters up to z ∼ 6.

  19. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. II. DATA, METHODS, AND DUST EXTINCTION MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Alves, Joao F.; Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We present a new set of high-resolution dust extinction maps of the nearby and essentially starless Pipe Nebula molecular cloud. The maps were constructed from a concerted deep near-infrared imaging survey with the ESO-VLT, ESO-NTT, CAHA 3.5 m telescopes, and 2MASS data. The new maps have a resolution three times higher than the previous extinction map of this cloud by Lombardi et al. and are able to resolve structures down to 2600 AU. We detect 244 significant extinction peaks across the cloud. These peaks have masses between 0.1 and 18.4 M sun , diameters between 1.2 and 5.7 x 10 4 AU (0.06 and 0.28 pc), and mean densities of about 10 4 cm -3 , all in good agreement with previous results. From the analysis of the mean surface density of companions we find a well-defined scale near 1.4 x 10 4 AU below which we detect a significant decrease in structure of the cloud. This scale is smaller than the Jeans length calculated from the mean density of the peaks. The surface density of peaks is not uniform but instead it displays clustering. Extinction peaks in the Pipe Nebula appear to have a spatial distribution similar to the stars in Taurus, suggesting that the spatial distribution of stars evolves directly from the primordial spatial distribution of high-density material.

  20. Comprehensive survey of deep learning in remote sensing: theories, tools, and challenges for the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, John E.; Anderson, Derek T.; Chan, Chee Seng

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, deep learning (DL), a rebranding of neural networks (NNs), has risen to the top in numerous areas, namely computer vision (CV), speech recognition, and natural language processing. Whereas remote sensing (RS) possesses a number of unique challenges, primarily related to sensors and applications, inevitably RS draws from many of the same theories as CV, e.g., statistics, fusion, and machine learning, to name a few. This means that the RS community should not only be aware of advancements such as DL, but also be leading researchers in this area. Herein, we provide the most comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art RS DL research. We also review recent new developments in the DL field that can be used in DL for RS. Namely, we focus on theories, tools, and challenges for the RS community. Specifically, we focus on unsolved challenges and opportunities as they relate to (i) inadequate data sets, (ii) human-understandable solutions for modeling physical phenomena, (iii) big data, (iv) nontraditional heterogeneous data sources, (v) DL architectures and learning algorithms for spectral, spatial, and temporal data, (vi) transfer learning, (vii) an improved theoretical understanding of DL systems, (viii) high barriers to entry, and (ix) training and optimizing the DL.

  1. A deep Spitzer survey of circumstellar disks in the young double cluster, h and χ Persei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloutier, Ryan; Currie, Thayne; Jayawardhana, Ray [University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2J7 (Canada); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Balog, Zoltan, E-mail: cloutier@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: currie@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: grieke@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze very deep Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) photometry of ∼12, 500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and χ Persei, building upon our earlier, shallower Spitzer Cycle 1 studies. Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 μm and 24 μm, indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 μm excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems, but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 μm reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, though similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide constraints. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nominal cluster ages, the e-folding times (τ{sub 0}) for the frequency of warm dust and gas are 2.75 Myr and 1.75 Myr, respectively. Assuming a revised set of ages for some clusters, these timescales increase to 5.75 and 3.75 Myr, respectively, implying a significantly longer typical protoplanetary disk lifetime than previously thought. In both cases, the transitional disk duration, averaged over multiple evolutionary pathways, is ≈1 Myr. Finally, 24 μm excess frequencies for 4-6 M {sub ☉} stars appear lower than for 1-2.5 M {sub ☉} stars in other 10-30 Myr old clusters.

  2. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  3. Between a Pod and a Hard Test: The Deep Evolution of Amoebae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kang, S.; Tice, A. K.; Spiegel, F. W.; Silberman, J. D.; Pánek, T.; Čepička, I.; Kostka, Martin; Kosakyan, A.; Alcantara, D. M. C.; Roger, A. J.; Shadwick, L.; Smirnov, A.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Lahr, D. J. G.; Brown, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2017), s. 2258-2270 ISSN 0737-4038 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenomics * transcriptomes * Amoebozoa * reductive evolution * phylotranscriptomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 6.202, year: 2016

  4. Evolution in the deep sea: biological traits, ecology and phylogenetics of pelagic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakmann, Silke; Auel, Holger; Kochzius, Marc

    2012-11-01

    Deep-sea biodiversity has received increasing interest in the last decade, mainly focusing on benthic communities. In contrast, studies of zooplankton in the meso- to bathypelagic zones are relatively scarce. In order to explore evolutionary processes in the pelagic deep sea, the present study focuses on copepods of two clausocalanoid families, Euchaetidae and Aetideidae, which are abundant and species-rich in the deep-sea pelagic realm. Molecular phylogenies based on concatenated-portioned data on 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), were examined on 13 species, mainly from Arctic and Antarctic regions, together with species-specific biological traits (i.e. vertical occurrence, feeding behaviour, dietary preferences, energy storage, and reproductive strategy). Relationships were resolved on genus, species and even sub-species levels, the latter two established by COI with maximum average genetic distances ranging from ≤5.3% at the intra-specific, and 20.6% at the inter-specific level. There is no resolution at a family level, emphasising the state of Euchaetidae and Aetideidae as sister families and suggesting a fast radiation of these lineages, a hypothesis which is further supported by biological parameters. Euchaetidae were similar in lipid-specific energy storage, reproductive strategy, as well as feeding behaviour and dietary preference. In contrast, Aetideidae were more diverse, comprising a variety of characteristics ranging from similar adaptations within Paraeuchaeta, to genera consisting of species with completely different reproductive and feeding ecologies. Reproductive strategies were generally similar within each aetideid genus, but differed between genera. Closely related species (congeners), which were similar in the aforementioned biological and ecological traits, generally occurred in different depth layers, suggesting that vertical partitioning of the water column

  5. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, M/S 29, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Coil, Alison L., E-mail: bgerke@slac.stanford.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., MC 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2.

  6. IMPROVED MOCK GALAXY CATALOGS FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY FROM SUBHALO ABUNDANCE AND ENVIRONMENT MATCHING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Cooper, Michael C.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2

  7. Porosity evolution at the brittle-ductile transition in the continental crust: Implications for deep hydro-geothermal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violay, M; Heap, M J; Acosta, M; Madonna, C

    2017-08-09

    Recently, projects have been proposed to engineer deep geothermal reservoirs in the ductile crust. To examine their feasibility, we performed high-temperature (up to 1000 °C), high-pressure (130 MPa) triaxial experiments on granite (initially-intact and shock-cooled samples) in which we measured the evolution of porosity during deformation. Mechanical data and post-mortem microstuctural characterisation (X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) indicate that (1) the failure mode was brittle up to 900 °C (shear fracture formation) but ductile at 1000 °C (no strain localisation); (2) only deformation up to 800 °C was dilatant; (3) deformation at 900 °C was brittle but associated with net compaction due to an increase in the efficiency of crystal plastic processes; (4) ductile deformation at 1000 °C was compactant; (5) thermally-shocking the granite did not influence strength or failure mode. Our data show that, while brittle behaviour increases porosity, porosity loss is associated with both ductile behaviour and transitional behaviour as the failure mode evolves from brittle to ductile. Extrapolating our data to geological strain rates suggests that the brittle-ductile transition occurs at a temperature of 400 ± 100 °C, and is associated with the limit of fluid circulation in the deep continental crust.

  8. Reverse transcriptase directs viral evolution in a deep ocean methane seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B. G.; Bagby, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Deep ocean methane seeps are sites of intense microbial activity, with complex communities fueled by aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophy. Methane consumption in these communities has a substantial impact on the global carbon cycle, yet little is known about their evolutionary history or their likely evolutionary trajectories in a warming ocean. As in other marine systems, viral predation and virally mediated horizontal gene transfer are expected to be major drivers of evolutionary change in these communities; however, the host cells' resistance to cultivation has impeded direct study of the viral population. We conducted a metagenomic study of viruses in the anoxic sediments of a deep methane seep in the Santa Monica Basin in the Southern California Bight. We retrieved 1660 partial viral genomes, tentatively assigning 1232 to bacterial hosts and 428 to archaea. One abundant viral genome, likely hosted by Clostridia species present in the sediment, was found to encode a diversity-generating retroelement (DGR), a module for reverse transcriptase-mediated directed mutagenesis of a distal tail fiber protein. While DGRs have previously been described in the viruses of human pathogens, where diversification of viral tail fibers permits infection of a range of host cell types, to our knowledge this is the first description of such an element in a marine virus. By providing a mechanism for massively broadening potential host range, the presence of DGRs in these systems may have a major impact on the prevalence of virally mediated horizontal gene transfer, and even on the phylogenetic distances across which genes are moved.

  9. Assessing the deep drilling potential of Lago de Tota, Colombia, with a seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, B. W.; Wattrus, N. J.; Fonseca, H.; Velasco, F.; Escobar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reconciling orbital-scale patterns of inter-hemispheric South American climate during the Quaternary requires continuous, high-resolution paleoclimate records that span multiple glacial cycles from both hemispheres. Southern Andean Quaternary climates are represented by multi-proxy results from Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) spanning the last 400 ka and by pending results from the Lago Junin Drilling Project (Peru). Although Northern Andean sediment records spanning the last few million years have been retrieved from the Bogota and Fúquene Basins in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, climatic reconstructions based on these cores have thus far been limited to pollen-based investigations. When viewed together with the Southern Hemisphere results, these records suggest an anti-phased hemispheric climatic response during glacial cycles. In order to better assess orbital-scale climate responses, however, independent temperature and hydroclimate proxies from the Northern Hemisphere are needed in addition to vegetation histories. As part of this objective, an effort is underway to develop a paleoclimate record from Lago de Tota (3030 m asl), the largest lake in Colombia and the third largest lake in the Andes. One of 17 highland tectonic basins in Eastern Cordillera, Lago de Tota formed during Tertiary uplift that deformed pre-foreland megasequences, synrift and back-arc megasequences. The precise age and thickness of sediments in the Lago de Tota basin has not previously been established. Here, we present results from a recent single-channel seismic reflection survey collected with a small (5 cubic inch) air gun and high-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom data. With these data, we examine the depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of Lago de Tota and assess its potential as a deep drilling target.

  10. Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler; Sello, Lebo; Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-04-24

    In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to 'get the job done' on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges that arise as a cohesive team, with timely

  11. Evo-devo, deep homology and FoxP2: implications for the evolution of speech and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Constance; Petri, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of novel morphological features, such as feathers, involves the modification of developmental processes regulated by gene networks. The fact that genetic novelty operates within developmental constraints is the central tenet of the ‘evo-devo’ conceptual framework. It is supported by findings that certain molecular regulatory pathways act in a similar manner in the development of morphological adaptations, which are not directly related by common ancestry but evolved convergently. The Pax6 gene, important for vision in molluscs, insects and vertebrates, and Hox genes, important for tetrapod limbs and fish fins, exemplify this ‘deep homology’. Recently, ‘evo-devo’ has expanded to the molecular analysis of behavioural traits, including social behaviour, learning and memory. Here, we apply this approach to the evolution of human language. Human speech is a form of auditory-guided, learned vocal motor behaviour that also evolved in certain species of birds, bats and ocean mammals. Genes relevant for language, including the transcription factor FOXP2, have been identified. We review evidence that FoxP2 and its regulatory gene network shapes neural plasticity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying the sensory-guided motor learning in animal models. The emerging picture can help us understand how complex cognitive traits can ‘descend with modification’. PMID:21690130

  12. The Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES): Overview and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; France, Kevin; Youngblood, Allison

    2018-01-01

    M-dwarf stars are prime targets for exoplanet searches because of their close proximity and favorable properties for both planet detection and characterization, with current searches around these targets having already discovered several Earth-sized planets within their star’s habitable zones. However, the atmospheric characterization and potential habitability of these exoplanetary systems depends critically on the high-energy stellar radiation environment from X-rays to NUV. Strong radiation at these energies can lead to atmospheric mass loss and is a strong driver of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres. Recently, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey provided the first comprehensive assessment of the high-energy radiation field around old, planet hosting M-dwarfs. However, the habitability and potential for such exoplanetary atmospheres to develop life also depends on the evolution of the atmosphere and hence the evolution of the incident radiation field. The strong high-energy spectrum of young M-dwarfs can have devastating consequences for the potential habitability of a given system. We, thus, introduce the Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES), a new HST-STIS observing campaign targeting 10 early-mid M dwarfs with known rotation periods, including 6 targets with known ages, to assess the evolution of the FUV radiation, including Lyα, of M-dwarf stars with stellar rotation period. We present the initial results of our survey characterizing the FUV emission features of our targets and the implications of our measurements for the evolution of the entire high-energy radiation environment around M-dwarfs from youth to old age.

  13. Too Little, Too Late: How the Tidal Evolution of Hot Jupiters Affects Transit Surveys of Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John H.; Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The tidal evolution of hot Jupiters may change the efficiency of transit surveys of stellar clusters. The orbital decay that hot Jupiters suffer may result in their destruction, leaving fewer transiting planets in older clusters. We calculate the impact tidal evolution has for different assumed stellar populations, including that of 47 Tuc, a globular cluster that was the focus of an intense HST search for transits. We find that in older clusters one expects to detect fewer transiting planets by a factor of two for surveys sensitive to Jupiter-like planets in orbits out to 0.5 AU, and up to a factor of 25 for surveys sensitive to Jupiter-like planets in orbits out to 0.08 AU. Additionally, tidal evolution affects the distribution of transiting planets as a function of semi-major axis, producing larger orbital period gaps for transiting planets as the age of the cluster increases. Tidal evolution can explain the lack of detected exoplanets in 47 Tuc without invoking other mechanisms. Four open clusters residing within the Kepler fields of view have ages that span 0.4-8 Gyr-if Kepler can observe a significant number of planets in these clusters, it will provide key tests for our tidal evolution hypothesis. Finally, our results suggest that observers wishing to discover transiting planets in clusters must have sufficient accuracy to detect lower mass planets, search larger numbers of cluster members, or have longer observation windows to be confident that a significant number of transits will occur for a population of stars.

  14. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-Ray Emission Through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 MS Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Mineo, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Eurfrasio, R. T.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lou, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z (is) approx. 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the approx. 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame (is) less than 1 keV emission at z (is) less than 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z (is) approx. 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with stellar mass and SFR, respectively. We find L2 -10 keV(LMXB)/stellar mass alpha (1+z)(sub 2-3) and L2 -10 keV(HMXB)/SFR alpha (1+z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

  15. Reservoir Space Evolution of Volcanic Rocks in Deep Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; HU, J.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years, large amount of natural gas has been discovered in volcanic rock of Lower Crataceous of Songliao basin. Volcanic reservoirs have become one of the important target reservoir types of eastern basin of China. In order to study the volcanic reservoirs, we need to know the main factors controlling the reservoir space. By careful obsercation on volcanic drilling core, casting thin sections and statistical analysis of petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir in Songliao basin, it can be suggested that the igneous rock reservoir in Yingcheng formation of Lower Crataceous is composed of different rock types, such ad rohylite, rohylitic crystal tuff, autoclastic brecciation lava and so on. There are different reservoirs storage space in in various lithological igneous rocks, but they are mainly composed of primary stoma, secondary solution pores and fractures.The evolution of storage space can be divided into 3 stage: the pramary reservoir space,exogenic leaching process and burial diagenesis.During the evolution process, the reservoir space is effected by secondary minerals, tectonic movement and volcanic hydrothermal solution. The pore of volcanic reservoirs can be partially filled by secondary minerals, but also may be dissoluted by other chemical volcanic hydrothermal solution. Therefore, the favorable places for better-quality volcanic reservoirs are the near-crater facies of vocanic apparatus and dissolution zones on the high position of paleo-structures.

  16. Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in Cancer: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Shihui; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging. PMID:29114182

  17. Diel effects on bottom-trawl survey catch rates of shallow- and deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishing in depths shallower than 400 m outside daylight hours should therefore be avoided in order to reduce bias and ensure consistency in abundance estimates from surveys. Keywords: Benguela Current system, consistency of survey indices, efficiency of bottom-trawl surveys, negative binomial GAM, transect survey ...

  18. Resolving the Detailed Spatiotemporal Slip Evolution of Deep Tremor in Western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    We study the detailed spatiotemporal behavior of deep tremor in western Japan through the development and application of a new slip inversion method. Although many studies now recognize tremor as shear slip along the plate interface manifested in low-frequency earthquake (LFE) swarms, a conventional slip inversion analysis is not available for tremor due to insufficient knowledge of source locations and Green's functions. Here we introduce synthetic template waveforms, which are typical tremor waveforms obtained by stacking LFE seismograms at arranged points along the plate interface. Using these synthetic template waveforms as substitutes for Green's functions, we invert the continuous tremor waveforms using an iterative deconvolution approach with Bayesian constraints. We apply this method to two tremor burst episodes in western and central Shikoku, Japan. The estimated slip distribution from a 12 day tremor burst episode in western Shikoku is heterogeneous, with several patchy areas of slip along the plate interface where rapid moment releases with durations of tremor burst episode that occurred coincidentally with a very low frequency earthquake (VLF), we observe that the source size of the VLF is much larger than that estimated from tremor activity in western Shikoku. These differences in the size of the slip region may dictate the visibility of VLF signals in observed seismograms, which has implications for the mechanics of slow earthquakes and subduction zone processes.

  19. GTC/OSIRIS SPECTROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF A FAINT L SUBDWARF IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodieu, N.; Osorio, M. R. Zapatero; MartIn, E. L.; Solano, E.; Aberasturi, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of an L subdwarf in 234 deg 2 common to the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey Data Release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. This is the fifth L subdwarf announced to date, the first one identified in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and the faintest known. The blue optical and near-infrared colors of ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 and its overall spectra energy distribution are similar to the known mid-L subdwarfs. Low-resolution optical (700-1000 nm) spectroscopy with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias reveals that ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 exhibits a strong K I pressure-broadened line at 770 nm and a red slope longward of 800 nm, features characteristics of L-type dwarfs. From direct comparison with the four known L subdwarfs, we estimate its spectral type to be sdL4-sdL6 and derive a distance in the interval 94-170 pc. We provide a rough estimate of the space density for mid-L subdwarfs of 1.5 x 10 -4 pc -3 .

  20. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: ULTRA-DEEP J AND K{sub S} IMAGING IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    We present ultra-deep J and K{sub S} imaging observations covering a 30' Multiplication-Sign 30' area of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS) carried out by our Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS). The median 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes for all detected objects in the ECDFS reach 24.5 and 23.9 mag (AB) for J and K{sub S} , respectively. In the inner 400 arcmin{sup 2} region where the sensitivity is more uniform, objects as faint as 25.6 and 25.0 mag are detected at 5{sigma}. Thus, this is by far the deepest J and K{sub S} data sets available for the ECDFS. To combine TENIS with the Spitzer IRAC data for obtaining better spectral energy distributions of high-redshift objects, we developed a novel deconvolution technique (IRACLEAN) to accurately estimate the IRAC fluxes. IRACLEAN can minimize the effect of blending in the IRAC images caused by the large point-spread functions and reduce the confusion noise. We applied IRACLEAN to the images from the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in the ECDFS survey (SIMPLE) and generated a J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog including the photometry of both the TENIS near-infrared and the SIMPLE IRAC data. We publicly release the data products derived from this work, including the J and K{sub S} images and the J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog.

  1. Probing BL Lac and Cluster Evolution via a Wide-angle, Deep X-ray Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, E.; Jones, L.; White, N.; Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; McHardy, I.; Wegner, G.

    1994-12-01

    The WARPS survey (Wide-Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey) has been constructed from the archive of all public ROSAT PSPC observations, and is a subset of the WGACAT catalog. WARPS will include a complete sample of >= 100 BL Lacs at F_x >= 10(-13) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . A second selection technique will identify ~ 100 clusters at 0.15 = 0.304 +/- 0.062 for XBLs but = 0.60 +/- 0.05 for RBLs. Models of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) are also poorly constrained. WARPS will allow us to compute an accurate XLF, decreasing the error bars above by over a factor of two. We will also test for low-luminosity BL Lacs, whose non-thermal nuclear sources are dim compared to the host galaxy. Browne and Marcha (1993) claim the EMSS missed most of these objects and is incomplete. If their predictions are correct, 20-40% of the BL Lacs we find will fall in this category, enabling us to probe the evolution and internal workings of BL Lacs at lower luminosities than ever before. By removing likely QSOs before optical spectroscopy, WARPS requires only modest amounts of telescope time. It will extend measurement of the cluster XLF both to higher redshifts (z>0.5) and lower luminosities (LX<1x10(44) erg s(-1) ) than previous measurements, confirming or rejecting the 3sigma detection of negative evolution found in the EMSS, and constraining Cold Dark Matter cosmologies. Faint NELGs are a recently discovered major contributor to the X-ray background. They are a mixture of Sy2s, starbursts and galaxies of unknown type. Detailed classification and evolution of their XLF will be determined for the first time.

  2. The Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS): survey design, data catalogue and GAMA/WiggleZ spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Pracy, Michael B.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jurek, Russell J.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS), a spectroscopic catalogue of radio sources designed to include the full range of radio AGN populations out to redshift z ˜ 0.8. The catalogue covers ˜800 deg2 of sky, and provides optical identifications for 19 179 radio sources from the 1.4 GHz Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey down to an optical magnitude limit of Imod point-like objects are included, and no colour cuts are applied. In collaboration with the WiggleZ and Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey teams, we have obtained new spectra for over 5000 objects in the LARGESS sample. Combining these new spectra with data from earlier surveys provides spectroscopic data for 12 329 radio sources in the survey area, of which 10 856 have reliable redshifts. 85 per cent of the LARGESS spectroscopic sample are radio AGN (median redshift z = 0.44), and 15 per cent are nearby star-forming galaxies (median z = 0.08). Low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) comprise the majority (83 per cent) of LARGESS radio AGN at z < 0.8, with 12 per cent being high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs) and 5 per cent radio-loud QSOs. Unlike the more homogeneous LERG and QSO sub-populations, HERGs are a heterogeneous class of objects with relatively blue optical colours and a wide dispersion in mid-infrared colours. This is consistent with a picture in which most HERGs are hosted by galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation as well as a classical accretion disc.

  3. De-biased populations of Kuiper belt objects from the deep ecliptic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2014-01-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF 32 to a minimum of 1.5 × 10 –7 for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU 185 . By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of α = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 ≤ H ≤ 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power

  4. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging of the evolution of acute deep vein thrombosis of the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerbeek, R E; Van Rooden, C J; Tan, M; Van Gils, A P G; Kok, S; De Bats, M J; De Roos, A; Huisman, M V

    2008-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is relevant to avoid improper diagnosis and unnecessary life-long anticoagulant treatment. Compression ultrasound has high accuracy for a first episode of DVT, but is often unreliable in suspected recurrent disease. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging (MR DTI) has been shown to accurately detect acute DVT. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the MR signal change during 6 months follow-up in patients with acute DVT. This study was a prospective study of 43 consecutive patients with a first episode of acute DVT demonstrated by compression ultrasound. All patients underwent MR DTI. Follow-up was performed with MR-DTI and compression ultrasound at 3 and 6 months respectively. All data were coded, stored and assessed by two blinded observers. MR direct thrombus imaging identified acute DVT in 41 of 43 patients (sensitivity 95%). There was no abnormal MR-signal in controls, or in the contralateral extremity of patients with DVT (specificity 100%). In none of the 39 patients available at 6 months follow-up was the abnormal MR-signal at the initial acute DVT observed, whereas in 12 of these patients (30.8%) compression ultrasound was still abnormal. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging normalizes over a period of 6 months in all patients with diagnosed DVT, while compression ultrasound remains abnormal in a third of these patients. MR-DTI may potentially allow for accurate detection in patients with acute suspected recurrent DVT, and this should be studied prospectively.

  5. Using environmental isotopes along with major hydro-geochemical compositions to assess deep groundwater formation and evolution in eastern coastal China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naizheng; Gong, Jianshi; Yang, Guoqiang

    2018-01-01

    Hydrochemical analysis and environmental isotopic tracing are successfully applied to study groundwater evolution processes. Located in eastern China, the Jiangsu Coastal Plain is characterized by an extensively exploited deep groundwater system, and groundwater salinization has become the primary water environmental problem. This paper provides a case study on the use of a hydrochemical and environmental isotopic approach to assess possible mixing and evolution processes at Yoco Port, Jiangsu Province, China. Hydrochemical and isotopic patterns of deep groundwater allow one to distinguish different origins in deep water systems. HCO3- is the dominant anion in the freshwater samples, whereas Na+ and Cl- are the dominant major ions in the saline samples. According to δ18O, δ2H and 14C dating, the fresh water is derived from precipitation under a colder climate during the Glacial Maximum (Dali Glacial), while the saline groundwater is influenced by glacial-interglacial cycles during the Holocene Hypsithermal. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H data confirm that deep groundwater in some boreholes is mixed with overlying saline water. The deep groundwater reservoir can be divided into a saline water sector and a fresh water sector, and each show distinct hydrochemical and isotopic compositions. The saline groundwater found in the deep aquifer cannot be associated with present seawater intrusion. Since the Last Glacial Maximum in the Late Pleistocene, the deep groundwater flow system has evolved to its current status with the decrease in ice cover and the rising of sea level. However, the hydraulic connection is strengthened by continuous overexploitation, and deep groundwater is mixed with shallow groundwater at some points.

  6. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullaney, J. R.; Del-Moro, A.; Aird, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the initial results and the source catalog from the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (hereafter, ECDFS)—currently the deepest contiguous component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The survey covers the full ≈30......V fluxes) span the range L10 40 keV (0.7 300) 10 erg s» - ´ 43 1 -- ,sampling below the “knee” of the X-ray luminosity function out to z ~ 0.8-1. Finally, we identify oneNuSTAR source that has neither a Chandra nor an XMM-Newton counterpart, but that shows evidence of nuclearactivity at infrared...

  7. EVOLUTION OF THE SIZES OF GALAXIES OVER 7 < z < 12 REVEALED BY THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Curtis-Lake, Emma; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique, F-75014 Paris (France); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furlanetto, Steven R., E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z ∼ 7-12 using deep images from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign, which offers two advantages over that used in earlier work. First, we utilize the increased signal-to-noise ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved measurements for known galaxies at z ≅ 6.5-8 in the HUDF. Second, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z > 8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to higher redshifts. Restricting our measurements to sources detected at >15σ, we confirm earlier indications that the average half-light radii of z ∼ 7-12 galaxies are extremely small, 0.3-0.4 kpc, comparable to the sizes of giant molecular associations in local star-forming galaxies. We also confirm that there is a clear trend of decreasing half-light radius with increasing redshift, and provide the first evidence that this trend continues beyond z ≅ 8. Modeling the evolution of the average half-light radius as a power law, ∝(1 + z) {sup s}, we obtain a best-fit index of s=-1.30{sup +0.12}{sub -0.14} over z ∼ 4-12. A clear size-luminosity relation is evident in our dropout samples. This relation can be interpreted in terms of a constant surface density of star formation over a range in luminosity of 0.05-1.0 L{sub z=3}. The average star formation surface density in dropout galaxies is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that found in extreme starburst galaxies, but is comparable to that seen today in the centers of normal disk galaxies.

  8. EVOLUTION OF THE SIZES OF GALAXIES OVER 7 < z < 12 REVEALED BY THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Curtis-Lake, Emma; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Charlot, Stephane; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z ∼ 7-12 using deep images from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign, which offers two advantages over that used in earlier work. First, we utilize the increased signal-to-noise ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved measurements for known galaxies at z ≅ 6.5-8 in the HUDF. Second, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z > 8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to higher redshifts. Restricting our measurements to sources detected at >15σ, we confirm earlier indications that the average half-light radii of z ∼ 7-12 galaxies are extremely small, 0.3-0.4 kpc, comparable to the sizes of giant molecular associations in local star-forming galaxies. We also confirm that there is a clear trend of decreasing half-light radius with increasing redshift, and provide the first evidence that this trend continues beyond z ≅ 8. Modeling the evolution of the average half-light radius as a power law, ∝(1 + z) s , we obtain a best-fit index of s=-1.30 +0.12 -0.14 over z ∼ 4-12. A clear size-luminosity relation is evident in our dropout samples. This relation can be interpreted in terms of a constant surface density of star formation over a range in luminosity of 0.05-1.0 L z=3 . The average star formation surface density in dropout galaxies is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that found in extreme starburst galaxies, but is comparable to that seen today in the centers of normal disk galaxies

  9. Topographic signatures and a general transport law for deep-seated landslides in a landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Adam M.; Roering, Josh J.; Rempel, Alan W.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental goal of studying earth surface processes is to disentangle the complex web of interactions among baselevel, tectonics, climate, and rock properties that generate characteristic landforms. Mechanistic geomorphic transport laws can quantitatively address this goal, but no widely accepted law for landslides exists. Here we propose a transport law for deep-seated landslides in weathered bedrock and demonstrate its utility using a two-dimensional numerical landscape evolution model informed by study areas in the Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand, and the Eel River catchment, California. We define a non-dimensional landslide number, which is the ratio of the horizontal landslide flux to the vertical tectonic flux, that characterizes three distinct landscape types. One is dominated by stochastic landsliding, whereby discrete landslide events episodically erode material at rates exceeding the long-term uplift rate. Another is characterized by steady landsliding, in which the landslide flux at any location remains constant through time and is greatest at the steepest locations in the catchment. The third is not significantly affected by landsliding. In both the "stochastic landsliding" and "steady landsliding" regimes, increases in the non-dimensional landslide number systematically reduce catchment relief and widen valley spacing, producing long, low angle hillslopes despite high uplift rates. The stochastic landsliding regime captures the frequent observation that deep-seated landslides produce large sediment fluxes from small areal extents while being active only a fraction of the time. We suggest that this model is adaptable to a wide range of geologic settings and is useful for interpreting climate-driven changes in landslide behavior.

  10. Evolution of simeprevir-resistant variants over time by ultra-deep sequencing in HCV genotype 1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuta, Norio; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Sezaki, Hitomi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Mariko; Saitoh, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2014-08-01

    Using ultra-deep sequencing technology, the present study was designed to investigate the evolution of simeprevir-resistant variants (amino acid substitutions of aa80, aa155, aa156, and aa168 positions in HCV NS3 region) over time. In Toranomon Hospital, 18 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1b, received triple therapy of simeprevir/PEG-IFN/ribavirin (DRAGON or CONCERT study). Sustained virological response rate was 67%, and that was significantly higher in patients with IL28B rs8099917 TT than in those with non-TT. Six patients, who did not achieve sustained virological response, were tested for resistant variants by ultra-deep sequencing, at the baseline, at the time of re-elevation of viral loads, and at 96 weeks after the completion of treatment. Twelve of 18 resistant variants, detected at re-elevation of viral load, were de novo resistant variants. Ten of 12 de novo resistant variants become undetectable over time, and that five of seven resistant variants, detected at baseline, persisted over time. In one patient, variants of Q80R at baseline (0.3%) increased at 96-week after the cessation of treatment (10.2%), and de novo resistant variants of D168E (0.3%) also increased at 96-week after the cessation of treatment (9.7%). In conclusion, the present study indicates that the emergence of simeprevir-resistant variants after the start of treatment could not be predicted at baseline, and the majority of de novo resistant variants become undetectable over time. Further large-scale prospective studies should be performed to investigate the clinical utility in detecting simeprevir-resistant variants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Between a Pod and a Hard Test: The Deep Evolution of Amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungho; Tice, Alexander K; Spiegel, Frederick W; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Pánek, Tomáš; Cepicka, Ivan; Kostka, Martin; Kosakyan, Anush; Alcântara, Daniel M C; Roger, Andrew J; Shadwick, Lora L; Smirnov, Alexey; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Lahr, Daniel J G; Brown, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Amoebozoa is the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa, the lineage that contains the animals and Fungi, as well as their protistan relatives, and the breviate and apusomonad flagellates. Amoebozoa is extraordinarily diverse, encompassing important model organisms and significant pathogens. Although amoebozoans are integral to global nutrient cycles and present in nearly all environments, they remain vastly understudied. We present a robust phylogeny of Amoebozoa based on broad representative set of taxa in a phylogenomic framework (325 genes). By sampling 61 taxa using culture-based and single-cell transcriptomics, our analyses show two major clades of Amoebozoa, Discosea, and Tevosa. This phylogeny refutes previous studies in major respects. Our results support the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of Amoebozoa was sexual and flagellated, it also may have had the ability to disperse propagules from a sporocarp-type fruiting body. Overall, the main macroevolutionary patterns in Amoebozoa appear to result from the parallel losses of homologous characters of a multiphase life cycle that included flagella, sex, and sporocarps rather than independent acquisition of convergent features. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Evolution of deep crustal magma structures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV) intraplate volcano in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Tkalcic, H.; Baag, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous features of magmatic structures beneath intraplate volcanoes are attributed to interactions between the ascending magma and lithospheric structures. Here, we investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic stuructures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV), which is one of the largest continental intraplate volcanoes in northeast Asia. The result of our seismic imaging shows that the deeper Moho depth ( 40 km) and relatively higher shear wave velocities (>3.8 km/s) at middle-to-lower crustal depths beneath the volcano. In addition, the pattern at the bottom of our model shows that the lithosphere beneath the MBV is shallower (interpret the observations as a compositional double layering of mafic underplating and a overlying cooled felsic structure due to fractional crystallization of asthenosphere origin magma. To achieve enhanced vertical and horizontal model coverage, we apply two approaches in this work, including (1) a grid-search based phase velocity measurement using real-coherency of ambient noise data and (2) a transdimensional Bayesian joint inversion using multiple ambient noise dispersion data.

  13. Adaptation and evolution of deep-sea scale worms (Annelida: Polynoidae): insights from transcriptome comparison with a shallow-water species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Sun, Jin; Chen, Chong; Watanabe, Hiromi K.; Feng, Dong; Zhang, Yu; Chiu, Jill M.Y.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Polynoid scale worms (Polynoidae, Annelida) invaded deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems approximately 60 million years ago, but little is known about their genetic adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment. In this study, we reported the first two transcriptomes of deep-sea polynoids (Branchipolynoe pettiboneae, Lepidonotopodium sp.) and compared them with the transcriptome of a shallow-water polynoid (Harmothoe imbricata). We determined codon and amino acid usage, positive selected genes, highly expressed genes and putative duplicated genes. Transcriptome assembly produced 98,806 to 225,709 contigs in the three species. There were more positively charged amino acids (i.e., histidine and arginine) and less negatively charged amino acids (i.e., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) in the deep-sea species. There were 120 genes showing clear evidence of positive selection. Among the 10% most highly expressed genes, there were more hemoglobin genes with high expression levels in both deep-sea species. The duplicated genes related to DNA recombination and metabolism, and gene expression were only enriched in deep-sea species. Deep-sea scale worms adopted two strategies of adaptation to hypoxia in the chemosynthesis-based habitats (i.e., rapid evolution of tetra-domain hemoglobin in Branchipolynoe or high expression of single-domain hemoglobin in Lepidonotopodium sp.). PMID:28397791

  14. The forearc crustal evolution of Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) region obtained by seismic reflection and refraction surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, N.; Tatsumi, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. By previous seismic survey and deep sea drilling, convex basements are distributed along North-South direction in present forearc region. The convex basements are reported to be formed during Oligocene and Eocene (Taylor, 1992). In IBM forearc region, the middle crust with 6 km/s is recognized by seismic survey using OBSs. In IBM region, four IODP drilling sites are proposed in order to understand comprehensive growth process of arc and continental crust evolution. Two of them are located in forearc region. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey using 7,800/12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5-6 km streamer with 444/204 ch hydrophones in the IBM region since 2004. We investigate the crustal structure beneath the Izu-Bonin forearc region for contribution of IBM drilling site along five long survey lines, which are across from present volcanic front to forearc basin. Seismic refraction survey is also conducted across forearc region using 84 OBSs every 1 km interval. Shallow crustal structure can be classified four units including basement which compared between previous drilling results and obtained seismic profiles. In IBM forearc region, thick sedimentary basin distribute from east side of volcanic front. Two convex basement peaks are indicated in across profile of forearc region. These peaks are estimated the top of paleoarc (Oligocene and Eocene) by previous ODP drilling. The half graben structure with major displacement is identified from west side of present volcanic front to the top of Oligocene arc. On the other hand, there is no displacement of sediments between the Oligocene arc and Eocene arc. This result shows the same origin of basement between the present volcanic front and Oligocene arc. There is long time difference of

  15. The ALHAMBRA survey: evolution of galaxy clustering since z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalte-Mur, P.; Martínez, V. J.; Norberg, P.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Ascaso, B.; Merson, A. I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Castander, F. J.; Hurtado-Gil, L.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Molino, A.; Montero-Dorta, A. D.; Stefanon, M.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Perea, J.; Pović, M.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    We study the clustering of galaxies as function of luminosity and redshift in the range 0.35 work cover 2.38 deg2 in seven independent fields, after applying a detailed angular selection mask, with accurate photometric redshifts, σz ≲ 0.014(1 + z), down to IAB accounting for photometric redshifts uncertainties. We infer the galaxy bias, and study its evolution with luminosity. We study the effect of sample variance, and confirm earlier results that the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and European Large Area ISO Survey North 1 (ELAIS-N1) fields are dominated by the presence of large structures. For the intermediate and bright samples, Lmed ≳ 0.6L*, we obtain a strong dependence of bias on luminosity, in agreement with previous results at similar redshift. We are able to extend this study to fainter luminosities, where we obtain an almost flat relation, similar to that observed at low redshift. Regarding the evolution of bias with redshift, our results suggest that the different galaxy populations studied reside in haloes covering a range in mass between log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 11.5 for samples with Lmed ≃ 0.3L* and log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 13.0 for samples with Lmed ≃ 2L*, with typical occupation numbers in the range of ˜1-3 galaxies per halo.

  16. Trends in Continuous Deep Sedation until Death between 2007 and 2013: A Repeated Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Rietjens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background Continuous deep sedation until death is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its potential to hasten death and its proper use in end-of-life care. A thorough analysis of important trends in this practice is needed to identify potentially problematic developments. This study aims to examine trends in the prevalence and practice characteristics of continuous deep sedation until death in Flanders, Belgium between 2007 and 2013, and to study variation on physicians’ degree of palliative training. Methods Population-based death certificate study in 2007 and 2013 in Flanders, Belgium. Reporting physicians received questionnaires about medical practices preceding the patient’s death. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics (drugs used, duration, artificial nutrition/hydration, intention and consent), and palliative care training of attending physician were recorded. We posed the following question regarding continuous deep sedation: ‘Was the patient continuously and deeply sedated or kept in a coma until death by the use of one or more drugs’. Results After the initial rise of continuous deep sedation to 14.5% in 2007 (95%CI 13.1%-15.9%), its use decreased to 12.0% in 2013 (95%CI 10.9%-13.2%). Compared with 2007, in 2013 opioids were less often used as sole drug and the decision to use continuous deep sedation was more often preceded by patient request. Compared to non-experts, palliative care experts more often used benzodiazepines and less often opioids, withheld artificial nutrition/hydration more often and performed sedation more often after a request from or with the consent of the patient or family. Conclusion Worldwide, this study is the first to show a decrease in the prevalence of continuous deep sedation. Despite positive changes in performance and decision-making towards more compliance with due care requirements, there is still room for improvement in the use of recommended drugs and in the involvement of

  17. Trends in Continuous Deep Sedation until Death between 2007 and 2013: A Repeated Nationwide Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenzo Robijn

    Full Text Available Continuous deep sedation until death is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its potential to hasten death and its proper use in end-of-life care. A thorough analysis of important trends in this practice is needed to identify potentially problematic developments. This study aims to examine trends in the prevalence and practice characteristics of continuous deep sedation until death in Flanders, Belgium between 2007 and 2013, and to study variation on physicians' degree of palliative training.Population-based death certificate study in 2007 and 2013 in Flanders, Belgium. Reporting physicians received questionnaires about medical practices preceding the patient's death. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics (drugs used, duration, artificial nutrition/hydration, intention and consent, and palliative care training of attending physician were recorded. We posed the following question regarding continuous deep sedation: 'Was the patient continuously and deeply sedated or kept in a coma until death by the use of one or more drugs'.After the initial rise of continuous deep sedation to 14.5% in 2007 (95%CI 13.1%-15.9%, its use decreased to 12.0% in 2013 (95%CI 10.9%-13.2%. Compared with 2007, in 2013 opioids were less often used as sole drug and the decision to use continuous deep sedation was more often preceded by patient request. Compared to non-experts, palliative care experts more often used benzodiazepines and less often opioids, withheld artificial nutrition/hydration more often and performed sedation more often after a request from or with the consent of the patient or family.Worldwide, this study is the first to show a decrease in the prevalence of continuous deep sedation. Despite positive changes in performance and decision-making towards more compliance with due care requirements, there is still room for improvement in the use of recommended drugs and in the involvement of patients and relatives in the

  18. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for deep geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1993); 1993 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted in order to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. Following fiscal 1992, the well was drilled in fiscal 1993 down to depths of 605m-1505m, and a 13-3/8 inch casing was inserted down to a depth of 1500m. In the drilling, four cores including oriented cores were sampled, and microscopic observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, fluid inclusion survey, core property test, etc. were conducted. In the FMI logging, detected were 273 bedding planes, 483 fractures, etc. Further made were a velocity structure survey, a gravity survey in the area of 270 km{sup 2} including deep exploration wells, a quality survey of the Kakkonda river water, etc. As to geothermal structure models in the Kakkonda area, results of the drilling were added to prediction models before drilling deep exploration wells, but the revision was not very much. Besides, studies were made of a survey method using microearthquakes, a survey technique using resistivity, etc. 61 refs., 259 figs., 95 tabs.

  19. THE CFHTLS-DEEP CATALOG OF INTERACTING GALAXIES. I. MERGER RATE EVOLUTION TO z = 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, C. R.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rest-frame optical galaxy merger fraction between 0.2 vega ≤ 22.2 (∼27,000 galaxies) over 2 square degrees, we have compiled the CFHTLS-Deep Catalog of Interacting Galaxies, with ∼ 1600 merging galaxies. We find the merger fraction to be 4.3% ± 0.3% at z ∼ 0.3 and 19.0% ± 2.5% at z ∼ 1, implying evolution of the merger fraction going as (1 + z) m , with m = 2.25 ± 0.24. This result is inconsistent with a mild or non-evolving (m 4σ level of confidence. A mild trend, where by massive galaxies with M * >10 10.7 M sun are undergoing fewer mergers than less massive systems (M * ∼ 10 10 M sun ), consistent with the expectations of galaxy assembly downsizing is observed. Our results also show that interacting galaxies have on average SFRs double that found in non-interacting field galaxies. We conclude that (1) the optical galaxy merger fraction does evolve with redshift, (2) the merger fraction depends mildly on stellar mass, with lower mass galaxies having higher merger fractions at z < 1, and (3) star formation is triggered at all phases of a merger, with larger enhancements at later stages, consistent with N-body simulations.

  20. Extreme longevity in a deep-sea vestimentiferan tubeworm and its implications for the evolution of life history strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Alanna; Fisher, Charles R.; Cordes, Erik E.

    2017-08-01

    The deep sea is home to many species that have longer life spans than their shallow-water counterparts. This trend is primarily related to the decline in metabolic rates with temperature as depth increases. However, at bathyal depths, the cold-seep vestimentiferan tubeworm species Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi reach extremely old ages beyond what is predicted by the simple scaling of life span with body size and temperature. Here, we use individual-based models based on in situ growth rates to show that another species of cold-seep tubeworm found in the Gulf of Mexico, Escarpia laminata, also has an extraordinarily long life span, regularly achieving ages of 100-200 years with some individuals older than 300 years. The distribution of results from individual simulations as well as whole population simulations involving mortality and recruitment rates support these age estimates. The low 0.67% mortality rate measurements from collected populations of E. laminata are similar to mortality rates in L. luymesi and S. jonesi and play a role in evolution of the long life span of cold-seep tubeworms. These results support longevity theory, which states that in the absence of extrinsic mortality threats, natural selection will select for individuals that senesce slower and reproduce continually into their old age.

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF THE FAR-UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY OF THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH FROM z = 0.2 TO 1.2 WITH SWIFT/UVOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Lea M. Z.; Gronwall, Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; Siegel, Michael H.; Hagen, Alex [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hoversten, Erik A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 120 E. Cameron Avenue, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Page, Mathew, E-mail: lmz5057@psu.edu [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-01

    We use deep Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) near-ultraviolet (1600–4000 Å) imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South to measure the rest-frame far-UV (FUV; 1500 Å) luminosity function (LF) in four redshift bins between z = 0.2 and 1.2. Our sample includes 730 galaxies with u < 24.1 mag. We use two methods to construct and fit the LFs: the traditional V{sub max} method with bootstrap errors, and a maximum likelihood estimator. We observe luminosity evolution such that M* fades by ∼2 mag from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0.3, implying that star formation activity was substantially higher at z ∼ 1 than today. We integrate our LFs to determine the FUV luminosity densities and star formation rate densities (SFRDs) from z = 0.2 to 1.2. We find evolution consistent with an increase proportional to (1 + z){sup 1.9} out to z ∼ 1. Our luminosity densities and star formation rates are consistent with those found in the literature but are, on average, a factor of ∼2 higher than previous FUV measurements. In addition, we combine our UVOT data with the MUSYC survey to model the galaxies’ ultraviolet-to-infrared spectral energy distributions and estimate the rest-frame FUV attenuation. We find that accounting for the attenuation increases the SFRDs by ∼1 dex across all four redshift bins.

  2. National Observatory of Radiotherapy. Survey report: situation at the end of 2012 and evolution since 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the results of a survey on French radiotherapy centres to assess the condition of radiotherapy equipment, on the activity of these centres, on the composition of their medical and paramedical radiotherapy staff. After a presentation of the survey organisation and implementation, and of its methodology, results are presented and discussed, generally illustrated by tables and graphs. These results concern technical platforms and equipment (structure of the linear accelerator stock, additional equipment, operation planning and duration, procedures in case of machine stoppage, treatment preparation, equipment for treatment quality control), the activity (number of treated patients, numbers of treatments and sessions, treatment preparation, applied techniques and tumour locations), and the staff (evolution of the numbers of oncologists radiotherapists, medical physicists, technicians, and dosimetry technicians)

  3. Thermal evolution and exhumation of deep-level batholithic exposures, southernmost Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeby, J.; Farley, K.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Fleck, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Tehachapi complex lies at the southern end of the Sierra Nevada batholith adjacent to the Neogene-Quaternary Garlock fault. The complex is composed principally of high-pressure (8-10 kbar) Cretaceous batholithic rocks, and it represents the deepest exposed levels of a continuous oblique crustal section through the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. Over the southern ???100 km of this section, structural/petrologic continuity and geochronological data indicate that ???35 km of felsic to intermediate-composition crust was generated by copious arc magmatism primarily between 105 and 99 Ma. In the Tehachapi complex, these batholithic rocks intrude and are bounded to the west by similar-composition gneissic-textured high-pressure batholithic rocks emplaced at ca. 115-110 Ma. This lower crustal complex is bounded below by a regional thrust system, which in Late Cretaceous time tectonically eroded the underlying mantle lithosphere, and in series displaced and underplated the Rand Schist subduction assemblage by low-angle slip from the outboard Franciscan trench. Geophysical and mantle xenolith studies indicate that the remnants of this shallow subduction thrust descend northward through the crust and into the mantle, leaving the mantle lithosphere intact beneath the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. This north-dipping regional structure records an inflection in the Farallon plate, which was segmented into a shallow subduc-tion trajectory to the south and a normal steeper trajectory to the north. We combine new and published data from a broad spectrum of thermochronom-eters that together form a coherent data array constraining the thermal evolution of the complex. Integration of these data with published thermobarometric and petro-genetic data also constrains the tectonically driven decompression and exhumation history of the complex. The timing of arc magmatic construction of the complex, as denoted above, is resolved by a large body of U/Pb zircon ages. High

  4. The HELLAS2XMM survey. IV. Optical identifications and the evolution of the accretion luminosity in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, F.; Brusa, M.; Cocchia, F.; Baldi, A.; Carangelo, N.; Ciliegi, P.; Comastri, A.; La Franca, F.; Maiolino, R.; Matt, G.; Molendi, S.; Mignoli, M.; Perola, G. C.; Severgnini, P.; Vignali, C.

    2003-10-01

    We present results from the photometric and spectroscopic identification of 122 X-ray sources recently discovered by XMM-Newton in the 2-10 keV band (the HELLAS2XMM 1dF sample). Their flux cover the range 8*E-15-4*E-13 erg cm-2 s-1 and the total area surveyed is 0.9 square degrees. One of the most interesting results (which is found also in deeper sourveys) is that about 20% of the hard X-ray selected sources have an X-ray to optical flux ratio (X/O) ten times or more higher than that of optically selected AGN. Unlike the faint sources found in the ultra-deep Chandra and XMM-Newton surveys, which reach X-ray (and optical) fluxes more than one order of magnitude lower than the HELLAS2XMM survey sources, many of the extreme X/O sources in our sample have Rprotect la25 and are therefore accessible to optical spectroscopy. We report the identification of 13 sources with X/Oprotect ga10 (to be compared with 9 sources known from the deeper, pencil-beam surveys). Eight of them are narrow line QSO (seemingly the extension to very high luminosity of the type 2 Seyfert galaxies), four are broad line QSO. The results from our survey are also used to make reliable predictions about the luminosity of the sources not yet spectroscopically identified, both in our sample and in deeper Chandra and XMM-Newton samples. We then use a combined sample of 317 hard X-ray selected sources (HELLAS2XMM 1dF, Chandra Deep Field North 1Msec, Chandra SSA13 and XMM-Newton Lockman Hole flux limited samples), 221 with measured redshifts, to evaluate the cosmological evolution of the hard X-ray source's number and luminosity densities. Looking backward in time, the low luminosity sources (log L2-10 keV=43-44 erg s-1) increase in number at a much slower rate than the very high luminosity sources (log L2-10 keV >44.5 erg s-1), reaching a maximum around z=1 and then levelling off beyond z=2. This translates into an accretion driven luminosity density which is dominated by sources with log L2-10 keV 44

  5. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  6. UltraVISTA : a new ultra-deep near-infrared survey in COSMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, H. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J.; Franx, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fevre, O.; Holt, J.; Caputi, K. I.; Goranova, Y.; Buitrago, F.; Emerson, J. P.; Freudling, W.; Hudelot, P.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Magnard, F.; Mellier, Y.; Moller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Sutherland, W.; Tasca, L.; Zabl, J.

    In this paper we describe the first data release of the UltraVISTA near-infrared imaging survey of the COSMOS field. We summarise the key goals and design of the survey and provide a detailed description of our data reduction techniques. We provide stacked, sky-subtracted images in YJHK(s) and

  7. A Literature Survey of Early Time Series Classification and Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Tiago; Kern, Roman

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current literature on time series classification approaches, in particular of early time series classification. A very common and effective time series classification approach is the 1-Nearest Neighbor classier, with different distance measures such as the Euclidean or dynamic time warping distances. This paper starts by reviewing these baseline methods. More recently, with the gain in popularity in the application of deep neural networks to the eld of...

  8. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [1-]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria) in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic. In order to evaluate seismicity and to assess the impact of seismic effects at depths of hypothetical deep geological repository for the next time period, the neo-deterministic method was selected as an extension of the probabilistic method. Each one out of the seven survey areas were assessed by the neo-deterministic evaluation of the seismic wave-field excited by selected individual events and determining the maximum loading. Results of seismological databases studies and neo-deterministic analysis of Čihadlo locality are presented.

  9. Fiscal 1996 verification and survey of geothermal prospecting technology etc. 2/2. Survey report on deep-seated geothermal resources; 1996 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk to accompany the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, investigations are conducted into the three factors that govern the formation of geothermal resources at deep levels, that is, the supply of heat from heat sources, the supply of geothermal fluids, and the development of fracture systems contributing to the constitution of reservoir structures. In the study of deep-seated geothermal models for the Kakkonda area, a reservoir structure model, a thermal structure model, and a geothermal fluid/hydraulic structure model are deliberated. Then, after studying the relations of the said three structure models to fracture systems, the boundary between the geothermal fluid convection region and the thermal conduction region near the 3,100m-deep level, the existence of high-salinity fluids and the depth of gas inflow, the ranges of shallow-seated reservoirs and deep-seated reservoirs, the trend of reduction in reservoir pressure and the anisotropy in water permeability in shallow-seated reservoirs, etc., a latest reservoir model is constructed into which all the findings obtained so far are incorporated. As for guidelines for deep-seated thermal resources survey and development, it is so decided that deep-seated geothermal survey guidelines, deep-seated fluid production guidelines, and deep-seated well drilling guidelines be prepared and that assessment be made of their economic effectiveness. (NEDO)

  10. A DEEP, WIDE-FIELD Hα SURVEY OF NEARBY CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shoko; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Moss, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field Hα imaging survey of eight nearby (z = 0.02-0.03) Abell clusters. We have measured Hα fluxes and equivalent widths for 465 galaxies, of which 360 are new detections. The survey was designed to obtain complete emission-line-selected inventories of star-forming galaxies in the inner regions of these clusters, extending to star formation rates below 0.1 M ☉ yr –1 . This paper describes the observations, data processing, and source identification procedures, and presents an Hα and R-band catalog of detected cluster members and other candidates. Future papers in the series will use these data to study the completeness of spectroscopically based star formation surveys, and to quantify the effects of cluster environment on the present-day populations of star-forming galaxies. The data will also provide a valuable foundation for imaging surveys of redshifted Hα emission in more distant clusters.

  11. Expanded U.S. mid-Atlantic Margin Deep-Water Allostratigraphy; Bottom-Current Controls on Margin Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. C.; Miller, N. C.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Mountain, G. S.; Chaytor, J. D.; Shillington, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    There is a long history of seismic stratigraphic interpretation/analysis of the sedimentary sequence along the U.S. mid-Atlantic Margin (MAM). Here we expand the allostratigraphic (unconformity-bound) framework from the outer continental shelf to the Hatteras Abyssal Plain by correlating recently acquired 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data with existing drill sites and legacy 2D seismic data collected over the past 42 yrs. The new 2D post-stack Kirchhoff time migrated seismic data were acquired using R/V Marcus G. Langseth in 2014-2015 during USGS ECS surveys MGL1407 & MGL1506 and NSF-funded ENAM-CSE survey MGL1408. We map six seismic horizons along 1.5x104 km of 2D data and tie each to stratigraphic unconformities sampled at DSDP site 603 (lower rise). From shallow to deep they are: (1) M2, latest Miocene; (2) X, middle Miocene; (3) Au, late Oligocene; (4) A*, Late Cretaceous; (5) Km, early Late Cretaceous; and (6) Beta, middle Early Cretaceous. The horizons were converted to depth (mbsl) using high-resolution interval velocity models generated for each 2D survey line and isopachs were produced using the depth-converted stratigraphic framework for each allostratigraphic unit. The time-to-depth function was confirmed to be within 5% of drilling results at DSDP Sites 603 and nearby 105. Additionally, we tie horizon Au to upper-slope ODP Sites 902 & 1073, and trace it to the outer shelf. Interpretation of the framework and resulting isopachs show total sediment thickness uniformly decreasing seaward from the shelf edge, and overall thickening to the south. Regional depositional trends display a combination of both down slope and along slope processes (e.g. mass wasting, submarine fan formation, contourite and sediment drift deposits). The unit bound by horizons Au & Beta confirms pervasive excavation from the mid-slope to the continental rise and across the central and southern MAM (from New Jersey to North Carolina). How the excavated sediments were

  12. An airborne gamma ray snow survey of a forest covered area with a deep snowpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, J.E.; Carroll, T.R.; Holman, P.B.; Grasty, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Problems arising from the airborne gamma ray measurement of snow water equivalent over a forest covered deep snowpack are examined. The principal sources of error are believed to be due to the radioactivity in the biomass and to variability in the snow cover. A theoretical model is developed to correct the airborne measurements for these sources of error. The application of the theory to data collected over the St. John River Basin, located in the eastern part of Canada and the United States, is found to significantly improve the airborne results

  13. Comprehensive geophysical survey technique in exploration for deep-buried hydrothermal type uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, D.

    2014-01-01

    According to recent drilling results, uranium mineralization has been found underground more than 1000 m deep in the Xiangshan volcanic basin, in where uranium exploration has been carried out for over 50 years. This paper presents a comprehensive geophysical survey technique, including audio magnetotelluric method (AMT), high resolution ground magnetic and radon survey, which aim to prospect deep-buried and concealed uranium deposits in Xiangshan volcanic basin. Based on research and application, a comprehensive geophysical technique consisting of data acquisition, processing and interpretation has been established. Concealed rock and ore-controlling structure buried deeper than 1000 m can be detected by using this technique. Moreover, one kind of anti-interference technique of AMT survey is presented, which can eliminate the interference induced by the high-voltage power lines. Result of AMT in Xiangshan volcanic basin is demonstrated as high-low-high mode, which indicates there are three layers in geology. The upper layer with high resistivity is mainly the react of porphyroclastic lava. The middle layer with low resistivity is metamorphic schists or dellenite whereas the lower layer with high resistivity is inferred as granite. The interface between middle and lower layer is recognized as the potential zone for occurrence of uranium deposits. According to the corresponding relation of the resistivity and magnetic anomaly with uranium ore bodies, the tracing model of faults and interfaces between the different rocks, and the forecasting model of advantageous area for uranium deposits have been established. In terms of the forecasting model, some significant sections for uranium deposits were delineated in the west of the Xiangshan volcanic basin. As a result, some achievements on uranium prospecting have been acquired. High grade economic uranium ore bodies have been found in several boreholes, which are located in the forecasted zones. (author)

  14. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. V. A UNIVERSAL RELATION FOR STELLAR MASS AND SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Yamada, Toru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Onodera, Masato; Konishi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We present a universal linear correlation between the stellar mass and surface brightness (SB) of galaxies at 0.3 -2.0∼-0.8 , in addition to dimming as (1 + z) 4 by the cosmological expansion effect. The brightening depends on galaxy color and stellar mass. The blue population (rest-frame U - V -0.8±0.3 in the rest-V band. On the other hand, the red population (U - V>0) and the massive galaxies (M * >10 10 M sun ) show stronger brightening, (1 + z) -1.5±0.1 . By comparison with galaxy evolution models, the phenomena are well understood by the pure luminosity evolution of galaxies out to z ∼ 3.

  15. Report on the survey for electrostatic discharges on Mars using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Majid, W.; Geldzahler, B.; Kocz, J.; Schulter, T.; White, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mars atmosphere has strong dust activity. It is suggested that the larger regional storms are capable of producing electric fields large enough to initiate electrostatic discharges. The storms have charging process similar to terrestrial dust devils and have hot cores and complicated vortex winds similar to terrestrial thunderstorms. However, due to uncertainties in our understanding of the electrical environment of the storms and absence of related in-situ measurements, the existence (or non-existence) of such electrostatic discharges on the planet is yet to be confirmed. Knowing about the electrical activity on Mars is essential for future human explorations of the planet. We have recently launched a long-term monitoring campaign at NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) to search for powerful discharges on Mars. The search occurs during routine tracking of Mars orbiting spacecraft by Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescope. In this presentation, we will report on the result of processing and analysis of the data from the first six months of our campaign.

  16. UAV survey of a Thyrrenian micro-tidal beach for shoreline evolution update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Pugliano, Giovanni; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Mucerino, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Coastal geomorphology requires increasingly accurate topographic information of the beach systems to perform reliable simulation of coastal erosion, flooding phenomena, and coastal vulnerability assessment. Among the range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to produce such a dataset, this study tests the utility of low-altitude aerial imageries collected by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The image-based approach was selected whilst searching for a rapid, inexpensive, and highly automated method, able to produce 3D information from unstructured aerial images. In particular, it was used to generate a high-resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) of the micro-tidal beach of Serapo - Gaeta (LT) in order to obtain recent update of erosional/accretional trends already established through historical shoreline evolution. A UAV exacopter (fig. 1a) was used, weighing about 2500g, carrying on board a GPS and multi-directional accelerometer to ensure a recovery of the beach features (fig. 1b) through a sweep with constant speed, direction and altitude. The on-board camera was a Canon 16M pixels, with fixed and constant focal takeoff in order to perform the 3D cloud points. Six adjacent strips were performed for the survey realization with pictures taken every second in sequence, in order to allow a minimum 80% overlap. A direct on site survey was also carried out with a DGPS for the placement of GPS markers and the geo-referencing of the final product (fig. 1c). Each flight with constant speed, direction and altitude recorded from 500 to 800 shots. The height of flight was dictated by the scale of the final report, an altitude of 100m was used for the beach survey. The topographic survey on the ground for the placement of the control points was performed with the Trimble R6 DGPS in RTK mode. The long-term shoreline evolution was obtained by a sixty-year historical shoreline time-series, through the analysis of a number of aerial photographs dating from 1954 to 2013. The

  17. Survey of methods used to determine if a patient has a deep vein thrombosis: An exploratory research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heick, John D; Farris, James W

    2017-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is encouraged in the physical therapy profession, but integrating evidence into practice can be difficult for clinicians because of lack of time and other constraints. To survey physical therapy clinical instructors and determine the methods they use for screening for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a type of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the lower extremities. Exploratory survey. Twelve survey questions written specifically for this study were sent to a convenience sample of clinical instructors associated with seven universities across 43 states. Eight hundred fifty clinical instructors (22.4% response rate) completed the survey. Of those who responded, 80.5% were taught to use Homans sign to screen for a possible DVT in their entry-level education and 67.9% continued to use Homans sign in clinical practice. Regardless of post-graduate education, respondents were more likely to choose Homans sign than a clinical decision rule (CDR) to screen for a suspected DVT. Additionally, nearly two-thirds of respondents failed to correctly identify one or more of the major risk factors for developing a DVT/VTE. The response rate was 22.4% and therefore may not fully represent the population of physical therapy clinical instructors in the United States. Results from this exploratory survey indicated that approximately two-thirds of physical therapy clinical instructors used outdated DVT/VTE screening methods that they were taught in their entry-level education and nearly two-thirds did not identify the major risk factors associated with DVT/VTE. These results suggest that change is necessary in physical therapy education, clinical practice, and continuing professional development to ensure a more evidenced-based identification of DVT and VTE.

  18. Resources for Teaching About Evolution from the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    As a scientific research agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in an ideal position to provide scientific information and resources to educators. The USGS is not a curriculum developer, nor an expert in pedagogy, yet the USGS does have a wealth of scientific information on subjects such as fossils, geologic time, biological resources and plate tectonics that naturally come in to play in the teaching of evolution. Among USGS resources are the general interest pamphlets Geologic Time, Dinosaurs: Facts And Fiction, Our Changing Continent, and Fossils Rocks, and Time, and its accompanying poster, Fossils Through Time. In addition to printed versions, the pamphlets are available at no cost on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/. The popular booklet, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html, touches on evolution-related subjects such as Alfred Wegener's use of fossils to develop his theory of continental drift, "polar" dinosaur fossils found in Australia, marine fossils in the rocks of the Himalayas, and the use of fossil ages to determine rates of plate motions. Paleontological research at the USGS is highlighted on the Internet at http://geology.er.usgs.gov/paleo/. The web site includes links to technical publications, profiles of scientists, a geologic time scale, a glossary, information on important fossil groups, and a list of non-USGS references on fossils: all very useful to educators. A wealth of biological information and data can be found in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a multi-agency collaborative program led by the USGS. In addition to data on the Nation's biological resources, the NBII web site http://www.nbii.gov/ includes a section on systematics and scientific names (helpful for illustrating the evolutionary relationships among living organisms), and links to non-USGS curriculum materials. A fact sheet, Unveiling the NBII as a Teaching

  19. THE LATE STAGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK EVOLUTION: A MILLIMETER SURVEY OF UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Ménard, Francois; Duchêne, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Phillips, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to ∼4 × 10 –3 M Jup of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 × 10 –3 to 1.0 × 10 –1 M Jup . The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and Hα measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars.

  20. Subsea surveying: a guide for oilmen. Deep-tow and digital techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F M

    1977-05-01

    Hydrodynamically stable tow fishes into which the acoustic energy source is mounted are examined. The advantages of deep-towed devices extends beyond the use of bottom and subbottom profiling systems. When used with side-scan sonar devices any small seabed relief or feature is enhanced by towing the sonar close to the seabed. The distortion of the records which is produced by observing slant ranges as opposed to the true range is also reduced. The use of marine magnetometers can greatly improve detection capabilities when searching for objects which produce some magnetic disturbance. The amplitude of this magnetic ''anomaly'' increases as the range between the magnetic sensor and the object is decreased. Areas where digital processing of data can be of significant value include navigational positioning (both of surface and sub-surface vessels); signal processing of seismic profiling data; and data presentation of all forms.

  1. Simulating deep surveys of the Galactic Plane with the Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan; Digel, Seth

    2009-05-01

    The pioneering survey of the Galactic plane by H.E.S.S., together with the northern complement now underway with VERITAS, has shown the inner Milky Way to be rich in TeV-emitting sources; new source classes have been found among the H.E.S.S. detections and unidentified sources remain. In order to explore optimizations of the design of an Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)-like instrument for survey science, we constructed a model of the flux and size distributions of Galactic TeV sources, normalized to the H.E.S.S. sources but extrapolated to lower flux levels. We investigated potential outcomes from a survey with the order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and attendant improvement in angular resolution planned for AGIS. Studies of individual sources and populations found with such a sensitivity survey will advance understanding of astrophysical particle acceleration, source populations, and even high-energy cosmic rays via detection of the low-level TeV diffuse emission in regions of high cosmic-ray densitiy.

  2. Spectroscopic Surveys with the ELT: A Gigantic Step into the Deep Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C.; Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Gallego, J.; Sánchez, A.; García, L.; Iglesias, J.

    2018-03-01

    The Phase A design of MOSAIC, a powerful multi-object spectrograph intended for ESO's Extremely Large Telescope, concluded in late 2017. With the design complete, a three-day workshop was held last October in Toledo to discuss the breakthrough spectroscopic surveys that MOSAIC can deliver across a broad range of contemporary astronomy.

  3. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS: RESULTS FROM THE MALT90 SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Guzmán, Andrés [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Whitaker, J. Scott [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rathborne, Jill M. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW (Australia); Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton, E-mail: shoq@bu.edu, E-mail: jackson@bu.edu, E-mail: patricio@bu.edu, E-mail: claysmit@bu.edu, E-mail: jonathan.b.foster@yale.edu, E-mail: aguzmanf@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: scott@bu.edu, E-mail: rathborne@csiro.au, E-mail: tv3h@virginia.edu, E-mail: aiv3f@virginia.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H{sub 2} column densities for each clump from Herschel/Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. The Herschel dust temperatures increase as a function of the IR-based Spitzer evolutionary classification scheme, with the youngest clumps being the coldest, which gives confidence that this classification method provides a reliable way to assign evolutionary stages to clumps. Both N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +} abundances increase as a function of evolutionary stage, whereas the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) to HCO{sup +} (1-0) integrated intensity ratios show no discernable trend. The HCN (1-0) to HNC(1-0) integrated intensity ratios show marginal evidence of an increase as the clumps evolve.

  4. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaláb Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic.

  5. Diagenesis and reservoir quality evolution of palaeocene deep-water, marine sandstones, the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansurbeg, H. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Salem, A. [Faculty of Education at Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University, Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); Marfil, R.; Caja, M.A. [Departmento Petrologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); El-ghali, M.A.K. (Geology Department, Al-Fateh University, P.O. Box 13696, Libya); Nystuen, J.P. [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Amorosi, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 67, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Garcia, D. [Centre SPIN, Department GENERIC, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne 158, Cours Fauriel 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); La Iglesia, A. [Instituto de Geologia Economica (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The Palaeocene, deep-water marine sandstones recovered from six wells in the Shetland-Faroes Basin represent lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tract turbiditic sediments. Mineralogic, petrographic, and geochemical analyses of these siliciclastics are used to decipher and discuss the diagenetic alterations and subsequent reservoir quality evolution. The Middle-Upper Palaeocene sandstones (subarkoses to arkoses) from the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf are submarine turbiditic deposits that are cemented predominantly by carbonates, quartz and clay minerals. Carbonate cements (intergranular and grain replacive calcite, siderite, ferroan dolomite and ankerite) are of eogenetic and mesogenetic origins. The eogenetic alterations have been mediated by marine, meteoric and mixed marine/meteoric porewaters and resulted mainly in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-10.9 permille and -3.8 permille), trace amounts of non-ferroan dolomite, siderite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-14.4 permille to -0.6 permille), as well as smectite and kaolinite in the lowstand systems tract (LST) and highstand systems tract (HST) turbiditic sandstone below the sequence boundary. Minor eogenetic siderite has precipitated between expanded and kaolinitized micas, primarily biotite. The mesogenetic alterations are interpreted to have been mediated by evolved marine porewaters and resulted in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.9 permille to -7.8 permille) and Fe-dolomite/ankerite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.1 permille to -6.3 permille) at temperatures of 50-140 and 60-140 C, respectively. Quartz overgrowths and outgrowth, which post- and pre-date the mesogenetic carbonate cements is more common in the LST and TST of distal turbiditic sandstone. Discrete quartz cement, which is closely associated with illite and chlorite, is the final diagenetic phase. The clay minerals include intergranular and grain replacive

  6. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at zcolor selection (dropout) diagrams of high-z galaxies. The selection condition for F336W dropouts successfully captures ≈ 80% of the targeted z 2.7 galaxies. However, for higher redshift selections (F435W, F606W, and F775W dropouts), the success rates decrease to ≈ 20-40%. We empirically redefine the selection boundaries to make an attempt to improve them to ≈ 60%. The revised boundaries allow bluer colors that capture Lyα emitters with high Lyα equivalent widths falling in the broadbands used for the color-color selection. Along with this paper, we release the redshift and line flux catalog. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045(B).MUSE Ultra Deep Field redshift catalogs (Full Table A.1) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  7. The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. X. X-ray variability of bright sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falocco, S.; Paolillo, M.; Comastri, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Ranalli, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: We aim to study the variability properties of bright hard X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the redshift range between 0.3 and 1.6 detected in the Chandra Deep Field South (XMM-CDFS) by a long ( 3 Ms) XMM observation. Methods: Taking advantage of the good count statistics in the XMM CDFS, we search for flux and spectral variability using the hardness ratio (HR) techniques. We also investigate the spectral variability of different spectral components (photon index of the power law, column density of the local absorber, and reflection intensity). The spectra were merged in six epochs (defined as adjacent observations) and in high and low flux states to understand whether the flux transitions are accompanied by spectral changes. Results: The flux variability is significant in all the sources investigated. The HRs in general are not as variable as the fluxes, in line with previous results on deep fields. Only one source displays a variable HR, anti-correlated with the flux (source 337). The spectral analysis in the available epochs confirms the steeper when brighter trend consistent with Comptonisation models only in this source at 99% confidence level. Finding this trend in one out of seven unabsorbed sources is consistent, within the statistical limits, with the 15% of unabsorbed AGN in previous deep surveys. No significant variability in the column densities, nor in the Compton reflection component, has been detected across the epochs considered. The high and low states display in general different normalisations but consistent spectral properties. Conclusions: X-ray flux fluctuations are ubiquitous in AGN, though in some cases the data quality does not allow for their detection. In general, the significant flux variations are not associated with spectral variability: photon index and column densities are not significantly variable in nine out of the ten AGN over long timescales (from three to six and a half years). Photon index variability is

  8. Policy Influence on Consumers’ Evolution into Prosumers—Empirical Findings from an Exploratory Survey in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Kotilainen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector is in transition to a flexible and sustainable energy system based on renewable energy sources. This complex transition is affecting multiple levels in the sociotechnical system. One driver of the transition is climate change that enforces the policy push from the macro level to change the way energy is produced, delivered, and used. As part of the energy system evolution, the role of the end user in the energy sector is undergoing profound changes, and consumers are increasingly being empowered to participate actively in the production and use of energy. This article investigates how policies might affect consumers’ interests in becoming prosumers of energy. We explore consumers’ attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies (RET by means of an empirical consumer survey that was conducted in five European countries. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM method was utilized to analyze the survey results. Our findings suggest that both economic and non-economic policies affect consumer attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies. We conclude that policies have different effects on consumers and prosumers, who have already made the decision to adopt renewable energy solutions. Based on the findings, we propose a set of policy and managerial implications.

  9. Morphological survey of bar, lens, and ring components in galaxies: Secular evolution in galaxy structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, J.

    1979-01-01

    A morphological survey of barred galaxies is made to investigate the frequency of occurrence, nature, and size distributions of bars, lenses, inner and outer rings, and global spiral structure. The 121 brightest available barred galaxies are examined on Sky Survey copy plates, and on deeper and larger-scale plates, with the following main results.1. Lenses and inner rings are components of major importance in barred galaxies, occurring, respectively, in 54% of SBO--SBa, and 76% of SBab--SBc galaxies. Few early-type galaxies have rings; almost no late-type ones have lenses.2. There is an intimate connection between bars and lenses: in 17 of 20 galaxies with both components, the bar exactly fills the lens in one dimension.3. We suggest that lenses originate as bars, through an unknown process which makes some bars evolve away to a nearly axisymmetric state. Several properties of the proposed process are deduced. We emphasize the possible importance of internal processes of secular evolution in galaxy structure.4. Several galaxies, notably NGC 3945, seem to have strongly triaxial bulge components.5. Inner rings are round. Lenses tend to be slightly triaxial, flattened ellipsoids, with a preferred equatorial axis ratio of approx.0.9 +- 0.05. Most outer rings are prolate, the shortest dimension being the one filled by the bar.6. The sizes of bars, rings, and lenses are well correlated with the absolute magnitude of the galaxy, such that the mean surface brightness is constant for each morphological type. The form of the correlation M/sub B/+5 log D= constant is such that these diameters cannot be used as distance indicators. We show that the galaxy mass determines the bar size uniquely.7. Spiral structure in SB galaxies is distorted to resemble inner and outer rings, showing that the arms feel the potential of the bar. Also, of 61 survey galaxies with spiral structure, 55 have global patterns usually interpreted as density waves

  10. Long-Term Research in Ecology and Evolution (LTREE): 2015 survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Mark A; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Feinberg, Geoffrey; Rosenthal, Seth A; Lau, Jennifer A

    2017-11-01

    To systematically assess views on contributions and future activities for long-term research in ecology and evolution (LTREE), we conducted and here provide data responses and associated metadata for a survey of ecological and evolutionary scientists. The survey objectives were to: (1) Identify and prioritize research questions that are important to address through long-term, ecological field experiments; and (2) understand the role that these experiments might play in generating and applying ecological and evolutionary knowledge. The survey was developed adhering to the standards of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. It was administered online using Qualtrics Survey Software. Survey creation was a multi-step process, with questions and format developed and then revised with, for example, input from an external advisory committee comprising senior and junior ecological and evolutionary researchers. The final questionnaire was released to ~100 colleagues to ensure functionality and then fielded 2 d later (January 7 th , 2015). Two professional societies distributed it to their membership, including the Ecological Society of America, and it was posted to three list serves. The questionnaire was available through February 8th 2015 and completed by 1,179 respondents. The distribution approach targeted practicing ecologists and evolutionary biologists in the U.S. Quantitative (both ordinal and categorical) closed-ended questions used a predefined set of response categories, facilitating direct comparison across all respondents. Qualitative, open-ended questions, provided respondents the opportunity to develop their own answers. We employed quantitative questions to score views on the extent to which long-term experimental research has contributed to understanding in ecology and evolutionary biology; its role compared to other approaches (e.g., short-term experiments); justifications for and caveats to long-term experiments; and the relative importance

  11. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  12. Fiscal 1996 verification and survey of geothermal prospecting technology etc. 1/2. Survey report on deep-seated geothermal resources; 1996 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk to accompany the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, investigations are conducted into the three factors that govern the formation of geothermal resources at deep levels, that is, the supply of heat from heat sources, the supply of geothermal fluids, and the development of fracture systems contributing to the constitution of reservoir structures. In fiscal 1996, the deep-seated exploration well WD-1a is sidetracked for penetration for a target newly assigned at the 3,000m-deep level. Carried out in a survey of well geology are the naked-eye and microscopic observation of core cuttings, X-ray powder method, examination of inclusions in fluids, chemical analysis of whole rocks, analysis of isotopes in minerals, analysis of core fracturing, etc. Also, data are collected from a survey of mud log, survey of water in the well before digging, and from well logging. Furthermore, pressure monitoring etc. are conducted in order to determine the interference in pressure between the deep-seated and shallow-seated wells that accompanies multiple outbursts from the Kakkonda No. 2 machine, to know the water permeability between the shallow-seated and deep-seated parts, and to grasp the anisotropy in permeability in shallow-seated reservoirs. (NEDO)

  13. The Canada-France deep fields survey-II: Lyman-break galaxies and galaxy clustering at z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucaud, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Le Fèvre, O.; Arnouts, S.; Brodwin, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Crampton, D.; Mellier, Y.

    2003-10-01

    We present a large sample of z ~ 3 U-band dropout galaxies extracted from the Canada-France deep fields survey (CFDF). Our catalogue covers an effective area of ~ 1700 arcmin2 divided between three large, contiguous fields separated widely on the sky. To IAB=24.5, the survey contains 1294 Lyman-break candidates, in agreement with previous measurements by other authors, after appropriate incompleteness corrections have been applied to our data. Based on comparisons with spectroscopic observations and simulations, we estimate that our sample of Lyman-break galaxies is contaminated by stars and interlopers (lower-redshift galaxies) at no more than { ~ } 30%. We find that omega (theta ) is well fitted by a power-law of fixed slope, gamma =1.8, even at small (theta University of Hawaii, and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Mayall 4-meter Telescopes, divisions of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  14. Deep optical survey of the stellar content of Sh2-311 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram Kesh; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Jose, J.; Ogura, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Samal, M. R.; Eswaraiah, C.; Chandola, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    The stellar content in and around Sh2-311 region have been studied using the deep optical observations as well as near-infrared (NIR) data from 2MASS. The region contains three clusters, viz. NGC 2467, Haffner 18 and Haffner 19. We have made an attempt to distinguish the stellar content of these individual regions as well as to re-determine their fundamental parameters such as distance, reddening, age, onto the basis of a new and more extended optical and infrared photometric data set. NGC 2467 and Haffner 19 are found to be located in the Perseus arm at the distances of 5.0 ± 0.4 kpc and 5.7 ± 0.4 kpc, respectively, whereas Haffner 18 is located at the distance of 11.2 ± 1.0 kpc. The clusters NGC 2467 and Haffner 19 might have formed from the same molecular cloud, whereas the cluster Haffner 18 is located in the outer galactic arm, i.e. the Norma-Cygnus arm. We identify 8 class II young stellar objects (YSOs) using the NIR (J-H)/(H-K) two colour diagram. We have estimated the age and mass of the YSOs identified in the present work and those by Snider et al. (2009) using the V/(V-I) colour-magnitude diagram. The estimated ages and mass range of the majority of the YSOs are ≲1 Myr and ∼0.4-3.5 M⊙, respectively, indicating that these sources could be T-Tauri stars or their siblings. Spatial distribution of the YSOs shows that some of the YSOs are distributed around the HII region Sh2-311, suggesting a triggered star formation at its periphery.

  15. Evolution of cluster X-ray luminosities and radii: Results from the 160 square degree rosat survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; McNamara, B.R.; Forman, W.

    1998-01-01

    We searched for cluster X-ray luminosity and radius evolution using our sample of 203 galaxy clusters detected in the 160 deg(2) survey with the ROSAT PSPC (Vikhlinin et al.). With such a large area survey, it is possible, for the first time with ROSAT, to test the evolution of luminous clusters, L......-X > 3 x 10(44) ergs s(-1) in the 0.5-2 keV band. We detect a factor of 3-4 deficit of such luminous clusters at z > 0.3 compared with the present. The evolution is much weaker or absent at modestly lower luminosities, (1-3) x 10(44) ergs s(-1). At still lower luminosities, we find no evolution from...... the analysis of the log N-log S relation. The results in the two upper L, bins are in agreement with the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey evolution result (Gioia et al.; Henry ct al.), which was obtained using a completely independent cluster sample. The low-L-X results are in agreement with other...

  16. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IX. Galaxy evolution to z ~ 2 from optically selected catalogues†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Georg; Goranova, Yuliana; Hopp, Ulrich; Gabasch, Armin; Bender, Ralf; Botzler, Christine S.; Drory, Niv

    2007-06-01

    We present B-, R- and I-band-selected galaxy catalogues based on the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS) which, together with the previously used K-selected sample, serve as an important probe of galaxy evolution in the redshift range 0 Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München, Germany.

  17. ALMACAL I: FIRST DUAL-BAND NUMBER COUNTS FROM A DEEP AND WIDE ALMA SUBMILLIMETER SURVEY, FREE FROM COSMIC VARIANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ UK (United Kingdom); Zwaan, M. A.; Biggs, A. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Smail, I., E-mail: ivanoteogomez@gmail.com [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE UK (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide, and deep submillimeter (submm) survey, almacal. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. By gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper, we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analyzed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of ∼25 μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on ≥5 σ detections, we have found 8 and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities S {sub 1.2} m {sub m} ≥ 0.2 mJy. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest Herschel surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 870 μ m and 1.2 mm from a sparse sampling of the astronomical sky, and are thus relatively free of cosmic variance. The counts are lower than reported previously by a factor of at least 2×. Future analyses will yield large, secure samples of DSFGs with redshifts determined via the detection of submm spectral lines. Uniquely, our strategy then allows for morphological studies of very faint DSFGs—representative of more normal star-forming galaxies than conventional submm galaxies—in fields where self-calibration is feasible, yielding milliarcsecond spatial resolution.

  18. Crustal evolution of Eocene paleo arc around Ogasawara region obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishizuka, O.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. The existence of two paleo arc which consists of Oligocene and Eocene paleo age is known in IBM forearc region by geological and geophysical studies. The Ogasawara ridge is also known to locate the initial structure of arc evolution from geologic sampling of research submersible. In this region, IODP drilling site: IBM-2 is proposed in order to understand the temporal and spatial change in arc crust composition from 50 to 40Ma magmatism. Site IBM-2 consists of two offset drilling holes (BON-1, BON-2). BON-1 designed to first encounter forearc basalt and will reach the sheeted dykes. BON-2 will start in boninites and finish in fore arc basalts. The purpose of these drilling is sampling the full volcanic stratigraphy from gabbro to boninite. There is no seismic data around BON-1 and BON-2, therefore it is need to conduct the multi-channel seismic reflection survey. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey and wide-angle reflection survey using 7,800 cu.in. air gun, 5 km streamer with 444 ch hydrophones and 40 OBSs in March 2011. We obtained two seismic reflection profiles of lines KT06 and KT07 along the paleo arc around Ogasawara ridge. Line KT06 located the north side of Ogasawara ridge. Line KT07 located the trench side of Ogasawara ridge. Lines KT06 is also deployed the OBSs every 5 km interval. Thin sediments are covered with basement in both survey lines. There are some sediment filled in depression topography. The low-frequency reflection from the top of subducting Pacific plate is recognized in line KT06. The continuity of this reflection is not clear due to the complicated bathymetry. The displacement of basement in northern side of Ogasawara ridge is identified along the lineament of bathymetry in Line 06. This structure is

  19. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, Erik A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set (~ 105 galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy Hα equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around Mr,0.1 = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has Mr,0.1 ~ -21) are well fit by a universal Γ ~ 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf galaxies is reported. These

  20. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGenarro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year −1 at the bright end to 15 mas year −1 at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year −1 for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year −1 for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  1. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86005-8521 (United States); Hippel, Ted von [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Physical Sciences, 600 South Clyde Morris Boulevard Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [University of Oklahoma, Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Liebert, James W. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Williams, Kurtis A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, P.O. Box 3011, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); DeGenarro, Steven [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Jeffery, Elizabeth, E-mail: jam@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: trudy@nofs.navy.mil, E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com, E-mail: kurtis.williams@tamuc.edu, E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com, E-mail: ejeffery@byu.edu [BYU Department of Physics and Astronomy, N283 ESC, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup −1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup −1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup −1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year{sup −1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  2. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. IV. THE EVOLUTION OF [O II] EMITTING GALAXIES FROM z ∼ 0.5 TO z ∼ 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Zeimann, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the luminosities and equivalent widths of the 284 z 2 pilot survey for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). By combining emission-line fluxes obtained from the Mitchell spectrograph on the McDonald 2.7 m telescope with deep broadband photometry from archival data, we derive each galaxy's dereddened [O II] λ3727 luminosity and calculate its total star formation rate. We show that over the last ∼5 Gyr of cosmic time, there has been substantial evolution in the [O II] emission-line luminosity function, with L* decreasing by ∼0.6 ± 0.2 dex in the observed function, and by ∼0.9 ± 0.2 dex in the dereddened relation. Accompanying this decline is a significant shift in the distribution of [O II] equivalent widths, with the fraction of high equivalent-width emitters declining dramatically with time. Overall, the data imply that the relative intensity of star formation within galaxies has decreased over the past ∼5 Gyr, and that the star formation rate density of the universe has declined by a factor of ∼2.5 between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 0. These observations represent the first [O II]-based star formation rate density measurements in this redshift range, and foreshadow the advancements which will be generated by the main HETDEX survey.

  3. A deep narrowband survey for planetary nebulae at the outskirts of M 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera-Rosillo, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Planetary nebulae (PNe) are excellent tracers of stellar populations with low surface brightness, and therefore provide a powerful method to detect and explore the rich system of substructures discovered around the main spiral galaxies of the local group. Aim. We searched the outskirts of the local group spiral galaxy M 33 (the Triangulum) for PNe to gain new insights into the extended stellar substructure on the northern side of the disc and to study the existence of a faint classical halo. Methods: The search is based on wide field imaging covering a 4.5 square degree area out to a maximum projected distance of about 40 kpc from the centre of the galaxy. The PN candidates are detected by the combination of images obtained in narrowband filters selecting the [OIII]λ5007 Å and Hα + [NII] nebular lines and in the continuum g' and r' broadband filters. Results: Inside the bright optical disc of M 33, eight new PN candidates were identified, three of which were spectroscopically confirmed. No PN candidates were found outside the limits of the disc. Fourteen additional sources showing [OIII] excess were also discovered. Conclusions: The absence of bright PN candidates in the area outside the galaxy disc covered by this survey sets an upper limit to the luminosity of the underlying population of 1.6 × 107 L⊙, suggesting the lack of a massive classical halo, which is in agreement with the results obtained using the red giant branch population. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope and service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  4. A PILOT DEEP SURVEY FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM fuvAGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C. [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Stute, M. [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076, Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ∼(0.002–0.2) L{sub ⊙} and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ∼(35–160) × 10{sup 6} K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  5. The Evolution of Deep Ocean Chemistry and Respired Carbon in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Over the Last Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Maria; Calvo, Eva; Skinner, Luke; Pelejero, Carles; Evans, David; Müller, Wolfgang; Povea, Patricia; Cacho, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that the deep Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) region was poorly ventilated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) relative to Holocene values. This finding suggests a more efficient biological pump, which indirectly supports the idea of increased carbon storage in the deep ocean contributing to lower atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial. However, proxies related to respired carbon are needed in order to directly test this proposition. Here we present Cibicides wuellerstorfi B/Ca ratios from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1240 measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) as a proxy for deep water carbonate saturation state (Δ[CO32-], and therefore [CO32-]), along with δ13C measurements. In addition, the U/Ca ratio in foraminiferal coatings has been analyzed as an indicator of oxygenation changes. Our results show lower [CO32-], δ13C, and [O2] values during the LGM, which would be consistent with higher respired carbon levels in the deep EEP driven, at least in part, by reduced deep water ventilation. However, the difference between LGM and Holocene [CO32-] observed at our site is relatively small, in accordance with other records from across the Pacific, suggesting that a "counteracting" mechanism, such as seafloor carbonate dissolution, also played a role. If so, this mechanism would have increased average ocean alkalinity, allowing even more atmospheric CO2 to be "sequestered" by the ocean. Therefore, the deep Pacific Ocean very likely stored a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 during the LGM, specifically due to a more efficient biological carbon pump and also an increase in average ocean alkalinity.

  6. ALFAZOA Deep HI Survey to Identify Galaxies in the ZOA 37° ≦ l ≦ 43° and -2.5° ≦ b ≦ 3°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Kelby; Robert Minchin, Monica Sanchez, Patricia Henning , Rhys Taylor

    2018-01-01

    The area where the galaxy lies, as viewed from the solar system, is called the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA). Due to extinction and confusion in the ZOA sources behind it appear to be blocked. This project is working with data from the Arecibo ALFAZOA Deep survey to identify galaxies in the ZOA amid 37° ≦ l ≦ 43° and -2.5° ≦ b ≦ 3° . The ALFAZOA Deep surveyed a part of the inner galaxy for the first time in the ZOA. The ALFAZOA Deep survey is a more sensitive survey than the previous survey the ALFAZOA Shallow. FRELLED and Miriad were used to identify and analyze the data in this region. With the data 57 sources where identified. Within these 57 sources, 51 were galaxies, which 3 were previously discovered galaxies; leaving 48 as new galaxies. The other 6 remaining sources from the 57, were follow-up sources. Two groups of galaxies were also identified, one lies around 1,500-3,200 km/s and the other between 10,600-11,700 km/s in redshift. The sources from the group in 10,600-11,700 km/s in redshift also need a follow up as they lie near the spectrum where the receiver signal starts to weaken.

  7. THE HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF VARIABILITY SELECTED AGN IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massive hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.

  8. A DEEP VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE CORE AND OUTSKIRTS OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mobasher, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    We present deep 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum observations of two ∼0.5 deg 2 fields in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The two fields, 'Coma 1' and 'Coma 3', correspond to the cluster core and southwest infall region and were selected on account of abundant preexisting multiwavelength data. In their most sensitive regions the radio data reach 22 μJy rms per 4.''4 beam, sufficient to detect (at 5σ) Coma member galaxies with L 1.4 G Hz = 1.3 x 10 20 W Hz -1 . The full catalog of radio detections is presented herein and consists of 1030 sources detected at ≥5σ, 628 of which are within the combined Coma 1 and Coma 3 area. We also provide optical identifications of the radio sources using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The depth of the radio observations allows us to detect active galactic nucleus in cluster elliptical galaxies with M r r r ∼ sun yr -1 .

  9. Infrastructure of radiation oncology in France: A large survey of evolution of external beam radiotherapy practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri-Pignon, Sophie; Pignon, Thierry; Marty, Michel; Rodde-Dunet, Marie-Helene; Destembert, Brigitte; Fritsch, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the structural characteristics of radiation oncology facilities for France and to examine how technological evolutions had to be taken into account in terms of accessibility and costs. This study was initiated by the three health care financing administrations that cover health care costs for the French population. The needs of the population in terms of the geographic distribution of the facilities were also investigated. The endpoint was to make proposals to enable an evolution of the practice of radiotherapy (RT) in France. Methods and materials: A survey designed by a multidisciplinary committee was distributed in all RT facilities to collect data on treatment machines, other equipment, personnel, new patients, and new treatments. Medical advisors ensured site visits in each facility. The data were validated at the regional level and aggregated at the national level for analysis. Results: A total of 357 machines had been installed in 179 facilities: 270 linear accelerators and 87 cobalt units. The distribution of facilities and megavoltage units per million inhabitants over the country was good, although some disparities existed between areas. It appeared that most megavoltage units had not benefited from technological innovation, because 25% of the cobalt units and 57% of the linear accelerators were between 6 and 15 years old. Computed tomography access for treatment preparation was not sufficient, and complete data management systems were scarce (15% of facilities). Seven centers had no treatment planning system. Electronic portal imaging devices were available in 44.7% of RT centers and in vivo dosimetry in 35%. A lack of physicians and medical physicists was observed; consequently, the workload exceeded the normal standard recommended by the French White Book. Discrepancies were found between the number of patients treated per machine per year in each area (range, 244.5-604). Most treatments were delivered in smaller facilities (61

  10. Low-ionization galaxies and evolution in a pilot survey up to z = 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Edmond; Gu Qiusheng; Melnick, Jorge; Selman, Fernando; Quintana, Hernan; Toledo, Ignacio; Zelaya, Paula

    2011-01-01

    We present galactic spectroscopic data from a pencil beam of 10.75' x 7.5' centered on the X-ray cluster RXJ0054.0-2823 at z = 0.29. We study the spectral evolution of galaxies from z = 1 down to the cluster redshift in a magnitude-limited sample at R ≤ 23, for which the statistical properties of the sample are well understood. We divide emission-line galaxies into star-forming galaxies, Low Ionization Nuclear Emission line Regions (LINERs), and Seyferts by using emission-line ratios of [OII], Hβ, and [OIII], and derive stellar fractions from population synthesis models. We focus our analysis on absorption and low-ionization galaxies. For absorption-line galaxies, we recover the well-known result that these galaxies have had no detectable evolution since z ∼ 0.6 - 0.7, but we also find that in the range z = 0.65 - 1, at least 50% of the stars in bright absorption systems are younger than 2.5 Gyr Faint absorption-line galaxies in the cluster at z = 0.29 also had significant star formation during the previous 2 - 3 Gyr, but their brighter counterparts seem to be only composed of old stars. At z ∼ 0.8, our dynamically young cluster had a truncated red-sequence. This result seems to be consistent with a scenario where the final assembly of E/S0 took place at z < 1. In the volume-limited range 0.35 ≤ z ≤ 0.65, we find that 23% of the early-type galaxies have LINER-like spectra with Hβ in absorption and have a significant component of A stars. The vast majority of LINERs in our sample have significant populations of young and intermediate-aged stars and are thus not related to AGNs, but to the population of 'retired galaxies' recently identified by Cid Fernandes et al. in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Early-type LINERs with various fractions of A stars and E+A galaxies appear to play an important role in the formation of the red sequence.

  11. M DWARF ACTIVITY IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM-DEEP SURVEY: FIRST CATALOG AND ROTATION PERIODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kado-Fong, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mann, A. W. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: erin.fong@tufts.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We report on an ongoing project to investigate activity in the M dwarf stellar population observed by the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1-MDS). Using a custom-built pipeline, we refine an initial sample of ∼4 million sources in PS1-MDS to a sample of 184,148 candidate cool stars using color cuts. Motivated by the well-known relationship between rotation and stellar activity, we use a multiband periodogram analysis and visual vetting to identify 270 sources that are likely rotating M dwarfs. We derive a new set of polynomials relating M dwarf PS1 colors to fundamental stellar parameters and use them to estimate the masses, distances, effective temperatures, and bolometric luminosities of our sample. We present a catalog containing these values, our measured rotation periods, and cross-matches to other surveys. Our final sample spans periods of ≲1–130 days in stars with estimated effective temperatures of ∼2700–4000 K. Twenty-two of our sources have X-ray cross-matches, and they are found to be relatively X-ray bright as would be expected from selection effects. Our data set provides evidence that Kepler -based searches have not been sensitive to very slowly rotating stars ( P {sub rot} ≳ 70 day), implying that the observed emergence of very slow rotators in studies of low-mass stars may be a systematic effect. We also see a lack of low-amplitude (<2%) variability in objects with intermediate (10–40 day) rotation periods, which, considered in conjunction with other observational results, may be a signpost of a loss of magnetic complexity associated with a phase of rapid spin-down in intermediate-age M dwarfs. This work represents just a first step in exploring stellar variability in data from the PS1-MDS and, in the farther future, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  12. A model for the analysis of a normal evolution scenarios for a deep geological granite repository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana Lopez, J.L.; Cunado, M.A.; Lopez, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The methodology usually used to evaluate the behaviour of deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes comprises three phases: Identification of factors (processes, characteristics and events) that can affect the repository. Generation of scenarios. In general, a normal evolution scenario (Reference Scenario) and various disruptive scenarios (earthquake, human intrusion, etc) are considered. Evaluation of the behaviour of the repository in each scenario. The normal evolution scenario taking into account all factors with a high probability of occurrence is the first to be analysed. The performance assessment of behaviour being carried out by ENRESA for the AGP Granite has led to the identification of 63 of these factors. To analyse repository behaviour in the normal evolution scenario, it is necessary to first of all create an integrated model of the global system. This is a qualitative model including the 63 factors identified. For a global view of a such a complex system, it is very useful to graphically display the relationship between factors in an Influence Diagram. This paper shows the Influence Diagram used in the analysis of the AGP Granite Reference Scenario. (Author)

  13. EVOLUTION IN THE VOLUMETRIC TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE FROM THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrett, K.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Ripoche, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 50-232, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Neill, J. D. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, N. [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pritchet, C., E-mail: perrett@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: sullivan@astro.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNR{sub Ia}) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1 {<=} z {<=} 1.1. The volumetric SNR{sub Ia} evolution is consistent with a rise to z {approx} 1.0 that follows a power law of the form (1+z){sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} = 2.11 {+-} 0.28. This evolutionary trend in the SNLS rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star formation history (SFH) over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., {proportional_to}t{sup -{beta}}) yields values from {beta} = 0.98 {+-} 0.05 to {beta} = 1.15 {+-} 0.08 depending on the parameterization of the cosmic SFH. A two-component model, where SNR{sub Ia} is dependent on stellar mass (M{sub stellar}) and star formation rate (SFR) as SNR{sub Ia}(z) = A Multiplication-Sign M{sub stellar}(z) + B Multiplication-Sign SFR(z), yields the coefficients A = (1.9 {+-} 0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} SNe yr{sup -1} M{sup -1}{sub Sun} and B = (3.3 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} SNe yr{sup -1} (M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}){sup -1}. More general two-component models also fit the data well, but single Gaussian or exponential DTDs provide significantly poorer matches. Finally, we split the SNLS sample into two populations by the light-curve width (stretch), and show that the general behavior in the rates of faster-declining SNe Ia (0.8 {<=} s < 1.0) is similar, within our measurement errors, to that of the slower objects (1.0 {<=} s < 1.3) out to z {approx} 0.8.

  14. Climate processes shape the evolution of populations and species leading to the assembly of modern biotas - examples along a continuum from shallow to deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    California experiences droughts, so lets begin with the effects of streamflow variation on population evolution in a coastal lagoon-specialist endangered fish, the tidewater goby. Streamflow controls the closing and opening of lagoons to the sea determining genetic isolation or gene flow. Here evolution is a function of habitat preference for closing lagoons. Other estuarine fishes, with different habitat preferences, differentiate at larger spatial scales in response to longer glacio-eustatic control of estuarine habitat. Species of giraffes in Africa are a puzzle. Why do the ranges of large motile, potentially interbreeding, species occur in contact each other without hybridization? The answer resides in the timing of seasonal precipitation. Although the degree of seaonality of climate does not vary much between species, the timing of precipitation and seasonal "greenup" does. This provides a selective advantage to reproductive isolation, as reproductive timing can be coordinated in each region with seasonal browse availability for lactating females. Convective rainfall in Africa follows the sun and solar intensity is influenced by the precession cycle such that more extensive summer rains fell across the Sahara and South Asia early in the Holocene, this may also contribute to the genetic isolation and speciation of giraffes and others savanna species. But there also appears to be a correlation with rarity (CITES designation) of modern wetland birds, as the dramatic drying of the late Holocene landscape contributes to this conservation concern. Turning back to the West Coast we find the most diverse temperate coastal fauna in the world, yet this diversity evolved and is a relict of diversity accumulation during the apex of upwelling in the late Miocene, driven by the reglaciation of Antarctica. Lastly we can see that the deep-sea evolution is broadly constrained by the transitions from greenhouse to icehouse worlds over the last 90 mya as broad periods of warm

  15. A survey of volcano deformation in the central Andes using InSAR: Evidence for deep, slow inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.

    2001-12-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to survey about 50 volcanos of the central Andes (15-27o S) for deformation during the 1992-2000 time interval. Because of the remote location of these volcanos, the activity of most are poorly constrained. Using the ERS-1/2 C-band radars (5.6 cm), we observe good interferometric correlation south of about 21o S, but poor correlation north of that latitude, especially in southern Peru. This variation is presumably related to regional climate variations. Our survey reveals broad (10's of km), roughly axisymmetric deformation at 2 volcanic centers with no previously documented deformation. At Uturuncu volcano, in southwestern Bolivia, the deformation rate can be constrained with radar data from several satellite tracks and is about 1 cm/year between 1992 and 2000. We find a second source of volcanic deformation located between Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre volcanos near the Chile/Argentina border. There is less radar data to constrain the deformation in this area, but the rate is also about 1 cm/yr between 1996 and 2000. While the spatial character of the deformation field appears to be affected by atmosphere at both locations, we do not think that the entire signal is atmospheric, because the signal is observed in several interferograms and nearby edifices do not show similar patterns. The deformation signal appears to be time-variable, although it is difficult to determine whether this is due to real variations in the deformation source or atmospheric effects. We model the deformation with both a uniform point-source source of inflation, and a tri-axial point-source ellipsoid, and compare both elastic half-space and layered-space models. We also explore the effects of local topography upon the deformation field using the method of Williams and Wadge (1998). We invert for source parameters using the global search Neighborhood Algorithm of Sambridge (1998). Preliminary results indicate that the sources at both

  16. Darwinism Extended - A survey of how the idea of cultural evolution evolved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskes, C.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the past 150 years there have been many attempts to draw parallels between cultural and biological evolution. Most of these attempts were flawed due to lack of knowledge and false ideas about evolution. In recent decades these shortcomings have been cleared away, thus triggering a renewed

  17. Darwinism Extended - A Survey of How the Idea of Cultural Evolution Evolved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskes, C.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the past 150 years there have been many attempts to draw parallels between cultural and biological evolution. Most of these attempts were flawed due to lack of knowledge and false ideas about evolution. In recent decades these shortcomings have been cleared away, thus triggering a renewed

  18. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials

  19. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    in the orangutan and became polymorphic in the lineage leading to gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee, and human. Interaction between HLA-C1 and HLA-C2 on the surface of trophoblast and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed by uterine natural killer cells are important regulators of trophoblast invasion....... Evolution of this system in great apes may have been one prerequisite for deep trophoblast invasion but seems to have come at a price. The evidence now suggests that certain combinations of maternal genotype for KIRs and fetal genotype for HLA-C imply an increased risk of preeclampsia, fetal growth...... restriction, and recurrent abortion. The fetal genotype is in part derived from the father providing an explanation for the paternal contribution to reproductive disorders....

  20. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2011-04-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium. Disturbances in this process are associated with reproductive disorders such preeclampsia. In contrast, trophoblast invasion in Old World monkeys occurs only by the endovascular route and seldom reaches the myometrium. Recently, it was shown that this pattern is maintained in gibbons, but that the human arrangement also occurs in chimpanzee and gorilla. There is an interesting parallel with results from placental immunology regarding the evolution of the major histocompatability complex class I antigen HLA-C and its cognate receptors. HLA-C is not present in Old World monkeys or gibbons. It emerged in the orangutan and became polymorphic in the lineage leading to gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee, and human. Interaction between HLA-C1 and HLA-C2 on the surface of trophoblast and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed by uterine natural killer cells are important regulators of trophoblast invasion. Evolution of this system in great apes may have been one prerequisite for deep trophoblast invasion but seems to have come at a price. The evidence now suggests that certain combinations of maternal genotype for KIRs and fetal genotype for HLA-C imply an increased risk of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and recurrent abortion. The fetal genotype is in part derived from the father providing an explanation for the paternal contribution to reproductive disorders.

  1. Identification of nitrogen- and host-related deep-level traps in n-type GaNAs and their evolution upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Kudrawiec, R.; Henini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deep level traps in as-grown and annealed n-GaNAs layers (doped with Si) of various nitrogen concentrations (N = 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.2%) were investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. In addition, optical properties of GaNAs layers were studied by photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance. The identification of N- and host-related traps has been performed on the basis of band gap diagram [Kudrawiec, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 082109 (2012)], which assumes that the activation energy of electron traps of the same microscopic nature decreases with the rise of nitrogen concentration in accordance with the N-related shift of the conduction band towards trap levels. The application of this diagram has allowed to investigate the evolution of donor traps in GaNAs upon annealing. In general, it was observed that the concentration of N- and host-related traps decreases after annealing and PL improves very significantly. However, it was also observed that some traps are generated due to annealing. It explains why the annealing conditions have to be carefully optimized for this material system.

  2. Challenge to the model of lake charr evolution: Shallow- and deep-water morphs exist within a small postglacial lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Baillie, Shauna M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Yule, Daniel L.; Middel, Trevor; Bentzen, Paul; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    All examples of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) diversity occur within the largest, deepest lakes of North America (i.e. > 2000 km2). We report here Rush Lake (1.3 km2) as the first example of a small lake with two lake charr morphs (lean and huronicus). Morphology, diet, life history, and genetics were examined to demonstrate the existence of morphs and determine the potential influence of evolutionary processes that led to their formation or maintenance. Results showed that the huronicus morph, caught in deep-water, had a deeper body, smaller head and jaws, higher eye position, greater buoyancy, and deeper peduncle than the shallow-water lean morph. Huronicus grew slower to a smaller adult size, and had an older mean age than the lean morph. Genetic comparisons showed low genetic divergence between morphs, indicating incomplete reproductive isolation. Phenotypic plasticity and differences in habitat use between deep and shallow waters associated with variation in foraging opportunities seems to have been sufficient to maintain the two morphs, demonstrating their important roles in resource polymorphism. Rush Lake expands previous explanations for lake charr intraspecific diversity, from large to small lakes and from reproductive isolation to the presence of gene flow associated with strong ecological drivers.

  3. THE CLUSTERING OF GALAXIES IN THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: LUMINOSITY AND COLOR DEPENDENCE AND REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hong; Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, OH 44106 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy and CCAPP, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Chen Yanmei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McBride, Cameron K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kazin, Eyal [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Samushia, Lado [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Nuza, Sebastian E. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K. [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2013-04-20

    We measure the luminosity and color dependence and the redshift evolution of galaxy clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Ninth Data Release. We focus on the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of subsets of its CMASS sample, which includes about 260,000 galaxies over {approx}3300 deg{sup 2} in the redshift range 0.43 < z < 0.7. To minimize the selection effect on galaxy clustering, we construct well-defined luminosity and color subsamples by carefully accounting for the CMASS galaxy selection cuts. The 2PCF of the whole CMASS sample, if approximated by a power-law, has a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 7.93 {+-} 0.06 h {sup -1} Mpc and an index of {gamma} = 1.85 {+-} 0.01. Clear dependences on galaxy luminosity and color are found for the projected 2PCF in all redshift bins, with more luminous and redder galaxies generally exhibiting stronger clustering and steeper 2PCF. The color dependence is also clearly seen for galaxies within the red sequence, consistent with the behavior of SDSS-II main sample galaxies at lower redshifts. At a given luminosity (k + e corrected), no significant evolution of the projected 2PCFs with redshift is detected for red sequence galaxies. We also construct galaxy samples of fixed number density at different redshifts, using redshift-dependent magnitude thresholds. The clustering of these galaxies in the CMASS redshift range is found to be consistent with that predicted by passive evolution. Our measurements of the luminosity and color dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy clustering will allow for detailed modeling of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos and new constraints on galaxy formation and evolution.

  4. Applications of the leading-order Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations to the combined HERA data on deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc; McKay, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    We recently derived explicit solutions of the leading-order Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equations for the Q 2 evolution of the singlet structure function F s (x,Q 2 ) and the gluon distribution G(x,Q 2 ) using very efficient Laplace transform techniques. We apply our results here to a study of the HERA data on deep inelastic ep scattering as recently combined by the H1 and ZEUS groups. We use initial distributions F 2 γp (x,Q 0 2 ) and G(x,Q 0 2 ) determined for x s (x,Q 0 2 ) from F 2 γp (x,Q 0 2 ) using small nonsinglet quark distributions taken from either the CTEQ6L or the MSTW2008LO analyses, evolve F s and G to arbitrary Q 2 , and then convert the results to individual quark distributions. Finally, we show directly from a study of systematic trends in a comparison of the evolved F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ) with the HERA data that the assumption of leading-order DGLAP evolution is inconsistent with those data.

  5. Radon surveys and monitoring at active volcanoes: an open window on deep hydrothermal systems and their dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Laiolo, Marco; Coppola, Diego

    2017-04-01

    The behavior of fluids in hydrothermal systems is critical in volcano monitoring and geothermal prospecting. Analyzing the time series of radon emissions on active volcanoes is strategic for detecting and interpreting precursory signals of changes in volcanic activity, eventually leading to eruptions. Radon is a radioactive gas generated from the decay of U bearing rocks, soils and magmas. Although radon has been regarded as a potential precursor of earthquakes, radon anomalies appear to be better suited to forecast volcanic eruptions since we know where paroxysms may occur and we can follow the evolution of volcanic activity. Radon mapping at active volcanoes is also a reliable tool to assess diffuse and concentrated degassing as well as efficiently detecting earthquake-volcano interactions. Systematic radon monitoring has been shown to be a key factor for evaluating the rise of volcanic and hydrothermal fluids. In fact, the decay properties of radon, the duration of radon anomalies together with sampling rates may be cross-checked with the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids (and their transport properties) to constrain fluids ascent rates and to infer the permeability and porosity of rocks in sectors surrounding the active conduits. We hereby further discuss the data of radon surveys and monitoring at Somma-Vesuvius, Stromboli and La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). The integrated analysis of seismic and geochemical data, including radon emissions, may be successfully used in testing temperature distributions and variations of porosity and permeability in volcanic hydrothermal systems and can be used as a proxy to analyze geothermal reservoirs.

  6. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  7. Initiation and evolution of the Oligo-Miocene rift basins of southwestern Europe: Contribution of deep seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, C.

    1993-11-01

    Southwestern European Oligo-Miocene rift basins have recently been investigated by deep seismic reflection profiling. The study of these data, together with other geophysical and geological data, shows that the rifts, which run from the Rhinegraben to the western Mediterranean, do not form a single clearcut system. The N-trending rifts (Rhinegraben, Bresse and Limagne) were developed on a cold and rigid lithosphere affected by the Alpine collision. The NE-trending rifts (southeastern France, Gulf of Lions and Valencia Trough) were formed slightly later in a backarc basin associated with an active segment of the European-Iberian plate that was heated, affected by widespread calcalkaline volcanism and probably weakened. All the southwestern European rifts and basins together may, however, be related to a common heritage represented by the boundary between the European-Iberian and African-Apulian plates that was created in the Jurassic with the initiation of the Tethys Ocean. The present features of the southwestern European Oligo-Miocène rift basins may be explained by a combination of three geodynamic mechanisms: mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, active mantle uplifting, and subordinate lithospheric flexuring. All the rifts were probably initiated by passive stretching. A systematic discrepancy between stretching derived from fault analysis and attenuation of the crust has been observed in all the rifts. This suggests that these rifts were subsequently reworked by one or several active mantle upwelling events associated with late shoulder uplift, asthenosphere upwelling and anomalous P-wave velocities in the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. Crustal attenuation may have been achieved by mantle intrusion, metamorphism of the deep crust and/or its delamination. Some of the rifts were affected by lithospheric flexuring. Combinations, in various proportions, of a small number of geodynamic mechanisms probably controlled many basins in the world. This

  8. Geochronology and geochemistry of deep-seated crustal xenoliths in the northern North China Craton: Implications for the evolution and structure of the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuping; Zheng, Jianping; Griffin, William L.; Huang, Yan; Wei, Ying; Ping, Xianquan

    2017-11-01

    The age and composition of the lower crust are critical in understanding the processes of continental formation and evolution, and deep-seated granulite xenoliths can offer direct information on the lower crust. Here, we report mineral chemistry, whole-rock major and trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopes and zircon U-Pb-Hf results for a suite of deep-seated crustal xenoliths, recently discovered in the Cenozoic basalts of the Nangaoya area in the northern part of the North China Craton (NCC). Based on the P-T estimates, these xenoliths including mafic, intermediate and felsic granulites and hornblendites were sampled from different levels of the lower crust. While a hornblendite has a flat REE pattern, all other xenoliths display LREE enrichment and depletion of Nb, Ta, Th and Ti. The mafic granulite xenolith has relatively high whole-rock εNd(t) value of - 13.37, and yields Mesozoic (188-59 Ma) zircons ages with high εHf(t) values from - 15.3 to - 9.2. The garnet-bearing intermediate granulite-facies rocks show low εNd(t) values from - 16.92 to - 17.48, and reveal both Paleoproterozoic (1948 Ma) and Mesozoic (222-63 Ma) zircon U-Pb ages. Their Mesozoic zircons have lower εHf(t) values (from - 18.4 to - 13.8) than those from the mafic xenolith. The remaining intermediate to felsic xenoliths show Paleoproterozoic zircon ages, and the lowest εNd(t) values (from - 20.78 to - 24.03). The mafic-intermediate granulites with Mesozoic zircons originated from the interaction of lower crust-derived magmas with mantle melts, with higher proportions of mantle magmas involved in the generation of mafic granulite, whereas intermediate to felsic xenoliths without Mesozoic zircons represent ancient Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean deep crust. These deep-seated xenoliths reveal complicated crustal evolution processes, including crustal growth during Neoarchean (2.5-2.7 Ga), middle Paleoproterozoic (2.2-2.1 Ga) and Mesozoic, and reworking during early Paleoproterozoic, late

  9. Report on the results of the Sunshine Project - Verification survey for geothermal exploration technology, etc. Summary. Survey of deep geothermal resource; Chinetsu tansa gijutsu tou kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa sokatsu seika hokokusho (Yoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    As to the development of deep geothermal resource which is expected to contribute to increasing the capacity of future power generation in Japan, investigational study was made from FY 1992 to FY 2000, and the results were summed up. The investigational study was conducted for the hydrothermal convection type deep geothermal resource with a thermal conducting heating mechanism, of which Kakkonda is typical, including the drilling of deep exploration well using the existing technology. As a result, new information/knowledge were acquired about the thermal structure, reservoir structure and hydrothermal supply structure of the depths, and a deep geothermal model was made. Based on the model, a detailed simulation was made possible, and a whole image of the hydrothermal convection type deep geothermal resource with the thermal conducting heating mechanism was made clear. In the surface survey, observation of microearthquakes, high-accuracy MT method, etc. were carried out, and a grasp of the shape of a new granite body from the surface was made possible. Concerning the drilling technology, the geologic stratum with a temperature over 500 degrees C was successfully drilled down to a depth of 3,729m by prolonging the life of bit at the time of drilling by introducing the top drive system, the closed mud cooling device, etc. (NEDO)

  10. [The root of the deep and fast ongoing evolution of both structure and methodology of clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavazzi, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    The growing scientific knowledge and technology development are leading to radical changes in biological and medical research. The prevalent lines of development deal with a pragmatic evolution of controlled clinical trials, a massive diffusion of observational research, which is progressively incorporated in clinical practice, new models and designs of clinical research, the systematic use of information technology to build up vast networks of medical centers producing huge amounts of shared data to be managed through the big data methodology, personalized as well as precision medicine, a reshaped physician-patient relationship based on a co-working principle. All this is leading to profound changes in public health governance, a renewal of clinical epidemiology and prevention, a modified structure of several specific sectors of medical care, hopefully guided by scientific evidences. A few aspects of such an evolving picture are discussed in this article.

  11. Evolution of the Deep-space Galactic Cosmic Ray Lineal Energy Transfer Spectrum through Tissue Equivalent Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Spence, H. E.; Golightly, M. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, J. B.; Looper, M. D.; Townsend, L.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation is an energetic particle telescope that resides on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, currently in a 50 km circular lunar polar orbit. The telescope consists of 6 silicon semi-conductor detectors placed in pairs that surround two pieces of Tissue Equivalent Plastic (TEP), which serve to absorb energy from particles as they transit through the instrument. Particles with energies greater than 12 MeV/nucleon can penetrate the outermost shield and be measured by the instrument. The primary measurement made by the instrument is of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of energetic particles as they transit through the telescope. CRaTER measures the LET spectrum with unprecedented energy resolution and has done so during a period of historically low solar activity that led to record high intensities of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). These LET spectra are used to study changes in the properties of the incoming particles, and to make detailed measurements of the radiation doses human explorers will experience in deep space on missions to the moon, to asteroids, or to Mars. We present LET spectra accumulated during 2009 and 2010. We show how the LET spectrum evolves through the instrument as the GCR interact with the TEP. Due to the importance of these measurements for human effects, our extensive absolute calibration procedures are presented. Of particular note is a significant reduction in the flux of particles with LET greater than 10 keV/um for detectors that lie deeper within the telescope stack, due to the attenuation of high LET particles within the TEP. By measuring this attenuation we can estimate the depth in human tissue where the highest LET particles that are most likely to cause genetic damage pose the greatest threat to humans in space.

  12. Facets of radio-loud AGN evolution : a LOFAR surveys perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Radio observations provide a unique view of black holes in the Universe. This thesis presents low frequency radio images and uses the radio sources in those images to study the evolution of black holes and galaxies through the age of the Universe.

  13. THE ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECTRAL LINE INTENSITY MAPPING AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS AND CMB SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L.; Walter, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chluba, J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Lower Withington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Popping, G. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Cortes, P. [Joint ALMA Observatory—ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova, 3104, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL2333 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Riechers, D., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μ m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ( z  ∼ 6–7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T{sub B}  = 0.94 ± 0.09 μ K. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T{sub B}  = 0.55 ± 0.033 μ K. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  14. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from th...

  15. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. VI. Constraints on Dark Energy and the Evolution of Massive Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); et al.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the final lens sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). The number distribution of a complete subsample of 19 lensed quasars selected from 50,836 source quasars is compared with theoretical expectations, with particular attention to the selection function. Assuming that the velocity function of galaxies does not evolve with redshift, the SQLS sample constrains the cosmological constant to \\Omega_\\Lambda=0.79^{+0.06}_{-0.07}(stat.)^{+0.06}_{-0.06}(syst.) for a flat universe. The dark energy equation of state is found to be consistent with w=-1 when the SQLS is combined with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements or results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). We also obtain simultaneous constraints on cosmological parameters and redshift evolution of the galaxy velocity function, finding no evidence for redshift evolution at z<1 in any combinations of constraints. For instance, number density evolution quantified as \

  16. Combined MR direct thrombus imaging and non-contrast magnetic resonance venography reveal the evolution of deep vein thrombosis: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendichovszky, I A; Priest, A N; Bowden, D J; Hunter, S; Joubert, I; Hilborne, S; Graves, M J; Baglin, T; Lomas, D J

    2017-06-01

    Lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the acute thrombus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship to venous recanalization in patients with recurrent DVTs. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed lower limb DVTs underwent MRI with non-contrast MR venography (NC-MRV) and MR direct thrombus imaging (MR-DTI), an inversion-recovery water-selective fast gradient-echo acquisition. Imaging was performed within 7 days of the acute thrombotic event, then at 3 and 6 months. By 3 months from the thrombotic event a third of the thrombi had resolved and by 6 months about half of the cases had resolved on the basis of vein recanalisation using NC-MRV. On the initial MR-DTI acute thrombus was clearly depicted by hyperintense signal, while the remaining thrombi were predominantly low signal at 3 and 6 months. Some residual thrombi contained small and fragmented persisting hyperintense areas at 3 months, clearing almost completely by 6 months. Our study suggests that synergistic venous assessment with combined NC-MRV and MR-DTI is able to distinguish acute venous thrombosis from the established (old) or evolving DVT detected by ultrasound. • MRI can distinguish between acute and evolving or chronic lower limb DVT • Two advanced MRI techniques can follow the evolution of lower limb DVT • MRI could be used to avoid an incorrect diagnosis of recurrent DVT • MRI could help avoid the risks and complications of lifelong anticoagulation therapy.

  17. Forecasting the evolution in the mixing regime of a deep subalpine lake under climate change scenarios through numerical modelling (Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy/Southern Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenocchi, Andrea; Rogora, Michela; Sibilla, Stefano; Ciampittiello, Marzia; Dresti, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The impact of air temperature rise is eminent for the large deep lakes in the Italian subalpine district, climate change being caused there by both natural phenomena and anthropogenic greenhouse-gases (GHG) emissions. These oligomictic lakes are experiencing a decrease in the frequency of winter full turnover and an intensification of stability. As a result, hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations are decreasing and nutrients are accumulating in bottom water, with effects on the whole ecosystem functioning. Forecasting the future evolution of the mixing pattern is relevant to assess if a reduction in GHG releases would be able to revert such processes. The study focuses on Lake Maggiore, for which the thermal structure evolution under climate change in the 2016-2085 period was assessed through numerical simulations, performed with the General Lake Model (GLM). Different prospects of regional air temperature rise were considered, given by the Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011. Multiple realisations were performed for each scenario to obtain robust statistical predictions, adopting random series of meteorological data produced with the Vector-Autoregressive Weather Generator (VG). Results show that a reversion in the increasing thermal stability would be possible only if global GHG emissions started to be reduced by 2020, allowing an equilibrium mixing regime to be restored by the end of the twenty-first century. Otherwise, persistent lack of complete-mixing, severe water warming and extensive effects on water quality are to be expected for the centuries to come. These projections can be extended to the other lakes in the subalpine district.

  18. Hα Equivalent Widths from the 3D-HST survey: evolution with redshift and dependence on stellar mass†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of the Hα equivalent width, EW(Hα), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the HST-WFC3. Combining our Hα measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8surveys at lower and higher redshift, we can consistently determine the evolution of the EW(Hα) distribution from z=0 to z=2.2. We find that at all masses the characteristic EW(Hα) is decreasing towards the present epoch, and that at each redshift the EW(Hα) is lower for high-mass galaxies. We find EW(Hα) ~ (1+z)1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(Hα) to sSFR (specific star-formation rate) is model dependent, because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(Hα) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ~ 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(Hα) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(Hα), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1+z)3.2, nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence.

  19. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity and Stellar-Mass Functions since $z=1$ with the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, D.; et al.

    2017-07-27

    We present the first study of the evolution of the galaxy luminosity and stellar-mass functions (GLF and GSMF) carried out by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the COMMODORE galaxy catalogue selected from Science Verification images. This catalogue is made of $\\sim 4\\times 10^{6}$ galaxies at $0evolution of GLF and GSMF at $0Survey out to $z\\sim1$. At $0.2evolution of the GSMF.

  20. A LABOCA SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH-SUBMILLIMETER PROPERTIES OF NEAR-INFRARED SELECTED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greve, T. R.; Walter, F.; Bell, E. F.; Dannerbauer, H.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiss, A.; Kovacs, A.; Smail, I.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Alexander, D.; Zheng, X. Z.; Knudsen, K. K.; Bertoldi, F.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Lutz, D.; Brandt, N.; Chapman, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Using the 330 hr ESO-MPG 870 μm survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) obtained with the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), we have carried out a stacking analysis at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths of a sample of 8266 near-infra-red (near-IR) selected (K vega ≤ 20) galaxies, including 893 BzK galaxies, 1253 extremely red objects (EROs), and 737 distant red galaxies (DRGs), selected from the Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). We measure average 870 μm fluxes of 0.22 ± 0.01 mJy (22.0σ), 0.48 ± 0.04 mJy (12.0σ), 0.39 ± 0.03 mJy (13.0σ), and 0.43 ± 0.04 mJy (10.8σ) for the K vega ≤ 20, BzK, ERO, and DRG samples, respectively. For the BzK, ERO, and DRG sub-samples, which overlap to some degree and are likely to be at z ≅ 1-2, this implies an average far-IR luminosity of ∼(1-5) x 10 11 L sun and star formation rate (SFR) of ∼20-90 M sun . Splitting the BzK galaxies into star-forming (sBzK) and passive (pBzK) galaxies, the former is significantly detected (0.50 ± 0.04 mJy, 12.5σ) while the latter is only marginally detected (0.34 ± 0.10 mJy, 3.4σ), thus confirming that the sBzK and pBzK criteria to some extent select obscured, star-forming, and truly passive galaxies, respectively. The K vega ≤ 20 galaxies are found to contribute 7.27 ± 0.34 Jy deg -2 (16.5% ± 5.7%) to the 870 μm extragalactic background light (EBL). sBzK and pBzK galaxies contribute 1.49 ± 0.22 Jy deg -2 (3.4% ± 1.3%) and 0.20 ± 0.14 Jy deg -2 (0.5% ± 0.3%) to the EBL. We present the first delineation of the average submm signal from the K vega ≤ 20 selected galaxies and their contribution to the submm EBL as a function of (photometric) redshift, and find a decline in the average submm signal (and therefore IR luminosity and SFR) by a factor ∼2-3 from z ∼ 2 to z ∼ 0. This is in line with a cosmic star formation history in which the star formation activity in galaxies increases

  1. Combined MR direct thrombus imaging and non-contrast magnetic resonance venography reveal the evolution of deep vein thrombosis: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendichovszky, I.A.; Lomas, D.J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Priest, A.N.; Bowden, D.J.; Hunter, S.; Joubert, I.; Hilborne, S.; Graves, M.J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baglin, T. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Haematology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the acute thrombus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship to venous recanalization in patients with recurrent DVTs. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed lower limb DVTs underwent MRI with non-contrast MR venography (NC-MRV) and MR direct thrombus imaging (MR-DTI), an inversion-recovery water-selective fast gradient-echo acquisition. Imaging was performed within 7 days of the acute thrombotic event, then at 3 and 6 months. By 3 months from the thrombotic event a third of the thrombi had resolved and by 6 months about half of the cases had resolved on the basis of vein recanalisation using NC-MRV. On the initial MR-DTI acute thrombus was clearly depicted by hyperintense signal, while the remaining thrombi were predominantly low signal at 3 and 6 months. Some residual thrombi contained small and fragmented persisting hyperintense areas at 3 months, clearing almost completely by 6 months. Our study suggests that synergistic venous assessment with combined NC-MRV and MR-DTI is able to distinguish acute venous thrombosis from the established (old) or evolving DVT detected by ultrasound. (orig.)

  2. Combined MR direct thrombus imaging and non-contrast magnetic resonance venography reveal the evolution of deep vein thrombosis: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendichovszky, I.A.; Lomas, D.J.; Priest, A.N.; Bowden, D.J.; Hunter, S.; Joubert, I.; Hilborne, S.; Graves, M.J.; Baglin, T.

    2017-01-01

    Lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the acute thrombus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship to venous recanalization in patients with recurrent DVTs. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed lower limb DVTs underwent MRI with non-contrast MR venography (NC-MRV) and MR direct thrombus imaging (MR-DTI), an inversion-recovery water-selective fast gradient-echo acquisition. Imaging was performed within 7 days of the acute thrombotic event, then at 3 and 6 months. By 3 months from the thrombotic event a third of the thrombi had resolved and by 6 months about half of the cases had resolved on the basis of vein recanalisation using NC-MRV. On the initial MR-DTI acute thrombus was clearly depicted by hyperintense signal, while the remaining thrombi were predominantly low signal at 3 and 6 months. Some residual thrombi contained small and fragmented persisting hyperintense areas at 3 months, clearing almost completely by 6 months. Our study suggests that synergistic venous assessment with combined NC-MRV and MR-DTI is able to distinguish acute venous thrombosis from the established (old) or evolving DVT detected by ultrasound. (orig.)

  3. Further constraints on the evolution of K-s-selected galaxies in the GOODS/CDFS field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, KI; McLure, RJ; Dunlop, JS; Cirasuolo, M; Schael, AM

    2006-01-01

    We have selected and analysed the properties of a sample of 2905 K-s <21.5 galaxies in similar to 131 arcmin(2) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), to obtain further constraints on the evolution of K-s-selected galaxies with respect to the results

  4. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: the EGS deep field - I. Deep number counts and the redshift distribution of the recovered cosmic infrared background at 450 and 850 μ m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, J. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Geach, J. E.; Hughes, D. H.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Clements, D. L.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Jenness, T.; Michałowski, M. J.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, Douglas; Simpson, J.; Spaans, M.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present deep observations at 450 and 850 μm in the Extended Groth Strip field taken with the SCUBA-2 camera mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the deep SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS), achieving a central instrumental depth of σ450 = 1.2 mJy beam-1 and σ850 = 0.2 mJy beam-1. We detect 57 sources at 450 μm and 90 at 850 μm with signal-to-noise ratio >3.5 over ˜70 arcmin2. From these detections, we derive the number counts at flux densities S450 > 4.0 mJy and S850 > 0.9 mJy, which represent the deepest number counts at these wavelengths derived using directly extracted sources from only blank-field observations with a single-dish telescope. Our measurements smoothly connect the gap between previous shallower blank-field single-dish observations and deep interferometric ALMA results. We estimate the contribution of our SCUBA-2 detected galaxies to the cosmic infrared background (CIB), as well as the contribution of 24 μm-selected galaxies through a stacking technique, which add a total of 0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.07 ± 0.01 MJy sr-1, at 450 and 850 μm, respectively. These surface brightnesses correspond to 60 ± 20 and 50 ± 20 per cent of the total CIB measurements, where the errors are dominated by those of the total CIB. Using the photometric redshifts of the 24 μm-selected sample and the redshift distributions of the submillimetre galaxies, we find that the redshift distribution of the recovered CIB is different at each wavelength, with a peak at z ˜ 1 for 450 μm and at z ˜ 2 for 850 μm, consistent with previous observations and theoretical models.

  5. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas; Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike; Treister, Ezequiel; Cobb, Bethany E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lira, Paulina; Murayama, Takashi; Saito, Tomoki; Sumikawa, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the ∼30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find ∼40,000 galaxies with R AB 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1σ scatter in Δz/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that ∼20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  6. A VLT Large Programme to Study Galaxies at z ~ 2: GMASS — the Galaxy Mass Assembly Ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Jaron; Cimatti, Andrea; Daddi, Emanuele; Mignoli, Marco; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Cassata, Paolo; Halliday, Claire; Zamorani, Gianni; Berta, Stefano; Brusa, Marcella; Dickinson, Mark; Franceschini, Alberto; Rodighiero, Guilia; Rosati, Piero; Renzini, Alvio

    2009-03-01

    We report on the motivation, sample selection and first results of our VLT FORS2 Large Programme (173.A-0687), which has obtained the longest targeted spectra of distant galaxies obtained so far with the VLT. These long exposures, up to 77 hours for objects included in three masks, were required to detect spectral features of extremely faint galaxies, such as absorption lines of passive galaxies at z > 1.4, a population that had previously escaped attention due to its faintness in the optical wavelength regime, but which represents a critical phase in the evolution of massive galaxies. The ultra-deep spectroscopy allowed us to estimate the stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2, to trace colour bimodality up to z = 2 and to characterise a galaxy cluster progenitor at z = 1.6. The approximately 200 spectra produced by GMASS constitute a lasting legacy, populating the “redshift desert” in GOODS-S.

  7. Coral genetic - Taxonomic and genetic identification of deep-sea corals in bycatch and field surveys -linked to groundfish survey dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project will reside in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data Base. This proposal relates to a continuation and augmentation of our efforts...

  8. Molecular Evolution of Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase in Fish: A Genomic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms synchronize biological functions with environmental changes; melatonin plays a vital role in regulating daily and seasonal variations. Due to rhythmic activity of the timezyme aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT, the blood level of melatonin increases at night and decreases during daytime. Whereas other vertebrates have a single form of AANAT, bony fishes possess various isoforms of aanat genes, though the reasons are still unclear. Here, we have taken advantage of multiple unpublished teleost aanat sequences to explore and expand our understanding of the molecular evolution of aanat in fish. Our results confirm that two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD led to the existence of three fish isoforms of aanat, i.e., aanat1a, aanat1b, and aanat2; in addition, gene loss led to the absence of some forms from certain special fish species. Furthermore, we suggest the different roles of two aanat1s in amphibious mudskippers, and speculate that the loss of aanat1a, may be related to terrestrial vision change. Several important sites of AANAT proteins and regulatory elements of aanat genes were analyzed for structural comparison and functional forecasting, respectively, which provides insights into the molecular evolution of the differences between AANAT1 and AANAT2.

  9. AFSC/ABL: Deep-Water Longline Survey for Giant Grenadier and Sablefish in the Western Gulf of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experimental bottom longline survey was conducted at depths >1,000 m in the western Gulf of Alaska in August 2008. The objective was to investigate the...

  10. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 486-493 E-ISSN 2391-5471 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : deep geological repository * earthquake * seismicity * neo-deterministic analysis * probabilistic seismic hazard assessment Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics; Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics (GFU-E) Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/phys.2017.15.issue-1/phys-2017-0055/phys-2017-0055.pdf

  11. SAGE-SMC: Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally-Disrupted, Low-Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karl; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Block, Miwa; Blum, Robert; Bolatto, Alberto; Bot, Caroline; Bracker, Steve; Carlson, Lynn; Churchwell, Ed; Clayton, Geoffrey; Cohen, Martin; Engelbracht, Charles; Fukui, Yasuo; Gorjian, Varoujan; Harris, Jason; Hony, Sacha; Hora, Joseph; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank; Kawamura, Akiko; Leroy, Adam; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne; Markwick-Kemper, Ciska; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Muller, Erik; Oliveira, Joana; Olsen, Knut; Onishi, Toshikazu; Paladini, Roberta; Points, Sean; Reach, William; Robitaille, Thomas; Rubin, Douglas; Sandstrom, Karin; Sato, Shuji; Sewilo, Marta; Shibai, Hiroshi; Simon, Josh; Smith, Linda; Srinivasan, Sundar; Tielens, Xander; van Dyk, Schuyler; van Loon, Jacco; Vijh, Uma; Volk, Kevin; Whitney, Barbara; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The observable properties of galaxy evolution are largely driven by the life-cycle of baryonic matter: stars precipitate out of a complex, multi-phase interstellar medium; and eventually, evolved stellar populations return enriched material back to the ISM via stellar winds or supernova explosions. As demonstrated by the SAGE-LMC survey, comprehensive Spitzer imaging of a nearby galaxy provides an incredibly rich view of this baryonic lifecycle, allowing for an unprecedented understanding of the physical processes which drive galaxy evolution. This proposal will extend the SAGE analysis to the whole SMC (Bar, Wing, and high-density portion of the Magellanic Bridge), a galaxy whose properties are uniquely similar to those of star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Specifically, the SMC's metallicity is below the critical threshold (1/3-1/4 Z_sun) where interstellar medium properties are observed to change dramatically (sharp reduction in the PAH dust mass fraction, reduced dust-to-gas ratio, and extreme ultraviolet extinction curve variations). In addition, the SMC has been profoundly influenced by past interactions with the LMC and Milky Way, allowing us to study the impact of periodic interactions on the structure of the ISM and the physical processes of star formation. We will gain crucial insight into the ISM and star formation in a known tidal debris structure (Bridge portion of SMC), which has a metallicity 4 times lower than the rest of the SMC. When combined with observations of the Milky Way (GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL) and the LMC (SAGE-LMC), our survey of the SMC (SAGE-SMC) will provide a complete and detailed picture of the life-cycle of baryons in galactic environments spanning orders of magnitude in metallicity, and wide ranges in star formation history. This understanding will equip us to properly interpret the infrared properties of more distant galaxies, both in the local (e.g., SINGS) and high-redshift (e.g., GOODS and SWIRE) universe.

  12. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: constraining the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesseris, Savvas; Blake, Chris; Davis, Tamara; Parkinson, David

    2011-01-01

    We constrain the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of large-scale structure measured by the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey in the redshift range 0.1 m (assuming General Relativity), and use this to construct a diagnostic to detect the presence of an evolving Newton's constant. Secondly we directly measure the evolution of Newton's constant, G eff , that appears in Modified Gravity theories, without assuming General Relativity to be true. The novelty of these approaches are that, contrary to other methods, they do not require knowledge of the expansion history of the Universe, H(z), making them model independent tests. Our constraints for the second derivative of Newton's constant at the present day, assuming it is slowly evolving as suggested by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints, using the WiggleZ data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −1.19 ± 0.95·10 −20 h 2 yr −2 , where h is defined via H 0 = 100 h km s −1 Mpc −1 , while using both the WiggleZ and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy (SDSS LRG) data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −3.6 ± 6.8·10 −21 h 2 yr −2 , both being consistent with General Relativity. Finally, our constraint for the rms mass fluctuation σ 8 using the WiggleZ data is σ 8 = 0.75 ± 0.08, while using both the WiggleZ and the SDSS LRG data σ 8 = 0.77 ± 0.07, both in good agreement with the latest measurements from the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation

  13. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR PERIODICALLY VARYING QUASARS IN PAN-STARRS1: AN EXTENDED BASELINE TEST IN MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY FIELD MD09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Gezari, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Burgett, W. [GMTO Corp, 465 N. Halstead St, Suite 250, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Chambers, K.; Hodapp, K.; Huber, M.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Draper, P.; Metcalfe, N., E-mail: tingting@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-10

    We present a systematic search for periodically varying quasars and supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey’s MD09 field. From a color-selected sample of 670 quasars extracted from a multi-band deep-stack catalog of point sources, we locally select variable quasars and look for coherent periods with the Lomb–Scargle periodogram. Three candidates from our sample demonstrate strong variability for more than ∼3 cycles, and their PS1 light curves are well fitted to sinusoidal functions. We test the persistence of the candidates’ apparent periodic variations detected during the 4.2 years of the PS1 survey with archival photometric data from the SDSS Stripe 82 survey or new monitoring with the Large Monolithic Imager at the Discovery Channel Telescope. None of the three periodic candidates (including PSO J334.2028+1.4075) remain persistent over the extended baseline of 7–14 years, corresponding to a detection rate of <1 in 670 quasars in a search area of ≈5 deg{sup 2}. Even though SMBHBs should be a common product of the hierarchal growth of galaxies, and periodic variability in SMBHBs has been theoretically predicted, a systematic search for such signatures in a large optical survey is strongly limited by its temporal baseline and the “red noise” associated with normal quasar variability. We show that follow-up long-term monitoring (≳5 cycles) is crucial to our search for these systems.

  14. Hα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS FROM THE 3D-HST SURVEY: EVOLUTION WITH REDSHIFT AND DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Brammer, Gabriel; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Kriek, Mariska

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the Hα equivalent width, EW(Hα), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. Combining our Hα measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8 1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star-forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(Hα) to specific star formation rate (sSFR) is model dependent because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(Hα) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ∼ 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(Hα) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(Hα), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1 + z) 3.2 , nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence.

  15. Temporal Evolution of Water and Dust in Comet 9P/Tempel 1 after the Deep Impact Event, as Observed from Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Wooden, D. H.

    2010-10-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005. The spacecraft released an impactor that collided with the comet nucleus and excavated (possibly unprocessed) cometary material in a prominent ejecta plume. Spectral maps covering 20'' x 67'' (1.85''/pixel) were acquired with the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope at different times around the DI event: twice before impact (TI-41.3hrs and TI-22.9hrs) and twelve times after impact (between TI+0.67hrs and TI+1027hrs). These IRS observations are stored in the Spitzer data archive and presented by Lisse et al. (2006, Science 313, 635). We present the interpretation of 5.2-7.6 micrometer spectra obtained in the second order of the short-wavelength module (SL2). To reduce the contribution of artifacts in the spectra, 5x5 pixel extraction apertures (9.25''x9.25'') were used. The underlying continuum in the spectra provides information on the grain size distribution and color temperature of the dust ejecta. In order to determine the grain size distribution, we assumed that ejecta consist of a composition of both amorphous carbon and silicates. The grains are assumed to be spherical with sizes in range from 0.1 to 100 micrometers. We used the Mie theory to calculate the optical properties of each material and the temperature of the grain. We constrained the grain size distribution and velocities from the spectra and the temporal evolution of the dust flux. The dust mass and dust/gas ratio in the ejecta cloud are also derived and compared with other values published in the literature.

  16. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  17. Hα Equivalent Widths from the 3D-HST Survey: Evolution with Redshift and Dependence on Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of the Hα equivalent width, EW(Hα), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, using the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. Combining our Hα measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 1.5 with those of ground-based surveys at lower and higher redshift, we can consistently determine the evolution of the EW(Hα) distribution from z = 0 to z = 2.2. We find that at all masses the characteristic EW(Hα) is decreasing toward the present epoch, and that at each redshift the EW(Hα) is lower for high-mass galaxies. We find EW(Hα) ~(1 + z)1.8 with little mass dependence. Qualitatively, this measurement is a model-independent confirmation of the evolution of star-forming galaxies with redshift. A quantitative conversion of EW(Hα) to specific star formation rate (sSFR) is model dependent because of differential reddening corrections between the continuum and the Balmer lines. The observed EW(Hα) can be reproduced with the characteristic evolutionary history for galaxies, whose star formation rises with cosmic time to z ~ 2.5 and then decreases to z = 0. This implies that EW(Hα) rises to 400 Å at z = 8. The sSFR evolves faster than EW(Hα), as the mass-to-light ratio also evolves with redshift. We find that the sSFR evolves as (1 + z)3.2, nearly independent of mass, consistent with previous reddening insensitive estimates. We confirm previous results that the observed slope of the sSFR-z relation is steeper than the one predicted by models, but models and observations agree in finding little mass dependence. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 12177, 12328.

  18. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  19. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  20. The Difficult Evolution of Intensive Cardiac Care Units: An Overview of the BLITZ-3 Registry and Other Italian Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Gianni; Zagnoni, Silvia; Fradella, Giuseppe; Scorcu, Giampaolo; Chinaglia, Alessandra; Pavesi, Pier Camillo; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Coronary care units, initially developed to treat acute myocardial infarction, have moved to the care of a broader population of acute cardiac patients and are currently defined as Intensive Cardiac Care Units (ICCUs). However, very limited data are available on such evolution. Since 2008, in Italy, several surveys have been designed to assess ICCUs' activities. The largest and most comprehensive of these, the BLITZ-3 Registry, observed that patients admitted are mainly elderly males and suffer from several comorbidities. Direct admission to ICCUs through the Emergency Medical System was rather rare. Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) account for more than half of the discharge diagnoses. However, numbers of acute heart failure (AHF) admissions are substantial. Interestingly, age, resources availability, and networking have a strong influence on ICCUs' epidemiology and activities. In fact, while patients with ACS concentrate in ICCUs with interventional capabilities, older patients with AHF or non-ACS, non-AHF cardiac diseases prevail in peripheral ICCUs. In conclusion, although ACS is still the core business of ICCUs, aging, comorbidities, increasing numbers of non-ACS, technological improvements, and resources availability have had substantial effects on epidemiology and activities of ICCUs. The Italian surveys confirm these changes and call for a substantial update of ICCUs' organization and competences.

  1. {sup 3}He bubble evolution in ErT{sub 2}: A survey of experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, C.S., E-mail: cssnow@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Browning, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bond, G.M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rodriguez, M.A.; Knapp, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    For the past several years we have been carrying out a long term experimental study of {sup 3}He in ErT{sub 2} (erbium di-tritide). This study has attempted to answer questions regarding the evolution of helium bubbles in ErT{sub 2-x}He{sub x}. ErT{sub 2} samples have been studied periodically over four years using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Nano-Indentation (NI). In ErT{sub 2-x}He{sub x}, helium bubbles are plate-like and grow along {1 1 1} planes. The bubbles grow in three distinct phases. First, they nucleate and grow as “Griffith-cracks” until an age of ∼0.15 He:M. Second, around 0.15 He:M the diameter stops increasing and instead the bubbles grow in thickness by punching dislocation dipoles. Third, the bubbles grow in size until ∼0.3 He:M at which point the bubbles begin to link.

  2. DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Schluns, Kyle; Greene, Jenny E.; Cool, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z +3.6 -1.9 % to 18 +5 -5 %). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9 +3 -2 % to 29 -19 +26 %). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs

  3. Exploring the Evolution of Star Formation and Dwarf Galaxy Properties with JWST /MIRI Serendipitous Spectroscopic Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonato, Matteo; Sajina, Anna; McKinney, Jed; Marchesini, Danilo; Roebuck, Eric; Shipley, Heath [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 574 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA (United States); Zotti, Gianfranco De [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Baronchelli, Ivano; Yan, Lin [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Negrello, Mattia [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Kurinsky, Noah [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA (United States); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kirkpatrick, Allison [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-02-20

    The James Webb Space Telescope ’s Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS), will offer nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and >3× improvement in spectral resolution over our previous space-based mid-IR spectrometer, the Spitzer IRS. In this paper, we make predictions for spectroscopic pointed observations and serendipitous detections with the MRS. Specifically, pointed observations of Herschel sources require only a few minutes on source integration for detections of several star-forming and active galactic nucleus lines, out to z = 3 and beyond. But the same data will also include tens of serendipitous 0 ≲ z ≲ 4 galaxies per field with infrared luminosities ranging ∼10{sup 6}–10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}. In particular, for the first time and for free we will be able to explore the L {sub IR} < 10{sup 9} L {sub ☉} regime out to z ∼ 3. We estimate that with ∼ 100 such fields, statistics of these detections will be sufficient to constrain the evolution of the low- L end of the infrared luminosity function, and hence the star formation rate function. The above conclusions hold for a wide range in the potential low- L end of the IR luminosity function, and account for the PAH deficit in low- L , low-metallicity galaxies.

  4. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Sodium and aluminium abundances in giants and dwarfs. Implications for stellar and Galactic chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, R.; Romano, D.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Magrini, L.; Friel, E.; Jacobson, H.; Randich, S.; Ventura, P.; Lind, K.; Bergemann, M.; Nordlander, T.; Morel, T.; Pancino, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Tosi, M.; Vallenari, A.; Gilmore, G.; Bensby, T.; François, P.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Stellar evolution models predict that internal mixing should cause some sodium overabundance at the surface of red giants more massive than ~1.5-2.0 M⊙. The surface aluminium abundance should not be affected. Nevertheless, observational results disagree about the presence and/or the degree of Na and Al overabundances. In addition, Galactic chemical evolution models adopting different stellar yields lead to very different predictions for the behavior of [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. Overall, the observed trends of these abundances with metallicity are not well reproduced. Aims: We readdress both issues, using new Na and Al abundances determined within the Gaia-ESO Survey. Our aim is to obtain better observational constraints on the behavior of these elements using two samples: I) more than 600 dwarfs of the solar neighborhood and of open clusters and II) low- and intermediate-mass clump giants in six open clusters. Methods: Abundances were determined using high-resolution UVES spectra. The individual Na abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects. For the Al abundances, the order of magnitude of the corrections was estimated for a few representative cases. For giants, the abundance trends with stellar mass are compared to stellar evolution models. For dwarfs, the abundance trends with metallicity and age are compared to detailed chemical evolution models. Results: Abundances of Na in stars with mass below ~2.0 M⊙, and of Al in stars below ~3.0 M⊙, seem to be unaffected by internal mixing processes. For more massive stars, the Na overabundance increases with stellar mass. This trend agrees well with predictions of stellar evolutionary models. For Al, our only cluster with giants more massive than 3.0 M⊙, NGC 6705, is Al enriched. However, this might be related to the environment where the cluster was formed. Chemical evolution models that well fit the observed [Na/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] trend in solar neighborhood dwarfs

  5. Applying species-tree analyses to deep phylogenetic histories: challenges and potential suggested from a survey of empirical phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Hayley C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-02-01

    Coalescent-based methods for species-tree estimation are becoming a dominant approach for reconstructing species histories from multi-locus data, with most of the studies examining these methodologies focused on recently diverged species. However, deeper phylogenies, such as the datasets that comprise many Tree of Life (ToL) studies, also exhibit gene-tree discordance. This discord may also arise from the stochastic sorting of gene lineages during the speciation process (i.e., reflecting the random coalescence of gene lineages in ancestral populations). It remains unknown whether guidelines regarding methodologies and numbers of loci established by simulation studies at shallow tree depths translate into accurate species relationships for deeper phylogenetic histories. We address this knowledge gap and specifically identify the challenges and limitations of species-tree methods that account for coalescent variance for deeper phylogenies. Using simulated data with characteristics informed by empirical studies, we evaluate both the accuracy of estimated species trees and the characteristics associated with recalcitrant nodes, with a specific focus on whether coalescent variance is generally responsible for the lack of resolution. By determining the proportion of coalescent genealogies that support a particular node, we demonstrate that (1) species-tree methods account for coalescent variance at deep nodes and (2) mutational variance - not gene-tree discord arising from the coalescent - posed the primary challenge for accurate reconstruction across the tree. For example, many nodes were accurately resolved despite predicted discord from the random coalescence of gene lineages and nodes with poor support were distributed across a range of depths (i.e., they were not restricted to a particular recent divergences). Given their broad taxonomic scope and large sampling of taxa, deep level phylogenies pose several potential methodological complications including

  6. A Global Survey and Interactive Map Suite of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges: (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, M. C.; Russell, G. P.; Perry, F.; Kelley, R.; Champenois, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    This global survey presents a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information reflected in four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies, sites, or disposal facilities; 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding deep underground "facilities", history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database [http://gis.inl.gov/globalsites/] provide each facility's approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not all encompassing, it is a comprehensive review of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development as a communication tool applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  7. Information system evolution at the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, F.; Grunberg, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aging information system of the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS), located in Strasbourg (EOST), needed to be updated to satisfy new practices from Computer science world. The latter means to evolve our system at different levels : development method, datamining solutions, system administration. The new system had to provide more agility for incoming projects. The main difficulty was to maintain old system and the new one in parallel the time to validate new solutions with a restricted team. Solutions adopted here are coming from standards used by the seismological community and inspired by the state of the art of devops community. The new system is easier to maintain and take advantage of large community to find support. This poster introduces the new system and choosen solutions like Puppet, Fabric, MongoDB and FDSN Webservices.

  8. After the First Steps: The Evolution of the National Population Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMany changes take place over the lifetime of a longitudinal panel survey.Changing priorities, new supplements, and conflicting demands are factors that may be unforeseen. Theevolution of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS since its first cycle in 1994/95 isdiscussed in this context. Statistics Canada contacts panel members every two years for twenty years,to estimate the health of Canadians and its determinants, health care use, and other characteristics.The NPHS was designed to provide both longitudinal and cross-sectional estimates, and to allow sampleand content supplements. Thsi paper describes the NPHS and the changes in focus needed to move thepanel forward to Cycle 2 and beyond.FrenchPlusieurs changements ont lieu pendant la vie d'une enquête longitudinale parpanel. Les changements de priorités, de nouveaux suppléments, et des demandesconflictuelles sont des facteurs qui peuvent ne pas avoir été prévus. L'évolution del'Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (ENSP depuis son premier cycleen 1994/95 est discuté dans ce contexte. Statistique Canada contacte les membresdu panel tous les deux ans pendant vingt ans, pour estimer la santé des Canadienset ses déterminants, l'utilisation des soins de santé, et d'autres caractéristiques.L'ENSP a été conçu pour fournir des estimations longitudinales et transversales, etpour permettre l'ajout d'échantillon et de contenu supplémentaires. Ce papier décritl'ENSP et les mises au point nécessaires pour mener le panel au deuxième cycle etau-delà.

  9. OBSERVATIONS OF Mg II ABSORPTION NEAR z ∼ 1 GALAXIES SELECTED FROM THE DEEP2 REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the frequency of Mg II absorption in the outer halos of galaxies at z = 0.6-1.4 (with median z = 0.87), using new spectra obtained of 10 background quasars with galaxy impact parameters of b r = 0.15-1.0 A, though not all absorbers correlate with DEEP galaxies. We find five unique absorbers within Δv = 500 km s -1 and b r > 1.0 A, consistent with other samples of galaxy-selected Mg II systems. We speculate that Mg II systems with 0.3 r r are more likely to reflect the more recent star-forming history of their associated galaxies.

  10. Topographic profile of a target with use of laser pulses. A survey directed to the Brazilian deep space mission ASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brum, A G V; Rodrigues, A P

    2013-01-01

    This work is directly related to the development of the laser altimeter for the ASTER mission, named ALR. The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled to occur in 2017 and the ALR is now under development in partnership with UNICAMP, UFABC and aerospace companies. In this work, the environment and the operation of the instrument were modeled and simulations were carried out in order to better understand and define the instrument parameters. The creation of the simulation software to control the operation of the instrument was the main purpose of this work, and the software so far created is the main result of it. The software was successfully tested with respect to some common expected situations

  11. [Elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus in Senegal: evolution of survey indicators of 2003-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes Déguénonvo, L; Diop, S A; Diouf, A; Dia Badiane, N M; Ba, I O; Manga, N M; Seydi, M; Ndour, C T; Soumaré, M; Diop, B M; Sow, P S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the evolution of the maternal and neonatal tetanus in Senegal from the tetanus vaccination coverage among pregnant women, the proportion of deliveries attended by trained medical personnel and the number of cases of tetanus declared by respective districts, helping to identify districts at high risk of neonatal tetanus (NNT). Data analysis of the epidemiological surveillance realized from 2003 to 2009 in 65 districts of Senegal. Data were collected from the reports of vaccination usage and from the Statistical Directories of the National Health Information Services of the Ministry of Health & Prevention. A district is at high risk when the incidence of NNT is ≥1 case per 1 000 Live births (LB). There were 153 reported cases of NNT in Senegal between 2003 and 2009. National incidence decreased from 0.08 to 0.03 case per 1 000 LB (p = 0,0008). The vaccination coverage of the pregnant women by at least two doses of tetanus vaccine (VAT2+) increased from 66% in 2003 to 78% in 2009. The percentage of districts that had reached a vaccination coverage ≥80% was 20% in 2003 compared to 60% in 2009 (p = 0.009). The proportion of deliveries attended by qualified medical staff evolved from 53% in 2003 to 67% in 2009 (p = 0,02). By 2009, the incidence of NNT was less than 1 case per 1,000 LBs in all districts. Assessing the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus in Senegal shows that progress has been made from 2003 to 2009. This was made possible through the organization of vaccination campaigns for women of childbearing age and the improvements in the conditions of deliveries.

  12. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Scully, Sean T.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  13. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices (www2.usgs.gov/datamanagement) is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  14. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey first data release: Spectra and spectroscopic redshifts of 698 objects up to zspec 6 in CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ribeiro, B.; Thomas, R.; Moreau, C.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Schaerer, D.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L. P.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Pforr, J.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the first data release (DR1) of the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). The VUDS-DR1 is the release of all low-resolution spectroscopic data obtained in 276.9 arcmin2 of the CANDELS-COSMOS and CANDELS-ECDFS survey areas, including accurate spectroscopic redshifts zspec and individual spectra obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT. A total of 698 objects have a measured redshift, with 677 galaxies, two type-I AGN, and a small number of 19 contaminating stars. The targets of the spectroscopic survey are selected primarily on the basis of their photometric redshifts to ensure a broad population coverage. About 500 galaxies have zspec > 2, 48of which have zspec > 4; the highest reliable redshifts reach beyond zspec = 6. This data set approximately doubles the number of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at z > 3 in these fields. We discuss the general properties of the VUDS-DR1 sample in terms of the spectroscopic redshift distribution, the distribution of Lyman-α equivalent widths, and physical properties including stellar masses M⋆ and star formation rates derived from spectral energy distribution fitting with the knowledge of zspec. We highlight the properties of the most massive star-forming galaxies, noting the wide range in spectral properties, with Lyman-α in emission or in absorption, and in imaging properties with compact, multi-component, or pair morphologies. We present the catalogue database and data products. All VUDS-DR1 data are publicly available and can be retrieved from a dedicated query-based database. Future VUDS data releases will follow this VUDS-DR1 to give access to the spectra and associated measurement of 8000 objects in the full 1 square degree of the VUDS survey. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Program 185.A-0791. http://cesam.lam.fr/vuds

  15. The evolution of the Lagoon of Venice as a paradigm of anthropogenic alteration of ecosystems: a palaeoenvironmental reconstruction through wide-area acoustic surveys and core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Donnici, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    The Lagoon of Venice (Italy) is the unique result of natural and anthropogenic changes. Through the centuries, human activities, steadily modified its environment, bringing it to the point that the Lagoon of Venice is itself a signature of human activities. Moreover, the historical city of Venice, a world heritage site, is threatened by flooding caused by sea level rises, so much so that major modifications of the lagoon inlets are ongoing in order to protect it. For these reasons, the Lagoon of Venice is at the same time a paradigm of a relatively circumscribed ecosystem in which the Anthropocene has started long ago, and a sensitive testbed of the environmental changes that are taking place at the global level. In this context, a large geophysical survey was carried out to explore the Holocene sediments in order to establish the natural evolution of the lagoon and the impact of human activities. The survey is the basis of an interdisciplinary study that has allowed the reconstruction of ancient landscapes of the lagoon from before its origin to present days. In particular, thanks to acoustic and geologic investigation of the lagoon sub-bottom, and by crossing our data with the environmental records provided by archaeological findings and by the city's historical archives, we could distinguish different phases of the lagoon evolution and evaluate the weight of human-induced changes We first mapped the position and the depth of the alluvial plain that was flooded during the last marine transgression, about 6000 years before present (BP), when the lagoon originated. Then, we mapped the areal extension of a dense network of palaeochannels and palaeosurfaces corresponding to different hydrological conditions and relative mean sea levels. Using many radiocarbon dating and the acoustical sub-bottom reconstruction, we could establish an average sedimentation rate of about 1 mm/year from 2500 and 1500 BP and 0.5 mm/year from 1500 BP up to present and an average migration

  16. A Review and Survey of Neurosurgeon-Hospital Relationships: Evolution and Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong H; Duco, Bernard; Wolterman, Daniel; Stokes, Charles; Brace, Rod; Solomon, Robert A; Barbaro, Nicholas; Westmark, Richard; MacDougall, David; Bean, James; O'Leary, Joanna; Moayeri, Nicole; Dacey, Ralph G; Berger, Mitchel S; Harbaugh, Robert

    2017-04-01

    As healthcare delivery shifts from fee-for-service, episodic care to pay for performance and population health, both hospitals and physicians are looking for new forms of integration. A number of regulations and restrictions govern physician relationships with hospitals. In this paper, we review the legal basis for such relationships and the options available. We also survey neurosurgeons and hospital executives to gain their perspective on the current situation and likely future. Two series of structured interviews were conducted with 10 neurosurgeons who work in a range of situations in diverse markets, and with Memorial Hermann Healthcare System senior executive leadership. Their responses form the basis for the subsequent discussion. Neurosurgeons can be independent, join a confederation such as an Independent Physician Association or another type of "clinically integrated" network, or be employed by a hospital, medical school, or physician group. With varying levels of integration comes the strength of size, management expertise, negotiating leverage, economies of scale, and possibly financial advantages, but with impact on autonomy and independence. Constructive alignment can lead to a win-win situation for both the individual physician and the organization, but options vary widely due to heterogeneous local conditions. This paper reviews possible relationships, moving along a spectrum from no financial integration to full integration. Concepts such as physician leasing, professional service agreements, "clinical integration," and employment are presented. This paper offers a practical reference that might be useful to a new graduate, independent neurosurgeon considering integration, or employed physicians considering alternatives. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  17. The Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS redshift survey of galaxy evolution since z = 1.5. I. Description and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Villanueva, Edward V.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Quadri, Ryan F. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We describe the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) Survey, a wide-field, near-IR selected spectrophotometric redshift survey with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on Magellan-Baade. By defining a flux-limited sample of galaxies in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6 μm imaging of SWIRE fields, the CSI Survey efficiently traces the stellar mass of average galaxies to z ∼ 1.5. This first paper provides an overview of the survey selection, observations, processing of the photometry and spectrophotometry. We also describe the processing of the data: new methods of fitting synthetic templates of spectral energy distributions are used to derive redshifts, stellar masses, emission line luminosities, and coarse information on recent star formation. Our unique methodology for analyzing low-dispersion spectra taken with multilayer prisms in IMACS, combined with panchromatic photometry from the ultraviolet to the IR, has yielded high-quality redshifts for 43,347 galaxies in our first 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the SWIRE XMM-LSS field. We use three different approaches to estimate our redshift errors and find robust agreement. Over the full range of 3.6 μm fluxes of our selection, we find typical redshift uncertainties of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) ≲ 0.015. In comparisons with previously published spectroscopic redshifts we find scatters of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.011 for galaxies at 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.014 for galaxies at 0.9 ≤ z ≤ 1.2. For galaxies brighter and fainter than i = 23 mag, we find σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.008 and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.022, respectively. Notably, our low-dispersion spectroscopy and analysis yields comparable redshift uncertainties and success rates for both red and blue galaxies, largely eliminating color-based systematics that can seriously bias observed dependencies of galaxy evolution on environment.

  18. Deep reversible storage - proposition of an area of interest for an extended survey and of surface implantation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document first describes the approach taken for the selection of a site. It presents and discusses the implantation criteria with respect to geology and to long term safety, the technical criteria for a surface implantation (environmental and safety constraints, social and economical data, transport infrastructures). Then, it states the first propositions for different scenarios of surface and underground implantations. It gives an assessment of the dialog with local actors. It presents the ANDRA's proposition in terms of technical criteria, area of interest for an extended survey, and surface implantation scenarios to be investigated

  19. SURVEYING THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE TIDALLY STRIPPED, LOW METALLICITY SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (SAGE-SMC). I. OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Boyer, M. L.; Lawton, B.; Meade, M. R.; Whitney, B.; Babler, B.; Bracker, S.; Engelbracht, C.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.; Bot, C.; Sewilo, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Blum, R.; Harris, J.; Bolatto, A.; Bonanos, A.; Hora, J. L.; Indebetouw, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) provides a unique laboratory for the study of the lifecycle of dust given its low metallicity (∼1/5 solar) and relative proximity (∼60 kpc). This motivated the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer Legacy program with the specific goals of studying the amount and type of dust in the present interstellar medium, the sources of dust in the winds of evolved stars, and how much dust is consumed in star formation. This program mapped the full SMC (30 deg 2 ) including the body, wing, and tail in seven bands from 3.6 to 160 μm using IRAC and MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The data were reduced and mosaicked, and the point sources were measured using customized routines specific for large surveys. We have made the resulting mosaics and point-source catalogs available to the community. The infrared colors of the SMC are compared to those of other nearby galaxies and the 8 μm/24 μm ratio is somewhat lower than the average and the 70 μm/160 μm ratio is somewhat higher than the average. The global infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shows that the SMC has approximately 1/3 the aromatic emission/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance of most nearby galaxies. Infrared color-magnitude diagrams are given illustrating the distribution of different asymptotic giant branch stars and the locations of young stellar objects. Finally, the average SED of H II/star formation regions is compared to the equivalent Large Magellanic Cloud average H II/star formation region SED. These preliminary results will be expanded in detail in subsequent papers.

  20. Bacteria as part of bioluminescence emission at the deep ANTARES station (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) during a one-year survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S.; Michotey, V.; Casalot, L.; Bonin, P.; Guasco, S.; Garel, M.; Tamburini, C.

    2016-10-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria have been studied during a one-year survey in 2011 at the deep ANTARES site (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, 2000 m depth). The neutrino underwater telescope ANTARES, located at this station, has been used to record the bioluminescence at the same depth. Together with these data, environmental variables (potential temperature, salinity, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen) have been characterized in water samples. The year 2011 was characterized by relatively stable conditions, as revealed by minor variability in the monitored oceanographic variables, by low bioluminescence and low current speed. This suggests weak eukaryote participation and mainly non-stimulated light emission. Hence, no processes of dense water have affected the ANTARES station during this survey. Abundance of bioluminescent bacteria belonging to Photobacterium genus, measured by qPCR of the luxF gene, ranged from 1.4×102 to 7.2×102 genes mL-1. Their effective activity was confirmed through mRNA luxF quantification. Our results reveal that bioluminescent bacteria appeared more active than the total counterpart of bacteria, suggesting an ecological benefit of this feature such as favoring interaction with macro-organisms. Moreover, these results show that part of the bioluminescence, recorded at 2000 m depth over one year, could be due to bioluminescent bacteria in stable hydrological conditions.

  1. A deep near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the Scutum-Crux arm for Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslowe, C. K.; Crowther, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a New Technology Telescope/Son-of-Isaac spectroscopic survey of infrared selected Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates in the Scutum-Crux spiral arm (298° ≤ l ≤ 340°, |b| ≤ 0.5°. We obtained near-IR spectra of 127 candidates, revealing 17 WR stars - a ∼13 per cent success rate - of which 16 are newly identified here. The majority of the new WR stars are classified as narrow-lined WN5-7 stars, with two broad-lined WN4-6 stars and three WC6-8 stars. The new stars, with distances estimated from previous absolute magnitude calibrations, have no obvious association with the Scutum-Crux arm. Refined near-infrared (YHJK) classification criteria based on over a hundred Galactic and Magellanic Cloud WR stars, providing diagnostics for hydrogen in WN stars, plus the identification of WO stars and intermediate WN/C stars. Finally, we find that only a quarter of WR stars in the survey region are associated with star clusters and/or H II regions, with similar statistics found for luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Milky Way. The relative isolation of evolved massive stars is discussed, together with the significance of the co-location of LBVs and WR stars in young star clusters.

  2. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wardlow, J. L. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  3. Deep SOAR follow-up photometry of two Milky Way outer-halo companions discovered with Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, E.; Santiago, B.; Pieres, A.; Marshall, J. L.; Pace, A. B.; Kron, R.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Queiroz, A.; Balbinot, E.; Ponte, M. dal; Neto, A. Fausti; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Walker, A. R.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Flaugher, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new star cluster, DES 3, in the constellation of Indus, and deeper observations of the previously identified satellite DES J0222.7-5217 (Eridanus III). DES 3 was detected as a stellar overdensity in first-year Dark Energy Survey data, and confirmed with deeper photometry from the 4.1 metre Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope. The new system was detected with a relatively high significance and appears in the DES images as a compact concentration of faint blue point sources. We determine that DES 3 is located at a heliocentric distance of ≃ 76.2 kpc and it is dominated by an old (≃ 9.8 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≃ -1.84) population. While the age and metallicity values of DES 3 are comparable to typical globular clusters (objects with a high stellar density, stellar mass of ˜105M⊙ and luminosity MV ˜ -7.3), its half-light radius (rh ˜ 6.87 pc) and luminosity (MV ˜ -1.7) are more indicative of faint star cluster. Based on the angular size, DES 3, with a value of rh ˜ 0{^'.}31, is among the smallest faint star clusters known to date. Furthermore, using deeper imaging of DES J0222.7-5217 taken with the SOAR telescope, we update structural parameters and perform the first isochrone modeling. Our analysis yields the first age (≃ 12.6 Gyr) and metallicity ([Fe/H] ≃ -2.01) estimates for this object. The half-light radius (rh ≃ 11.24 pc) and luminosity (MV ≃ -2.4) of DES J0222.7-5217 suggest that it is likely a faint star cluster. The discovery of DES 3 indicates that the census of stellar systems in the Milky Way is still far from complete, and demonstrates the power of modern wide-field imaging surveys to improve our knowledge of the Galaxy's satellite population.

  4. Deep learning approach for classifying, detecting and predicting photometric redshifts of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey stripe 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet-Itam, J.; Pasquet, J.

    2018-04-01

    We have applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify and detect quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 and also to predict the photometric redshifts of quasars. The network takes the variability of objects into account by converting light curves into images. The width of the images, noted w, corresponds to the five magnitudes ugriz and the height of the images, noted h, represents the date of the observation. The CNN provides good results since its precision is 0.988 for a recall of 0.90, compared to a precision of 0.985 for the same recall with a random forest classifier. Moreover 175 new quasar candidates are found with the CNN considering a fixed recall of 0.97. The combination of probabilities given by the CNN and the random forest makes good performance even better with a precision of 0.99 for a recall of 0.90. For the redshift predictions, the CNN presents excellent results which are higher than those obtained with a feature extraction step and different classifiers (a K-nearest-neighbors, a support vector machine, a random forest and a Gaussian process classifier). Indeed, the accuracy of the CNN within |Δz| < 0.1 can reach 78.09%, within |Δz| < 0.2 reaches 86.15%, within |Δz| < 0.3 reaches 91.2% and the value of root mean square (rms) is 0.359. The performance of the KNN decreases for the three |Δz| regions, since within the accuracy of |Δz| < 0.1, |Δz| < 0.2, and |Δz| < 0.3 is 73.72%, 82.46%, and 90.09% respectively, and the value of rms amounts to 0.395. So the CNN successfully reduces the dispersion and the catastrophic redshifts of quasars. This new method is very promising for the future of big databases such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. A table of the candidates is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A97

  5. The deep universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, AR; Longair, MS

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the concept of the deep universe from two conflicting theoretical viewpoints: firstly as a theory embracing the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present; and secondly through observations gleaned over the years on stars, galaxies and clusters.

  6. A New Infrared Color Criterion for the Selection of 0 < z < 7 AGNs: Application to Deep Fields and Implications for JWST Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, H.; Afonso, J.; Salvato, M.; Mobasher, B.; Hopkins, A. M.

    2012-08-01

    It is widely accepted that observations at mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths enable the selection of galaxies with nuclear activity, which may not be revealed even in the deepest X-ray surveys. Many mid-IR color-color criteria have been explored to accomplish this goal and tested thoroughly in the literature. Besides missing many low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), one of the main conclusions is that, with increasing redshift, the contamination by non-active galaxies becomes significant (especially at z >~ 2.5). This is problematic for the study of the AGN phenomenon in the early universe, the main goal of many of the current and future deep extragalactic surveys. In this work new near- and mid-IR color diagnostics are explored, aiming for improved efficiency—better completeness and less contamination—in selecting AGNs out to very high redshifts. We restrict our study to the James Webb Space Telescope wavelength range (0.6-27 μm). The criteria are created based on the predictions by state-of-the-art galaxy and AGN templates covering a wide variety of galaxy properties, and tested against control samples with deep multi-wavelength coverage (ranging from the X-rays to radio frequencies). We show that the colors Ks - [4.5], [4.5] - [8.0], and [8.0] - [24] are ideal as AGN/non-AGN diagnostics at, respectively, z ~ 2.5-3. However, when the source redshift is unknown, these colors should be combined. We thus develop an improved IR criterion (using Ks and IRAC bands, KI) as a new alternative at z 50%-90% level of successful AGN selection). We also propose KIM (using Ks , IRAC, and MIPS 24 μm bands, KIM), which aims to select AGN hosts from local distances to as far back as the end of reionization (0 ~ 2.5. Overall, KIM shows a ~30%-40% completeness and a >70%-90% level of successful AGN selection. KI and KIM are built to be reliable against a ~10%-20% error in flux, are based on existing filters, and are suitable for immediate use.

  7. SELECTION OF BURST-LIKE TRANSIENTS AND STOCHASTIC VARIABLES USING MULTI-BAND IMAGE DIFFERENCING IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM-DEEP SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Heinis, S.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Rest, A.; Huber, M. E.; Narayan, G.; Marion, G. H.; Burgett, W. S.; Foley, R. J.; Scolnic, D.; Riess, A. G.; Lawrence, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SVs) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g P1 , r P1 , i P1 , and z P1 . We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit BL transients; a Gaussian, a Gamma distribution, and an analytic supernova (SN) model, and one stochastic light-curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise and source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications, resulting in two measures of classification quality, from the averages across the photometric filters of (1) the classifications determined from the closest K-means cluster centers, and (2) the square distances from the clustering centers in the K-means clustering spaces. For a verification set of AGNs and SNe, we show that SV and BL occupy distinct regions in the plane constituted by these measures. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources, in the first 2.5 yr of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGNs, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host galaxy offsets, to

  8. SELECTION OF BURST-LIKE TRANSIENTS AND STOCHASTIC VARIABLES USING MULTI-BAND IMAGE DIFFERENCING IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM-DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Heinis, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 21224 (United States); Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Narayan, G.; Marion, G. H.; Burgett, W. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Scolnic, D.; Riess, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lawrence, A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2015-03-20

    We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SVs) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1}, and z {sub P1}. We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit BL transients; a Gaussian, a Gamma distribution, and an analytic supernova (SN) model, and one stochastic light-curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise and source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications, resulting in two measures of classification quality, from the averages across the photometric filters of (1) the classifications determined from the closest K-means cluster centers, and (2) the square distances from the clustering centers in the K-means clustering spaces. For a verification set of AGNs and SNe, we show that SV and BL occupy distinct regions in the plane constituted by these measures. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources, in the first 2.5 yr of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGNs, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host

  9. OTELO SURVEY: DEEP BVRI BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY OF THE GROTH STRIP. II. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY EMITTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povic, M.; Perez GarcIa, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Castaneda, H.; Lorenzo, M. Fernandez; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Cepa, J.; Alfaro, E.; Gallego, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Gonzalez, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Groth field is one of the sky regions that will be targeted by the OSIRIS Tunable Filter Emission Line Object survey in the optical 820 nm and 920 nm atmospheric windows. In the present paper, public Chandra X-ray data with total exposure time of 200 ks are analyzed and combined with optical broadband data of the Groth field, in order to study a set of optical structural parameters of the X-ray emitters and its relation with X-ray properties. To this aim, we processed the raw, public X-ray data using the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations, and determined and analyzed different structural parameters, in order to produce a morphological classification of X-ray sources. We present the morphology of 340 X-ray emitters with optical counterpart detected. Objects have been classified by X-ray type using a diagnostic diagram relating X-ray-to-optical ratio (X/O) to hardness ratio. We did not find any clear correlation between X-ray and morphological types. We analyzed the angular clustering of X-ray sources with optical counterpart using two-point correlation functions. A significant positive angular clustering was obtained from a preliminary analysis of four subsamples of the X-ray sources catalog. The clustering signal of the optically extended counterparts is similar to that of strongly clustered populations like red and very red galaxies, suggesting that the environment plays an important role in active galactic nuclei phenomena. Finally, we combined optical structural parameters with other X-ray and optical properties, and we confirmed an anticorrelation between the X/O ratio and the Abraham concentration index, which might suggest that early-type galaxies have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  10. THE SPACE DENSITY EVOLUTION OF WET AND DRY MERGERS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Richard C. Y.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Bridge, Carrie R.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 1298 merging galaxies with redshifts up to z = 0.7 from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, taken from the catalog presented in the work of Bridge et al. By analyzing the internal colors of these systems, we show that the so-called wet and dry mergers evolve in different senses, and quantify the space densities of these systems. The local space density of wet mergers is essentially identical to the local space density of dry mergers. The evolution in the total merger rate is modest out to z ∼ 0.7, although the wet and dry populations have different evolutionary trends. At higher redshifts, dry mergers make a smaller contribution to the total merging galaxy population, but this is offset by a roughly equivalent increase in the contribution from wet mergers. By comparing the mass density function of early-type galaxies to the corresponding mass density function for merging systems, we show that not all the major mergers with the highest masses (M stellar >10 11 M sun ) will end up with the most massive early-type galaxies, unless the merging timescale is dramatically longer than that usually assumed. On the other hand, the usually assumed merging timescale of ∼0.5-1 Gyr is quite consistent with the data if we suppose that only less massive early-type galaxies form via mergers. Since low-intermediate-mass ellipticals are 10-100 times more common than their most massive counterparts, the hierarchical explanation for the origin of early-type galaxies may be correct for the vast majority of early types, even if incorrect for the most massive ones.

  11. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.; Peters, Carlton V.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan E.; McDonald, Carson S.; Content, David A.; Jackson, Clifton E.

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  12. Twenty-Three High-Redshift Supernovae from the Institute for Astronomy Deep Survey: Doubling the Supernova Sample at z > 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barris, Brian J.; Tonry, John L.; Blondin, Stéphane; Challis, Peter; Chornock, Ryan; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Holland, Stephen T.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Leibundgut, Bruno; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Miknaitis, Gajus; Riess, Adam G.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Aussel, Hervé; Chambers, K. C.; Connelley, M. S.; Donovan, D.; Henry, J. Patrick; Kaiser, Nick; Liu, Michael C.; Martín, Eduardo L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2004-02-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of 23 high-redshift supernovae (SNe) spanning a range of z=0.34-1.03, nine of which are unambiguously classified as Type Ia. These SNe were discovered during the IfA Deep Survey, which began in 2001 September and observed a total of 2.5 deg2 to a depth of approximately m~25-26 in RIZ over 9-17 visits, typically every 1-3 weeks for nearly 5 months, with additional observations continuing until 2002 April. We give a brief description of the survey motivations, observational strategy, and reduction process. This sample of 23 high-redshift SNe includes 15 at z>=0.7, doubling the published number of objects at these redshifts, and indicates that the evidence for acceleration of the universe is not due to a systematic effect proportional to redshift. In combination with the recent compilation of Tonry et al. (2003), we calculate cosmological parameter density contours that are consistent with the flat universe indicated by the cosmic microwave background (Spergel et al. 2003). Adopting the constraint that Ωtotal=1.0, we obtain best-fit values of (Ωm,ΩΛ)=(0.33,0.67) using 22 SNe from this survey augmented by the literature compilation. We show that using the empty-beam model for gravitational lensing does not eliminate the need for ΩΛ>0. Experience from this survey indicates great potential for similar large-scale surveys while also revealing the limitations of performing surveys for z>1 SNe from the ground. CFHT: Based in part on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership

  13. A PUBLIC, K-SELECTED, OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED CATALOG OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH (ECDFS) FROM THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Damen, Maaike; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Herrera, David; Gawiser, Eric; Bell, Eric F.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Castander, Francisco J.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Hall, Patrick B.; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Maza, Jose; Rudnick, Gregory; Treister, Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    We present a new, K-selected, optical-to-near infrared photometric catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), making it publicly available to the astronomical community. 22 Imaging and spectroscopy data and catalogs are freely available through the MUSYC Public Data Release webpage: http://www.astro.yale.edu/MUSYC/. The data set is founded on publicly available imaging, supplemented by original z'JK imaging data collected as part of the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). The final photometric catalog consists of photometry derived from UU 38 BVRIz'JK imaging covering the full 1/2 x 1/2 square circ of the ECDFS, plus H-band photometry for approximately 80% of the field. The 5σ flux limit for point sources is K (AB) tot = 22.0. This is also the nominal completeness and reliability limit of the catalog: the empirical completeness for 21.75 85%. We have verified the quality of the catalog through both internal consistency checks, and comparisons to other existing and publicly available catalogs. As well as the photometric catalog, we also present catalogs of photometric redshifts and rest-frame photometry derived from the 10-band photometry. We have collected robust spectroscopic redshift determinations from published sources for 1966 galaxies in the catalog. Based on these sources, we have achieved a (1σ) photometric redshift accuracy of Δz/(1 + z) = 0.036, with an outlier fraction of 7.8%. Most of these outliers are X-ray sources. Finally, we describe and release a utility for interpolating rest-frame photometry from observed spectral energy distributions, dubbed InterRest. 23 InterRest is available via http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~ent/InterRest. Documentation and a complete walkthrough can be found at the same address.

  14. THE STRUCTURE AND STELLAR CONTENT OF THE OUTER DISKS OF GALAXIES: A NEW VIEW FROM THE Pan-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zheng; Thilker, David A.; Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Meurer, Gerhardt R. [International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, M468, 35 StirlingHighway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Burgett, W. S.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chambers, K. C.; Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We present the results of an analysis of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey multi-band (grizy) images of a sample of 698 low-redshift disk galaxies that span broad ranges in stellar mass, star-formation rate, and bulge/disk ratio. We use population synthesis spectral energy distribution fitting techniques to explore the radial distribution of the light, color, surface mass density, mass/light ratio, and age of the stellar populations. We characterize the structure and stellar content of the galaxy disks out to radii of about twice Petrosian r {sub 90}, beyond which the halo light becomes significant. We measure normalized radial profiles for sub-samples of galaxies in three bins each of stellar mass and concentration. We also fit radial profiles to each galaxy. The majority of galaxies have down-bending radial surface brightness profiles in the bluer bands with a break radius at roughly r {sub 90}. However, they typically show single unbroken exponentials in the reddest bands and in the stellar surface mass density. We find that the mass/light ratio and stellar age radial profiles have a characteristic 'U' shape. There is a good correlation between the amplitude of the down-bend in the surface brightness profile and the rate of the increase in the M/L ratio in the outer disk. As we move from late- to early-type galaxies, the amplitude of the down-bend and the radial gradient in M/L both decrease. Our results imply a combination of stellar radial migration and suppression of recent star formation can account for the stellar populations of the outer disk.

  15. THE KMOS3D SURVEY: DESIGN, FIRST RESULTS, AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY KINEMATICS FROM 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnioski, E.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wuyts, S.; Wuyts, E.; Bandara, K.; Genzel, R.; Bender, R.; Davies, R.; Lang, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Beifiori, A.; Chan, J.; Fabricius, M.; Fudamoto, Y.; Kulkarni, S.; Kurk, J.; Lutz, D.; Wilman, D.; Fossati, M.; Brammer, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the KMOS 3D survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The KMOS 3D survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground- and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyr of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass (M * ) and rest-frame (U – V) – M * planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first-year of data we detect Hα emission in 191 M * = 3 × 10 9 -7 × 10 11 M ☉  galaxies at z = 0.7-1.1 and z = 1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and v rot /σ 0 > 1, implying that the star-forming ''main sequence'' is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Hα kinematic maps indicate that at least ∼70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous integral field spectroscopy studies at z ≳ 0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km s –1 at z ∼ 2.3 to 25 km s –1 at z ∼ 0.9. Combined with existing results spanning z ∼ 0-3, we show that disk velocity dispersions follow an evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally stable disk theory

  16. The luminescence dating chronology of a deep core from Bosten Lake (NW China) in arid central Asia reveals lake evolution over the last 220 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Guoqiang; Duan, Yanwu; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    The lacustrine deposits of lakes in arid central Asia (ACA) potentially record palaeoclimatic changes on orbital and suborbital time scales, but such changes are still poorly understood due to the lack of reliable chronologies. Bosten Lake, the largest freshwater inland lake in China, is located...... in the southern Tianshan Mountains in central ACA. A 51.6-m-deep lacustrine succession was retrieved from the lake and 30 samples from the succession were used for luminescence dating to establish a chronology based on multi-grain quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL (pIRIR290) dating. Quartz OSL ages were only....... A stable deep lake occurred at c. 220, 210–180, c. 165, 70–60, 40–30 and 20–5 ka, while shallow levels occurred at c. 215, 180–165, 100–70, 60–40 and 30–20 ka. Bosten Lake levels decreased by at least ~29 m and possibly the lake even dried up between c. 160 and c. 100 ka. We suggest that the water...

  17. A deep x-ray survey of the Pleiades cluster and the B6-A3 main sequence stars in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained deep ROSAT images of three regions within the Pleiades open cluster. We have detected 317 X-ray sources in these ROSAT PSPC images, 171 of which we associate with certain probable members of the Pleiades cluster. We detect nearly all Pleiades members with spectral types later than G0 and within 25 arcminutes of our three field centers where our sensitivity is highest. This has allowed us to derive for the first time the luminosity function for the G, K, and M dwarfs of an open cluster without the need to use statistical techniques to account for the presence of upper limits in the data sample. Because of our high X-ray detection frequency down to the faint limit of the optical catalog, we suspect that some of our unidentified X-ray sources are previously unknown, very low-mass members of the Pleiades. A large fraction of the Pleiades members detected with ROSAT have published rotational velocities. Plots of L(sub x)/L(sub bol) versus spectroscopic rotational velocity show tightly correlated 'saturation' type relations for stars with (B - V)(sub O) greater than 0.60. For each of several color ranges, X-ray luminosities rise rapidly with increasing rotation rate until v sin i approximately equals 15 km/s, and then remain essentially flat for rotation rates up to at least v sin i approximately equal to 100 km/s. The dispersion in rotation among low-mass stars in the Pleiades is by far the dominant contributor to the dispersion in L(subx) at a given mass. Only about 35 percent of the B.A. and early F stars in the Pleiades are detected as X-ray sources in our survey. There is no correlation between X-ray flux and rotation for these stars. The X-ray luminosity function for the early-type Pleiades stars appears to be bimodal, with only a few exceptions. We either detect these stars at fluxes in the range found for low-mass stars or we derive X-ray limits below the level found for most Pleiades dwarfs. The X-ray spectra for the early-type Pleiades stars

  18. The zCOSMOS redshift survey : evolution of the light in bulges and discs since z ~ 0.8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Tresse, L.; Le Fevre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Zamorani, G.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Ho, L. C.; Bardelli, S.; Cattaneo, A.; Cucciati, O.; Farrah, D.; Iovino, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, C. T.; Massey, R.; Renzini, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Welikala, N.; Zucca, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Mainieri, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Rich, R. M.; Tanaka, M.; Vergani, D.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Sanders, D.; Sheth, K.

    We studied the chronology of galactic bulge and disc formation by analysing the relative contributions of these components to the B-band rest-frame luminosity density at different epochs. We present the first estimate of the evolution of the fraction of rest-frame B-band light in galactic bulges and

  19. The zCOSMOS redshift survey: evolution of the light in bulges and discs since z ~ 0.8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Tresse, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Zamorani, G.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Ho, L. C.; Bardelli, S.; Cattaneo, A.; Cucciati, O.; Farrah, D.; Iovino, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, C. T.; Massey, R.; Renzini, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Welikala, N.; Zucca, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Mainieri, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Rich, R. M.; Tanaka, M.; Vergani, D.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Coppa, G.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Sanders, D.; Sheth, K.

    We studied the chronology of galactic bulge and disc formation by analysing the relative contributions of these components to the B-band rest-frame luminosity density at different epochs. We present the first estimate of the evolution of the fraction of rest-frame B-band light in galactic bulges and

  20. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution : an EMIR survey I. Presentation of the data and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; Rodriguez, M. I.; Muller, S.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Martin, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lindberg, J. E.; Batejat, F.; Juette, E.; Lahuis, F.; van der Werf, Paul P.

    Aims. We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Methods. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM

  1. Confirmation study of the effectiveness of prospect techniques for geothermal resources. Deep-seated geothermal resources survey report (Fiscal year 1994); 1994 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Drilling and survey of deep geothermal exploration wells were conducted to grasp the existing situation of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of geothermal systems in the area where geothermal resource was already developed. In the drilling work in fiscal 1994, 4000m-class rigs and the top drive system were planned to be used for drilling of 12-1/4 inch wells, but 9-5/8 inch liners were used for drilling down to depths of 2550m or deeper since the amount of lost circulation is large and the withdrawal of devices may be very difficult. And in 8-1/2 inch wells, the well was drilled down to a depth of 2950m. As to the deep resistivity exploration technology using electromagnetic method, studies were made of a multiple-frequency array induction logging (MAIL) method, a vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) method, a joint analysis method, etc. Concerning the synthetic fluid inclusion logging technology, containers were lowered into the well and a comparison was made between data of the homogenization temperature analysis of the formed fluid inclusion and those of the temperature log analysis. With relation to the making of deep geothermal structural models, revision was made according to the determination of depths of Miocene formations, Pre-tertiary formations, and the Kakkonda granite. 65 refs., 268 figs., 79 tabs.

  2. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  3. LATE-TIME EVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS AND HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELING OF A CRUSHED PULSAR WIND NEBULA IN SNR G327.1-1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kolb, Christopher; Blondin, John [North Carolina State University, 421 Riddick Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Rutgers University, 57 US Highway 1, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Bucciantini, Niccoló [INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi, 5, 50125, Firenze Italy (Italy)

    2015-07-20

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology: a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for a mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock (RS), whichcan occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and/or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the remnant. We present hydrodynamical simulations of G327.1-1.1 that show that its morphology and evolution can be described by a ∼17,000-year-old composite SNR that expanded into a density gradient with an orientation perpendicular to the pulsar’s motion. We also show that the RS/PWN interaction scenario can reproduce the broadband spectrum of the PWN from radio to γ-ray wavelengths. The analysis and modeling presented in this work have important implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

  4. Late-Time Evolution of Composite Supernova Remnants: Deep Chandra Observations and Hydrodynamical Modeling of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in SNR G327.1-1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Kolb, Christopher; Blondin, John; Hughes, John P.; Bucciantini, Niccolo

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 ks Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology; a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock(RS) that can occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the remnant. We present hydrodynamical simulations of G327.1-1.1 that show that its morphology and evolution can be described by a approx. 17,000 yr old composite SNR that expanded into a density gradient with an orientation perpendicular to the pulsar's motion. We also show that the RSPWN interaction scenario can reproduce the broadband spectrum of the PWN from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The analysis and modeling presented in this work have important implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

  5. The role of interactions in galaxy evolution: A new perspective from the CALIFA and MaNGA Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sanchez, S. F.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Interactions and mergers have been playing a paramount role to understand how galaxies evolve. In recent years integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations have become routinely allowing researchers to conduct large IFS surveys. In this context, these surveys are providing a new observational scenario to probe the properties of galaxies at different stages of the interaction —from close pairs to post-merger galaxies. Even more, these surveys also include homogeneous observations of non-interacting galaxies which in turns allows to distinguish the processes induce by secular evolution from those driven by interactions. In this talk, We review the studies of interacting studies from the CALIFA survey. They consider from the thorough analysis of a single interactive systems (e.g., the Mice, Wild et al. 2014) to the the statistical study of physical properties of a large sample of interacting/merging galaxies such as their internal structure via their stellar and gas line-of-sight kinematic maps (Barrera-Ballesteros et al. 2015a) or the spatial distribution of the star-forming gas in these galaxies (Barrera-Ballesteros et al. 2015b). Then we present some of the on-going studies within the MaNGA survey. Due to its statistical power (sample size ~10000 objects), this survey will allow us to probe the properties of galaxies in a wide range of the interaction-parameter space. This in turn provides a unique view on the key parameters that affect the internal structure and properties of galaxies during the interaction and subsequent merger.

  6. Genetic algorithm-based optimization of testing and maintenance under uncertain unavailability and cost estimation: A survey of strategies for harmonizing evolution and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, J.F.; Sanchez, A.I.; Carlos, S.; Martorell, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey to show the applicability of an approach based on a combination of distribution-free tolerance interval and genetic algorithms for testing and maintenance optimization of safety-related systems based on unavailability and cost estimation acting as uncertain decision criteria. Several strategies have been checked using a combination of Monte Carlo (simulation)--genetic algorithm (search-evolution). Tolerance intervals for the unavailability and cost estimation are obtained to be used by the genetic algorithms. Both single- and multiple-objective genetic algorithms are used. In general, it is shown that the approach is a robust, fast and powerful tool that performs very favorably in the face of noise in the output (i.e. uncertainty) and it is able to find the optimum over a complicated, high-dimensional nonlinear space in a tiny fraction of the time required for enumeration of the decision space. This approach reduces the computational effort by means of providing appropriate balance between accuracy of simulation and evolution; however, negative effects are also shown when a not well-balanced accuracy-evolution couple is used, which can be avoided or mitigated with the use of a single-objective genetic algorithm or the use of a multiple-objective genetic algorithm with additional statistical information

  7. Report on fiscal 2000 survey for geothermal exploration technology verification. Survey of deep-seated geothermal resources; 2000 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    To promote the development of deep-seated geothermal resources in a rationalized way, studies are conducted about deep-seated geothermal resource assessment techniques, development guidelines, and the like. Data were collected at the Sumikawa-Onuma district, Ogiri district, Mori district, Yanaizu-Nishiyama district, and the Onikobe district, and compiled into a database to be open to the public. Studies were made about methods for estimating parameters for deep-seated geothermal reservoirs. The resultant findings indicate that, in the Uenotai and Sumikawa-Onuma districts where geothermal reservoirs are governed mainly by a fracture network, the relaxation method and extrapolation will be effective for deep-seated reservoir temperature estimation, and the ascending current analysis method and extrapolation for permeability estimation. The findings also indicate that the expanse of deep-seated reservoirs will be suitably estimated using a method similar to that applied to shallow-seated reservoirs. In the study of the estimation of the amount of deep-seated geothermal resources, it is concluded that the simplified model A will be effective in dealing with a geothermal district where there is a well-developed fracture network and the simplified model B in dealing with a geothermal district where supply of deep-seated fluid governed by an extensive fault prevails. (NEDO)

  8. THE STAR FORMATION AND NUCLEAR ACCRETION HISTORIES OF NORMAL GALAXIES IN THE AGES SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Casey R.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine J.; Kenter, Almus T.; Murray, Steve S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fazio, Giovani G.; Green, Paul J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Brand, Kate; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Rieke, Marcia; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Shields, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    We combine IR, optical, and X-ray data from the overlapping, 9.3 deg 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), and XBooetes Survey to measure the X-ray evolution of 6146 normal galaxies as a function of absolute optical luminosity, redshift, and spectral type over the largely unexplored redshift range 0.1 ∼ 3±1 , in agreement with the trends found for samples of bright, individually detectable starburst galaxies and AGN. Our work also corroborates the results of many previous stacking analyses of faint source populations, with improved statistics.

  9. Medium carbon steel deep drawing: A study on the evolution of mechanical properties, texture and simulations, from cold rolling to the end product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Ronald L. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: rlplaut@usp.br; Padilha, Angelo F. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lima, N.B. [IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Herrera, Clara [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung (Germany); Filho, Antenor Ferreira [Industrial Director, Brasmetal Waelzholz S/A, Diadema (Brazil); Yoshimura, Leandro H. [CCS Consulting, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    Medium carbon steels are mostly used for simple applications; nevertheless new applications have been developed for which good sheet formability is required. This class of steels has an inherent low formability. A medium carbon hot rolled SAE 1050 steel has been selected for this study. It has been cold rolled with reductions in the 7-80% range. Samples have been used to assess the cold work hardening curve. For samples with a 50 and 80% thickness reduction, an annealing heat treatment has been performed to obtain recrystallization. The material has been characterized in the 'as received', cold rolled and annealed conditions, using several methods: optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (texture), Vickers hardness and tensile testing. The 50% cold rolled and recrystallized material has been further studied in terms of sheet metal formability and texture evolution during the actual stamping of a steel toecap that has been used to validate the finite element simulations.

  10. A Survey of the Origin and Evolution of Religion from the Points of View Edward Tylor and James Frazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza khajegir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a universal human phenomenon, religion is rooted in human nature, and human beings instinctively require a superior and supreme power. Besides this internal need for religion, attention to the meaning, function, and interpretation of religion has always been prevalent in the history of human thought from West to East, and scholars have always tried to comment on and analyze this fundamental issue of human life .  From among the approaches that arose about the interpretation and explanation of religion, rationalism tendency—influenced by evolution—has stood up because in the establishment of religion, rationalism takes its genesis and evolution as manifestations of the evolution of human thought, and it takes the development and evolution of religion as equal. This approach considers religion as answer to the need of the cognitive need of human beings. In this anthropological approach, religion is the product of primitive human beings’ effort to identify objects and events in the surrounding environment. As a results, as the man’s knowledge of the world around him increases, the need for religion decreases .  Anthropologist like Edward Tylor and James Frazer have taken this view to the origin and evolution of religion. They emphasize on principles such as the bodily and cognitive unity of the mind, the survival principal, and the evolutionary intellectual pattern of human beings in order to interpret religion stages from animism and magic till monism and monotheism, which will eventually decline during the development of science .  Taylor regards anthropology as the best scientific method to achieve a universal theory to understand the origin of religion. Based on its psychological unity, religion in all times and places—despite its diversity—is a unique phenomenon and has an exclusive identity because the very existence of commonalities in all practices and customs of the people of the world is indicative of the basic

  11. A Survey of the Origin and Evolution of Religion from the Points of View Edward Tylor and James Frazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza khajegir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a universal human phenomenon, religion is rooted in human nature, and human beings instinctively require a superior and supreme power. Besides this internal need for religion, attention to the meaning, function, and interpretation of religion has always been prevalent in the history of human thought from West to East, and scholars have always tried to comment on and analyze this fundamental issue of human life .  From among the approaches that arose about the interpretation and explanation of religion, rationalism tendency—influenced by evolution—has stood up because in the establishment of religion, rationalism takes its genesis and evolution as manifestations of the evolution of human thought, and it takes the development and evolution of religion as equal. This approach considers religion as answer to the need of the cognitive need of human beings. In this anthropological approach, religion is the product of primitive human beings’ effort to identify objects and events in the surrounding environment. As a results, as the man’s knowledge of the world around him increases, the need for religion decreases .  Anthropologist like Edward Tylor and James Frazer have taken this view to the origin and evolution of religion. They emphasize on principles such as the bodily and cognitive unity of the mind, the survival principal, and the evolutionary intellectual pattern of human beings in order to interpret religion stages from animism and magic till monism and monotheism, which will eventually decline during the development of science .  Taylor regards anthropology as the best scientific method to achieve a universal theory to understand the origin of religion. Based on its psychological unity, religion in all times and places—despite its diversity—is a unique phenomenon and has an exclusive identity because the very existence of commonalities in all practices and customs of the people of the world is indicative of the basic

  12. Report on fiscal 1999 survey for geothermal exploration technology verification. Survey of deep-seated geothermal resources; 1999 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    To promote the development of deep-seated geothermal resources in a rationalized way, studies were conducted about deep-seated geothermal resource assessment techniques, development guidelines, and the like. For the development of techniques for estimating deep-seated geothermal reservoir parameters, the Uenotai district, Akita Prefecture, and the Hatchobaru district, Oita Prefecture, were designated as model fields, and a geothermal system conceptual model was fabricated. Data of the two districts were registered in a database. Using these data, verification was performed of the validity of stochastic estimation techniques, large area flow simulation, rock/water equilibrium reaction simulation, and the like. As for the technique of deep-seated resource amount estimation, a simplified reservoir model was experimentally constructed based on parameters determined by the stochastic estimation of deep-seated reservoirs and on the conceptual model, and a method was studied for TOUGH2-based production prediction. Studies were also made about deep-seated geothermal resource development guidelines, such as exploration guidelines, exploration well boring guidelines, and geothermal fluid production guidelines. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 verification and survey of geothermal prospecting technology etc. 2/2. Survey report on deep-seated geothermal resources; 1997 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk to accompany the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, investigations are conducted into the three factors that govern the formation of geothermal resources at deep levels, that is, the supply of heat from heat sources, the supply of geothermal fluids, and the development of fracture systems contributing to the constitution of reservoir structures. In the evaluation and study of reservoirs and the amount of resources, a reservoir simulation is conducted to grasp the characteristics of reservoirs and the amount of resources. For this purpose, the origin and history of the Kakkonda geothermal field are studied, with special attention paid to the origin of the difference in temperature between the shallow-seated and deep-seated reservoirs, the geometry of granite at Kakkonda, the region of recharge of meteoric water, the distribution of saline concentration in the natural state and the cause of the occurrence, the amount of supply of fluids and heat from the depth to the reservoirs, etc. In the evaluation and study of the economic effectiveness of the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, it is learned that, if a 50MW geothermal power station is to be built at a deep level (drilled depth of 3000m on the average) with a rate of 50% attained in drilling, the steam amount required at such a deep level (presumed to be 75t/h) will be more than twice that required at a shallow level (presumed to be 35/h). (NEDO)

  14. THE STRUCTURES AND TOTAL (MINOR + MAJOR) MERGER HISTORIES OF MASSIVE GALAXIES UP TO z ∼ 3 IN THE HST GOODS NICMOS SURVEY: A POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO THE SIZE EVOLUTION PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluck, Asa F. L.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Buitrago, Fernando; Grützbauch, Ruth; Hoyos, Carlos; Mortlock, Alice; Bauer, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the total major (>1:4 by stellar mass) and minor (>1:100 by stellar mass) merger history of a population of 80 massive (M * > 10 11 M ☉ ) galaxies at high redshifts (z = 1.7-3). We utilize extremely deep and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope H-band imaging from the GOODS NICMOS Survey, which corresponds to rest-frame optical wavelengths at the redshifts probed. We find that massive galaxies at high redshifts are often morphologically disturbed, with a CAS (concentration, C; asymmetry, A; clumpiness, S) deduced merger fraction f m = 0.23 ± 0.05 at z = 1.7-3. We find close accord between close pair methods (within 30 kpc apertures) and CAS methods for deducing major merger fractions at all redshifts. We deduce the total (minor + major) merger history of massive galaxies with M * > 10 9 M ☉ galaxies, and find that this scales roughly linearly with log-stellar-mass and magnitude range. We test our close pair methods by utilizing mock galaxy catalogs from the Millennium Simulation. We compute the total number of mergers to be (4.5 ± 2.9)/(τ m ) from z = 3 to the present, to a stellar mass sensitivity threshold of ∼1:100 (where τ m is the merger timescale in Gyr which varies as a function of mass). This corresponds to an average mass increase of (3.4 ± 2.2) × 10 11 M ☉ over the past 11.5 Gyr due to merging. We show that the size evolution observed for these galaxies may be mostly explained by this merging.

  15. THE STRUCTURES AND TOTAL (MINOR + MAJOR) MERGER HISTORIES OF MASSIVE GALAXIES UP TO z {approx} 3 IN THE HST GOODS NICMOS SURVEY: A POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO THE SIZE EVOLUTION PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluck, Asa F. L. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Conselice, Christopher J.; Buitrago, Fernando; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hoyos, Carlos; Mortlock, Alice [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bauer, Amanda E., E-mail: abluck@gemini.edu, E-mail: conselice@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: abauer@aa0.gov.au [Australian Astronomical Observatory, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the total major (>1:4 by stellar mass) and minor (>1:100 by stellar mass) merger history of a population of 80 massive (M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) galaxies at high redshifts (z = 1.7-3). We utilize extremely deep and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope H-band imaging from the GOODS NICMOS Survey, which corresponds to rest-frame optical wavelengths at the redshifts probed. We find that massive galaxies at high redshifts are often morphologically disturbed, with a CAS (concentration, C; asymmetry, A; clumpiness, S) deduced merger fraction f{sub m} = 0.23 {+-} 0.05 at z = 1.7-3. We find close accord between close pair methods (within 30 kpc apertures) and CAS methods for deducing major merger fractions at all redshifts. We deduce the total (minor + major) merger history of massive galaxies with M{sub *} > 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} galaxies, and find that this scales roughly linearly with log-stellar-mass and magnitude range. We test our close pair methods by utilizing mock galaxy catalogs from the Millennium Simulation. We compute the total number of mergers to be (4.5 {+-} 2.9)/({tau}{sub m}) from z = 3 to the present, to a stellar mass sensitivity threshold of {approx}1:100 (where {tau}{sub m} is the merger timescale in Gyr which varies as a function of mass). This corresponds to an average mass increase of (3.4 {+-} 2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} over the past 11.5 Gyr due to merging. We show that the size evolution observed for these galaxies may be mostly explained by this merging.

  16. THE KMOS{sup 3D} SURVEY: DESIGN, FIRST RESULTS, AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY KINEMATICS FROM 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnioski, E.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wuyts, S.; Wuyts, E.; Bandara, K.; Genzel, R.; Bender, R.; Davies, R.; Lang, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Beifiori, A.; Chan, J.; Fabricius, M.; Fudamoto, Y.; Kulkarni, S.; Kurk, J.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wilman, D.; Fossati, M. [Universitäts-Sternwarte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Brammer, G., E-mail: emily@mpe.mpg.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present the KMOS{sup 3D} survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The KMOS{sup 3D} survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground- and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyr of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass (M {sub *}) and rest-frame (U – V) – M {sub *} planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first-year of data we detect Hα emission in 191 M {sub *} = 3 × 10{sup 9}-7 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z = 0.7-1.1 and z = 1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and v {sub rot}/σ{sub 0} > 1, implying that the star-forming ''main sequence'' is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Hα kinematic maps indicate that at least ∼70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous integral field spectroscopy studies at z ≳ 0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km s{sup –1}at z ∼ 2.3 to 25 km s{sup –1}at z ∼ 0.9. Combined with existing results spanning z ∼ 0-3, we show that disk velocity dispersions follow an evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally stable disk theory.

  17. A Comparative Genomic Survey Provides Novel Insights into Molecular Evolution of l-Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule with various important physiological roles in vertebrates. l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD is the second enzyme for melatonin synthesis. By far, a clear-cut gene function of AAAD in the biosynthesis of melatonin has been unclear in vertebrates. Here, we provide novel insights into the evolution of AAAD based on 77 vertebrate genomes. According to our genome-wide alignments, we extracted a total of 151 aaad nucleotide sequences. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of these sequences and corresponding protein alignments, indicating that tetrapods and diploid bony fish genomes contained one aaad gene and a new aaad-like gene, which formed a novel AAAD family. However, in tetraploid teleosts, there were two copies of the aaad gene due to whole genome duplication. A subsequent synteny analysis investigated 81 aaad sequences and revealed their collinearity and systematic evolution. Interestingly, we discovered that platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, Atlantic cod (Guadus morhua, Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus, and a Sinocyclocheilus cavefish (S. anshuiensis have long evolutionary branches in the phylogenetic topology. We also performed pseudogene identification and selection pressure analysis; however, the results revealed a deletion of 37 amino acids in Atlantic cod and premature stop codons in the cave-restricted S. anshuiensis and A. mexicanus, suggesting weakening or disappearing rhythms in these cavefishes. Selective pressure analysis of aaad between platypus and other tetrapods showed that rates of nonsynonymous (Ka and synonymous (Ks substitutions were higher when comparing the platypus to other representative tetrapods, indicating that, in this semiaquatic mammal, the aaad gene experienced selection during the process of evolution. In summary, our current work provides novel insights into aaad genes in vertebrates from a genome-wide view.

  18. The extended epoch of galaxy formation: Age dating of 3600 galaxies with 2 < z < 6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Scodeggio, M.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pforr, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Hathi, N. P.; Tresse, L.; Zucca, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we aim at improving constraints on the epoch of galaxy formation by measuring the ages of 3597 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We derive ages and other physical parameters from the simultaneous fitting with the GOSSIP+ software of observed UV rest-frame spectra and photometric data from the u band up to 4.5 μm using model spectra from composite stellar populations. We perform extensive simulations and conclude that at z ≥ 2 the joint analysis of spectroscopy and photometry, combined with restricted age possibilities when taking the age of the Universe into account, substantially reduces systematic uncertainties and degeneracies in the age derivation; we find that age measurements from this process are reliable. We find that galaxy ages range from very young with a few tens of million years to substantially evolved with ages up to 1.5 Gyr or more. This large age spread is similar for different age definitions including ages corresponding to the last major star formation event, stellar mass-weighted ages, and ages corresponding to the time since the formation of 25% of the stellar mass. We derive the formation redshift zf from the measured ages and find galaxies that may have started forming stars as early as zf 15. We produce the formation redshift function (FzF), the number of galaxies per unit volume formed at a redshift zf, and compare the FzF in increasing observed redshift bins finding a remarkably constant FzF. The FzF is parametrized with (1 + z)ζ, where ζ ≃ 0.58 ± 0.06, indicating a smooth increase of about 2 dex from the earliest redshifts, z 15, to the lowest redshifts of our sample at z 2. Remarkably, this observed increase in the number of forming galaxies is of the same order as the observed rise in the star formation rate density (SFRD). The ratio of the comoving SFRD with the FzF gives an average SFR per galaxy of 7-17M⊙/yr at z 4-6, in agreement with the

  19. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey: Nature, ISM properties, and ionizing spectra of CIII]λ1909 emitters at z = 2-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K.; Schaerer, D.; Le Fèvre, O.; Amorín, R.; Talia, M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Grazian, A.; Guaita, L.; Hathi, N. P.; Pentericci, L.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Ultraviolet (UV) emission-line spectra are used to spectroscopically confirm high-z galaxies and increasingly also to determine their physical properties. Aims: We construct photoionization models to interpret the observed UV spectra of distant galaxies in terms of the dominant radiation field and the physical condition of the interstellar medium (ISM). These models are applied to new spectroscopic observations from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). Methods: We construct a large grid of photoionization models, which use several incident radiation fields (stellar populations, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), mix of stars and AGNs, blackbodies, and others), and cover a wide range of metallicities and ionization parameters. From these models we derive new spectral UV line diagnostics using equivalent widths (EWs) of [CIII]λ1909 doublet, CIVλ1549 doublet and the line ratios of [CIII], CIV, and He IIλ1640 recombination lines. We apply these diagnostics to a sample of 450 [CIII]-emitting galaxies at redshifts z = 2-4 previously identified in VUDS. Results: We demonstrate that our photoionization models successfully reproduce observations of nearby and high-redshift sources with known radiation field and/or metallicity. For star-forming galaxies our models predict that [CIII] EW peaks at sub-solar metallicities, whereas CIV EW peaks at even lower metallicity. Using the UV diagnostics, we show that the average star-forming galaxy (EW([CIII]) 2 Å) based on the composite of the 450 UV-selected galaxies' spectra The inferred metallicity and ionization parameter is typically Z = 0.3-0.5 Z⊙ and logU = -2.7 to - 3, in agreement with earlier works at similar redshifts. The models also indicate an average age of 50-200 Myr since the beginning of the current star-formation, and an ionizing photon production rate, ξion, of logξion/erg-1 Hz = 25.3-25.4. Among the sources with EW([CIII]) >= 10 Å, approximately 30% are likely dominated by AGNs. The metallicity derived

  20. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Separating disk chemical substructures with cluster models. Evidence of a separate evolution in the metal-poor thin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Schultheis, M.; Guiglion, G.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Recent spectroscopic surveys have begun to explore the Galactic disk system on the basis of large data samples, with spatial distributions sampling regions well outside the solar neighborhood. In this way, they provide valuable information for testing spatial and temporal variations of disk structure kinematics and chemical evolution. Aims: The main purposes of this study are to demonstrate the usefulness of a rigorous mathematical approach to separate substructures of a stellar sample in the abundance-metallicity plane, and provide new evidence with which to characterize the nature of the metal-poor end of the thin disk sequence. Methods: We used a Gaussian mixture model algorithm to separate in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane a clean disk star subsample (essentially at RGC -0.25 dex) highlight a change in the slope at solar metallicity. This holds true at different radial regions of the Milky Way. The distribution of Galactocentric radial distances of the metal-poor part of the thin disk ([Fe/H] Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  1. DM Considerations for Deep Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the current situation regarding the DM plans for the Deep Drilling surveys and an invitation to the community to provide feedback on what they would like to see included in the data processing and visualization of these surveys.

  2. Towards a better understanding of small scale distribution of littoral age-0 fish in a deep-valley reservoir: day or night surveys?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Peterka, Jiří; Draštík, Vladislav; Čech, Martin; Jůza, Tomáš; Muška, Milan; Matěna, Josef; Kubečka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 728, č. 1 (2014), s. 125-139 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : spatial distribution * habitat use * juvenile fish * littoral zone * deep reservoirs * electrofishing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  3. Prevalence and evolution of low frequency HIV drug resistance mutations detected by ultra deep sequencing in patients experiencing first line antiretroviral therapy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Bellecave, Pantxika; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Reigadas, Sandrine; Bidet, Yannick; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Neau, Didier; Fleury, Hervé; Dabis, François; Morlat, Philippe; Masquelier, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical relevance of low-frequency HIV-1 variants carrying drug resistance associated mutations (DRMs) is still unclear. We aimed to study the prevalence of low-frequency DRMs, detected by Ultra-Deep Sequencing (UDS) before antiretroviral therapy (ART) and at virological failure (VF), in HIV-1 infected patients experiencing VF on first-line ART. Twenty-nine ART-naive patients followed up in the ANRS-CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, having initiated ART between 2000 and 2009 and experiencing VF (2 plasma viral loads (VL) >500 copies/ml or one VL >1000 copies/ml) were included. Reverse transcriptase and protease DRMs were identified using Sanger sequencing (SS) and UDS at baseline (before ART initiation) and VF. Additional low-frequency variants with PI-, NNRTI- and NRTI-DRMs were found by UDS at baseline and VF, significantly increasing the number of detected DRMs by 1.35 fold (plow-frequency DRMs modified ARV susceptibility predictions to the prescribed treatment for 1 patient at baseline, in whom low-frequency DRM was found at high frequency at VF, and 6 patients at VF. DRMs found at VF were rarely detected as low-frequency DRMs prior to treatment. The rare low-frequency NNRTI- and NRTI-DRMs detected at baseline that correlated with the prescribed treatment were most often found at high-frequency at VF. Low frequency DRMs detected before ART initiation and at VF in patients experiencing VF on first-line ART can increase the overall burden of resistance to PI, NRTI and NNRTI.

  4. 85 million years of pelagic ecosystem evolution: Pacific Ocean deep-sea ichthyolith records reveal fish community dynamics and a long-term decline in sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.; Cuevas, J. M.; Graves, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and productivity of open ocean consumers has undergone major changes over the past 85 million years. Here, we present the first long-term detailed records of pelagic fish and sharks utilizing the record of ichthyoliths (teeth and dermal scales) from the deep Pacific Ocean. While the North and South Pacific Oceans show similar patterns throughout the 85 million year history, the North Pacific ichthyolith accumulation is significantly higher than the South Pacific, suggesting that the basin has been a more productive region for tens of millions of years. Fish and sharks were not abundant in the Pacific gyres until ~75 million years ago (Ma) suggesting that neither group was quantitatively important in oligotrophic pelagic food webs prior to the latest Cretaceous. Relative to ray-finned fish, sharks were common in the ancient ocean. Most ichthyolith assemblages have >50% shark dermal scales (denticles), but denticle abundance has been declining in both absolute and relative abundance since the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction. The accumulation rate of ichthyoliths of both sharks and ray-finned fish was highest in the Early Eocene, during the peak of the Cenozoic 'greenhouse' climate where production of shark dermal denticles and fish teeth increased almost five times over Paleocene production rates. Ichthyolith fluxes fell with cooler climates in the later Eocene and Oligocene, but fish production is almost always higher than in the Cretaceous and Paleocene reflecting the expanded ecological roles and importance of pelagic fish in marine ecosystems. Shark denticle production fell to less than half that of the Cretaceous by 20 Ma when it dropped abruptly to near-zero levels. Currently denticles make up sharks appear to be falling as major pelagic consumers over the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, and particularly over the past 20 Ma, perhaps reflecting demographic changes in shark and fish communities, or the rise of resource competition from

  5. Reconstructing the evolution of a deep seated rockslide (Marzell) and its response to glacial retreat based on historic and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Christine; Wichmann, Volker; Zangerl, Christian

    2017-12-01

    In this study a combination of different topographic data from historic topographic maps and remote sensing is used to reconstruct and monitor the behaviour of the high alpine ice contact rockslide system Marzell and its response to glacial debuttressing in the Eastern Alps. Topographic data from archives (historical topographic maps, national glacier inventories, aerial images, orthoimages and ALS data) and data from monitoring campaigns (geodetic measurements, terrestrial laser scanning and UAV imaging campaigns) are processed to georeferenced images and/or elevation data, respectively. The data from different data sources is compiled and analysed with the aim to i) reconstruct the extent, thickness and volume changes of the glacier since 1893 and ii) to analyse the rockslide deformation evolution by extracting information about the displacement direction, dip angle, velocity and partial failure of rockslide slabs since 1951. The rockslide is compound of different rockslide slabs which move downwards as rigid blocks along basal shear zones. The analyses and interpretation of the data suggest a rotational type of rockslide failure mechanisms. The rockslide activity correlates with the ice volume loss at the adjacent part of the glacier. In the period between 1971 and 1997 the annual average rockslide activity was about 0.05 m/a and the annual average ice thickness loss was 0.1 m/a. Since the end of the last century the annual average ice thickness loss increased dramatically to 5 m/a. In that period the rockslide activity accelerated. The highest rockslide activity (up to 1.5 m/a) was observed in the 2000s when half of the slope toe was exposed because of glacier retreat. Since 2010 a deceleration of the rockslide can be observed. In the vicinity of the rockslide the glacier almost disappeared and lost 99.88% of its ice volume between 1893 and 2014. The geomorphological and geological information gathered about the rockslide evolution and the glacier retreat form

  6. Improving our understanding of the evolution of mountain belts via the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project: Results from seismic investigations and plans for the 2.5 km deep COSC-2 borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlin, C.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Buske, S.; Giese, R.; Hedin, P.; Lorenz, H.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain belts (orogens) have influenced, and do influence, geological processes and climatic conditions considerably, perhaps more than any other natural phenomenon. The Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt is the prime example of a collisional orogen today. However, research in an active orogen is mostly constrained to observe and interpret the expression of processes at the surface, while the driving processes act at depth, often at mid-crustal levels (20 km) and deeper. About 440 million years ago, an orogen comparable in dimension and tectonic setting to today's Alpine-Himalayan orogen was developing in what is western Scandinavia today. Since then, erosion has removed much of the overburden and exposed the deep interior of the orogen, facilitating direct observation of rocks that are deep in the crust in modern orogens. In the COSC project we study how large rock volumes (allochthons) were transported during the collision of two continents and the associated deformation. The emplacement of high-grade metamorphic allochthons during orogeny has been the focus of COSC-1 research, centered on a 2.5 km deep fully cored borehole drilled in the summer of 2014 through the lower part of the high-grade Seve Nappe Complex near the town of Åre in western Sweden. The planned COSC-2 borehole (also fully cored to 2.5 km) will complement the COSC-1 borehole and allow a 5 km deep tectonostratigraphic column of the Caledonides to be constructed. The rock volume in the proximity of the COSC-2 borehole will be imaged with a combination of very-high and high-resolution geophysical experiments, such as a combination of high frequency seismics; zero offset and walk-away vertical seismic profiling (VSP); and a sparse 3D coverage around the drill site combined with 2D seismic profiles of several kilometers length in different directions. Downhole geophysical logging will provide additional information on the in-situ rock physical properties. Data from surface surveys will be calibrated

  7. A Genomic Survey of SCPP Family Genes in Fishes Provides Novel Insights into the Evolution of Fish Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yunyun; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Li, Jia; Li, Yanping; Bian, Chao; Huang, Yu; You, Xinxin; Shi, Qiong

    2017-11-16

    The family of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) have been considered vital to skeletal tissue mineralization. However, most previous SCPP studies focused on phylogenetically distant animals but not on those closely related species. Here we provide novel insights into the coevolution of SCPP genes and fish scales in 10 species from Otophysi . According to their scale phenotypes, these fishes can be divided into three groups, i.e., scaled, sparsely scaled, and scaleless. We identified homologous SCPP genes in the genomes of these species and revealed an absence of some SCPP members in some genomes, suggesting an uneven evolutionary history of SCPP genes in fishes. In addition, most of these SCPP genes, with the exception of SPP1 , individually form one or two gene cluster(s) on each corresponding genome. Furthermore, we constructed phylogenetic trees using maximum likelihood method to estimate their evolution. The phylogenetic topology mostly supports two subclasses in some species, such as Cyprinus carpio , Sinocyclocheilus anshuiensis , S. grahamin , and S. rhinocerous , but not in the other examined fishes. By comparing the gene structures of recently reported candidate genes, SCPP1 and SCPP5 , for determining scale phenotypes, we found that the hypothesis is suitable for Astyanax mexicanus , but denied by S. anshuiensis , even though they are both sparsely scaled for cave adaptation. Thus, we conclude that, although different fish species display similar scale phenotypes, the underlying genetic changes however might be diverse. In summary, this paper accelerates the recognition of the SCPP family in teleosts for potential scale evolution.

  8. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum

  9. Reducing the environmental footprint of French people consumption in 2030. Towards a deep evolution of production and consumption modes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this prospective study is to propose an ambitious and realistic vision by 2030 of the evolution of production and consumption modes of French people while achieving a reduction of the environmental footprint of the French household consumption, according to the 'reduced environmental footprint' scenario. This study is based on the use of the two main analysis methods which are generally used to assess environmental impacts of consumption products or categories: life cycle analysis and input-output analysis. After having discussed the limitations of this analysis and difficulties this study has faced, context and challenges are presented and discussed: the consumption has been tripling since 1960, environmental impacts are contrasted and are related to imports, and heavy trends and weak signals can be identified. A scenario for 2030 is presented for mobility, housing, food, consumption of products off food, leisure and culture, health and education. For each of them, popular beliefs, context, and guidelines and hypotheses for a reduced environmental footprint are discussed. Results of the 2030 scenario are discussed, and some lessons learned from the 'reduced environmental footprint' are identified

  10. The evolution of nursing in Australian general practice: a comparative analysis of workforce surveys ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Salamonson, Yenna; Davidson, Patricia M; Kaur, Rajneesh; Young, Samantha Am

    2014-03-25

    Nursing in Australian general practice has grown rapidly over the last decade in response to government initiatives to strengthen primary care. There are limited data about how this expansion has impacted on the nursing role, scope of practice and workforce characteristics. This study aimed to describe the current demographic and employment characteristics of Australian nurses working in general practice and explore trends in their role over time. In the nascence of the expansion of the role of nurses in Australian general practice (2003-2004) a national survey was undertaken to describe nurse demographics, clinical roles and competencies. This survey was repeated in 2009-2010 and comparative analysis of the datasets undertaken to explore workforce changes over time. Two hundred eighty four nurses employed in general practice completed the first survey (2003/04) and 235 completed the second survey (2009/10). Significantly more participants in Study 2 were undertaking follow-up of pathology results, physical assessment and disease specific health education. There was also a statistically significant increase in the participants who felt that further education/training would augment their confidence in all clinical tasks (p nurses' role in general practice decreased between the two time points, more participants perceived lack of space, job descriptions, confidence to negotiate with general practitioners and personal desire to enhance their role as barriers. Access to education and training as a facilitator to nursing role expansion increased between the two studies. The level of optimism of participants for the future of the nurses' role in general practice was slightly decreased over time. This study has identified that some of the structural barriers to nursing in Australian general practice have been addressed over time. However, it also identifies continuing barriers that impact practice nurse role development. Understanding and addressing these issues is vital

  11. Origin and distribution of the organic matter in the distal lobe of the Congo deep-sea fan - A Rock-Eval survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, François; Stetten, Elsa; Schnyder, Johann; Charlier, Karine; Martinez, Philippe; Dennielou, Bernard; Droz, Laurence

    2017-08-01

    The Congo River, the second largest river in the world, is a major source of organic matter for the deep Atlantic Ocean because of the connection of its estuary to the deep offshore area by a submarine canyon which feeds a vast deep-sea fan. The lobe zone of this deep-sea fan is the final receptacle of the sedimentary inputs presently channelled by the canyon and covers an area of 2500 km². The quantity and the source of organic matter preserved in recent turbiditic sediments from the distal lobe of the Congo deep-sea fan were assessed using Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses. Six sites, located at approximately 5000 m water-depth, were investigated. The mud-rich sediments of the distal lobe contain high amounts of organic matter ( 3.5 to 4% Corg), the origin of which is a mixture of terrestrial higher-plant debris, soil organic matter and deeply oxidized phytoplanktonic material. Although the respective contribution of terrestrial and marine sources of organic matter cannot be precisely quantified using Rock-Eval analyses, the terrestrial fraction is dominant according to similar hydrogen and oxygen indices of both suspended and bedload sediments from the Congo River and that deposited in the lobe complex. The Rock-Eval signature supports the 70% to 80% of the terrestrial fraction previously estimated using C/N and δ13Corg data. In the background sediment, the organic matter distribution is homogeneous at different scales, from a single turbiditic event to the entire lobe, and changes in accumulation rates only have a limited effect on the quantity and quality of the preserved organic matter. Peculiar areas with chemosynthetic bivalves and/or bacterial mats, explored using ROV Victor 6000, show a Rock-Eval signature similar to background sediment. This high organic carbon content associated to high sedimentation rates (> 2 to 20 mm.yr-1) in the Congo distal lobe complex implies a high burial rate for organic carbon. Consequently, the Congo deep-sea fan represents an

  12. Evolution of Defect Structures and Deep Subgap States during Annealing of Amorphous In-Ga-Zn Oxide for Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junjun; Suko, Ayaka; Shigesato, Yuzo; Okajima, Toshihiro; Inoue, Keiko; Hosomi, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the evolution behavior of defect structures and the subgap states in In-Ga-Zn oxide (IGZO) films with increasing postannealing temperature by means of extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy, aiming to understand the relationship between defect structures and subgap states. EXAFS measurements reveal the varied oxygen coordination numbers around cations during postannealing and confirm two types of point defects, namely, excess oxygen around Ga atoms and oxygen deficiency around In and/or Zn atoms. PALS suggests the existence of cation-vacancy (VM )-related clusters with neutral or negative charge in both amorphous and polycrystalline IGZO films. CL spectra show a main emission band at approximately 1.85 eV for IGZO films, and a distinct shoulder located at about 2.15 eV for IGZO films postannealed above 600 °C . These two emission bands are assigned to a recombination between the electrons in the conduction band and/or in the shallow donor levels near the conduction band and the acceptors trapped above the valence-band maximum. The shallow donors are attributed to the oxygen deficiency, and the acceptors are thought to possibly arise from the excess oxygen or the VM-related clusters. These results open up an alternative route for understanding the device instability of amorphous IGZO-based thin-film transistors, especially the presence of the neutral or negatively charged VM-related clusters in amorphous IGZO films.

  13. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  14. The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and from the Second Phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfathi, Bela; Aguado, D. S.; Aguilar, Gabriela; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Andrews, Brett H.; Anguiano, Borja; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Armengaud, Eric; Ata, Metin; Aubourg, Eric; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Barger, Kathleen A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Bartosz, Curtis; Bastien, Fabienne; Bates, Dominic; Baumgarten, Falk; Bautista, Julian; Beaton, Rachael; Beers, Timothy C.; Belfiore, Francesco; Bender, Chad F.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Bershady, Matthew A.; Beutler, Florian; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Boquien, Médéric; Borissova, Jura; Bovy, Jo; Andres Bradna Diaz, Christian; Nielsen Brandt, William; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cañas, Caleb I.; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Cappellari, Michele; Carrera, Ricardo; Casey, Andrew R.; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Chen, Yanping; Cherinka, Brian; Chiappini, Cristina; Doohyun Choi, Peter; Chojnowski, Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Chung, Haeun; Clerc, Nicolas; Cohen, Roger E.; Comerford, Julia M.; Comparat, Johan; Correa do Nascimento, Janaina; da Costa, Luiz; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Covey, Kevin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Cunha, Katia; da Silva Ilha, Gabriele; Damke, Guillermo J.; Darling, Jeremy; Davidson, James W., Jr.; Dawson, Kyle; de Icaza Lizaola, Miguel Angel C.; de la Macorra, Axel; de la Torre, Sylvain; De Lee, Nathan; de Sainte Agathe, Victoria; Deconto Machado, Alice; Dell’Agli, Flavia; Delubac, Timothée; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Donor, John; José Downes, Juan; Drory, Niv; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Duckworth, Christopher J.; Dwelly, Tom; Dyer, Jamie; Ebelke, Garrett; Davis Eigenbrot, Arthur; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Emsellem, Eric; Eracleous, Michael; Erfanianfar, Ghazaleh; Escoffier, Stephanie; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Cirolini, Rafael Fernando; Feuillet, Diane; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Freischlad, Gordon; Frinchaboy, Peter; Fu, Hai; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Galbany, Lluís; García Pérez, Ana E.; Garcia-Dias, R.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Garma Oehmichen, Luis Alberto; Gaulme, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Goddard, Daniel; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Grabowski, Kathleen; Green, Paul J.; Grier, Catherine J.; Gueguen, Alain; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hagen, Alex; Hall, Patrick; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne; Hayes, Christian R.; Hearty, Fred; Hekker, Saskia; Hernandez, Jesus; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Hou, Jiamin; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Jimenez Angel, Camilo Eduardo; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jones, Amy; Jönsson, Henrik; Jullo, Eric; Sakil Khan, Fahim; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kirkpatrick, Charles C., IV; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Lacerna, Ivan; Lane, Richard R.; Lang, Dustin; Law, David R.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lee, Young-Bae; Li, Hongyu; Li, Cheng; Lian, Jianhui; Liang, Yu; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Lihwai; Long, Dan; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Mackereth, J. Ted; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Geimba Maia, Marcio Antonio; Majewski, Steven; Manchado, Arturo; Maraston, Claudia; Mariappan, Vivek; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Masseron, Thomas; Masters, Karen L.; McDermid, Richard M.; McGreer, Ian D.; Melendez, Matthew; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia; Merloni, Andrea; Merrifield, Michael R.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meza, Andres; Minchev, Ivan; Minniti, Dante; Mueller, Eva-Maria; Muller-Sanchez, Francisco; Muna, Demitri; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Myers, Adam D.; Nair, Preethi; Nandra, Kirpal; Ness, Melissa; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Nitschelm, Christian; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; O’Connell, Julia; Oelkers, Ryan James; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Aquino Ortíz, Erik; Osorio, Yeisson; Pace, Zach; Padilla, Nelson; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Alonso Palicio, Pedro; Pan, Hsi-An; Pan, Kaike; Parikh, Taniya; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Peirani, Sebastien; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Penny, Samantha; Percival, Will J.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Pisani, Alice; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Queiroz, Anna Bárbara de Andrade; Raddick, M. Jordan; Raichoor, Anand; Barboza Rembold, Sandro; Richstein, Hannah; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Riffel, Rogério; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rodríguez Torres, Sergio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John; Ruggeri, Rossana; Ruiz, Jose; Salvato, Mara; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Santana Rojas, Felipe Antonio; Santiago, Basílio Xavier; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Schlafly, Edward; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Schuster, William J.; Schwope, Axel; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serenelli, Aldo; Shen, Shiyin; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shull, Michael; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Simon, Joshua D.; Skrutskie, Mike; Slosar, Anže; Smethurst, Rebecca; Smith, Verne; Sobeck, Jennifer; Somers, Garrett; Souter, Barbara J.; Souto, Diogo; Spindler, Ashley; Stark, David V.; Stassun, Keivan; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stello, Dennis; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Streblyanska, Alina; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Suárez, Genaro; Sun, Jing; Szigeti, Laszlo; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr; Talbot, Michael S.; Tang, Baitian; Tao, Charling; Tayar, Jamie; Tembe, Mita; Teske, Johanna; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Tissera, Patricia; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy; Troup, Nicholas W.; Urry, Meg; Valenzuela, O.; van den Bosch, Remco; Vargas-González, Jaime; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Villanova, Sandro; Vogt, Nicole; Wake, David; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin Alan; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Weinberg, David H.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Whelan, David G.; Wilcots, Eric; Wild, Vivienne; Williams, Rob A.; Wilson, John; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Yang, Meng; Ybarra, Jason E.; Yèche, Christophe; Zakamska, Nadia; Zamora, Olga; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zasowski, Gail; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Guangtun; Zinn, Joel C.; Zou, Hu

    2018-04-01

    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall (making this Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes the data taken by SDSS-IV in its first two years of operation (2014–2016 July) public. Like all previous SDSS releases, DR14 is cumulative, including the most recent reductions and calibrations of all data taken by SDSS since the first phase began operations in 2000. New in DR14 is the first public release of data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey; the first data from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), including stellar parameter estimates from an innovative data-driven machine-learning algorithm known as “The Cannon” and almost twice as many data cubes from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey as were in the previous release (N = 2812 in total). This paper describes the location and format of the publicly available data from the SDSS-IV surveys. We provide references to the important technical papers describing how these data have been taken (both targeting and observation details) and processed for scientific use. The SDSS web site (www.sdss.org) has been updated for this release and provides links to data downloads, as well as tutorials and examples of data use. SDSS-IV is planning to continue to collect astronomical data until 2020 and will be followed by SDSS-V.

  15. Pore Fluid Evolution Influenced by Volcanic Activities and Related Diagenetic Processes in a Rift Basin: Evidence from the Paleogene Medium-Deep Reservoirs of Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic activities exert a significant influence on pore fluid property and related diagenetic processes that substantially controlled reservoirs quality. Analysis of Paleogene medium-deep sandstones on the Huanghekou Sag provides insight into relating the diagenetic processes to pore fluid property evolution influenced by volcanic activities. Three distinct types of pore fluids were identified on the basis of an integrated and systematic analysis including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, and trace element. Alkaline aqueous medium environment occurred in E2s1+2 where volcanic activities have insignificant influence on pore fluids, evidenced by typical alkaline diagenetic events such as K-feldspar albitization, quartz dissolution, feldspar dissolution, and carbonate cementation. During the deposition of E3d3, influx of terrestrial freshwater and alteration of ferromagnesian-rich pore water result in the formation of mixing aqueous medium environment through volcanic eruption dormancy causing zeolite dissolution, clay mineral transformation, and K-feldspar albitization. Ferromagnesian-rich aqueous medium environment developed resulting from the intensive hydrolysis of the unstable ferromagnesian minerals formed due to intense volcanic activities during E3d1+2 and corresponding predominant diagenetic processes were characterized by the precipitation and dissolution of low-silica zeolites. Therefore, the differential properties of pore fluids caused various diagenetic processes controlling reservoir quality.

  16. The evolution of the cluster optical galaxy luminosity function between z = 0.4 and 0.9 in the DAFT/FADA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Durret, Florence; Guennou, Loïc; Adami, Christophe; Biviano, Andrea; Ulmer, Melville P.; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Ilbert, Olivier; Márquez, Isabel; Schirmer, Mischa

    2015-03-01

    Context. There is some disagreement about the abundance of faint galaxies in high-redshift clusters, with contradictory results in the literature arising from studies of the optical galaxy luminosity function (GLF) for small cluster samples. Aims: We compute GLFs for one of the largest medium-to-high-redshift (0.4 ≤ z DAFT/FADA survey in the B,V,R, and I rest-frame bands. We used photometric redshifts computed from BVRIZJ images to constrain galaxy cluster membership. We carried out a detailed estimate of the completeness of our data. We distinguished the red-sequence and blue galaxies using a V - I versus I colour-magnitude diagram. We studied the evolution of these two populations with redshift. We fitted Schechter functions to our stacked GLFs to determine average cluster characteristics. Results: We find that the shapes of our GLFs are similar for the B,V,R, and I bands with a drop at the red GLF faint ends that is more pronounced at high redshift: αred ~ -0.5 at 0.40 ≤ z 0.1 at 0.65 ≤ z < 0.90. The blue GLFs have a steeper faint end (αblue ~ -1.6) than the red GLFs, which appears to be independent of redshift. For the full cluster sample, blue and red GLFs meet at MV = -20, MR = -20.5, and MI = -20.3. A study of how galaxy types evolve with redshift shows that late-type galaxies appear to become early types between z ~ 0.9 and today. Finally, the faint ends of the red GLFs of more massive clusters appear to be richer than less massive clusters, which is more typical of the lower redshift behaviour. Conclusions: Our results indicate that these clusters form at redshifts higher than z = 0.9 from galaxy structures that already have an established red sequence. Late-type galaxies then appear to evolve into early types, enriching the red sequence between this redshift and today. This effect is consistent with the evolution of the faint-end slope of the red sequence and the galaxy type evolution that we find. Finally, faint galaxies accreted from the field

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF DUSTY STAR FORMATION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS TO z = 1: SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T. M. A.; O'Donnell, D.; Coppin, Kristen; Faloon, Ashley; Geach, James E.; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; Gilbank, David; Ellingson, Erica; Gladders, Mike; Muzzin, Adam; Wilson, Gillian; Yan, Renbin

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of an infrared (IR) study of high-redshift galaxy clusters with the MIPS camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have assembled a sample of 42 clusters from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey-1 over the redshift range 0.3 14-15 M ☉ . We statistically measure the number of IR-luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred IR luminosity of 2 × 10 11 M ☉ , assuming a star forming galaxy template, per unit cluster mass and find it increases to higher redshift. Fitting a simple power-law we measure evolution of (1 + z) 5.1±1.9 over the range 0.3 cluster ). The evolution is similar, with ΣSFR/M cluster ∼ (1 + z) 5.4±1.9 . We show that this can be accounted for by the evolution of the IR-bright field population over the same redshift range; that is, the evolution can be attributed entirely to the change in the in-falling field galaxy population. We show that the ΣSFR/M cluster (binned over all redshift) decreases with increasing cluster mass with a slope (ΣSFR/M cluster ∼M cluster -1.5±0.4 ) consistent with the dependence of the stellar-to-total mass per unit cluster mass seen locally. The inferred star formation seen here could produce ∼5%-10% of the total stellar mass in massive clusters at z = 0, but we cannot constrain the descendant population, nor how rapidly the star-formation must shut-down once the galaxies have entered the cluster environment. Finally, we show a clear decrease in the number of IR-bright galaxies per unit optical galaxy in the cluster cores, confirming star formation continues to avoid the highest density regions of the universe at z ∼ 0.75 (the average redshift of the high-redshift clusters). While several previous studies appear to show enhanced star formation in high-redshift clusters relative to the field we note that these papers have not accounted for the overall increase in galaxy or dark matter density at the location of clusters. Once this is done, clusters at z ∼ 0.75 have the same

  18. Epidemiology, Prognosis, and Evolution of Management of Septic Shock in a French Intensive Care Unit: A Five Years Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Boussekey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the epidemiology, prognosis, and management of septic shock patients hospitalized in our intensive care unit (ICU. Materiel and Methods. Five-year monocenter observational study including 320 patients. Results. ICU mortality was 54.4%. Independent mortality risk factors were mechanical ventilation (OR=4.97, Simplify Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II > 60 (OR=4.28, chronic alcoholism (OR=3.38, age >65 years (OR=2.65, prothrombin ratio <40% (OR=2.37, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio <150 (OR=1.91. These six mortality risk factors recovered allow screening immediately septic shock patients with a high mortality risk. Morbidity improved with time (diminution of septic shock complications, increase of the number of days alive free from mechanical ventilation and vasopressors on day 28, concomitant to an evolution of the management (earlier institution of all replacement and medical therapies and more initial volume expansion. There was no difference in mortality. Conclusion. Our study confirms a high mortality rate in septic shock patients despite a new approach of treatment.

  19. Fiscal 1997 verification and survey of geothermal prospecting technology etc. 1/2. Survey report on deep-seated geothermal resources; 1997 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk to accompany the exploitation of deep-seated geothermal resources, investigations are conducted into the three factors that govern the formation of geothermal resources at deep levels, that is, the supply of heat from heat sources, the supply of geothermal fluids, and the development of fracture systems contributing to the constitution of reservoir structures. In fiscal 1997, a fumarolic gas test is conducted at the deep-seated geothermal well WD-1b which was drilled in the preceding fiscal year. In the test, chemical and isotopic characteristics are compared between the fluids of the WD-1b and the other existing deep-seated wells, and it is found that the fluids from the WD1b originates in surface water just like the fluids from the others and that the constitution of its gas is not greatly affected by magmatic fluids. A PTS (Pressure, Temperature, Spinner flowmeter) logging is performed to observe conditions in the well with the fluids being discharged and to know the inflow point and rate the fumarolic fluids, and the result is utilized to presume the 3-dimensional stress in the vicinity of the WD-1. An isotopic measurement of water included in the fluids is conducted to examine the origin of the geothermal fluids, constant observation and analysis of micro-earthquakes are carried out, and the fluid flow and fluid hydraulic characteristics are also studied. (NEDO)

  20. xCOLD GASS: The Complete IRAM 30 m Legacy Survey of Molecular Gas for Galaxy Evolution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintonge, Amélie; Catinella, Barbara; Tacconi, Linda J.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Genzel, Reinhard; Cortese, Luca; Davé, Romeel; Fletcher, Thomas J.; Graciá-Carpio, Javier; Kramer, Carsten; Heckman, Timothy M.; Janowiecki, Steven; Lutz, Katharina; Rosario, David; Schiminovich, David; Schuster, Karl; Wang, Jing; Wuyts, Stijn; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Lamperti, Isabella; Roberts-Borsani, Guido W.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce xCOLD GASS, a legacy survey providing a census of molecular gas in the local universe. Building on the original COLD GASS survey, we present here the full sample of 532 galaxies with CO (1–0) measurements from the IRAM 30 m telescope. The sample is mass-selected in the redshift interval 0.01 {10}9 {M}ȯ . The CO (1–0) flux measurements are complemented by observations of the CO (2–1) line with both the IRAM 30 m and APEX telescopes, H I observations from Arecibo, and photometry from SDSS, WISE, and GALEX. Combining the IRAM and APEX data, we find that the ratio of CO (2–1) to CO (1–0) luminosity for integrated measurements is {r}21=0.79+/- 0.03, with no systematic variations across the sample. The CO (1–0) luminosity function is constructed and best fit with a Schechter function with parameters {L}{CO}* =(7.77+/- 2.11)× {10}9 {{K}} {km} {{{s}}}-1 {{pc}}2, {φ }* =(9.84+/- 5.41)× {10}-4 {{Mpc}}-3, and α =-1.19+/- 0.05. With the sample now complete down to stellar masses of 109 {M}ȯ , we are able to extend our study of gas scaling relations and confirm that both molecular gas fractions ({f}{{{H}}2}) and depletion timescale ({t}{dep}({{{H}}}2)) vary with specific star formation rate (or offset from the star formation main sequence) much more strongly than they depend on stellar mass. Comparing the xCOLD GASS results with outputs from hydrodynamic and semianalytic models, we highlight the constraining power of cold gas scaling relations on models of galaxy formation.

  1. MASS AND ENVIRONMENT AS DRIVERS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN SDSS AND zCOSMOS AND THE ORIGIN OF THE SCHECHTER FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Ying-Jie; Lilly, Simon J.; Kovac, Katarina; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Renzini, Alvio; Zamorani, Gianni; Ilbert, Olivier; Knobel, Christian; Iovino, Angela; Maier, Christian; Cucciati, Olga; Tasca, Lidia; Carollo, C. Marcella; Silverman, John; Kampczyk, Pawel; De Ravel, Loic; Sanders, David; Scoville, Nicholas; Contini, Thierry; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Scodeggio, Marco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fevre, Olivier; Bardelli, Sandro; Bongiorno, Angela; Caputi, Karina; Coppa, Graziano; de la Torre, Sylvain; Franzetti, Paolo; Garilli, Bianca; Lamareille, Fabrice; Le Borgne, Jean-Francois; Le Brun, Vincent; Mignoli, Marco; Montero, Enrique Perez; Pello, Roser; Ricciardelli, Elena; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tresse, Laurence; Vergani, Daniela; Welikala, Niraj; Zucca, Elena; Oesch, Pascal; Abbas, Ummi; Barnes, Luke; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Bottini, Dario; Cappi, Alberto; Cassata, Paolo; Cimatti, Andrea; Fumana, Marco; Hasinger, Gunther; Koekemoer, Anton; Leauthaud, Alexei; Maccagni, Dario; Marinoni, Christian; McCracken, Henry; Memeo, Pierdomenico; Meneux, Baptiste; Nair, Preethi; Porciani, Cristiano; Presotto, Valentina; Scaramella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We explore the simple inter-relationships between mass, star formation rate, and environment in the SDSS, zCOSMOS, and other deep surveys. We take a purely empirical approach in identifying those features of galaxy evolution that are demanded by the data and then explore the analytic consequences of

  2. SURVEYING THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE TIDALLY STRIPPED, LOW METALLICITY SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (SAGE-SMC). II. COOL EVOLVED STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl D.; Shiao, Bernie; Srinivasan, Sundar; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; McDonald, Iain; Kemper, F.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara; Hora, Joe; Robitaille, Thomas; Indebetouw, Remy; Sewilo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the infrared (IR) properties of cool, evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), including the red giant branch (RGB) stars and the dust-producing red supergiant (RSG) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars using observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program entitled 'Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity SMC', or SAGE-SMC. The survey includes, for the first time, full spatial coverage of the SMC bar, wing, and tail regions at IR wavelengths (3.6-160 μm). We identify evolved stars using a combination of near-IR and mid-IR photometry and point out a new feature in the mid-IR color-magnitude diagram that may be due to particularly dusty O-rich AGB stars. We find that the RSG and AGB stars each contribute ∼20% of the global SMC flux (extended + point-source) at 3.6 μm, which emphasizes the importance of both stellar types to the integrated flux of distant metal-poor galaxies. The equivalent SAGE survey of the higher-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-LMC) allows us to explore the influence of metallicity on dust production. We find that the SMC RSG stars are less likely to produce a large amount of dust (as indicated by the [3.6] - [8] color). There is a higher fraction of carbon-rich stars in the SMC, and these stars appear to reach colors as red as their LMC counterparts, indicating that C-rich dust forms efficiently in both galaxies. A preliminary estimate of the dust production in AGB and RSG stars reveals that the extreme C-rich AGB stars dominate the dust input in both galaxies, and that the O-rich stars may play a larger role in the LMC than in the SMC.

  3. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  4. A REST-FRAME OPTICAL VIEW ON z ∼ 4 GALAXIES. I. COLOR AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS FROM DEEP IRAC PHOTOMETRY OF THE IUDF10 AND GOODS SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Gonzalez, V.; Holden, B. P.; Magee, D.; Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of rest-frame UV-to-optical color distributions for z ∼ 4 galaxies based on the combination of deep HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data with Spitzer/IRAC imaging. In particular, we use new, ultra-deep data from the IRAC Ultradeep Field program (IUDF10), together with previous, public IRAC data over the GOODS fields. Our sample contains a total of ∼2600 galaxies selected as B-dropout Lyman-break Galaxies in the HUDF and its deep parallel field HUDF09-2, as well as GOODS-North/South. This sample is used to investigate the UV continuum slopes β and Balmer break colors (J 125 – [4.5]) as a function of rest-frame optical luminosity (using [4.5] to avoid optical emission lines). We find that galaxies at M z * z∼4 ) are significantly redder than their lower luminosity counterparts. The UV continuum slopes and the J 125 – [4.5] colors are well correlated, indicating that the dust reddening at these redshifts is better described by an SMC-like extinction curve, rather than the typically assumed Calzetti reddening. After dust correction, we find that the galaxy population shows mean stellar population ages in the range 10 8.5 to 10 9 yr, with a dispersion of ∼0.5 dex, and only weak trends as a function of luminosity. Only a small fraction of galaxies shows Balmer break colors consistent with extremely young ages, younger than 100 Myr. Under the assumption of smooth star-formation histories, this fraction is 12%-19% for galaxies at M z 4 with only a small fraction of stars being formed in short, intense bursts of star-formation

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF DUSTY STAR FORMATION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS TO z = 1: SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T. M. A.; O' Donnell, D.; Coppin, Kristen; Faloon, Ashley; Geach, James E.; Noble, Allison [McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Gilbank, David [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Ellingson, Erica [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gladders, Mike [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA, Leiden (Netherlands); Wilson, Gillian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of an infrared (IR) study of high-redshift galaxy clusters with the MIPS camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have assembled a sample of 42 clusters from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey-1 over the redshift range 0.3 < z < 1.0 and spanning an approximate range in mass of 10{sup 14-15} M {sub ☉}. We statistically measure the number of IR-luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred IR luminosity of 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, assuming a star forming galaxy template, per unit cluster mass and find it increases to higher redshift. Fitting a simple power-law we measure evolution of (1 + z){sup 5.1±1.9} over the range 0.3 < z < 1.0. These results are tied to the adoption of a single star forming galaxy template; the presence of active galactic nuclei, and an evolution in their relative contribution to the mid-IR galaxy emission, will alter the overall number counts per cluster and their rate of evolution. Under the star formation assumption we infer the approximate total star formation rate per unit cluster mass (ΣSFR/M {sub cluster}). The evolution is similar, with ΣSFR/M {sub cluster} ∼ (1 + z){sup 5.4±1.9}. We show that this can be accounted for by the evolution of the IR-bright field population over the same redshift range; that is, the evolution can be attributed entirely to the change in the in-falling field galaxy population. We show that the ΣSFR/M {sub cluster} (binned over all redshift) decreases with increasing cluster mass with a slope (ΣSFR/M{sub cluster}∼M{sub cluster}{sup -1.5±0.4}) consistent with the dependence of the stellar-to-total mass per unit cluster mass seen locally. The inferred star formation seen here could produce ∼5%-10% of the total stellar mass in massive clusters at z = 0, but we cannot constrain the descendant population, nor how rapidly the star-formation must shut-down once the galaxies have entered the cluster environment. Finally, we show a clear decrease in the number of IR

  6. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Najita, Joan; Merín, Bruno; Liebhart, Armin; Güdel, Manuel; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 μm Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 μm fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F 70 /F 70,* ∼> 5-15 and L disk /L * ∼> 10 –3 to 10 –4 can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  7. EVOLUTION OF GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION USING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, B. H. F.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; De Simoni, F.; Benoist, C.; Makler, M.; Mesquita, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end, we compare the LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ∼4800 galaxies. We find that for z ≤ 2.0, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of the CFHTLS comprising ∼386,000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and directly estimate the error in the parameters based on the field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ∼0.7 mag from z ∼ 1.8 to z ∼ 0.3, while the characteristic density φ* increases by a factor of ∼4 in the same redshift interval. We use the galaxy classification provided by the template fitting program used to compute photometric redshifts and split the sample into galaxy types. We find that these Schechter parameters evolve differently for each galaxy type, an indication that their evolution is a combination of several effects: galaxy merging, star formation quenching, and mass assembly. All these results are compatible with those obtained by different spectroscopic surveys such as VVDS, DEEP2, and zCosmos, which reinforces the fact that photometric redshifts can be used to study galaxy evolution, at least for the redshift bins adopted so far. This is of great interest since future very large imaging surveys containing hundreds of millions of galaxies will allow us to obtain important precise measurements to constrain the evolution of the LF and to explore the dependence of this evolution on morphology and/or color helping constrain the mechanisms of galaxy evolution.

  8. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  9. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. IX. CONSTRAINING ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH EVOLUTION WITH OLD METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, Leo; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L.; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Seth, Anil C.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratios between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. This database provides Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color-magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence, the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models with different prescriptions for the mass loss. This technique allows us to set stringent constraints on the TP-AGB models of low-mass, metal-poor stars (with M sun , [Fe/H]∼ sun . This is also in good agreement with recent observations of white dwarf masses in the M4 old globular cluster. These constraints can be added to those already derived from Magellanic Cloud star clusters as important mileposts in the arduous process of calibrating AGB evolutionary models.

  10. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Liebhart, Armin; Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-01-10

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 {mu}m Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 {mu}m fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F {sub 70}/F {sub 70,*} {approx}> 5-15 and L {sub disk}/L {sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  11. A REST-FRAME OPTICAL VIEW ON z {approx} 4 GALAXIES. I. COLOR AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS FROM DEEP IRAC PHOTOMETRY OF THE IUDF10 AND GOODS SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Gonzalez, V.; Holden, B. P.; Magee, D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Labbe, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Trenti, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Van Dokkum, P. G., E-mail: poesch@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of rest-frame UV-to-optical color distributions for z {approx} 4 galaxies based on the combination of deep HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data with Spitzer/IRAC imaging. In particular, we use new, ultra-deep data from the IRAC Ultradeep Field program (IUDF10), together with previous, public IRAC data over the GOODS fields. Our sample contains a total of {approx}2600 galaxies selected as B-dropout Lyman-break Galaxies in the HUDF and its deep parallel field HUDF09-2, as well as GOODS-North/South. This sample is used to investigate the UV continuum slopes {beta} and Balmer break colors (J{sub 125} - [4.5]) as a function of rest-frame optical luminosity (using [4.5] to avoid optical emission lines). We find that galaxies at M{sub z} < -21.5 (roughly corresponding to L{sup *}{sub z{approx}4}) are significantly redder than their lower luminosity counterparts. The UV continuum slopes and the J{sub 125} - [4.5] colors are well correlated, indicating that the dust reddening at these redshifts is better described by an SMC-like extinction curve, rather than the typically assumed Calzetti reddening. After dust correction, we find that the galaxy population shows mean stellar population ages in the range 10{sup 8.5} to 10{sup 9} yr, with a dispersion of {approx}0.5 dex, and only weak trends as a function of luminosity. Only a small fraction of galaxies shows Balmer break colors consistent with extremely young ages, younger than 100 Myr. Under the assumption of smooth star-formation histories, this fraction is 12%-19% for galaxies at M{sub z} < -19.75. Our results are consistent with a gradual build-up of stars and dust in galaxies at z > 4 with only a small fraction of stars being formed in short, intense bursts of star-formation.

  12. Lower Paleozoic deep-water facies of the Medfra area, central Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Deep-water facies, chiefly hemipelagic deposits and turbidites, of Cambrian through Devonian age are widely exposed in the Medfra and Mt. McKinley quadrangles. These strata include the upper part of the Telsitna Formation (Middle-Upper Ordovician) and the Paradise Fork Formation (Lower Silurian-Lower Devonian) in the Nixon Fork terrane, the East Fork Hills Formation (Upper Cambrian-Lower Devonian) in the East Fork subterrane of the Minchumina terrane, and the chert and argillite unit (Ordovician) and the argillite and quartzite unit (Silurian- Devonian? and possibly older) in the Telida subterrane of the Minchumina terrane.In the western part of the study area (Medfra quadrangle), both hemipelagic deposits and turbidites are largely calcareous and were derived from the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. East- ern exposures (Mt. McKinley quadrangle; eastern part of the Telida subterrane) contain much less carbonate; hemipelagic strata are mostly chert, and turbidites contain abundant rounded quartz and lesser plagioclase and potassium feldspar. Deep-water facies in the Medfra quadrangle correlate well with rocks of the Dillinger terrane exposed to the south (McGrath quadrangle), but coeval strata in the Mt. McKinley quadrangle are compositionally similar to rocks to the northeast (Livengood quadrangle). Petrographic data thus suggest that the Telida subterranes presently defined is an artificial construct made up of two distinct sequences of disparate provenance.Restoration of 90 and 150 km of dextral strike-slip on the Iditarod and Farewell faults, respectively, aligns the deep-water strata of the Minchumina and Dillinger terranes in a position east of the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. This restoration supports the interpretation that lower Paleozoic rocks in the Nixon Fork and Dillinger terranes, and in the western part of the Minchumina terrane (East Fork subterrane and western part of the Telida subterrane), formed along a single continental margin. Rocks in the

  13. Deep Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning.......I løbet af de sidste 10 år er kunstige neurale netværk gået fra at være en støvet, udstødt tekno-logi til at spille en hovedrolle i udviklingen af kunstig intelligens. Dette fænomen kaldes deep learning og er inspireret af hjernens opbygning....

  14. Deep groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.; Axelsen, K.; Fredlund, F.

    1987-06-01

    Starting in 1977 and up till now a number of places in Sweden have been investigated in order to collect the necessary geological, hydrogeological and chemical data needed for safety analyses of repositories in deep bedrock systems. Only crystalline rock is considered and in many cases this has been gneisses of sedimentary origin but granites and gabbros are also represented. Core drilled holes have been made at nine sites. Up to 15 holes may be core drilled at one site, the deepest down to 1000 m. In addition to this a number of boreholes are percussion drilled at each site to depths of about 100 m. When possible drilling water is taken from percussion drilled holes. The first objective is to survey the hydraulic conditions. Core drilled boreholes and sections selected for sampling of deep groundwater are summarized. (orig./HP)

  15. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  16. Effects of environmental variables on survey catch rates and distribution by size of shallow- and deep-water Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus off Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; van der Plas, A. K.; Bartholomae, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the effects of temperature, oxygen, salinity and time of day on survey trawl catches, we modeled observed catches of juvenile, small, medium and large hakes per station as functions of zenith angle of the sun, geographical position, year, temperature, salinity, oxygen and depth....

  17. Differential evolution of a CXCR4-using HIV-1 strain in CCR5wt/wt and CCR5∆32/∆32 hosts revealed by longitudinal deep sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Q; Taylor, Jeremy; Dong, Winnie; McCloskey, Rosemary; Woods, Conan; Danroth, Ryan; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Poon, Art F Y; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2015-12-03

    Rare individuals homozygous for a naturally-occurring 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5∆32/∆32) are resistant to infection by CCR5-using ("R5") HIV-1 strains but remain susceptible to less common CXCR4-using ("X4") strains. The evolutionary dynamics of X4 infections however, remain incompletely understood. We identified two individuals, one CCR5wt/wt and one CCR5∆32/∆32, within the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study who were infected with a genetically similar X4 HIV-1 strain. While early-stage plasma viral loads were comparable in the two individuals (~4.5-5 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml), CD4 counts in the CCR5wt/wt individual reached a nadir of 250 cells/mm(3) in the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual. Ancestral phylogenetic reconstructions using longitudinal envelope-V3 deep sequences suggested that both individuals were infected by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) X4 virus that differed at only one V3 site (codon 24). While substantial within-host HIV-1 V3 diversification was observed in plasma and PBMC in both individuals, the CCR5wt/wt individual's HIV-1 population gradually reverted from 100% X4 to ~60% R5 over ~4 years whereas the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual's remained consistently X4. Our observations illuminate early dynamics of X4 HIV-1 infections and underscore the influence of CCR5 genotype on HIV-1 V3 evolution.

  18. THE 1.1 mm CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND EVOLUTION OF THE DUST-SELECTED CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Komugi, Shinya; Muller, Erik; Mizuno, Norikazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Ezawa, Hajime [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Oshima, Tai; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason E.; Wilson, Grant W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Department of Astronomical Science, School of Physical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-20

    The first 1.1 mm continuum survey toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was performed using the AzTEC instrument installed on the ASTE 10 m telescope. This survey covered 4.5 deg{sup 2} of the SMC with 1 σ noise levels of 5–12 mJy beam{sup −1}, and 44 extended objects were identified. The 1.1 mm extended emission has good spatial correlation with Herschel 160 μ m, indicating that the origin of the 1.1 mm extended emission is thermal emission from a cold dust component. We estimated physical properties using the 1.1 mm and filtered Herschel data (100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μ m). The 1.1 mm objects show dust temperatures of 17–45 K and gas masses of 4 × 10{sup 3}–3 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, assuming single-temperature thermal emission from the cold dust with an emissivity index, β , of 1.2 and a gas-to-dust ratio of 1000. These physical properties are very similar to those of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in our galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The 1.1 mm objects also displayed good spatial correlation with the Spitzer 24 μ m and CO emission, suggesting that the 1.1 mm objects trace the dense gas regions as sites of massive star formation. The dust temperature of the 1.1 mm objects also demonstrated good correlation with the 24 μ m flux connected to massive star formation. This supports the hypothesis that the heating source of the cold dust is mainly local star-formation activity in the 1.1 mm objects. The classification of the 1.1 mm objects based on the existence of star-formation activity reveals the differences in the dust temperature, gas mass, and radius, which reflects the evolution sequence of GMCs.

  19. SV Kommandor Jack cruise Leg 2, 26 Jul-21 Aug 2002. DTI ‘Northern Triangle’ Environmental Survey: seabed survey of the deep waters to the north of Shetland

    OpenAIRE

    Bett, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This cruise formed part of the continuing Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey (AMES). Thegeneral objective of this cruise was to carry out a seabed environmental survey of the deepwaters to the North of Shetland within the UKCS (United Kingdom Continental Shelf) area. Thecruise carried out seabed sampling and photography:(a) To describe and characterise the ‘iceberg ploughmark zone’ on the North Shetland Slope.(b) To assess alongslope variation in sediments and associated fauna on the North ...

  20. Evolution of faculty affairs and faculty development offices in U.S. medical schools: a 10-year follow-up survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Roberta E; Reznik, Vivian; Thorndyke, Luanne A; Chatterjee, Archana; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Mylona, Elza; Nelson, Kathleen G; Weisman, Carol S; Morahan, Page S; Wadland, William C

    2013-09-01

    To determine how U.S. MD-granting medical schools manage, fund, and evaluate faculty affairs/development functions and to determine the evolution of these offices between 2000 and 2010. In December 2010, the authors invited faculty affairs designees at 131 U.S. MD-granting medical schools to complete a questionnaire developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges Group on Faculty Affairs, based on a 2000 survey. Schools were asked about core functions, budget, staffing, and performance metrics. The authors analyzed the data using descriptive statistics. A total of 111 schools (84.7%) responded. Fifty percent of the offices were established since 2000. Seventy-eight percent reported their top core function as administrative support for appointments, promotions, and tenure, as in 2000. Faculty policies, appointments, databases, governance support, grievance proceedings, management issues, and annual trend analyses continued as major functions. All 11 core functions identified in 2000 remain predominantly provided by central offices of faculty affairs, except support of major leadership searches. Web site communication emerged as a new core function. Similar to 2000, several other offices were responsible for some faculty development functions. Office size and budget correlated positively with size of the faculty and age of the office (P schools (31.5%) reported formally evaluating their faculty affairs office. The number of faculty affairs offices and their responsibilities have substantially increased since 2000. Most major core functions have not changed. These offices are now an established part of the central administration of most medical schools.

  1. Measurement of the evolution of type Ia supernovae explosion rate as a function of redshift in the SuperNovae Legacy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripoche, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    This research thesis reports works performed within the frame of the SuperNovae Legacy Survey (SNLS) which is one of the second-generation experiment exploiting Ia supernovae as cosmological source, and allows 8 billions or years of universe expansion to be observed by means of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope and a systematic detection of supernovae. The first part addresses cosmology and supernovae, and notably shows how Ia supernovae can used as cosmological probe to constraint cosmological parameters. Other methods of measurement of these parameters are briefly explained. The SNLS experiment is then presented: description of the experiment and of the supernovae detection chain, image processing. The author then presents a detailed simulation which has been developed to simulate Ia supernovae on the experiment images. He also presents associated tools and tests. This simulation is then used to study the efficiencies and weaknesses of supernovae detection by the SNLS. The measurement of the Ia supernovae explosion rate is then measured with respect to cosmic evolution [fr

  2. Study on seismic hazard assessment of large active fault systems. Evolution of fault systems and associated geomorphic structures: fault model test and field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keichi; Inoue, Daiei; Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi; Miyagawa, Kimio; Miura, Daisuke

    2003-01-01

    Sandbox experiments and field surveys were performed to investigate fault system evolution and fault-related deformation of ground surface, the Quaternary deposits and rocks. The summary of the results is shown below. 1) In the case of strike-slip faulting, the basic fault sequence runs from early en echelon faults and pressure ridges through linear trough. The fault systems associated with the 2000 western Tottori earthquake are shown as en echelon pattern that characterize the early stage of wrench tectonics, therefore no thoroughgoing surface faulting was found above the rupture as defined by the main shock and aftershocks. 2) Low-angle and high-angle reverse faults commonly migrate basinward with time, respectively. With increasing normal fault displacement in bedrock, normal fault develops within range after reverse fault has formed along range front. 3) Horizontal distance of surface rupture from the bedrock fault normalized by the height of the Quaternary deposits agrees well with those of model tests. 4) Upward-widening damage zone, where secondary fractures develop, forms in the handing wall side of high-angle reverse fault at the Kamioka mine. (author)

  3. THE ROLE OF QUENCHING TIME IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE MASS–SIZE RELATION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES FROM THE WISP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanella, A.; Scarlata, C.; Rutkowski, M. J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Corsini, E. M.; Bontà, E. Dalla [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bedregal, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Atek, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX13RH (United Kingdom); Colbert, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dai, Y. S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Rafelski, M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Siana, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Teplitz, H., E-mail: anita.zanella@cea.fr, E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    We analyze how passive galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 populate the mass–size plane as a function of their stellar age, to understand if the observed size growth with time can be explained with the appearance of larger quenched galaxies at lower redshift. We use a sample of 32 passive galaxies extracted from the Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) survey with spectroscopic redshift 1.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.05, specific star formation rates lower than 0.01 Gyr{sup −1}, and stellar masses above 4.5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}. All galaxies have spectrally determined stellar ages from fitting of their rest-frame optical spectra and photometry with stellar population models. When dividing our sample into young (age ≤2.1 Gyr) and old (age >2.1 Gyr) galaxies we do not find a significant trend in the distributions of the difference between the observed radius and that predicted by the mass–size relation. This result indicates that the relation between the galaxy age and its distance from the mass–size relation, if it exists, is rather shallow, with a slope α ≳ −0.6. At face value, this finding suggests that multiple dry and/or wet minor mergers, rather than the appearance of newly quenched galaxies, are mainly responsible for the observed time evolution of the mass–size relation in passive galaxies.

  4. The evolution of OPUS: A set of web-based GPS processing tools offered by the National Geodetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Dr.; Mader, Dr.; Schenewerk, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) is a suite of web-based GPS processing tools that were initially developed by the National Geodetic Survey approximately eleven years ago. The first version, known as OPUS static (OPUS-S), processes L1 and L2 carrier-phase data in native receiver and RINEX formats. Datasets submitted to OPUS-S must be between two and 48 hours in duration and pass several quality control steps before being passed onto the positioning algorithm. OPUS-S was designed to select five nearby CORS to form baselines that are processed independently. The best three solutions are averaged to produce a final set of coordinates. The current version of OPUS-S has been optimized to accept and process GPS data from any location in the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and the Caribbean. OPUS Networks (OPUS-Net), one of the most recently developed versions and currently in beta testing, has many of the same processing characteristics and dataset requirements as OPUS-S but with one significant difference. OPUS-Net selects up to 10 IGS reference sites and three regional CORS to perform a simultaneous least squares adjustment with the user-submitted data. The CORS stations are primarily used to better estimate the troposphere while the position of the unknown station and the three CORS reference stations are determined from the more precisely known and monitored IGS reference stations. Additional enhancements to OPUS-Net are the implementation of absolute antenna patterns and ocean tides (FES2004), using reference station coordinates in IGS08 reference frame, as well as using improved phase ambiguity integer fixing and troposphere modeling (GPT and GMF a priori models). OPUS Projects, the final version of OPUS to be reviewed in this paper, is a complete web-based, GPS data processing and analysis environment. The main idea behind OPUS Projects is that one or more managers can define numerous, independent GPS projects. Each newly defined project is

  5. The VANDELS ESO spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  6. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  7. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  8. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic studies of the outer Carpathian Orogen and its foreland (Focsani Basin) in the vicinity of the Vrancea Zone and Danube Delta (Romania) forms one component of a new multidisciplinary initiative of ISES (Netherlands Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences) called DACIA PLAN ("Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics"). The study area, at the margin of the European craton, constitutes one of the most active seismic zones in Europe, yet has remained a geological and geodynamic enigma within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Intermediate depth (50-220 km) mantle earthquakes of significant magnitude occur in a geographically restricted area in the south-east Carpathians bend. The adjacent, foreland Focsani Basin appears to exhibit recent extensional deformation in what is otherwise understood to be a zone of convergence. The deep seismic reflection component of DACIA PLAN comprises a ~140-km near-vertical profile across the Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin. Data acquisition took place in August-September 2001, as part of the integrated refraction/reflection seismic field programme "Vrancea-2001" co-ordinated at Karlsruhe University (cf. Abstract, Part 1), utilising 640 independently deployed recorders provided by UTEP and IRIS/PASSCAL ("Texans"). Station spacing was every 100-m with shots every 1-km. These data are to be integrated with industry seismic as well as planned new medium-high resolution seismic reflection profiling across key neotectonically active structures in the Focsani Basin. Particular goals of DACIA PLAN include: (1) the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to this zone, including the foreland Focsani Basin; (2) the presence and geometry of structural detachment(s) in relation with foreland basin development, including constraints for balanced cross-sections and geodynamic modelling of basin origin and evolution; (3) the relationship between crustal

  9. The XMM-Newton Wide Field Survey in the COSMOS Field: Redshift Evolution of AGN Bias and Subdominant Role of Mergers in Triggering Moderate-luminosity AGNs at Redshifts up to 2.2

    OpenAIRE

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Shankar, F.; James, J. B.; McCracken, H. J.; Bongiorno, A.; Merloni, A.; Peacock, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the redshift evolution of the projected correlation function of 593 X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with I_(AB) < 23 and spectroscopic redshifts z < 4, extracted from the 0.5–2 keV X-ray mosaic of the 2.13 deg^2 XMM- Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). We introduce a method to estimate the average bias of the AGN sample and the mass of AGN hosting halos, solving the sample variance using the halo model and taking into account the growth of the structure over t...

  10. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  11. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, Mark C.; Russell, Glenn P.; Perry, Frank V.; Kelley, Richard E.; Champenois, Sean T.

    2017-01-01

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  12. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Russell, Glenn P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perry, Frank V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Champenois, Sean T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-13

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  13. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  14. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VANDELS High-Redshift Galaxy Evolution (McLure+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R.; Pentericci, L.; Vandels Team

    2017-11-01

    This is the first data release (DR1) of the VANDELS survey, an ESO public spectroscopy survey targeting the high-redshift Universe. The VANDELS survey uses the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's VLT to obtain ultra-deep, medium resolution, optical spectra of galaxies within the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) and Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) survey fields (0.2 sq. degree total area). Using robust photometric redshift pre-selection, VANDELS is targeting ~2100 galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0=3. In addition, VANDELS is targeting a substantial number of passive galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0filter, which covers the wavelength range 4800-10000Å at a dispersion of 2.5Å/pix and a spectral resolution of R~600. Each galaxy receives between a minimum of 20-hours and a maximum of 80-hours of on-source integration time. The fundamental aim of the survey is to provide the high signal-to-noise spectra necessary to measure key physical properties such as stellar population ages, metallicities and outflow velocities from detailed absorption-line studies. By targeting two extra-galactic survey fields with superb multi-wavelength imaging data, VANDELS is designed to produce a unique legacy dataset for exploring the physics underpinning high-redshift galaxy evolution. (2 data files).

  16. Survey report of NOAA Ship McArthur II cruises AR-04-04, AR-05-05 and AR-06-03: habitat classification of side scan sonar imagery in support of deep-sea coral/sponge explorations at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intelmann, Steven S.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Bowlby, C. Edward; Brancato, Mary Sue; Hyland, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Habitat mapping and characterization has been defined as a high-priority management issue for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS), especially for poorly known deep-sea habitats that may be sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. As a result, a team of scientists from OCNMS, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and other partnering institutions initiated a series of surveys to assess the distribution of deep-sea coral/sponge assemblages within the sanctuary and to look for evidence of potential anthropogenic impacts in these critical habitats. Initial results indicated that remotely delineating areas of hard bottom substrate through acoustic sensing could be a useful tool to increase the efficiency and success of subsequent ROV-based surveys of the associated deep-sea fauna. Accordingly, side scan sonar surveys were conducted in May 2004, June 2005, and April 2006 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur II to: (1) obtain additional imagery of the seafloor for broader habitat-mapping coverage of sanctuary waters, and (2) help delineate suitable deep-sea coral-sponge habitat, in areas of both high and low commercial-fishing activities, to serve as sites for surveying-in more detail using an ROV on subsequent cruises, Several regions of the sea floor throughout the OCNMS were surveyed and mosaicked at 1-meter pixel resolution. Imagery from the side scan sonar mapping efforts was integrated with other complementary data from a towed camera sled, ROVs, sedentary samples, and bathymetry records to describe geological and biological (where possible) aspects of habitat. Using a hierarchical deep-water marine benthic classification scheme (Greene et al. 1999), we created a preliminary map of various habitat polygon features for use in a geographical information system (GIS). This report provides a description of the mapping and groundtruthing efforts as well as results of the image classification procedure for each of the areas surveyed.

  17. The XXL Survey: First Results and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Ettori, S.; Evrard, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gastaldello, F.; Giles, P.; Horellou, C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The XXL survey currently covers two 25 deg2 patches with XMM observations of approximately 10 ks. We summarize the scientific results associated with the first release of the XXL dataset, which occurred in mid-2016.We review several arguments for increasing the survey depth to 40 ks during the next decade of XMM operations. X-ray(zeta less than 2) cluster, (zeta less than 4) active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cosmic background survey science will then benefit from an extraordinary data reservoir. This, combined with deep multi-lambda observations, will lead to solid standalone cosmological constraints and provide a wealth of information on the formation and evolution of AGN, clusters, and the X-ray background. In particular, it will offer a unique opportunity to pinpoint the zeta greater than1 cluster density. It will eventually constitute a reference study and an ideal calibration field for the upcoming eROSITA and Euclid missions.

  18. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  19. Survey Observations to Study Chemical Evolution from High-mass Starless Cores to High-mass Protostellar Objects. I. HC3N and HC5N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao; Sridharan, T. K.; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    We carried out survey observations of HC3N and HC5N in the 42‑45 GHz band toward 17 high-mass starless cores (HMSCs) and 35 high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs) with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. We have detected HC3N from 15 HMSCs and 28 HMPOs, and HC5N from 5 HMSCs and 14 HMPOs, respectively. The average values of the column density of HC3N are found to be (5.7+/- 0.7) × {10}12 and (1.03+/- 0.12)×{10}13 cm‑2 in HMSCs and HMPOs, respectively. The average values of the fractional abundance of HC3N are derived to be (6.6+/- 0.8)× {10}-11 and (3.6+/- 0.5)× {10}-11 in HMSCs and HMPOs, respectively. We find that the fractional abundance of HC3N decreases from HMSCs to HMPOs using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. On the other hand, its average value of the column density slightly increases from HMSCs to HMPOs. This may imply that HC3N is newly formed in dense gas in HMPO regions. We also investigate the relationship between the column density of HC3N in HMPOs and the luminosity-to-mass ratio (L/M), a physical evolutional indicator. The column density of HC3N tends to decrease with the increase of the L/M ratio, which suggests that HC3N is destroyed by the stellar activities.

  20. Deep learning in neural networks: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.

  1. ISOGAL: A deep survey of the obscured inner Milky Way with ISO at 7 mu m and 15 mu m and with DENIS in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omont, A.; Gilmore, G. F.; Alard, C.; Aracil, B.; August, T.; Baliyan, K.; Beaulieu, S.; Bégon, S.; Bertou, X.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Borsenberger, J.; Burgdorf, M.; Caillaud, B.; Cesarsky, C.; Chitre, A.; Copet, E.; de Batz, B.; Egan, M. P.; Egret, D.; Epchtein, N.; Felli, M.; Fouqué, P.; Ganesh, S.; Genzel, R.; Glass, I. S.; Gredel, R.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Guglielmo, F.; Habing, H. J.; Hennebelle, P.; Jiang, B.; Joshi, U. C.; Kimeswenger, S.; Messineo, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M. A.; Moneti, A.; Morris, M.; Ojha, D. K.; Ortiz, R.; Ott, S.; Parthasarathy, M.; Pérault, M.; Price, S. D.; Robin, A. C.; Schultheis, M.; Schuller, F.; Simon, G.; Soive, A.; Testi, L.; Teyssier, D.; Tiphène, D.; Unavane, M.; van Loon, J. T.; Wyse, R.

    2003-06-01

    The ISOGAL project is an infrared survey of specific regions sampling the Galactic Plane selected to provide information on Galactic structure, stellar populations, stellar mass-loss and the recent star formation history of the inner disk and Bulge of the Galaxy. ISOGAL combines 7 and 15 μm ISOCAM observations -- with a resolution of 6 arcsec at worst -- with DENIS IJKs data to determine the nature of the sources and the interstellar extinction. We have observed about 16 square degrees with a sensitivity approaching 10-20 mJy, detecting ˜105 sources, mostly AGB stars, red giants and young stars. The main features of the ISOGAL survey and the observations are summarized in this paper, together with a brief discussion of data processing and quality. The primary ISOGAL products are described briefly (a full desciption is given in Schuller et al. 2003): viz. the images and the ISOGAL-DENIS five-wavelength point source catalogue. The main scientific results already derived or in progress are summarized. These include astrometrically calibrated 7 and 15 μm images, determining structures of resolved sources; identification and properties of interstellar dark clouds; quantification of the infrared extinction law and source dereddening; analysis of red giant and (especially) AGB stellar populations in the central Bulge, determining luminosity, presence of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate, and source classification, supplemented in some cases by ISO/CVF spectroscopy; detection of young stellar objects of diverse types, especially in the inner Bulge with information about the present and recent star formation rate; identification of foreground sources with mid-IR excess. These results are the subject of about 25 refereed papers published or in preparation. This is paper No. 20 in a refereed journal based on data from the ISOGAL project. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France

  2. GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 ∼ + - m 3.6 μ m colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z f ≥ 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m 3.6μm colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z f ∼ 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.

  3. Exploitation of "Excess" Data Now Routinely Collected by Large N, Continuously Recorded Oil Exploration Surveys: From Microseismicity to Deep Crustal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The rapidly expanding use by the oil and gas industry of "nodal", large channel capacity areal arrays that record continuously for extended periods of time is generating large volumes of data in excess of that needed for the conventional CMP reflection imaging that is the primary goal of such surveys. These excess data, once considered as simply "noise", have recently been recognized to have utility not only for the exploration seismologist but also for addressing a diverse range of phenomena. The most widely recognized use for these "noise" records is surface wave tomographic imaging of near surface velocity structure via seismic interferometry of ambient natural noise. Such results are proving to be of great value in enhancing conventional 3D exploration imagery, but they should be appreciated in their own right for the information they provide on the shallow subsurface to the hydrologist, engineer and tectonicist. Another relatively dramatic application is the delineation of local structure by tracing the propagation of body and surface waves from local and teleseismic events across these dense arrays. Here I would like draw attention to three other promising uses for such data: a) detection and mapping of microseismicity below the detection thresholds of conventional earthquake monitoring networks, especially in areas of low conventional seismicity; b) reflection and refraction imaging of structure using cultural, as opposed to natural, energy sources, and c) systematic mapping of the basement in 3D using the existing exploration sources recorded at travel times longer than that typically harvested for resource purposes. We conclude by emphasizing that these potentially invaluable "extras" are now being recorded routinely around the world, but there is as yet no mechanism in place to ensure they are exploited rather than simply deleted.

  4. Deep fracturation of granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Blanchin, R.; Bonijoly, D.; Dutartre, P.; Feybesse, J.L.; Gros, Y.; Landry, J.; Martin, P.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground, in various feasibility studies dealing with radioactive wastes disposal. The Mont Blanc road tunnel, the EDF Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater [fr

  5. Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project: Isotope and Chemical Methods in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Landis, Gary P.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Emsbo, Poul; Stricker, Craig A.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Rusk, Brian G.

    2010-01-01

    Principal functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program are providing assessments of the location, quantity, and quality of undiscovered mineral deposits, and predicting the environmental impacts of exploration and mine development. The mineral and environmental assessments of domestic deposits are used by planners and decisionmakers to improve the stewardship of public lands and public resources. Assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits on a global scale reveal the potential availability of minerals to the United States and other countries that manufacture goods imported to the United States. These resources are of fundamental relevance to national and international economic and security policy in our globalized world economy. Performing mineral and environmental assessments requires that predictions be made of the likelihood of undiscovered deposits. The predictions are based on geologic and geoenvironmental models that are constructed for the diverse types of mineral deposits from detailed descriptions of actual deposits and detailed understanding of the processes that formed them. Over the past three decades the understanding of ore-forming processes has benefited greatly from the integration of laboratory-based geochemical tools with field observations and other data sources. Under the aegis of the Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project (referred to hereinafter as the Project), a 5-year effort that terminated in 2008, the Mineral Resources Program provided state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to support applications of several related geochemical tools to ore-deposit-related studies. The analytical capabilities and scientific approaches developed within the Project have wide applicability within Earth-system science. For this reason the Project Laboratories represent a valuable catalyst for interdisciplinary collaborations of the type that should be formed in the coming years for the United States to meet

  6. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...... be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mathematical expressions as directed graphs. The latest version is available at http...

  7. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). A Literature Survey on Markers and Memory Preservation for Deep Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This study is an English translation and slight update of a previous study originally commissioned by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy between 2008 and 2010. The intention was to investigate the 'state of the art' on marking with a view to learning lessons for geological repositories. This is an edited and slightly updated English translation, published by the NEA as part of the RWMC project 'The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations'. The work is conceived as a literature study. It considers over 150 texts, published between 1928 and 2013. Texts published between the 1990 and 2010 form a majority, making the 1990's and 2000's the dominant era. The texts include technical reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, implementation plans, national regulations, and full-length books. Some publications are specifically about the concept, implementation and requirements for Markers. Others consider the geological disposal of radioactive from other points of view - for example, archiving, or intrusion scenarios. Others are publications on history or futurism, including histories of genocide and language, and the possibilities of communication far into the future. Authors of the texts include academies, international organisations, consultants commissioned by national organisations, regulators, implementers, and protest groups. It should be recognised that, whilst care has been taken to provide a wide and representative study, the concept of 'marking' a geological repository was first established in the USA. The available literature on Markers is still dominated by work carried out in the USA in the 1980's, 1990's and 2000's. The conclusions and points of view surveyed are therefore weighted towards this body of work. The study brings together the knowledge and experience from the field of marking and archiving from the last few decades and provides an overview of the present status of discussions on the topic. It is an

  8. TMDs: Evolution, modeling, precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alesio Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factorization theorem for qT spectra in Drell-Yan processes, boson production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering allows for the determination of the non-perturbative parts of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. Here we discuss the fit of Drell-Yan and Z-production data using the transverse momentum dependent formalism and the resummation of the evolution kernel. We find a good theoretical stability of the results and a final χ2/points ≲ 1. We show how the fixing of the non-perturbative pieces of the evolution can be used to make predictions at present and future colliders.

  9. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  10. TMD Evolution at Moderate Hard Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, John C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We summarize some of our recent work on non-perturbative transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution, emphasizing aspects that are necessary for dealing with moderately low scale processes like semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  11. Dust Measurements Onboard the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Malaspina, D.; Poppe, A.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Szalay, J.

    2018-02-01

    A dust instrument onboard the Deep Space Gateway will revolutionize our understanding of the dust environment at 1 AU, help our understanding of the evolution of the solar system, and improve dust hazard models for the safety of crewed and robotic missions.

  12. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  13. RED NUGGETS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES OVER 10 Gyr OF COSMIC HISTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanov, Ivana; Abraham, Roberto G.; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Mentuch, Erin; Glazebrook, Karl; Caris, Evelyn; Green, Andrew W.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Crampton, David; Murowinski, Richard; Joergensen, Inger; Roth, Kathy; Juneau, Stephanie; Le Borgne, Damien; Marzke, Ronald O.; Savaglio, Sandra; Yan Haojing

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the size growth seen in early-type galaxies over 10 Gyr of cosmic time. Our analysis is based on a homogeneous synthesis of published data from 16 spectroscopic surveys observed at similar spatial resolution, augmented by new measurements for galaxies in the Gemini Deep Deep Survey. In total, our sample contains structural data for 465 galaxies (mainly early-type) in the redshift range 0.2 e ∝(1 + z) -1.62±0.34 . Surprisingly, this power law seems to be in good agreement with the recently reported continuous size evolution of UV-bright galaxies in the redshift range z ∼ 0.5-3.5. It is also in accordance with the predictions from recent theoretical models.

  14. The VANDELS ESO public spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Fèvre, O. Le; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  15. The FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE): Ultraviolet to Far-infrared Catalogs, Medium-bandwidth Photometric Redshifts with Improved Accuracy, Stellar Masses, and Confirmation of Quiescent Galaxies to z ˜ 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Spitler, Lee R.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Labbé, Ivo; Glazebrook, Karl; Persson, S. Eric; Papovich, Casey; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cowley, Michael; Tomczak, Adam; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Alcorn, Leo; Allen, Rebecca; Broussard, Adam; van Dokkum, Pieter; Forrest, Ben; van Houdt, Josha; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Kelson, Daniel D.; Lee, Janice; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Monson, Andrew; Murphy, David; Rees, Glen; Tilvi, Vithal; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-10-01

    The FourStar galaxy evolution survey (ZFOURGE) is a 45 night legacy program with the FourStar near-infrared camera on Magellan and one of the most sensitive surveys to date. ZFOURGE covers a total of 400 arcmin2 in cosmic fields CDFS, COSMOS and UDS, overlapping CANDELS. We present photometric catalogs comprising >70,000 galaxies, selected from ultradeep K s -band detection images (25.5-26.5 AB mag, 5σ, total), and >80% complete to K s inclusion of FourStar medium bands. σ z,pairs is smallest for bright, blue star-forming samples, while red star-forming galaxies have the worst σ z,pairs. Including FourStar medium bands reduces σ z,pairs by 50% at 1.5 ×15. This paper contains data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas observatory, Chile

  16. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  17. A PILOT FOR A VERY LARGE ARRAY H I DEEP FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ximena; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, David; Hess, Kelley M.; Pisano, D. J.; Kreckel, Kathryn; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Oosterloo, Tom; Chomiuk, Laura; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Henning, Patricia A.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Scoville, Nick

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' × 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.

  18. A PILOT FOR A VERY LARGE ARRAY H I DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hess, Kelley M. [Department of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Pisano, D. J. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Kreckel, Kathryn [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Popping, Attila [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Verheijen, M. A. W. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Henning, Patricia A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A.; Wilcots, Eric M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Scoville, Nick, E-mail: ximena@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' Multiplication-Sign 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.

  19. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  20. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  1. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  2. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Jian, Hung-Yu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P.; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M * ) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M * relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10 14 M ☉ ), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent galaxies for more

  3. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Jian, Hung-Yu [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Foucaud, Sebastien [Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, N°88, Tingzhou Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heinis, Sebastien [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Phleps, Stefanie [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Chen, Wen-Ping [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Lee, Chien-Hsiu [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W., E-mail: lihwailin@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-02-10

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M {sub *}) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M {sub *} relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent

  4. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  5. Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnle, Alexander; Copestake, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing 'deep' linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value ...

  6. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J.E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D.O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Whitmore, B.C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L.J.; Bright, S.N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; Dale, D.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify

  7. Biophysics of protein evolution and evolutionary protein biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikosek, Tobias; Chan, Hue Sun

    2014-01-01

    The study of molecular evolution at the level of protein-coding genes often entails comparing large datasets of sequences to infer their evolutionary relationships. Despite the importance of a protein's structure and conformational dynamics to its function and thus its fitness, common phylogenetic methods embody minimal biophysical knowledge of proteins. To underscore the biophysical constraints on natural selection, we survey effects of protein mutations, highlighting the physical basis for marginal stability of natural globular proteins and how requirement for kinetic stability and avoidance of misfolding and misinteractions might have affected protein evolution. The biophysical underpinnings of these effects have been addressed by models with an explicit coarse-grained spatial representation of the polypeptide chain. Sequence–structure mappings based on such models are powerful conceptual tools that rationalize mutational robustness, evolvability, epistasis, promiscuous function performed by ‘hidden’ conformational states, resolution of adaptive conflicts and conformational switches in the evolution from one protein fold to another. Recently, protein biophysics has been applied to derive more accurate evolutionary accounts of sequence data. Methods have also been developed to exploit sequence-based evolutionary information to predict biophysical behaviours of proteins. The success of these approaches demonstrates a deep synergy between the fields of protein biophysics and protein evolution. PMID:25165599

  8. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY—THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Casertano, Stefano; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Dolch, Timothy; Strolger, Louis; Castellano, Marco; Dickinson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z ≈ 1.5-8, and to study Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and the WFC3 ultraviolet/optical channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers ∼125 arcmin 2 within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of ∼800 arcmin 2 across GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-Deep Survey). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from the survey. Our data reduction methods utilize the most up-to-date calibration files and image combination procedures. We have paid special attention to correcting a range of instrumental effects, including charge transfer efficiency degradation for ACS, removal of electronic bias-striping present in ACS data after Servicing Mission 4, and persistence effects and other artifacts in WFC3/IR. For each field, we release mosaics for individual epochs and eventual mosaics containing data from all epochs combined, to facilitate photometric variability studies and the deepest possible photometry. A more detailed overview of the science goals and observational design of the survey are presented in a companion paper.

  9. Deep Learning in the Automotive Industry: Applications and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Luckow, Andre; Cook, Matthew; Ashcraft, Nathan; Weill, Edwin; Djerekarov, Emil; Vorster, Bennie

    2017-01-01

    Deep Learning refers to a set of machine learning techniques that utilize neural networks with many hidden layers for tasks, such as image classification, speech recognition, language understanding. Deep learning has been proven to be very effective in these domains and is pervasively used by many Internet services. In this paper, we describe different automotive uses cases for deep learning in particular in the domain of computer vision. We surveys the current state-of-the-art in libraries, ...

  10. Hadron final states in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1976-05-01

    Lectures are presented dealing mainly with the description and discussion of hadron final states in electroproduction, colliding beams, and neutrino reactions from the point of view of the simple parton model. Also the space-time evolution of final states in the parton model is considered. It is found that the picture of space-time evolution of hadron final states in deep inelastic processes isn't totally trivial and that it can be made consistent with the hypotheses of the parton model. 39 references

  11. Deep Water Coral (HB1402, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The cruise will survey and collect samples of deep-sea corals and related marine life in the canyons in the northern Gulf of Maine in U.S. and Canadian waters. The...

  12. Deep learning for studies of galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing accurate morphological measurements of galaxies in a reasonable amount of time for future big-data surveys such as EUCLID, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a challenge. Because of its high level of abstraction with little human intervention, deep learning appears to be a promising approach. Deep learning is a rapidly growing discipline that models high-level patterns in data as complex multilayered networks. In this work we test the ability of deep convolutional networks to provide parametric properties of Hubble Space Telescope like galaxies (half-light radii, Sérsic indices, total flux etc..). We simulate a set of galaxies including point spread function and realistic noise from the CANDELS survey and try to recover the main galaxy parameters using deep-learning. We compare the results with the ones obtained with the commonly used profile fitting based software GALFIT. This way showing that with our method we obtain results at least equally good as the ones obtained with GALFIT but, once trained, with a factor 5 hundred time faster.

  13. A new evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laenen, E.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolution equation for the gluon density relevant for the region of small x B . It generalizes the GLR equation and allows deeper penetration in dense parton systems than the GLR equation does. This generalization consists of taking shadowing effects more comprehensively into account by including multigluon correlations, and allowing for an arbitrary initial gluon distribution in a hadron. We solve the new equation for fixed α s . We find that the effects of multigluon correlations on the deep-inelastic structure function are small. (orig.)

  14. THE XMM-NEWTON WIDE FIELD SURVEY IN THE COSMOS FIELD: REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF AGN BIAS AND SUBDOMINANT ROLE OF MERGERS IN TRIGGERING MODERATE-LUMINOSITY AGNs AT REDSHIFTS UP TO 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allevato, V.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Brusa, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Merloni, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Shankar, F.; James, J. B.; Peacock, J. A.; McCracken, H. J.; Silverman, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the redshift evolution of the projected correlation function of 593 X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with I AB 2 XMM- Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). We introduce a method to estimate the average bias of the AGN sample and the mass of AGN hosting halos, solving the sample variance using the halo model and taking into account the growth of the structure over time. We find evidence of a redshift evolution of the bias factor for the total population of XMM-COSMOS AGNs from b-bar ( z-bar =0.92)=2.30±0.11 to b-bar ( z-bar =1.94)=4.37±0.27 with an average mass of the hosting dark matter (DM) halos log M 0 (h -1 M sun ) ∼ 13.12 ± 0.12 that remains constant at all z 0 (h -1 M sun ) ∼ 13.28 ± 0.07 and log M 0 (h -1 M sun ) ∼ 13.00 ± 0.06 for BL/X-ray unobscured AGNs and NL/X-ray obscured AGNs, respectively. The theoretical models, which assume a quasar phase triggered by major mergers, cannot reproduce the high bias factors and DM halo masses found for X-ray selected BL AGNs with L BOL ∼ 2 x 10 45 erg s -1 . Our work extends up to z ∼ 2.2 the z ∼< 1 statement that, for moderate-luminosity X-ray selected BL AGNs, the contribution from major mergers is outnumbered by other processes, possibly secular ones such as tidal disruptions or disk instabilities.

  15. Florida Teachers' Attitudes about Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Samantha R.; Meisels, Gerry G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of Florida teachers reveals many differences in comfort level with teaching evolution according to the state's science teaching standards, general attitudes and beliefs about evolution, and the extent to which teachers are criticized, censured, disparaged, or reprehended for their beliefs about the teaching of evolution.

  16. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  17. The light up and early evolution of high redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella; Aird, James; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    The known AGN population at z > 6 is made by luminous optical QSO hosting Supermassive Black Holes (M > 10 ^{9}solar masses), likely to represent the tip of the iceberg of the luminosity and mass function. According to theoretical models for structure formation, Massive Black Holes (M _{BH} 10^{4-7} solar masses) are predicted to be abundant in the early Universe (z > 6). The majority of these lower luminosity objects are expected to be obscured and severely underepresented in current optical near-infrared surveys. The detection of such a population would provide unique constraints on the Massive Black Holes formation mechanism and subsequent growth and is within the capabilities of deep and large area ATHENA surveys. After a summary of the state of the art of present deep XMM and Chandra surveys, at z >3-6 also mentioning the expectations for the forthcoming eROSITA all sky survey; I will present the observational strategy of future multi-cone ATHENA Wide Field Imager (WFI) surveys and the expected breakthroughs in the determination of the luminosity function and its evolution at high (> 4) and very high (>6) redshifts.

  18. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    detection and localisation of point-source bioluminescence at ecologically meaningful distances. At all depths, the eyes of animals active on and over the nutrient-rich sea floor are generally larger than the eyes of pelagic species. In fishes, the retinal ganglion cells are also frequently arranged in a horizontal visual streak, an adaptation for viewing the wide flat horizon of the sea floor, and all animals living there. These and many other aspects of light and vision in the deep sea are reviewed in support of the following conclusion: it is not only the intensity of light at different depths, but also its distribution in space, which has been a major force in the evolution of deep-sea vision.

  20. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  1. New DSH planetary nebulae and candidates from optical and infrared surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberger, Matthias; Jacoby, George H; Alves, Filipe; Patchick, Dana; Parker, Quentin A; Bojicic, Ivan; Frew, David J; Acker, Agnes; Eigenthaler, Paul; Harmer, Dianne; Reid, Warren; Schedler, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To date, the planetary nebula (PN) survey of the Deep Sky Hunters collaboration has led to the detection of more than 250 previously unknown candidate planetary nebulae (PNe). About 60% of them were found during the past two years and are expected to be true, likely or possible PNe because careful vetting has already thrown out more doubtful objects. The majority of the new PN candidates are located within the boundaries of the SHS and IPHAS Ha surveys and were discovered by combining MIR data from the WideField Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the IPHAS, SHS and DSS surveys, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX). (paper)

  2. Star Formation at z ~ 6: The Hubble Ultra Deep Parallel Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Thompson, R. I.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Dickinson, M. E.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Fan, X.; Franx, M.; Meurer, G.; van Dokkum, P.

    2004-05-01

    We report on the i-dropouts detected in two exceptionally deep Advanced Camera for Surveys fields (B435, V606, i775, and z850 with 10σ limits of 28.8, 29.0, 28.5, and 27.8, respectively) taken in parallel with the Ultra Deep Field Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer observations. Using an i-z>1.4 cut, we find 30 i-dropouts over 21 arcmin2 down to z850,AB=28.1, or 1.4 i-dropouts arcmin-2, with significant field-to-field variation (as expected from cosmic variance). This extends i-dropout searches some ~0.9 mag further down the luminosity function than was possible in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields, yielding a ~7 times increase in surface density. An estimate of the size evolution for UV-bright objects is obtained by comparing the composite radial flux profile of the bright i-dropouts (z850,ABdropouts. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-1.57+0.50-0.53 scaling in size (for fixed luminosity), extending lower redshift (1dropouts from both GOODS fields, we make incompleteness estimates and construct a z~6 luminosity function (LF) in the rest-frame continuum UV (~1350 Å) over a 3.5 mag baseline, finding a shape consistent with that found at lower redshift. To evaluate the evolution in the LF from z~3.8, we make comparisons against different scalings of a lower redshift B-dropout sample. Although a strong degeneracy is found between luminosity and density evolution, our best-fit model scales as (1+z)-2.8 in number and (1+z)0.1 in luminosity, suggesting a rest-frame continuum UV luminosity density at z~6 that is just 0.38+0.09-0.07 times that at z~3.8. Our inclusion of the size evolution makes the present estimate lower than previous z~6 estimates. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program 9803.

  3. The occurrence of fluor-wagnerite in UHT granulites and its implications towards understanding fluid regimes in the evolution of deep crust: a case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kaushik; Tomioka, Naotaka; Bose, Sankar; Ando, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    We report the occurrence of a rare phosphate mineral, fluor-wagnerite (Mg1.91-1.94Fe0.06-0.07Ca1000 °C, 8-9 kbar) of the studied area was retrogressed after emplacement to mid-crustal level (800-850 °C, 6-6.5 kbar) as deduced from their pressure -temperature histories. Based on mineral chemical data and micro-Raman analyses, we document an unusual high Mg-F-rich chemistry of the F-wagnerite, which occur both in peak metamorphic porphyroblastic assemblages as well as in the retrograde matrix assemblage. Therefore, in absence of other common phosphates like apatite, fluor-wagnerite can act as an indicator for the presence of F-bearing fluids for rocks with high X Mg and/or fO2. The occurrence of F-rich minerals as monitors for fluid compositions has important implications for the onset of biotite dehydration melting and hence melt production in the deep crust. We propose that fluor-wagnerite can occur as an accessory mineral associated with F-rich fluids in lower-mid crustal rocks, and F in coexisting minerals should be taken into consideration when reconciling the petrogenetic grid of biotite-dehydration melting.

  4. An overview of IPSN research on the evolution of the natural systems in support of the French methodology for the safety evaluation of radwaste disposal in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Granier, T.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1992-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep geological disposal: the present paper concerns the requirements related to bedrock stability issues and their technical background. This regulation relies in particular on a long term effort of the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IPSN) of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), which ensures two main duties: it carries out research programs in the area of protection and nuclear safety and provides expertise to the safety authorities. It should be noted that ANDRA (the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for the safety of radioactive waste management and relies, for safety demonstration purposes, on its research programs. IPSN, in support of the safety authorities, is in charge of the verification of the applicant's safety demonstration and develops its own research programs in order to achieve an independent capability in safety analysis expertise. We present here the major axes of the Institute research program devoted to the assessment of seismic events consequences on the groundwater system. 19 refs., 8 figs

  5. An overview of IPSN research on the evolution of the natural systems in support of the French methodology for the safety evaluation of radwaste disposal in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Granier, T.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1992-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep in geological disposal: the present paper concerns the requirements related to bedrock stability issues and their technical background. This regulation relies in particular on a long term effort of the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IPSN) of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), which ensures two main duties: it carries out research programs in the area of protection and nuclear safety and provides expertise to the safety authorities. It should be noted that ANDRA (the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for the safety of radioactive waste management and relies, for safety demonstration purposes, on its research programs. IPSN, in support of the safety authorities, is in charge of the verification of the applicant's safety demonstration and develops its own research programs in order to achieve an independent capability in safety analysis expertise. We present here the major axes of the Institute research program devoted to the assessment of seismic events consequences on the groundwater system. 19 refs., 8 figs

  6. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: On the Evolution of M* Galaxy Progenitors from z = 3 to 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Labbé, I.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Behroozi, P.; Bell, E. F.; Glazebrook, K.; Spitler, L.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Tran, K.-V.; Cowley, M.; Davé, R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gawiser, E.; Inami, H.; Faber, S. M.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Koo, D. C.; Kurczynski, P.; Lotz, J. M.; Lu, Y.; Lucas, R. A.; McIntosh, D.; Mehrtens, N.; Mobasher, B.; Monson, A.; Morrison, G.; Nanayakkara, T.; Persson, S. E.; Salmon, B.; Simons, R.; Tomczak, A.; van Dokkum, P.; Weiner, B.; Willner, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 1010 M ⊙ (defined here to be MW-mass) and 1011 M ⊙ (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ~ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ~ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Sérsic index. Therefore, the growth

  7. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: ON THE EVOLUTION OF M* GALAXY PROGENITORS FROM z = 3 TO 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papovich, C.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Tran, K.-V.; Labbé, I.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Behroozi, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Bell, E. F.; Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Spitler, L.; Cowley, M.; Davé, R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M.; Inami, H.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gawiser, E.; Faber, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 10 10 M ☉ (defined here to be MW-mass) and 10 11 M ☉ (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ∼ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Sérsic index. Therefore, the

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OWNER

    Deep Vein Thrombosis: Risk Factors and Prevention in Surgical Patients. Deep Vein ... preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized surgical patients. ... the elderly.3,4 It is very rare before the age ... depends on the risk level; therefore an .... but also in the post-operative period. ... is continuing uncertainty regarding.

  9. Palliative care education for medical students: Differences in course evolution, organisation, evaluation and funding: A survey of all UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven; Gibbins, Jane; Paes, Paul; Adams, Astrid; Chandratilake, Madawa; Gishen, Faye; Lodge, Philip; Wee, Bee; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    A proportion of newly qualified doctors report feeling unprepared to manage patients with palliative care and end-of-life needs. This may be related to barriers within their institution during undergraduate training. Information is limited regarding the current organisation of palliative care teaching across UK medical schools. To investigate the evolution and structure of palliative care teaching at UK medical schools. Anonymised, web-based questionnaire. Settings/participants: Results were obtained from palliative care course organisers at all 30 UK medical schools. The palliative care course was established through active planning (13/30, 43%), ad hoc development (10, 33%) or combination of approaches (7, 23%). The place of palliative care teaching within the curriculum varied. A student-selected palliative care component was offered by 29/30 (97%). All medical schools sought student feedback. The course was reviewed in 26/30 (87%) but not in 4. Similarly, a course organiser was responsible for the palliative care programme in 26/30 but not in 4. A total of 22 respondents spent a mean of 3.9 h (median 2.5)/week in supporting/delivering palliative care education (organisers received titular recognition in 18/27 (67%; no title 9 (33%); unknown 3 (11%)). An academic department of Palliative Medicine existed in 12/30 (40%) medical schools. Funding was not universally transparent. Palliative care teaching was associated with some form of funding in 20/30 (66%). Development, organisation, course evaluation and funding for palliative care teaching at UK medical schools are variable. This may have implications for delivery of effective palliative care education for medical students.

  10. Post-collapse evolution of a coastal caldera system: Insights from a 3D multichannel seismic survey from the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    In this study we present the first 3D high-resolution multichannel seismic dataset from a (partly) submerged caldera setting, the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc). Our work aims at examining the spatial and temporal evolution of the CFc since the last caldera-forming event, the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT, 15 ka) eruption. The main objectives are to investigate the caldera's shallow ( 200 m) outer caldera ring-fault zone. The seismic data revealed that the NYT collapse occurred exclusively along the inner caldera ring-fault and that the related NYT caldera depression is filled with on average 61 m of sediment deposited between 15 and 8.6 ka. The geometry of the inner ring-fault, consisting of four fault segments, seems to be strongly influenced by regional NW-SE and NE SW-trending faults. Furthermore, we found that the ring-faults have acted as pathway for the recent (Bank (10.3-9.5 ka), Nisida Island ( 3.98 ka), and Capo Miseno (3.7 ka) eruptions, yielding DRE values of 0.15 km3, 0.1 km3, and 0.08 km3, respectively, and an explosive magnitude of at least moderate-large scale (VEI 3). Our findings highlight that eruption volumes may be underestimated by 3 to 4 times if the submerged portion of a (partly) submerged caldera is not considered, implying severe consequences for the hazard and risk evaluation. The spatial response of the post-collapse (< 15 ka) depositional environment to volcanic activity, deformational processes and sea-level variations is presented in a comprehensive 3D evolutionary model.

  11. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  12. Study of deep fracturation of granitic rock mass. Documentary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Landry, J.

    1984-01-01

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground. The Mt Blanc road tunnel, the EDF's Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied because detailed structural and geological studies have been realized these last 20 years. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater

  13. Transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto; Trentadue, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics we derive the evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent distributions and apply them to the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The evolution equations encode the perturbative component of transverse momentum generated by collinear parton branchings. The current fragmentation is described via transverse momentum dependent parton densities and fragmentation functi