WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep purple rokkisid

  1. The Deep Semantics of Imagery in Alice Walker's The Color Purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hinged on this theoretical framework, the paper assesses the deep semantics of imagery in Walker's The Color Purple and highlights the salient non-ostensive references of the text and the new world it proposes. The analysis reveals the key to a deeper and broader perception of God, the imperativeness of equality of ...

  2. Anthocyanin composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Arzaba, Miriam Rodriguez; Hillebrand, Silke; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-04-13

    This study aimed to identify the pigment composition of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars Antonina, Beta Sweet, Deep Purple, and Purple Haze. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(glucosyl)galactosides acylated with sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid were detected as major anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and with electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) analyses. The preparative isolation of these pigments was carried out by means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The color activity concept was applied to the isolated anthocyanins at three pH values. Cyanidin 3-xylosyl(sinapoylglucosyl)galactoside was found to exhibit a lower visual detection threshold and a higher pH stability than cyanidin 3-xylosyl(feruloylglucosyl)galactoside and cyanidin 3-xylosyl(coumaroylglucosyl)galactoside. The color parameters of the fresh roots of the four cultivars were described by the CIELab coordinates L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and h(ab) (hue angles). Total phenolics varied among the cultivars and ranged from 17.9 to 97.9 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (fw). For the content of monomeric anthocyanins, values between 1.5 and 17.7 mg/100 g fw were determined.

  3. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  4. Identification and Characterization of DcUSAGT1, a UDP-Glucose: Sinapic Acid Glucosyltransferase from Purple Carrot Taproots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yun Chen

    Full Text Available Purple carrots accumulate abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins in taproots. UDP-glucose: sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (USAGT can transfer the glucose moiety to the carboxyl group of sinapic acid thereby forming the ester bond between the carboxyl-C and the C1 of glucose (1-O-sinapoylglucose. 1-O-sinapoylglucose can serve as an acyl donor in acylation of anthocyanins and generate cyanidin 3-xylosyl (sinapoylglucosyl galactoside in purple carrots. This final product helps stabilize the accumulation of anthocyanins. In this study, a gene named DcUSAGT1 encoding USAGT was cloned from 'Deep purple' carrot taproots. Enzymatic activity was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The optimal temperature and pH value were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis suggested a Km (sinapic acid of 0.59 mM. Expression profiles of DcUSAGT1 showed high expression levels in the taproots of all the three purple carrot cultivars but low expression levels in those of non-purple carrot cultivars. The USAGT activity of different carrots in vitro indicated that crude enzyme extracted from the purple carrot taproots rather than non-purple carrot taproots exhibited USAGT activity. These results indicated that DcUSAGT1 may influence anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple carrot taproots.

  5. [Purple drank: A dangerous cocktail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, L; Le Roch, M; Agbessi, C-A; Lobut, J-B; Lecoeur, A; Benoist, G

    2016-11-01

    "Purple drank" is a dangerous hallucinogenic cocktail commonly used by teenagers, made popular by American rappers and social networks. It combines codeine-based cough syrup, antihistamines such as promethazine, and soda. Unknown by caregivers, it may be responsible for serious neuropsychological complications. We report the effects of this new risky behavior in three patients: a 14-year-old girl and her boyfriend, both found in an initial state of drowsiness, followed by hallucinations and anticholinergic toxidrome; and another teenager whose chronic use led to addiction with increasing doses. It is important to identify signs of such intoxication and to inform patients about the risks of respiratory depression, drowsiness, and delirium linked to acute medication misuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Purple Rose of Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Until now NGC 5584 was just one galaxy among many others, located to the West of the Virgo Cluster. Known only as a number in galaxy surveys, its sheer beauty is now revealed in all its glory in a new VLT image. Since 1 March, this purple cosmic rose also holds the brightest stellar explosion of the year, known as SN 2007af. Located about 75 million light years away towards the constellation Virgo ('the Virgin'), NGC 5584 is a galaxy slightly smaller than the Milky Way. It belongs, however, to the same category: both are barred spirals. ESO PR Photo 16/07 ESO PR Photo 16/07 The Purple Rose of Virgo Spiral galaxies are composed of a 'bulge' and a flat disc. The bulge hosts old stars and usually a central supermassive black hole. Younger stars reside in the disc, forming the characteristic spiral structures from which the galaxies get their name. Barred spirals are crossed by a bright band of stars. In 2000, using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers discovered the smallest, faintest, and most massive spirals (see ESO PR 12/00 and 25/00). In this amazing new image of NGC 5584 two dominant spiral arms are clearly visible, while the others are deformed, probably due to interactions with other galaxies. Luminous patches are spread all over the disc, indicating that stars are being formed in this gigantic rose at a frantic pace. Something even brighter, however, catches the eye in this picture. Any image taken before the end of February would not have shown the luminous spot located at the lower right of the galaxy's centre. As can be seen, the newly found object is much brighter than the centre of the galaxy itself. Its name? SN 2007af, the 32nd supernova discovered this year. Its presence signals the dramatic death of a star with a mass comparable to that of the Sun. SN 2007af, the brightest supernova of the year (so far), was discovered on 1 March by the Japanese supernova hunter Koichi Itagaki. He pointed his 60-centimetre telescope towards the Virgo constellation

  7. The purple toe syndrome in female with Factor V Leiden mutation successfully treated with enoxaparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulíček, Petr; Bártová, J; Beránek, M; Malý, J; Pecka, M

    2013-01-01

    Purple toe syndrome is a rare complication of warfarin therapy. It occurs usually after 3 to 8 weeks of therapy and it is caused by cholesterol emboli from atheromatous plaque. Sudden onset of pain in affected area, typically in toes and feet, is the main characteristic of the syndrome. We describe a case of a 65-year-old female with purple toe syndrome after 6 weeks of warfarin. Indication of warfarin was a proximal deep venous thrombosis, which developed after prolonged immobilization. Factor V (FV) Leiden and persistent high FVIII activity were found as additional eliciting factors for venous thromboembolism. After warfarin withdrawal and enoxaparin treatment, symptoms disappeared promptly but a slight discoloration of the toe persists.

  8. Aspects of the breeding ecology of the Purple Swamphen Porphyrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio is a common rail that previously was little investigated in North Africa. From 2011 to 2013, its breeding ecology was studied at two natural wetlands in north-east Algeria, namely Garaet Hadj Tahar and Garaet Messaoussa. Numbers of Purple Swamphens at both localities peaked ...

  9. 50 CFR 21.53 - Control order for purple swamphens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Islands. Any authorized agency personnel may temporarily possess, transport, and dispose of purple... this order to public museums or public institutions for scientific or educational purposes; you may... gallinule (Porphyrula martinica). Authorized persons must take special care not to take purple gallinules or...

  10. How Human Life Is Rare: "The Color Purple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela

    2014-01-01

    "The Color Purple" is a work in art. Its dramatic overtone recognizes the essence of African American culture. "The Color Purple" brings to light the cultural heritage of black origin. Its work translates the poetic story of how black women embrace the thrust of the social conditions of our heritage. The spiritual conviction…

  11. Identification and characterization of DcUCGalT1, a galactosyltransferase responsible for anthocyanin galactosylation in purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Jing; Wang, Feng; Ma, Hong-Yu; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-06-06

    Purple carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) accumulate large amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in their taproots. Cyanidin can be glycosylated with galactose, xylose, and glucose in sequence by glycosyltransferases resulting in cyanidin 3-xylosyl (glucosyl) galactosides in purple carrots. The first step in the glycosylation of cyanidin is catalysis by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (UCGalT) transferring the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to cyanidin. In the present study, a gene from 'Deep purple' carrot, DcUCGalT1, was cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant DcUCGalT1 galactosylated cyanidin to produce cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and showed optimal activity for cyanidin at 30 °C and pH 8.6. It showed lower galactosylation activity for peonidin, pelargonidin, kaempferol and quercetin. It accepted only UDP-galactose as a glycosyl donor when cyanidin was used as an aglycone. The expression level of DcUCGalT1 was positively correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrots. The enzyme extractions from 'Deep purple' exhibited galactosylation activity for cyanidin, peonidin and pelargonidin, while those from 'Kuroda' (a non-purple cultivar) did not.

  12. Incoming editorial: bigger, purple, pragmatic, and parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2011-03-01

    It is with great excitement and enthusiasm that I write to you regarding several updates, new initiatives and changes with our journal. As you may have already noticed, this includes the change to a larger format, and a return to the color purple that helped define this journal from the early 1980s through the turn of the century, as well as to the original title "Psychotherapy." The change in format will allow us to benefit from the standard American Psychological Association (APA) journal design and layout, leading to more efficient processing and arrangement within their electronic journal system. I have found this first year as the Incoming Editor of Psychotherapy to be as challenging, rewarding, and intellectually stimulating as I imagined it would be, and I remain quite excited and enthusiastic about the work ahead. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  14. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  15. Marginal scorch caused by Alternaria alternata on Purple-Caitai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marginal scorch caused by Alternaria alternata on Purple-Caitai (Brassia campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.var. utilis Tsen et Lee) in China. Qijun Nie, Zhongjiu Jiao, Fengjuan Zhu, Zhenbiao Jiao, Xiaohui Deng, Zhengming Qiu, Jinping Wu ...

  16. Measuring and Modeling Twilight’s Purple Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-20

    since the Krakatoa volcano’s explosion in Au- gust 1883, major volcanic eruptions have been fol- lowed by reports worldwide of extraordinarily vivid...purple light. Naturally, volcanic purple lights occurred long before the Krakatoa eruption, and scattered ac- counts of these date from at least the...early 16th century.1 After the Krakatoa event, 19th-century scientists quite reasonably speculated that the eruption in- jected dust into the upper

  17. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  18. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins from purple potato (cv. Purple Majesty) and impact on antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Berrios, Jose De J; Powers, Joseph R; Tang, Juming

    2011-10-26

    Degradation parameters of purified anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato (cv. Purple Majesty) heated at high temperatures (100-150 °C) were determined. Purified anthocyanins, prepared by removing salts, sugars, and colorless nonanthocyanin phenolics from the crude extract, were monitored and quantified using HPLC and spectrophotometry for heat-induced degradation products. Separation of colorless phenolics from the anthocyanins was confirmed using HPLC at two wavelengths, 280 and 520 nm. The degradation kinetics of purified anthocyanins followed a first-order reaction with reaction rate constants (k values) of 0.0262-0.2855 min(-1), an activation energy of 72.89 kJ/mol, thermal death times (D values) of 8.06-8789 min, and a z value of 47.84 °C over the temperature range of 100-150 °C. The enthalpy and entropy of activation were 59.97 kJ/mol and -116.46 J/mol·K, respectively. The antioxidant capacity in the purified anthocyanins, measured by DPPH and ABTS assays, was increased after the thermal treatment, indicating antioxidant activities of degradation products in the samples.

  19. Fractionation, enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant activity of bioactives from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2017-04-15

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS n analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase. Additionally, the cell signaling cellular antioxidant properties of the PSP extracts were investigated in cultured cells. PSP induced the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the expression of genes encoding heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Furthermore, PSP enhanced cellular glutathione concentrations and decreased lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, these results suggest that PSP extracts exhibit enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant properties, especially PSP CF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Dilraj S; Ward, Joel; Lee, Regent; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  1. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S. Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue and indirubin (red pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  3. The Hypobranchial Gland from The Purple Snail Plicopurpura Pansa (Gould, 1853, Prosobranchia: Muricida)

    OpenAIRE

    Naegel, Ludwig C.A.; Aguilar Cruz, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Most marine snails of the family Muricidae produce in the hypobranchial gland a viscous secretion containing, besides mucus and biologically-active compounds, minute amounts of chromogens. These chromogens develop enzymatically and under the influence of light and oxygen into a purple pigment known variously as "Tyrian Purple", "Royal Purple" or shellfish purple. In the hypobranchial gland the enzyme purpurase is kept apart from the chromogens, so that no pigments are form...

  4. [Purple urine bag syndrome in elderly woman with nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alegría, A R; Vélez Díaz-Pallares, M; Moreno Cobo, Ma A; Arrieta Blanco, F; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity which typically affects elderly women with prolonged urinary catheterization and weakening chronic diseases. Other predisposing factors are previous urologic pathology, immobility syndrome and chronic constipation. The purple color is due to the presence of high loads of bacteria with sulphatase--phosphatase activity which develop in an alkaline environment as well as the presence of other factors. In the case we present the administration of nutritional supplements containing tryptophan conditioned the generation of this syndrome.

  5. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface

    OpenAIRE

    Szundi, I.; Stoeckenius, W.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lowe...

  6. Oppression and Revolt in Chimamanda Adichie's Purple Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the oppressive practice of Chimamanda Adichie's character – Eugene in Purple Hibiscus on members of his nuclear family. This oppression endangers normal familial relationship as the oppressed view their oppression as an infringement on their fundamental human rights. Therefore, they express ...

  7. Post-Colonial Practice in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes therefore, that it is only when African people's culture and identity are respected by especially those who are non-Africans, that there can be true termination of the colonial process in African continent, as this is the main gamut of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's writing in Purple Hibiscus.

  8. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  9. Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins ability to cross the blood brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demonstration that Kenyan purple tea ACNs can cross the BBB, reinforcing the brain's antioxidant capacity. Hence, there is need to study ACNs as suitable candidates for dietary supplements that could support antioxidant capacity in the brain and have potential to provide neuroprotection in neurodegenerative conditions.

  10. Domestic violence in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-based violence is an issue that has become a part of modern society, cutting across cultures, race, ethnicity and status. In Adichie's Purple Hibiscus, gender-based violence manifests in the form of domestic violence, projected through the Eugene Achike family around whom the story, set in the eastern part of ...

  11. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular

  12. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Case Report | Gandhi | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon phenomenon reported mostly in chronically constipated, institutionalized females on an indwelling catheter. It can often cause tremendous distress among health care providers. Though the condition is generally described as benign, it should draw immediate attention to ...

  13. Registration of Crop Varieties A Unique Purple Castor (Racinnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the castor produced in Russia,. USA, Israel, Brazil, China and India comes from hybrid varieties. In 1999 a unique purple castor population was noticed during a field trip at. Adullala near Melkassa. One killo gram of seed was abstained from the farmer, and mass selection for uniformity, top branching and short plant.

  14. Women's Struggles and Independence in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Love, war, conflict and the persistent inequality between men and women are among the dominant themes in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus and Half of a Yellow Sun. Adichie, however, projects womanhood in a positive light. She upholds female potentialities which the patriarchal structure has repressed. She also makes role ...

  15. Adichie's Purple Hibiscus and issues of ideology in the constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as subjects, with the eventual emergence of Kambili to self-knowledge and condition of social responsibility. The aim of this is to examine how Adichie's Purple Hibiscus is typical of how the Nigerian novel engages itself in issues of ideology and how these issues, in turn, crystallize the challenges of nation-ness in Nigeria.

  16. 75 FR 9314 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Purple Swamphens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ....), which implements conventions with Great Britain (for Canada), Mexico, Japan, and the Soviet Union..., loan programs, or the rights and obligations of their recipients. There are no entitlements, grants, user fees, or loan programs associated with the regulation of control of purple swamphens. Regulatory...

  17. Studies on antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin extract from purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The radical scavenging effects by α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anions of anthocyanin extract from purple sweet potato were investigated. The antioxidation experiments showed that the reducing power of the anthocyanin extract reduced 0.572 at 0.5 mg/ml, while those of Lascorbic acid (L-AA) and ...

  18. Transcript profiling of structural genes involved in cyanidin-based anthocyanin biosynthesis between purple and non-purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars reveals distinct patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Song, Xiong; Wang, Guang-Long; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Carrots (Daucus carota L.) are among the 10 most economically important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Purple carrot cultivars accumulate rich cyanidin-based anthocyanins in a light-independent manner in their taproots whereas other carrot color types do not. Anthocyanins are important secondary metabolites in plants, protecting them from damage caused by strong light, heavy metals, and pathogens. Furthermore, they are important nutrients for human health. Molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in purple carrot cultivars and loss of anthocyanin production in non-purple carrot cultivars remain unknown. The taproots of the three purple carrot cultivars were rich in anthocyanin, and levels increased during development. Conversely, the six non-purple carrot cultivars failed to accumulate anthocyanins in the underground part of taproots. Six novel structural genes, CA4H1, CA4H2, 4CL1, 4CL2, CHI1, and F3'H1, were isolated from purple carrots. The expression profiles of these genes, together with other structural genes known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, were analyzed in three purple and six non-purple carrot cultivars at the 60-day-old stage. PAL3/PAL4, CA4H1, and 4CL1 expression levels were higher in purple than in non-purple carrot cultivars. Expression of CHS1, CHI1, F3H1, F3'H1, DFR1, and LDOX1/LDOX2 was highly correlated with the presence of anthocyanin as these genes were highly expressed in purple carrot taproots but not or scarcely expressed in non-purple carrot taproots. This study isolated six novel structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrots. Among the 13 analyzed structural genes, PAL3/PAL4, CA4H1, 4CL1, CHS1, CHI1, F3H1, F3'H1, DFR1, and LDOX1/LDOX2 may participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the taproots of purple carrot cultivars. CHS1, CHI1, F3H1, F3'H1, DFR1, and LDOX1/LDOX2 may lead to loss of light-independent anthocyanin production in orange and yellow carrots. These results suggest that

  19. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szundi, I; Stoeckenius, W

    1989-08-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lower than the bulk pH and it becomes independent of bulk pH in the deionized membrane suspension. Using an experimental acid titration curve for neutral, lipid-depleted membrane, we converted surface pH into absorption values. The calculated bacteriohodopsin color changes for acidification of purple, and titrations of deionized blue membrane with cations or base agree well with experimental results. No chemical binding is required to reproduce the experimental curves. Surface charge and potential changes in acid, base and cation titrations are calculated and their relation to the color change is discussed. Consistent with structural data, 10 primary phosphate and two basic surface groups per bacteriorhodopsin are sufficient to obtain good agreement between all calculated and experimental curves. The results provide a theoretical basis for our earlier conclusion that the purple-to-blue transition must be attributed to surface phenomena and not to cation binding at specific sites in the protein.

  20. Reference intervals for the P-Albumin bromocresol purple method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup

    2017-10-01

    Correct reference intervals are an important part of test results. As establishing own reference intervals is a very expensive task, the NORIP reference intervals are often transferred for use in Nordic laboratories. The NORIP reference interval on P-Albumin was here compared to current results for laboratories using the bromocresol purple (BCP) method for P-Albumin. External quality control reports were used to investigate the change in levels between the BCP and BCG methods on P-Albumin. An algorithm was built for extracting and isolating the laboratory's healthy subject population. The algorithm was used to extract test results from the laboratory information system. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to evaluate the P-Albumin test result populations. The indirect method used here clearly shows that the NORIP reference intervals for P-Albumin are not fit for the current bromocresol purple methods. The method was also used to suggest new reference interval limits.

  1. Effects of additives on glyphosate activity in purple nutsedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rungsit Suwanketnikom

    1998-01-01

    Effects of additives on 14 C-glyphosate penetration into purple nutsedge leaves were examined in the laboratory and efficacy of glyphosate for purple nutsedge control was studied in the greenhouse and field. The addition of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% (v/v) + diesel oil at 1,0% (v/v) + Tendal at 1.0% (v/v) increased 14 C-glyphosate penetration into nutsedge leaves more than the addition of either one alone. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% + diesel oil at 1.0% + Tendal at 0.12 or 0.25% increased the phytotoxicity of glyphosate at 0.5 and 0.75 kg, a.e./ha on nutsedge plants in the greenhouse but not in the field. Additives did not enhance glyphosate activity by reducing the number of nutsedae tubers. (author)

  2. Purple sweet potato colour - a potential therapy for galactosemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Timson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Galactosemia is an inherited metabolic disease in which galactose is not properly metabolised. There are various theories to explain the molecular pathology, and recent experimental evidence strongly suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role. High galactose diets are damaging to experimental animals and oxidative stress also plays a role in this toxicity which can be alleviated by purple sweet potato colour (PSPC). This plant extract is rich in acetylated anthocyanins which have been sh...

  3. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  4. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieko Higuchi-Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide.

  5. Ecological Energetics of an Abundant Aerial Insectivore, the Purple Martin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Bridge, Eli S.; Frick, Winifred F.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer and lower free atmosphere, or aerosphere, is increasingly important for human transportation, communication, environmental monitoring, and energy production. The impacts of anthropogenic encroachment into aerial habitats are not well understood. Insectivorous birds and bats are inherently valuable components of biodiversity and play an integral role in aerial trophic dynamics. Many of these insectivores are experiencing range-wide population declines. As a first step toward gaging the potential impacts of these declines on the aerosphere’s trophic system, estimates of the biomass and energy consumed by aerial insectivores are needed. We developed a suite of energetics models for one of the largest and most common avian aerial insectivores in North America, the Purple Martin (Prognesubis). The base model estimated that Purple Martins consumed 412 (± 104) billion insects*y-1 with a biomass of 115,860 (± 29,192) metric tonnes*y-1. During the breeding season Purple Martins consume 10.3 (+ 3.0) kg of prey biomass per km3 of aerial habitat, equal to about 36,000 individual insects*km-3. Based on these calculations, the cumulative seasonal consumption of insects*km-3 is greater in North America during the breeding season than during other phases of the annual cycle, however the maximum daily insect consumption*km-3 occurs during fall migration. This analysis provides the first range-wide quantitative estimate of the magnitude of the trophic impact of this large and common aerial insectivore. Future studies could use a similar modeling approach to estimate impacts of the entire guild of aerial insectivores at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These analyses would inform our understanding of the impact of population declines among aerial insectivores on the aerosphere’s trophic dynamics. PMID:24086755

  6. Ecological energetics of an abundant aerial insectivore, the Purple Martin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey F Kelly

    Full Text Available The atmospheric boundary layer and lower free atmosphere, or aerosphere, is increasingly important for human transportation, communication, environmental monitoring, and energy production. The impacts of anthropogenic encroachment into aerial habitats are not well understood. Insectivorous birds and bats are inherently valuable components of biodiversity and play an integral role in aerial trophic dynamics. Many of these insectivores are experiencing range-wide population declines. As a first step toward gaging the potential impacts of these declines on the aerosphere's trophic system, estimates of the biomass and energy consumed by aerial insectivores are needed. We developed a suite of energetics models for one of the largest and most common avian aerial insectivores in North America, the Purple Martin (Prognesubis. The base model estimated that Purple Martins consumed 412 (± 104 billion insects*y⁻¹ with a biomass of 115,860 (± 29,192 metric tonnes*y⁻¹. During the breeding season Purple Martins consume 10.3 (+ 3.0 kg of prey biomass per km³ of aerial habitat, equal to about 36,000 individual insects*km⁻³. Based on these calculations, the cumulative seasonal consumption of insects*km⁻³ is greater in North America during the breeding season than during other phases of the annual cycle, however the maximum daily insect consumption*km⁻³ occurs during fall migration. This analysis provides the first range-wide quantitative estimate of the magnitude of the trophic impact of this large and common aerial insectivore. Future studies could use a similar modeling approach to estimate impacts of the entire guild of aerial insectivores at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These analyses would inform our understanding of the impact of population declines among aerial insectivores on the aerosphere's trophic dynamics.

  7. A neutron diffraction study of purple membranes under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossand, Isabelle Gundel; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Fragneto, Giovanna

    2010-11-01

    Neutron diffraction from hydrated stacks of natural two-dimensional crystal patches of purple membrane from Halobacterium salinarum was studied as a function of pressure. Measurements in H(2)O and D(2)O permitted the determination of the distribution of water of hydration in the in-plane projection of the membrane. The main experimental difference observed between the samples at 300 MPa and atmospheric pressure was a major reorganization of the hydration around the lipid head groups and protein, associated with a protein conformational change and small reductions in lamellar (stacking) and in-plane lattice spacings, which was consistent with the compressibility of membrane-protein and lipid components.

  8. Fire and nitrogen effects on Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea)abundance in northern mixed-grass prairie old fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt. varieties) is a native grass capable of increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and creating a stable state. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reduci...

  9. On Harold's "Translucent Reality": A Philosophical and Religious Interpretation of "Harold and the Purple Crayon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most popular children's picture books, Harold and the Purple Crayon, is examined in terms of philosophical and religious viewpoints. Harold, a young inquisitive boy, seemingly travels in his world in which he finds himself dealing with various situations. Harold's adventure with his purple crayon reminds us the…

  10. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Transport dynamics in membranes of photosynthetic purple bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caycedo, Felipe; Rodriguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis; Fassioli, Francesca; Johnson, Neil

    2007-03-01

    Photo-Syntethic Unit (PSU) of purple bacteria is conformed by three basic constituents: Light Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) antenna complexes, where chromophores are distributed in a ring in close contact with caroteniods with a function of collecting light; LH1s, ring shaped structures of chromophores which harvest and funnel excitations to the Reaction Centre (RC), where phtosynthesis takes place. Studies concerning a single PSU have been capable of reproducing experimental transfer times, but incapable of explaining the fact that architecture LH2-LH1-RC of phototosynthetic membranes changes as light intensity conditions vary. The organization of antenna complexes in the membranes that support PSU seems to have its own functionality. A hopping model where excitations are transferred within a membrane is used, and populations of RC, LH1 and LH2 are investigated. Different statistics concerning arrival times of excitations that excite a single PSU are considered and compared with the global model where coordinates of a great portion of a membrane are included. The model permits in a classical basis to understand which parameters make photosynthesis in purple bateria efficient and reliable.

  12. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  13. SEED QUALITY PARAMETERS OF PURPLE HORSEMINT FOR ELABORATION OF STANDART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Pavlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple horsemint (Monarda citriodora L. is a perennial plant belonging to Lamiaceae family and being cultivated as aromatic and ornamental crop in many countries of Europe and America. Last years this plant actively gains popularity among gardeners. To elaborate the standard of organization with title 'Seeds of Monarda citriodora L. Sowing qualities. Technical conditions' the basis data has been collected from laboratory of leafy, aromatic, scented and ornamental plant breeding, laboratory of stardatization, rationing and metrology at VNIISSOK. The standard for seeds of Monarda citriodora L.includes the following sections: field of utilization; normative references; terms, definition, abbreviation, classification; technical requirements; order for receiving and sample piking;method of control; transportation and storage; security requirements.

  14. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L.) var. subnigroviolaceo

    OpenAIRE

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez; Sigry Mori-Arismendi; Luz María Paucar-Menacho

    2014-01-01

    Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn) is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains) and the cobs (cob) in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%), called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color) and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bio...

  15. Purple urine bag syndrome: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yaqub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is an infrequent condition, seen mostly in elderly female patients, characterized by an intense purple discoloration of contents of urine bag following long-term indwelling urinary catheterization. The purple discoloration is most often due to the presence of indigo and indirubin pigments which are metabolites of tryptophan. Urinary bacteria with indoxyl sulphatase activity metabolize indoxyl sulphate to produce indigo and indirubin, particularly in alkaline urine. We report an elderly woman with a urinary tract infection and constipation who presented with PUBS. The purple urine disappeared after antibiotic therapy and change of the urine bag. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PUBS reported from this region.

  16. The Potential of Dark Purple Scented Rice- From Staple Food to Nutraceutical

    OpenAIRE

    Kangabam Rajiv Das; Kangabam Medhabati; Khumu kcham Nongalleima; Huidrom Sunitibala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Among the rice varieties, Purple Rice has an incredibly rich history and counts among its strains one variety known as Imperial rice as they are reserved for the Emperor’s consumption only. The purple color is due to high anthocyanin content, a trait most typically observed in fruits. There are abundant benefits including medicinal properties of rice. Its medicinal properties being imparted by the phytochemicals present in it, some of the important compounds which are worth mentioning are toc...

  17. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  18. Low temperature electron microscopy and electron diffraction of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, S.B.

    1978-09-01

    The structure of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium was studied by high resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction, primarily at low temperature. The handedness of the purple membrane diffraction pattern with respect to the cell membrane was determined by electron diffraction of purple membranes adsorbed to polylysine. A new method of preparing frozen specimens was used to preserve the high resolution order of the membranes in the electron microscope. High resolution imaging of glucose-embedded purple membranes at room temperature was used to relate the orientation of the diffraction pattern to the absolute orientation of the structure of the bacteriorhodopsin molecule. The purple membrane's critical dose for electron beam-induced damage was measured at room temperature and at -120 0 C, and was found to be approximately five times greater at -120 0 C. Because of this decrease in radiation sensitivity, imaging of the membrane at low temperature should result in an increased signal-to-noise ratio, and thus better statistical definition of the phases of weak reflections. Higher resolution phases may thus be extracted from images than can be determined by imaging at room temperature. To achieve this end, a high resolution, liquid nitrogen-cooled stage was built for the JEOL-100B. Once the appropriate technology for taking low dose images at very high resolution has been developed, this stage will hopefully be used to determine the high resolution structure of the purple membrane

  19. Low temperature electron microscopy and electron diffraction of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, S.B.

    1978-09-01

    The structure of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium was studied by high resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction, primarily at low temperature. The handedness of the purple membrane diffraction pattern with respect to the cell membrane was determined by electron diffraction of purple membranes adsorbed to polylysine. A new method of preparing frozen specimens was used to preserve the high resolution order of the membranes in the electron microscope. High resolution imaging of glucose-embedded purple membranes at room temperature was used to relate the orientation of the diffraction pattern to the absolute orientation of the structure of the bacteriorhodopsin molecule. The purple membrane's critical dose for electron beam-induced damage was measured at room temperature and at -120/sup 0/C, and was found to be approximately five times greater at -120/sup 0/C. Because of this decrease in radiation sensitivity, imaging of the membrane at low temperature should result in an increased signal-to-noise ratio, and thus better statistical definition of the phases of weak reflections. Higher resolution phases may thus be extracted from images than can be determined by imaging at room temperature. To achieve this end, a high resolution, liquid nitrogen-cooled stage was built for the JEOL-100B. Once the appropriate technology for taking low dose images at very high resolution has been developed, this stage will hopefully be used to determine the high resolution structure of the purple membrane.

  20. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L. var. subnigroviolaceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains and the cobs (cob in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%, called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bioactive compounds. The purple corn also provides significant amounts of starch, about 80% (complex carbohydrate, 10% of sugars provide sweetness, up to 11% protein, up to 2% minerals and B vitamins and ascorbic acid, concentrated in endosperm (grain free envelope. Also the nutritional value, the purple corn has a rich composition of phytochemicals, which have beneficial effects on our body, such as neutralize free radicals and act as antimutagenic. His review paper aimed to collect information on the studies undertaken to purple corn as an alternative to artificial food dyes and health benefits when included in the diet. Benefits such as cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, lowering cholesterol, fighting diabetes, being the most remarkable antioxidant action (wrinkle.

  1. Non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex from Brescia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Idone, Ambra; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Baraldi, Pietro; Crivello, Fabrizio

    2014-01-03

    Purple codices are among the most relevant and prestigious book productions of Late Antique and Medieval age. They usually contained texts from Holy Writings written with golden or silver inks on parchment dyed in a purple hue. According to the tradition, the colour of parchment was obtained by the well renowned Tyrian purple dye. From the material point of view, however, very little is known about the compounds actually used in the manufacture of these manuscripts. Presently, the information available is limited to the ancient art treatises, with very few diagnostic evidences supporting them and, moreover, none confirming the presence of Tyrian purple. It is more than apparent, then, the need to have at disposal larger and more complete information at the concern, in order to verify what came to us from the literary tradition only. In this study, preliminary results are presented from non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex, the so-called CodexBrixianus, held in the Biblioteca Civica Queriniana at Brescia (Italy). Analyses were carried out with XRF spectrometry, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, molecular spectrofluorimetry and optical microscopy. The results suggest the hypothesis that Tyrian purple had been used as a minor component mixed with other less precious dyes such as folium or orchil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Purple: a modular system for developing and deploying behavioral intervention technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, Stephen M; Begale, Mark; Penedo, Frank J; Mohr, David C

    2014-07-30

    The creation, deployment, and evaluation of Web-based and mobile-based applications for health, mental health, and wellness within research settings has tended to be siloed, with each research group developing their own systems and features. This has led to technological features and products that are not sharable across research teams, thereby limiting collaboration, reducing the speed of dissemination, and raising the bar for entry into this area of research. This paper provides an overview of Purple, an extensible, modular, and repurposable system created for the development of Web-based and mobile-based applications for health behavior change. Purple contains features required to construct applications and to manage and evaluate research trials using these applications. Core functionality of Purple includes elements that support user management, content authorship, content delivery, and data management. We discuss the history and development of the Purple system guided by the rationale of producing a system that allows greater collaboration and understanding across research teams interested in investigating similar questions and using similar methods. Purple provides a useful tool to meet the needs of stakeholders involved in the creation, provision, and usage of eHealth and mHealth applications. Housed in a non-profit, academic institution, Purple also offers the potential to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge across the research community and improve our capacity to deliver useful and usable applications that support the behavior change of end users.

  3. Growth and yield of maize in purple nutsedge interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valadão Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed evaluates the influence of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus on the agronomic performance of maize. We conducted a field experiment at Viçosa, MG, in completely randomized design experimental with three replications. The treatments consisted of the interaction of maize with nine nutsedge densities (0, 10, 30, 50, 90, 110, 130, 160 and 260 plants m-2. In the flowering culture was made the measurement of plant height, the insertion of the corn ears and the total dry matter of corn plants. At harvest were determined ear weight, grain yield and 100-grain weight adjusted to 13% moisture. Higher density of nutsedge increased plant height and the insertion of the first corn ear. We also observed a reduction in total dry matter accumulation, ear weight, 100-grain weight and grain yield in all densities evaluate. Nutsedge control, even at low densities is necessary because the presence of this plant promotes negative effect on growth and development of corn with a direct consequences on crop productivity.

  4. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  5. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Purple Salt and Tiny Drops of Water in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Some meteorites, especially those called carbonaceous chondrites, have been greatly affected by reaction with water on the asteroids in which they formed. These reactions, which took place during the first 10 million years of the Solar System's history, formed assorted water-bearing minerals, but nobody has found any of the water that caused the alteration. Nobody, that is, until now. Michael Zolensky and team of scientists from the Johnson Space Center in Houston and Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) discovered strikingly purple sodium chloride (table salt) crystals in two meteorites. The salt contains tiny droplets of salt water (with some other elements dissolved in it). The salt is as old as the Solar System, so the water trapped inside the salt is also ancient. It might give us clues to the nature of the water that so pervasively altered carbonaceous chondrites and formed oceans on Europa and perhaps other icy satellites. However, how the salt got into the two meteorites and how it trapped the water remains a mystery - at least for now.

  8. SYMMETRY AS CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN WALKER'S THE COLOR PURPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tapia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes three types of the conceptual metaphor of embodied symmetry in Alice Walker's novel, The color purple (1982. These metaphorical projections, perceived as equilibrium and its breakage in abstract phenomena, enable readers to reexamine issues of race, non-traditional families, and gender roles. The dis/equilibrium emerges in the novel's epistolary structure. Biological equilibrium breaks in incidents of rape and incest. Walker creates characters in the novel through default-concept opposites of black/white, submissive/dominant, male/female and others. These contraries foreground issues of race and gender. The novel's asymmetries engage readers, leading them to rethink individual character histories and motives. The removal of objects (e.g., rape, mothers deprived of children suggests conceptual asymmetry and alerts readers to parallel themes of sexual and racial oppression. Subjugation sometimes subtle, sometimes blatant- manifests in simple oppositions. In epistemological terms, readers seek causal explanations for the asymmetries of the narrative, interpreting each to recover its history.

  9. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters.

  10. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters.

  11. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian cultivars of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.)

    OpenAIRE

    Espín, Susana; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Taco, Verónica; Poveda, Cristina; Ayuda-Durán, Begoña; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2015-01-01

    Tree tomato fruits from the yellow giant, giant purple and New Zealand purple cultivars, cultivated in Ecuador were analysed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Twelve hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and four anthocyanins (in the purple cultivars) were detected and identified. The hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives mostly derived from caffeic acid, being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and rosmarinic acid the majority compounds. Furthermore, various rosmarinic acid glucosides,...

  12. Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

    2013-11-01

    The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of loess and purple rill erosions measured with volume replacement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2015-11-01

    Rills are commonly found on sloping farm fields in both the loess and the purple soil regions of China. A comparative study on rill erosion between the two soils is important to increase research knowledge and exchange application experiences. Rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils were determined through laboratory experiments with the volume replacement method. Water was used to refill the eroded rill segments to compute eroded volume before sediment concentration distribution along the rill was computed using the soil bulk density, flow rate, and water flow duration. The experimental loess soil materials were from the Loess Plateau and purple soil from the southwestern part of China, Chongqing City. A laboratory experimental platform was used to construct flumes to simulate rills with 12.0 m length, 0.1 m width, and 0.3 m depth. Soil materials were filled into the flumes at a bulk density of 1.2 g cm-3 to a depth of 20 cm to form rills for experiments on five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°) and three flow rates (2, 4, and 8 L/min). After each experimental run under the given slope gradient and flow rate, the rill segments from the upper slope between 0-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-3, …, 7-8, 8-10, and 10-12 m were lined with plastic sheets before be re-filled with water to determine sediment concentration after the eroded volumes was measured. Rill erosion differed between the two soils. As purple soil started to erode at a higher erosive force than loess soil, it possibly exhibits higher resistance to water erosion. The subsequent erosion process in the eroding purple rill was similar to that in the loess rill. However, the total erosion in the eroding loess rill was more than that in the eroding purple rill. The maximum sediment concentration transported by the eroding purple rills was significantly lower, approximately 55% of those transported by the loess rills under the same flow rate and slope gradient. Hence, less purple sediments can

  14. Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Leaves of Zijuan Tea (Camellia sinensis var. kitamura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant anthocyanin biosynthesis is well understood, but the regulatory mechanism in purple foliage tea remains unclear. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ, 815 differential proteins were identified in the leaves of Zijuan tea, among which 20 were associated with the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. We found that the abundances of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzymes such as chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanin synthetase, as well as anthocyanin accumulation-related UDP-glucosyl transferase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters in the purple leaves were all significantly higher than those in the green leaves. The abundances of the transcription factors bHLH and HY5, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis at transcriptional level were also obviously higher in purple leaves than those in green leaves. In addition, bifunctional 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase and chorismate mutase in purple leaves were distinctly higher in abundance compared to green leaves, which provided sufficient phenylalanine substrate for anthocyanin synthesis. Furthermore, lignin synthesis was found to be reduced due to the lower abundances of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1, peroxidase 15 and laccase-6, which resulted in increase of intermediates flow into anthocyanin synthesis pathway. The physiological data were consistent with proteomic results. These four aspects of biosynthetic regulation contribute to anthocyanin accumulation in purple leaves of Zijuan tea.

  15. Distribution of rock fragments and their effects on hillslope soil erosion in purple soil, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-04-01

    Purple soil is widely distributed in Sichuan Basin and Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Purple soil region is abundant in soil fertility and hydrothermal resources, playing an important role in the agricultural development of China. Soil erosion has long been recognized as a major environmental problem in the purple soil region where the population is large and slope farming is commonly practiced, and rainstorm is numerous. The existence of rock fragments is one of the most important characteristics of purple soil. Rock fragments at the soil surface or in the soil layer affect soil erosion processes by water in various direct and indirect ways, thus the erosion processes of soil containing rock fragments have unique features. Against the severe soil degradation by erosion of purple soil slope, carrying out the research about the characteristics of purple soil containing rock fragments and understanding the influence of rock fragments on soil erosion processes have important significance, which would promote the rational utilization of purple soil slope land resources and accurate prediction of purple soil loss. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of rock fragments in purple soil slope and the impact of rock fragment content on soil physical properties and soil erosion. First, field sampling methods were used to survey the spatial variability of rock fragments in soil profiles and along slope and the physical properties of soils containing rock fragments. Secondly, indoor simulated rainfall experiments were used to exam the effect of rock fragments in the soil layer on soil erosion processes and the relationships between rainfall infiltration, change of surface flow velocity, surface runoff volume and sediment on one hand, and rock fragment content (Rv, 0% 30%, which was determined according the results of field investigation for rock fragment distribution) on the other were investigated. Thirdly, systematic analysis about the

  16. Screening for resistance to purple seed stain Cercospora kikuchii by seed inoculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.H.; Oh, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish a mass-screening technique for resistance to purple seed stain disease in soybean. Seeds sterilized in 1 : 10,000 mercuric chloride for 1 minute and transferred to Petridishes containing 20ml water agar plus 50 ppM of the sodium salt of 2,4-D were inoculated by placing a small agar cube containing fungal mycelium on the seed coat of each seed. A positive correlation betweeen natural infection of purple seed stain and purple discoloration by seed inoculation technique was highly significant and by this technique, some native soybean collections and introduced varieties were tested for resistance to the disease. Most of the soybean varieties tested were susceptible except for the varieties Hill, Harosoy and Sac, resistant comparatively.

  17. Purple top symptoms are associated with reduction of leaf cell death in phytoplasma-infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Misako; Kitazawa, Yugo; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-02-17

    Plants exhibit a wide variety of disease symptoms in response to pathogen attack. In general, most plant symptoms are recognized as harmful effects on host plants, and little is known about positive aspects of symptoms for infected plants. Herein, we report the beneficial role of purple top symptoms, which are characteristic of phytoplasma-infected plants. First, by using plant mutants defective in anthocyanin biosynthesis, we demonstrated that anthocyanin accumulation is directly responsible for the purple top symptoms, and is associated with reduction of leaf cell death caused by phytoplasma infection. Furthermore, we revealed that phytoplasma infection led to significant activation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and dramatic accumulation of sucrose by about 1000-fold, which can activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. This is the first study to demonstrate the role and mechanism of the purple top symptoms in plant-phytoplasma interactions.

  18. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  19. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  20. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  1. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-06

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins.

  2. Potato purple top phytoplasma-induced disruption of gibberellin homeostasis in tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhabiting, cell wall-less bacteria that cause numerous plant diseases worldwide. Plants infected by phytoplasmas often exhibit various symptoms indicative of hormonal imbalance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma infect...

  3. Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

  4. Photosynthetic electron transport in purple bacteria: An in vivo spectroscopic study

    OpenAIRE

    BÍNA, David

    2009-01-01

    Electron transport in purple bacteria was studied using combination of absorption spectroscopy and induced bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence in whole cells in vivo. Focus is placed on relations between fluorescence yield, the state of the electron transport chain and the membrane potential. A laboratory-built absorption spectrophotometer-fluorimeter is described.

  5. A purple swelling on the tongue | Panta | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A painless, purple, dome shaped swelling was discovered on routine oral examination in a 20 year old male, near the right lateral border of the tongue. He revealed that the swelling had been growing in a subtle manner since 2 months, and he reported no history of trauma. It measured about 1.5x1.5 cm, surface appeared ...

  6. Growth, nitrogen use efficiency, and leachate comparison of subirrigated and overhead irrigated pale purple coneflower seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy R. Pinto; Rhiannon A. Chandler; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    Pale purple coneflower [Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.] was grown within three container volumes (90, 105, and 340 cm3) under subirrigation and overhead irrigation treatments. Subirrigated coneflowers showed increased seedling quality with more biomass (14%), better nitrogen use efficiency (13%), greater nitrogen content (N; 11%), more height (15...

  7. Identification of purple dye from molluscs on an excavated textile by non-destructive analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Allen, Norman

    2013-01-01

    on samples from the find with the contemporary reference samples lead to the identification of purple dye as a dibromoindigo compound with the origin from molluscs of Murex trunculus species. The application of non-destructive analytical methods of investigation was successful in analysing dyes on excavated...

  8. Spectroscopy of Single Light-Harvesting Complexes from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria at 1.2 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, A.M. van; Ketelaars, M.; Köhler, J.; Aartsma, T.J.; Schmidt, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first observation of the fluorescence-excitation spectra of individual light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria at 1.2 K. The spectra reveal the electronic transitions to the individual excitonic states of the assembly of absorbing

  9. Enhanced rate of intramolecular electron transfer in an engineered purple CuA azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Lu, Y; Ang, M C

    1999-01-01

    The recent expression of an azurin mutant where the blue type 1 copper site is replaced by the purple CuA site of Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase has yielded an optimal system for examining the unique electron mediation properties of the binuclear CuA center, because both type 1 and...

  10. Deep Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Morten O. Ravn; Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes the standard habit formation model to an environment in which agents form habits over individual varieties of goods as opposed to over a composite consumption good. We refer to this preference specification as ‘deep habit formation’. Under deep habits, the demand function faced by individual producers depends on past sales. This feature is typically assumed ad-hoc in customer market and brand switching cost models. A central result of the paper is that deep habits giv...

  11. The purple line as a measure of labourprogress: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styles Maggie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal examination (VE and assessment of the cervix is currently considered to be the gold standard for assessment of labour progress. It is however inherently imprecise with studies indicating an overall accuracy for determining the diameter of the cervix at between 48-56%. Furthermore, VEs can be unpleasant, intrusive and embarrassing for women, and are associated with the risk of introducing infection. In light of increasing concern world wide about the use of routine interventions in labour it may be time to consider alternative, less intrusive means of assessing progress in labour. The presence of a purple line during labour, seen to rise from the anal margin and extend between the buttocks as labour progresses has been reported. The study described in this paper aimed to assess in what percentage of women in labour a purple line was present, clear and measurable and to determine if any relationship existed between the length of the purple line and cervical dilatation and/or station of the fetal head. Methods This longitudinal study observed 144 women either in spontaneous labour (n = 112 or for induction of labour (n = 32 from admission through to final VE. Women were examined in the lateral position and midwives recorded the presence or absence of the line throughout labour immediately before each VE. Where present, the length of the line was measured using a disposable tape measure. Within subjects correlation, chi-squared test for independence, and independent samples t-test were used to analyse the data. Results The purple line was seen at some point in labour for 109 women (76%. There was a medium positive correlation between length of the purple line and cervical dilatation (r = +0.36, n = 66, P = 0.0001 and station of the fetal head (r = +0.42, n = 56, P Conclusions The purple line does exist and there is a medium positive correlation between its length and both cervical dilatation and station of the fetal head

  12. Identification and Characterization of DcUSAGT1, a UDP-Glucose: Sinapic Acid Glucosyltransferase from Purple Carrot Taproots

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots accumulate abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins in taproots. UDP-glucose: sinapic acid glucosyltransferase (USAGT) can transfer the glucose moiety to the carboxyl group of sinapic acid thereby forming the ester bond between the carboxyl-C and the C1 of glucose (1-O-sinapoylglucose). 1-O-sinapoylglucose can serve as an acyl donor in acylation of anthocyanins and generate cyanidin 3-xylosyl (sinapoylglucosyl) galactoside in purple carrots. This final product helps stabilize the a...

  13. A MYB transcription factor, DcMYB6, is involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple carrot taproots

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Feng, Kai; Que, Feng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Carrots are widely grown and enjoyed around the world. Purple carrots accumulate rich anthocyanins in the taproots, while orange, yellow, and red carrots accumulate rich carotenoids in the taproots. Our previous studies indicated that variation in the activity of regulatory genes may be responsible for variations in anthocyanin production among various carrot cultivars. In this study, an R2R3-type MYB gene, designated as DcMYB6, was isolated from a purple carrot cultivar. In a phylogenetic an...

  14. THE EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO DECREASE BLOOD AND LIVER MDA OF MICE AFTER INTENSE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jawi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress as consequence of intense physical exercises cause tissue lesions. The objective of this study was to identify the comparable antioxidant effect of water extract and syrup of Balinese purple sweet potato to the liver tissue in mice after maximal exercise, through the quantification of blood and liver malondialdehyde (MDA, and the histologic feature of liver tissue. Subjects of this study were 60 adult male Swiss mice divided into 6 groups with control group post-test only design. Blood and liver were collected after exercise protocol of exhausting swimming in ten mice without water extract, ten mice with water extract and ten mice with syrup of Balinese purple sweet potato. The MDA was quantification with TBARS method. Samples were also collected from control group of ten mice without water extract, ten mice with water extract and ten mice with syrup of Balinese purple sweet potato as sedentary mice. The results show a significant increase of MDA in the blood and liver, after swimming with and without water extract or syrup of Balinese purple sweet potato respectively (p<0,05. The increase of MDA was slightly significant in the group with water extract or syrup of Balinese purple sweet potato (p<0,05. The increase of liver cell necrosis was slightly significant in the group with water extract of Balinese purple sweet potato (p<0,05. From this finding it can be concluded that water extract or syrup of Balinese purple sweet potato has antioxidant effect in exhausting exercise in mice. Water extract of Balinese purple sweet potato has protective effect to the liver cell in exhausting exercise in mice

  15. Degradation kinetics and antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins in air-impingement jet dried purple potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gan; Wang, Danfeng; Song, Xiaoyong; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the types, degradation kinetics, and antioxidant capacities of anthocyanins in purple potato slices subjected to air-impingement jet drying (AIJD) at different drying temperatures (50, 65, and 80°C). Petunidin-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin in AIJD-treated purple potato and was positively correlated with antioxidant capacity. Anthocyanin concentration decreased with drying time, and anthocyanin degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics. At high drying temperatures, anthocyanin degradation had higher degradation rates and shorter half-life than at low drying temperatures. Thermodynamic results revealed that the degradation of anthocyanins is a non-spontaneous, endothermic reaction and that the transition state has lower structural freedom than the reactant. AIJD at 65°C contributed to the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calf thymus DNA-binding ability study of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Xirui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-13

    A total of 10 anthocyanin compounds were identified from five purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties, Qunzi, Zishu038, Ji18, Jingshu6, and Ziluolan, by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess their calf thymus DNA-binding ability in vitro. The interaction between anthocyanins and calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.9) was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was seen in the DNA-EB system when anthocyanins were added, indicating that the anthocyanins bound with DNA. The acylated groups influenced the ability of the interaction with DNA. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato with more acylated groups in sorphorose have a stronger binding ability with DNA.

  17. Successful Treatment of a Lichenoid-Like Granulomatous Reaction to Purple Tattoo Pigment With Intralesional Kenalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-06-01

    Tattoo reactions can be clinically challenging to diagnose and treat. We present a case of a biopsy-proven granulomatous reaction to purple tattoo ink that clinically mimicked lichen planus. This reaction was successfully treated with one course of intralesional kenalog (ILK), with no recurrence six months after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a granulomatous tattoo reaction appearing clinically like lichen planus, and one of the few reports of a reaction to purple tattoo pigment. It highlights the importance of biopsying tattoo-related dermatoses prior to treatment in order to confirm the diagnosis. It also illustrates how a minimally invasive technique utilizing ILK to treat a granulomatous tattoo reaction can result in excellent dermatologic, cosmetic, and symptomatic outcomes. Based on this therapeutic success, we believe treatment with ILK injections should be attempted before more invasive modalities such as excision or laser therapy.

  18. A thermo-sensitive purple leaf rice mutant--PLM12 and its genetical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guanting; Wang Xianyu; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    PLM12 was a thermo-sensitive purple leaf mutant selected from Indica rice variety Luqingzao 1 treated with pingyangmycin in combination with γ-rays, and for display of its mutant character, a relatively high temperature was required. Compared with its original parent, many major agronomic traits of PLM12 changed to varied extents. Based on spikelet cutting experiment, it was believed that significant decreases in number of filled grains per panicle, fertility, and 1000-grain weight in PLM12 resulted mainly from a great decline in photosynthetic capacity and serious lack of photosynthate in purple leaves. It was indicated by genetic analysis that expression of the mutant phenotype in PLM12 was conditioned by a single recessive major nuclear gene and modified by several minor genes

  19. An analytical pipeline to compare and characterise the anthocyanin antioxidant activities of purple sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Deng, Liqing; Chen, Jinwu; Zhou, Siyu; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yufan; Yang, Chunxian; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2016-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is rich in anthocyanin pigments, which are valuable constituents of the human diet. Techniques to identify and quantify anthocyanins and their antioxidant potential are desirable for cultivar selection and breeding. In this study, we performed a quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of 30 purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars, using various assays to measure reducing power radical-scavenging activities, and linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to establish relationships between the antioxidant activities and the chemical fingerprints, in order to identify key bioactive compounds. The results indicated that four peonidin-based anthocyanins and three cyanidin-based anthocyanins make significant contributions to antioxidant activity. We conclude that the analytical pipeline described here represents an effective method to evaluate the antioxidant potential of, and the contributing compounds present in, PSP cultivars. This approach may be used to guide future breeding strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian cultivars of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Susana; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Taco, Verónica; Poveda, Cristina; Ayuda-Durán, Begoña; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2016-03-01

    Tree tomato fruits from the yellow giant, giant purple and New Zealand purple cultivars, cultivated in Ecuador were analysed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Twelve hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and four anthocyanins (in the purple cultivars) were detected and identified. The hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives mostly derived from caffeic acid, being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and rosmarinic acid the majority compounds. Furthermore, various rosmarinic acid glucosides, caffeoyl glucoside, feruloyl glucoside and two ferulic acid dehydrodimers were tentatively identified. The presence of rosmarinic acid is particularly relevant as it constituted a majority phenolic compound in the four studied tree tomato cultivars and it had not been reported previously in this fruit. In the purple cultivars main anthocyanins were pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside and delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside. The New Zealand purple cultivar was by far the richest sample in both hydroxycinnamates (421.6mg/100g dry pulp) and anthocyanins (168.9mg/100g dry pulp). Antioxidant capacity, as determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays, followed the same pattern as phenolic contents, with the New Zealand purple cultivar being the one with the highest and the yellow giant cultivar with the lowest values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Sonja M; Ellrich, Julius A

    2016-01-01

    The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a rocky intertidal gastropod of the North Atlantic coast. Individual shell color varies. Common colors range between white and brown, with darker dogwhelks being more affected by heat stress than lighter-colored conspecifics. Other reported shell colors are purple, black, mauve, pink, yellow, and orange from UK coasts, red and gray from the Bay of Fundy coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Canada), and purple, black, gray, yellow, and orange from the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts (USA), with purple being considered as a rare color. On the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, dogwhelks are active from April until November, but information on dogwhelk shell color is missing for this coast. On 16 June 2016, we found two purple-colored dogwhelks in the mid-to-high intertidal zone of a moderately wave-exposed rocky shore near Duncans Cove, on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia while collecting dogwhelks (n= 1000) during low tide for manipulative field experiments. All other dogwhelks collected on that day were of common white and brown colors. During earlier dogwhelk collections in Atlantic Nova Scotia (between 2011-2013) and field surveys in Duncans Cove (between 2014-2016), we did not find any purple-colored dogwhelks, indicating the rareness of this color in that region. Apparently, our observations provide the first visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

  2. A MYB transcription factor, DcMYB6, is involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple carrot taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Feng, Kai; Que, Feng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2017-03-27

    Carrots are widely grown and enjoyed around the world. Purple carrots accumulate rich anthocyanins in the taproots, while orange, yellow, and red carrots accumulate rich carotenoids in the taproots. Our previous studies indicated that variation in the activity of regulatory genes may be responsible for variations in anthocyanin production among various carrot cultivars. In this study, an R2R3-type MYB gene, designated as DcMYB6, was isolated from a purple carrot cultivar. In a phylogenetic analysis, DcMYB6 was grouped into an anthocyanin biosynthesis-related MYB clade. Sequence analyses revealed that DcMYB6 contained the conserved bHLH-interaction motif and two atypical motifs of anthocyanin regulators. The expression pattern of DcMYB6 was correlated with anthocyanin production. DcMYB6 transcripts were detected at high levels in three purple carrot cultivars but at much lower levels in six non-purple carrot cultivars. Overexpression of DcMYB6 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and upregulated transcript levels of all seven tested anthocyanin-related structural genes. Together, these results show that DcMYB6 is involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple carrots. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in purple carrot cultivars.

  3. Proteomic analysis of tea plants (Camellia sinensis with purple young shoots during leaf development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongqiong Zhou

    Full Text Available Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL and mature green leaves (MGL included: 1 the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2 the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI and flavonol synthase (FLS likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3 higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx, could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4 the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of differentially abundant proteins was regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, the results indicated that higher abundance of CHI and CHS may account for the production of the purple-shoot phenotype in Wuyiqizhong 18 and thereby, enhancing the anthocyanin biosynthesis. The higher abundance of glutamine synthetase (GS proteins related to the theanine biosynthesis may improve the flavor of tea products from TPL materials. Thus, this work should help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in leaf color alteration.

  4. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield pl...

  5. Antihypertensive and Antioxidant Potential of Purple Sweet Potato Tuber Dry Extract in Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jawi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple sweet potato tuber extract in liquid form has been shown to lower blood pressure of hypertensive rats and hypertensive patients. Liquid dosage form increasingly unstable when stored for long periods, thus it is necessary to find a more stable dosage form. The objective of this research was to prove that dry extract of purple sweet potato tuber has the same effects with liquid extract in hypertensive rats. The is a randomized pre-test and post-test control group design study. Thirty hypertensive model rats were divided into 5 groups (6 animals for each group. Group 1 was treated as a control group. Group 2 to group 5 were treated as treatment groups. Treatment groups were given liquid extract at a dose of 3 ml, dry extract with the dose of 200 mg, dry extract that stored in a certain time with a dose of 200 mg and given a mixture of dry extract with a carrier substance (capsule formula with a dose of 200 mg, respectively, for 4 weeks. Variables observed were blood pressure, SOD and MDA level of the blood. The results showed that the group given the purple sweet potato tuber extract lowers blood pressure were significantly in liquid extract or dry extract (p <0.01. The group that was treated with capsule formula showed more decrease in blood pressure than dry extract group (p <0.01. The similar results happened on MDA and SOD level in blood. Thus, it can be concluded that dried extract of purple sweet potato tubers has the same effectiveness with liquid extract, both as an antihypertensive and also antioxidant. Capsules formula is more effective than liquid extract and dry extract. 

  6. Photoresponses of the purple nonsulfur bacteria Rhodospirillum centenum and Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    OpenAIRE

    Sackett, M J; Armitage, J P; Sherwood, E E; Pitta, T P

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the photoresponse of two purple nonsulfur bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodospirillum centenum, under defined conditions in a light beam propagating at 90 degrees to the optical axis of the microscope. This beam presented cells with a steep gradient of intensity perpendicular to the direction of propagation and a shallow gradient in the direction of light propagation. R. centenum, a species that reverses to change direction, accumulated in the light beam, as expected...

  7. Comparative study of soil erodibility and critical shear stress between loess and purple soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Huang, Yu-han; Chen, Xiao-yan; Luo, Bang-lin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2018-03-01

    Loess and purple soils are two very important cultivated soils, with the former in the loess region and the latter in southern sub-tropical region of China, featured with high-risks of erosion, considerable differences of soil structures due to differences in mineral and nutrient compositions. Study on soil erodibility (Kr) and critical shear stress (τc) of these two soils is beneficial to predict soil erosion with such models as WEPP. In this study, rill erosion experimental data sets of the two soils are used for estimating their Kr and τc before they are compared to understand their differences of rill erosion behaviors. The maximum detachment rates of the loess and purple soils are calculated under different hydrodynamic conditions (flow rates: 2, 4, 8 L/min; slope gradients: 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) through analytical and numerical methods respectively. Analytical method used the derivative of the function between sediment concentration and rill length to estimate potential detachment rates, at the rill beginning. Numerical method estimated potential detachment rates with the experimental data, at the rill beginning and 0.5 m location. The Kr and τc of these two soils are determined by the linear equation based on experimental data. Results show that the methods could well estimate the Kr and τc of these two soils as they remain basically unchanged under different hydrodynamic conditions. The Kr value of loess soil is about twice of the purple soil, whereas the τc is about half of that. The numerical results have good correlations with the analytical values. These results can be useful in modeling rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils.

  8. Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Christopher Marble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have significantly increased over the past century and are expected to continue rising in the future. While elevated levels of CO2 will likely result in higher crop yields, weed growth is also highly likely to increase, which could increase the incidence of herbicide resistant biotypes. An experiment was conducted in 2012 to determine the effects of an elevated CO2 environment on glyphosate and halosulfuron efficacy for postemergence control of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.. Both species of nutsedge where grown in 3.0-L containers under either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 CO2 in open-top field chambers and treated with either 0.5×, 1.0×, or 1.5× of the manufacturer’s labeled rate of halosulfuron, glyphosate, or a tank mix of the two herbicides. The growth of both nutsedge species responded positively to elevated CO2, purple nutsedge had increased shoot and root dry weights and yellow nutsedge had increased shoot, root, and tuber dry weights and counts. Few treatment differences were observed among the herbicides at any of the rates tested. At three weeks following herbicide application, both purple and yellow nutsedge were adequately controlled by both herbicides and combinations at all rates tested, regardless of CO2 concentration. Based on this study, it is likely that predicted future CO2 levels will have little impact on the efficacy of single applications of halosulfuron or glyphosate for control of purple and yellow nutsedge at the growth stages described here, although scenarios demanding more persistent control efforts remain a question.

  9. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-lin Luo

    Full Text Available As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D clayD silt(U>D sand (U>D sand and D silt>D silt(U>D sand>D sand(U, respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  10. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martinez-Cardenas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II chelation, the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•, in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05 and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05 to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90 and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86. All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  11. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  12. Food and feeding ecology of purple sandpipers Calidris maritima on rocky intertidal habitats (Helgoland, German Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker

    On the island of Helgoland (German Bight) Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima feed mainly in the intertidal of piers and rocky shores. The main prey species are Littorina saxatilis and Mytilus edulis, complemented by crustaceans, polychaetes, other molluscs and green algae. Beach habitats are used as alternative feeding sites during storms. Feeding sites seem to be selected according to rates of assimilated energy intake. The most profitable habitat (wrack beds on the high-tide line with kelp-fly larvae, 16.8 W) is used after arrival in October but is not available during winter. Because of high intake rates in rocky habitats (13.1 W on piers, 5.5 W on mussel beds), which allow short daily feeding times, and available alternative feeding sites during storms, Purple Sandpipers do not need to carry fat reserves in winter like other waders wintering in central and Western Europe. This, and the ever accessible food supply of epibenthic macrofauna on rocky shores, may enable Purple Sandpipers to winter further north than other wader species.

  13. Response Characteristics of Soil Fractal Features to Different Land Uses in Typical Purple Soil Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bang-lin; Chen, Xiao-yan; Ding, Lin-qiao; Huang, Yu-han; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Tian-tian

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743μm to 5.749μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is Dclayfractal dimension (Dvi) are higher than the corresponding parameter values from the United States Department of Agriculture (Dvi(U)). The correlation study between the volume domain fractal dimension and the soil properties shows that the intensity of correlation to the soil texture and soil organic matter has the order as: Dsilt>Dsilt(U)>Dsand (U)>Dsand and Dsilt>Dsilt(U)>Dsand>Dsand(U), respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the Dsilt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies. PMID:25856376

  14. Preventive Effect of Zea mays L. (Purple Waxy Corn on Experimental Diabetic Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphaphat Thiraphatthanavong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, substances possessing antioxidant can prevent cataractogenesis of diabetic cataract. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the anticataract effect of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn, a flavonoids rich plant, in experimental diabetic cataract. Enucleated rat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55 mM glucose with various concentrations of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn ranging between 2, 10, and 50 mg/mL at room temperature for 72 h. At the end of the incubation period, the evaluation of lens opacification, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were performed. The results showed that both medium and high doses of extract decreased lens opacity together with the decreased MDA level. In addition, medium dose of extract increased GPx activity while the high dose decreased AR activity. No other significant changes were observed. The purple waxy corn seeds extract is the potential candidate to protect against diabetic cataract. The mechanism of action may occur via the decreased oxidative stress and the suppression of AR. However, further research in vivo is still essential.

  15. Effect of the Purple Corn Beverage “Chicha Morada” in Composite Resin during Dental Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dario Acuña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During dental bleaching the staining potential of the surface would increase. This study aims to evaluate the staining susceptibility of one bleached composite resin after the exposure to three different beverages: Peruvian purple corn based beverage (chicha morada, green tea, and distilled water. Thirty disk-shaped specimens of one nanofill composite resin were prepared. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n=5: purple corn (P, purple corn + bleaching (PB, green tea (T, green tea + bleaching (TB, distilled water (W, and distilled water + bleaching (WB. In groups that received bleaching, two sessions of bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide were done. Following bleaching, specimens were exposed to each liquid thirty minutes daily. Color was measured with a digital spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, color measurement differences between the obtained results were used: during bleaching, after bleaching, and during + after bleaching. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the color changes in the resins of all groups (p3.3.

  16. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  17. Association of a new type of gliding, filamentous, purple phototrophic bacterium inside bundles of Microcoleus chthonoplastes in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, E. D.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    An unidentified filamentous purple bacterium, probably belonging to a new genus or even a new family, is found in close association with the filamentous, mat-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes in a hypersaline pond at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt. This organism is a gliding, segmented trichome, 0.8-0.9 micrometer wide. It contains intracytoplasmic stacked lamellae which are perpendicular and obliquely oriented to the cell wall, similar to those described for the purple sulfur bacteria Ectothiorhodospira. These bacteria are found inside the cyanobacterial bundle, enclosed by the cyanobacterial sheath. Detailed transmission electron microscopical analyses carried out in horizontal sections of the upper 1.5 mm of the cyanobacterial mat show this cyanobacterial-purple bacterial association at depths of 300-1200 micrometers, corresponding to the zone below that of maximal oxygenic photosynthesis. Sharp gradients of oxygen and sulfide are established during the day at this microzone in the two cyanobacterial mats studied. The close association, the distribution pattern of this association and preliminary physiological experiments suggest a co-metabolism of sulfur by the two-membered community. This probable new genus of purple bacteria may also grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by the cyanobacterium. Since the chemical gradients in the entire photic zone fluctuate widely in a diurnal cycle, both types of metabolism probably take place. During the morning and afternoon, sulfide migrates up to the photic zone allowing photoautotrophic metabolism with sulfide as the electron donor. During the day the photic zone is highly oxygenated and the purple bacteria may either use oxidized species of sulfur such as elemental sulfur and thiosulfate in the photoautotrophic mode or grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by M. chthonoplastes. The new type of filamentous purple sulfur

  18. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  19. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  20. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  1. Changes in non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation during germination of white, yellow and purple maize seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, B.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the changes in non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation during the germination process of purple, yellow and white maize seeds were compared, under favorable conditions. Results showed that germination can increase non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (evaluated with ferric reducing power and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate radical scavenging capacity) and lipid peroxidation levels for all these seeds. In addition, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity observed in the germinating seeds were in the order of purple > yellow > white. However, the highest and lowest levels of lipid peroxidation could be seen during the germination processes of the white and purple seeds, respectively. In addition, the germination rates of the seeds followed the order of white > yellow > purple. Further studies showed that H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ treatment can significantly promote seed germination, especially for purple seeds. In addition, DMTU (dimethylthiourea), a specific scavenger for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, could slightly but significantly arrest dormancy release. Data analysis showed that a high negative correlation (R/sup 2/ = -0.955) existed between non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and germination rates. However, a high positive correlation (R/sup 2/ = 0.860) could be detected between lipid peroxidation and germination rates. Finally, lipid peroxidation as a possible novel signaling mechanism for seed germination has been discussed under stress-free conditions. (author)

  2. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  3. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  4. De novo sequencing and a comprehensive analysis of purple sweet potato (Impomoea batatas L.) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fuliang; Burklew, Caitlin E; Yang, Yanfang; Liu, Min; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Baohong; Qiu, Deyou

    2012-07-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing was performed for comprehensively analyzing the transcriptome of the purple sweet potato. A total of 58,800 unigenes were obtained and ranged from 200 nt to 10,380 nt with an average length of 476 nt. The average expression of one unigene was 34 reads per kb per million reads (RPKM) with a maximum expression of 1,935 RPKM. At least 40,280 (68.5%) unigenes were identified to be protein-coding genes, in which 11,978 and 5,184 genes were homologous to Arabidopsis and rice proteins, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that 19,707 (33.5%) unigenes were classified to 1,807 terms of GO including molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components and 9,970 (17.0%) unigenes were enriched to 11,119 KEGG pathways. We found that at least 3,553 genes may be involved in the biosynthesis pathways of starch, alkaloids, anthocyanin pigments, and vitamins. Additionally, 851 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in all unigenes. Transcriptome sequencing on tuberous roots of the sweet potato yielded substantial transcriptional sequences and potentially useful SSR markers which provide an important data source for sweet potato research. Comparison of two RNA-sequence datasets from the purple and the yellow sweet potato showed that UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase was one of the key enzymes in the pathway of anthocyanin biosynthesis and that anthocyanin-3-glucoside might be one of the major components for anthocyanin pigments in the purple sweet potato. This study contributes to the molecular mechanisms of sweet potato development and metabolism and therefore that increases the potential utilization of the sweet potato in food nutrition and pharmacy.

  5. Imaging of solid tumor using near-infrared emitting purple bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sun A; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung

    2005-01-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 is α-3 purple nonsulfur eubacterium with an extensive metabolism. Under anaerobic conditions, it is able to grow by photosynthesis, respiration and fermentation. When grown photosynthetically, it uses wavelengths of light in the near-infrared and contains a reaction center that is the peripheral light-harvesting (LH2) complex. These molecules absorb and emit near-infrared light. Using this near-infrared fluorescent bacterial we investigated its targeting capacity of solid tumor in small animals. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 strains were cultured in sistrons minimal medium A (SIS) at 32 C. Xenograft tumor model has been established by subcutaneous injection of CT26 mouse colon cancer cell line. 1X10 8 Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells suspended in 100 ul of PBS were injected via tail vein with 1-cc insulin syringe into tumor bearing mouse. In vivo fluorescence imaging has been done after 20 min to 30 days of purple bacteria using indocyanine (ICG) emission filter (Em=810∼835 nm). Near-infrared imaging signal from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was initially detected at liver for 3 days but at the necrotic region of tumor mass thereafter. Total photon flux measured 5.5X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at Day 1. Also it was increased to 7.8X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at 12 day. One of important characteristic is that the signal appeared only at central necrosis area. It has been monitored for 36 day. We successfully imaged cancer with near-infrared fluorescence bacteria. Our result indicate that near-infrared fluorescence purple bacteria are able to be used to monitor bacterial trafficking in living tumor models

  6. TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE (MS-222) SEDATION AND ANESTHESIA IN THE PURPLE-SPINED SEA URCHIN (ARBACIA PUNCTULATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Jeffrey R; Dombrowski, Daniel S; Christian, Larry Shane; Bayer, Meredith P; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-12-01

    The purple-spined sea urchin ( Arbacia punctulata ) is commonly found in shallow waters of the western Atlantic Ocean from the New England area of the United States to the Caribbean. Sea urchins play a major role in ocean ecology, echinoculture, and biomedical research. Additionally, sea urchins are commonly displayed in public aquaria. Baseline parameters were developed in unanesthetized urchins for righting reflex (time to regain oral recumbency) and spine response time to tactile stimulus. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) was used to sedate and anesthetize purple-spined sea urchins and assess sedation and anesthetic parameters, including adhesion to and release from a vertical surface, times to loss of response to tactile stimulus and recovery of righting reflex, and qualitative observations of induction of spawning and position of spines and pseudopodia. Sedation and anesthetic parameters were evaluated in 11 individuals in three circumstances: unaltered aquarium water for baseline behaviors, 0.4 g/L MS-222, and 0.8 g/L MS-222. Induction was defined as the release from a vertical surface with the loss of righting reflex, sedation as loss of righting reflex with retained tactile spine response, anesthesia as loss of righting reflex and loss of tactile spine response, and recovery as voluntary return to oral recumbency. MS-222 proved to be an effective sedative and anesthetic for the purple-spined sea urchin at 0.4 and 0.8 g/L, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate used to buffer MS-222 had no measurable sedative effects when used alone. Anesthesia was quickly reversed with transfer of each individual to anesthesia-free seawater, and no anesthetic-related mortality occurred. The parameters assessed in this study provide a baseline for sea urchin anesthesia and may provide helpful comparisons to similar species and populations that are in need of anesthesia for surgical procedures or research.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES, was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes, than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99% from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane’s fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× g and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m−1, respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90% remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in “green” technology.

  8. Extraction of anthocyanins from purple corn cobs of Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorriti G., Arilmí; Quispe J., Fredy; Arroyo A., Jorge L.; Córdova R., Augusta; Jurado T., Bertha; Santiago A., Ilario; Taype E., Evelyng

    2014-01-01

    At the present investigation the good conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins from purple corn cobs were investigated, by means of the employment of a complete design at random with factorial arrangement 2A3B4C4D. The factors studied were pH, solvent, time and temperature. The results showed anthocyanins between 8,404 and 47,984 mg/g of cob according to the method of differential pH. Analysis of four factors were presented. En el presente trabajo se investigaron las condiciones óptim...

  9. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, Fred Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  10. Reading Bisexually: Acknowledging a Bisexual Perspective in Giovanni's Room, The Color purple, and Brokeback Mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Maiken

    2012-01-01

    In literary theory, literary criticism and in the Western literary canon there is evidence of an exclusion or erasure of a bisexual perspective, and this has also been the case within much of the written history of sexuality and theory, relating to gender, sexuality and identity. This thesis examines and analyses three literary classics; ‘Giovanni’s Room’ by James Baldwin, Alice Walker’s ‘The Color Purple,’ and ‘Brokeback Mountain’ by Annie Proulx, from a bisexual perspective. I have sought ...

  11. Comparison of chemical composition of carrot roots of orange, purple and white colour

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Roszkowska; Beata Piłat; Małgorzata Tańska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition of carrot roots: orange, purple and white. The content of sugars, fibre, pectins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and vitamin C was analysed. It has been shown that the chemical composition of roots was different for the studied varieties of carrots. The orange carrot root (‘Koral’) contained most of pectins (6.37% d.m.) and carotenoids (149.66 mg per 100 g d.m.), mainly β-carotene (approx. 50% of total carotenoids)...

  12. The use of polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromo cresol purple in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Al-Kassiri, H.; Daher, Y.

    2010-09-01

    In this work,the use of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with Bromo cresol purple in high dose radiation dosimetry has been studied according to the radio chromic change using visible spectrophotometry. The results show linear relationship between the relative absorbance (response) and the absorbed dose at the wavelength 417 nm in the range of 0-50 kGy. Dose rate, irradiation temperature, dye intensity have been investigated and found to be independent of the response. The effects of post-irradiation storage in dark and indirect daylight conditions on dosimetry performance are discussed. (Author)

  13. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of traditional green and purple "Napoletano" basil cultivars (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Campania region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Izzo, Luana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-09-01

    The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 'Napoletano' green and purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) varieties. The results obtained revealed that the basil sample extracts were characterised by a generally higher polyphenolic concentration than those reported elsewhere for other more conventional and geographically different basil varieties. Napoletano purple basil revealed higher radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing capacities than the green one probably due to its relevant anthocyanin content. As regards the antimicrobial properties, both basil varieties exhibited activity against a broad spectrum of food-borne and human pathogenic micro-organisms, revealing not only a moderate to high natural preserving capacity, but also potentially beneficial influence on human health. Results indicated Napoletano green and purple basils as a good source of antioxidants of potential nutraceutical interest.

  15. Toxicity, absorption, translocation, and metabolism of chlorimuron in yellow and purple nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus and C. rotundus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    Greenhouse, laboratory, and field studies were conducted to investigate the activity of soil and foliar applied chlorimuron on yellow and purple nutsedge. Soil-applied chlorimuron (10 to 60 g/ha) significantly decreased tuber sprouting, shoot emergence, and shoot growth in both yellow and purple nutsedge. Previous exposure to soil-applied chlorimuron was not effective in reducing parent tuber sprouting at any rate in yellow nutsedge, while in purple nutsedge parent tuber sprouting was reduced significantly at 60 g/ha. Shoots of both yellow and purple nutsedge propagules absorbed greater amounts of 14 C than did roots and tubers. However, translocation of 14 C was greater from the roots and tuber than from the shoot. Toxicity of foliar-applied chlorimuron (5 to 30 g/ha) was evident by stunted growth, leaf discoloration, and death in both species. Application of chlorimuron at 20 g/ha gave 84% control in yellow nutsedge and 100% control in purple nutsedge. Chlorimuron treatments reduced shoot dry weight, inhibited secondary shoot production, and killed parent tubers attached to treated plants, regardless of rats, in both species. Over 13% of the foliar-applied 14 C recovered was absorbed and over 15% of that absorbed was translocated at 1 day after application in both species. This increased two-fold by 8 days after application. 14 C translocation was both acropetal and basipetal. Over 68% of the absorbed 14 C in yellow nutsedge and 63% in purple nutsedge was retained in the treated area at 8 days after application. Overall, the basal bulb, rhizomes, and tuber had the least amounts of 14 C in both species

  16. Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Purple Ipomoea batatas Leaves and Their Effects on Glucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Lee, Shou-Lun; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Kao, Ming-Ching; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Chen, Jau-Yang; Lai, Yen-Ting; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-06-08

    Ipomoea batatas has long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycemia or as a food additive for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, neither the plant extract nor its active components have been evaluated systematically. In this work four crude extracts, including n-hexane- (IBH), 95% MeOH- (IBM), n-BuOH- (IBB), and H₂O-soluble (IBW) fractions, were prepared by fractionation of a methanolic extract of purple I. batatas leaves. Twenty-four pure compounds 1-24 were then isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures identified from NMR and MS data. Glucose uptake assays in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat primary hepatocytes, as well as western blot analysis, were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of this species. The IBH crude fraction, with methyl decanoate (22) as a major and active compound, showed the greatest effect on glucose uptake, most likely via activation of Glut4 and regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Quercetin 3-O-β-d-sophoroside (1), quercetin (3), benzyl β-d-glucoside (10), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (12), and methyl decanoate (22) could be important components contributing to the antidiabetic effects. We conclude that purple I. batatas leaves have potential as an antidiabetic plant source and the active constituents 1, 3, 10, 12, and 22 are promising lead candidates for future investigation.

  17. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of a purple tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Deng, Zeyuan; Liu, Ronghua; Young, J Christopher; Zhu, Honghui; Loewen, Steven; Tsao, Rong

    2011-11-09

    A newly developed nongenetically modified purple tomato V118 was investigated for its phytochemical compositions and antioxidant activities. A highly efficient and sensitive UPLC method was developed for both the phenolics and carotenoids, which showed that in addition to the phytochemicals commonly known for tomatoes, V118 had a unique composition of anthocyanins. The total carotenoid content of V118 was 234.78 μg/g dry weight (DW), and the total phenolic content was 659.11 mg GAE/100 g DW. The antioxidant activities of the lipophilic extract as measured by the PCL and ORAC-L assays were 30.11 μmol TE/g DW and 11.97 μmol TE/g DW, respectively, while the hydrophilic extracts as determined by the ORAC-H and FRAP assays were 323.23 μmol TE/g DW and 54.95 μmol AAE/g DW, respectively. The LC-MS study showed three major anthocyanins, which were mainly acylglycosides of petunidin and malvidin. This study showed that purple tomatoes such as V118 possess additional phytochemicals like anthocyanins, which can potentially have added health benefits.

  18. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp. PMID:26208646

  19. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  20. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.

  1. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  2. Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant Capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Patricia; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    Folin-Ciocalteu and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay together with the spectrophotometric determination of betalains were applied to investigate the correlation between phenolics and their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of five different Costa Rican genotypes of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) and of H. polyrhizus fruits. Maximum antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and betalain contents were observed in the genotype 'Lisa'. While non-betalainic phenolic compounds contributed only to a minor extent, betalains were responsible for the major antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya juices evaluated. The phenolic pattern of each genotype was also thoroughly investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to the well known betalains previously reported in Hylocereus fruits, several biosynthetic precursors were detected. Notably, decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betalains were identified as genuine compounds of the juices. Some of these compounds were previously described as artifacts upon heat exposure. Moreover, gallic acid was identified for the first time in pitaya fruits. While the phenolic profiles generally differed between genotypes, phenolic compound composition of 'Rosa' resembled that of H. polyrhizus with respect to total contents of betacyanins, betalainic precursors, phyllocactin and cyclo-Dopa malonyl-glucosides.

  3. Genes essential for phototrophic growth by a purple alphaproteobacterium: Genes for phototrophic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianming [Key Lab of Applied Mycology, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao Shandong Province People' s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Yin, Liang [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Lessner, Faith H. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville AR USA; Nakayasu, Ernesto S. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Payne, Samuel H. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Fixen, Kathryn R. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Gallagher, Larry [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Harwood, Caroline S. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA

    2017-07-24

    Anoxygenic purple phototrophic bacteria have served as important models for studies of photophosphorylation. The pigment-protein complexes responsible for converting light energy to ATP are relatively simple and these bacteria can grow heterotrophically under aerobic conditions, thus allowing for the study of mutants defective in photophosphorylation. In the past, genes responsible for anoxygenic phototrophic growth have been identified in a number of different bacterial species. Here we systematically studied the genetic basis for this metabolism by using Tn-seq to identify genes essential for the anaerobic growth of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris on acetate in light. We identified 171 genes required for growth in this condition, 35 of which are annotated as photosynthesis genes. Among these are a few new genes not previously shown to be essential for phototrophic growth. We verified the essentiality of many of the genes we identified by analyzing the phenotypes of mutants we generated by Tn mutagenesis that had altered pigmentation. We used directed mutagenesis to verify that the R. palustris NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex IE is essential for phototrophic growth. As a complement to the genetic data, we carried out proteomics experiments in which we found that 429 proteins were present in significantly higher amounts in cells grown anaerobically in light compared to aerobically. Among these were proteins encoded by subset of the phototrophic growth-essential genes.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on growth and pigment synthesis by purple thiobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Pavlova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different environmental factors on growth and pigment biosynthesis by particular strains of purple thiobacteria was investigated. These strains belong to the genus Chromatium, Thiocystis, Thiocapsa and Lamprocystis and were isolated from Yavoriv sulphur mine. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and sodium chloride should be included in the medium for optimal growth of these bacteria. Addition of these elements entails increasing the biomass production and synthesis of carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Initial concentration of inoculum and electron donor has essential influence on growth of purple thiobacteria. Early in the development of culture, sulphide was oxidized, and then the growth impairment and destruction of cells under exposure of light were observed. For the optimization of bacteria growth the electron donor (sulphide must be added many times during the cultivation process in the concentration, which is not exceed an inhibition dose. The additional bringing of the electron donor in the medium promotes the raise of cells’ biomass. The acetate introduction in the medium has positive influence on the pigments’ biosynthesis. The essential factor of growth and pigments’ biosynthesis is the light intensity. Peak gain of the culture growth was observed under 400 lx. The amplification of light exposure is accompanied by the decrease of growth and content of pigments in cells. Oxygen inhibits the synthesis of pigments in all strains

  5. Microencapsulation of Natural Anthocyanin from Purple Rosella Calyces by Freeze Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiunisa, A.; Aryanti, N.; Wardhani, D. H.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanin extract in powder form will improve its use since the powder is easier to store and more applicable. Microencapsulation method is introduced as an efficient way for protecting pigment such as anthocyanin. This research was aimed to characterise anthocyanin encapsulated products prepared from purple Roselle calyces by freeze drying. The liquid anthocyanin extracts from ultrasound-assisted extraction were freeze-dried with and without the addition of 10% w/w maltodextrins as a carrier and coating agents. The quality attributes of the powders were characterised by their colour intensity, water content, and solubility. Analysis of encapsulated material was performed for the powder added by maltodextrin. The stability of the microencapsulated pigment in solution form was determined for 11 days. Total anthocyanin content was observed through pH differential method. The results of the colour intensity analysis confirm that the product with maltodextrin addition has more intense colour with L* value of 29.69 a* value of 54.29 and b* value of 8.39. The result with the addition of maltodextrin has less moisture content and more soluble in water. It is verified that better results were obtained for powder with maltodextrin addition. Anthocyanin in the powder form with maltodextrin addition exhibits higher stability even after 11 days. In conclusion, the microencapsulation of anthocyanin with maltodextrin as a carrier and coating agent presented a potential method to produce anthocyanin powder from purple Roselle.

  6. Phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria as heat engines in the South Andros Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Rodney A; Gall, Andrew; Maoka, Takashi; Cogdell, Richard J; Robert, Bruno; Takaichi, Shinichi; Schwabe, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms normally endeavor to optimize the efficiency of their light-harvesting apparatus. However, here we describe two bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Allochromatium and Thiocapsa that demonstrate a novel adaptation by optimizing their external growth conditions at the expense of photosynthetic efficiency. In the South Andros Black Hole, Bahamas, a dense l-m thick layer of these anoxygenic purple sulfur bacteria is present at a depth of 17.8 m. In this layer the water temperature increases sharply to 36 degrees C as a consequence of the low-energy transfer efficiency of their carotenoids (ca. 30%). These include spirilloxanthin, and related polyene molecules and a novel chiral carotenoid identified as spirilloxanthin-2-ol, not previously reported in purple bacteria. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence of such a bacterial mass significantly increasing the ambient water temperature. The transduction of light to heat energy to excess heat may provide these anoxygenic phototropic bacteria with a competitive advantage over non-thermotolerant species, which would account for their predominance within the microbial layer.

  7. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  8. Photoprotection in a purple phototrophic bacterium mediated by oxygen-dependent alteration of carotenoid excited-state properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, V.; Chábera, P.; Olsen, J.D.; Martin, E.C.; Qian, P.; Hunter, C.N.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 22 (2012), s. 8570-8575 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : charge-transfer state * photoprotection * purple bacteria * photosynthesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  9. Characterization and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or APSPE]; model group (with CCl4 only; positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin; low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE; medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE; and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE. After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.15% in arachis oil, 10 mL/kg body weight, intravenous. Twelve hours after CCl4 injection, the mice were measured in terms of liver index, levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, as well as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate. Additionally, the livers of mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and sectioned for observation. Nineteen purple sweet potato anthocyanins were identified from the purple sweet potato cultivar Eshu No. 8 and analyzed by liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Peonidin 3-coumaryl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was first identified in purple sweet potato. The results showed that anthocyanins in Eshu No. 8 had good hepatoprotective activity.

  10. Geographical provenancing of purple grape juices from different farming systems by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using supervised statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic, biodynamic and conventional purple grape juices (PGJ; n = 79) produced in Brazil and Europe were characterized by volatile organic compounds (m/z 20-160) measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and classification models were built using supervised

  11. Characterization of Conventional, Biodynamic, and Organic Purple Grape Juices by Chemical Markers, Antioxidant Capacity, and Instrumental Taste Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Margraf, T.; Brotzakis, I.; Capuano, E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and

  12. Physical properties of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  13. PARTIAL HYDROLYSIS OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO FLOUR BY AMYLASE FROM Saccharomycopsis fibuligera AND ITS APPLICATION FOR COMPOSITE BREADMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato is one of underutilized carbohydrate sources in Indonesia, whilst known as good source of carbohydrate and can act as functional food due to its anthocyanine and dietary fiber contents. Therefore in the present study, we try to modify the sweet potato flour by partial hydrolysis using amylase produced by Saccharomycospsis fibuligera R64 and apply the partially hydrolyzed flour for composite breadmaking. The amylase was produced using batch method and partially purified by the addition of ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G25 using fast performance liquid chromatography system. The enzyme was then used to hydrolyze the purple sweet potato flour. Characterizations of the partially hydrolyzed flour comprise reduction in amylose-iodine complex, SEM and XRD. Partially hydrolyzed flour was then used as composite flour for bread, with ratio of wheat to partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour was 70 : 30. The produced bread was then analyzed for its texture, organoleptic test and visualization of the bread crumb using TEM. The results of the present study indicate that the enzyme partially hydrolyzed the sweet potato flour. Even though the quality of the composite bread is not as good as wheat bread, partial hydrolysis seems to improve the texture and appearance of the composite bread, as indicated by better swelling volume and firmness of the composite bread using partially hydrolyzed purple sweet potato flour.

  14. THE USE THE GENETICALLY DIFFICULTLY INHERITED TRAIT OF PURPLE ROOT COLOR IN BREEDING PROGRAM FOR THE COMPLICATED TRAIT IN RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ugarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding the nature of trait inheritance in any crops is that determines the quality of results in breeding program. According to reference on previous publication, it is known that phenotypic manifestation of purple root color in radish was caused by regulatory interrelationship mechanisms of genetic control that is difficult to be used directly in breeding program. From literature sources and on the basis of their own research work the authors have proven the practice to maintain the trait in generations, and implementations of development of purple radish breeding accessions have been presented. At first stage of breeding program the selection of initial breeding accessions was carried out, where 14 varieties (red x white were regarded on the basis of top-crosses to obtain F1 and F2 progenies to be analyzed. Thus, four best combinations from crossing were chosen with 100% of hybridity. Through analysis of hybrids for individual progenies the hybrid population F1 of radish ‘Konfeti’ with different root colors was developed. As result of the individual inbreeding selection on seed plants with pigmented stems and the colored flower rim, the stable breeding accession with purple root was obtained. Thus, in breeding practice in radish it was succeeded to obtain the stably inheriting purple root color in radish accessions, variety ‘Siniiy Iniey’. 

  15. Phenolic content, anthocyanins and antiradical capacity of diverse purple bran rice genotypes as compared to other bran colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds reportedly may reduce the risk of developing chronic disease and their risk factors. Anthocyanins are flavonoids, a subgroup of phenolic compounds in purple colored whole grain rice that have shown these health benefits in animal studies and human clinical trials. We studied the g...

  16. IBT-based quantitative proteomics identifies potential regulatory proteins involved in pigmentation of purple sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lili; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Li, Xiaoni; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-09-01

    Sea cucumbers are an important economic species and exhibit high yield value among aquaculture animals. Purple sea cucumbers are very rare and beautiful and have stable hereditary patterns. In this study, isobaric tags (IBT) were first used to reveal the molecular mechanism of pigmentation in the body wall of the purple sea cucumber. We analyzed the proteomes of purple sea cucumber in early pigmentation stage (Pa), mid pigmentation stage (Pb) and late pigmentation stage (Pc), resulting in the identification of 5580 proteins, including 1099 differentially expressed proteins in Pb: Pa and 339 differentially expressed proteins in Pc: Pb. GO and KEGG analyses revealed possible differentially expressed proteins, including"melanogenesis", "melanosome", "melanoma", "pigment-biosynthetic process", "Epidermis development", "Ras-signaling pathway", "Wnt-signaling pathway", "response to UV light", and "tyrosine metabolism", involved in pigment synthesis and regulation in purple sea cucumbers. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying pigmentation in sea cucumbers. Furthermore, these results may also provide the base for further identification of proteins involved in resistance mechanisms against melanoma, albinism, UV damage, and other diseases in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Longevity of Striga seeds reconsidered: results of a field study on purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica) in Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbehounou, G.; Pieterse, A.H.; Verkley, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Germination and longevity of purple witchweed seeds stored in nylon gauze bags in the soil in situ were tested in northern Bénin over a 2-yr period, covering the rainy seasons in 1994 and 1995. The seeds were collected at Ina Station in November 1993 from corn and sorghum fields. It appeared that

  18. 78 FR 55696 - Request for Comment on Petition Filed by Purple Communications, Inc. Regarding the Provision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... provision of IP CTS using Web and wireless applications. ] DATES: Comments are due September 26, 2013 and... of Internet Protocol Captioned Telephone Service (IP CTS) through Web or wireless technologies... Purple and other IP CTS providers to cease the provision of IP CTS using Web and wireless applications...

  19. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur

  20. PROJECTING POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF PURPLE SEA URCHINS TO LEAD CONTAMINATION FOR AN ESTUARINE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an ecological risk assessment case study at the Portsmouth naval Shipyard (PNS), Kittery, Maine, USA, the population level effects of lead exposure to purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, were investigated using a stage-classified matrix population model. The model d...

  1. Quality of fresh-cut purple fleshed sweet potatoes after x-ray irradiation treatment and refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of x-ray irradiation on the quality of fresh-cut, refrigerated purple-fleshed sweetpotato (PFSP) cubes was investigated. Packaged sweetpotato cubes were treated with 0, 250, 500, 750 or 1000 Gy x-ray irradiation and stored at 4 ± 1 ºC for 14 days. After 14 days, total aerobic bacteria cou...

  2. Characterization and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Luo, Chun-Li; Deng, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Zi-Cheng; Zhang, Jiu-Liang

    2017-07-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE) was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or APSPE]; model group (with CCl 4 only); positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin); low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE); medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE); and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE). After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl 4 (0.15% in arachis oil, 10 mL/kg body weight, intravenous). Twelve hours after CCl 4 injection, the mice were measured in terms of liver index, levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, as well as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate. Additionally, the livers of mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and sectioned for observation. Nineteen purple sweet potato anthocyanins were identified from the purple sweet potato cultivar Eshu No. 8 and analyzed by liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Peonidin 3-coumaryl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was first identified in purple sweet potato. The results showed that anthocyanins in Eshu No. 8 had good hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Production of vinegar from purple sweet potato in a liquid fermentation process and investigation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefeng; Yao, Hongli; Cao, Xinmin; Liu, Qing; Cao, Lili; Mu, Dongdong; Luo, Shuizhong; Zheng, Zhi; Jiang, Shaotong; Li, Xingjiang

    2017-10-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus JST-S was screened from solid fermented grains of vinegar in China, identified by molecular analysis, and used for the production of purple sweet potato vinegar using purple sweet potato as the substrate. By orthogonal experiment, maximum total acid concentration (4.26% [v/v]) was achieved under optimized conditions as follows: fermentation time, 3.5 days; ethanol content, 9% v/v; and inoculum size, 8% v/v. During the production of purple potato vinegar, the anthocyanin concentration decreased from 652.07 to 301.73 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of products, including diphenyl-picryl hydrazide radical-scavenging capacity (above 60%), reducing power (above 0.47), and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (above 46%), showed positive linear regression ( P  sweet potato vinegar may have contributed to the antioxidant activities. Results of these studies may provide a reference for the industrial production of vinegar by liquid fermentation of purple sweet potato.

  4. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...

  5. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H 2 O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P

  6. Proteomic Profiles of Adipose and Liver Tissues from an Animal Model of Metabolic Syndrome Fed Purple Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M Ayoub

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder that predisposes an individual to Cardiovascular Diseases and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proteomics and bioinformatics have proven to be an effective tool to study complex diseases and mechanisms of action of nutrients. We previously showed that substitution of the majority of carbohydrate in a high fat diet by purple potatoes (PP or purple carrots (PC improved insulin sensitivity and hypertension in an animal model of MetS (obese Zucker rats compared to a control sucrose-rich diet. In the current study, we used TMT 10plex mass tag combined with LC-MS/MS technique to study proteomic modulation in the liver (n = 3 samples/diet and adipose tissue (n = 3 samples/diet of high fat diet-fed rats with or without substituting sucrose for purple vegetables, followed by functional enrichment analysis, in an attempt to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes seen with purple vegetable feeding. Protein folding, lipid metabolism and cholesterol efflux were identified as the main modulated biological themes in adipose tissue, whereas lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress were the main modulated themes in liver. We propose that enhanced protein folding, increased cholesterol efflux and higher free fatty acid (FFA re-esterification are mechanisms by which PP and PC positively modulate MetS pathologies in adipose tissue, whereas, decreased de novo lipogenesis, oxidative stress and FFA uptake, are responsible for the beneficial effects in liver. In conclusion, we provide molecular evidence for the reported metabolic health benefits of purple carrots and potatoes and validate that these vegetables are good choices to replace other simple carbohydrate sources for better metabolic health.

  7. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2016-01-01

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mat...

  8. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica de fibra de bananeira roxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: anapaulabispo43@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  9. A Stylistic Analysis of Linguistic Patterns in Chichamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchamad Sholakhuddin Al Fajri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to carry out a detailed and systematic stylistic analysis of linguistic patterns in Purple Hibiscus Novel by Chichamanda Ngozi Adichie. It particularly analyses a specific extract of the novel in terms of narration and point of view, conversational analysis, speech and thought presentations and mind style, and how these linguistic devices and patterns are employed by the author to shape characters’ personalities and relationships between them in the reader’s mind. The result appears to suggest that the author successfully represents the protagonist, Kambili as an obedient and a salient daughter who respects deeply his father, while her father, Eugene, is constructed as a strict father and religious who imposes an absolute control on his daughter.

  10. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p stability when exposed to OH•.

  11. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gutiérrez-Macías

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC, ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  12. Identification of purple dye from molluscs on an excavated textile by non-destructive analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Allen, Norman

    2013-01-01

    , the application of non-destructive methods of investigation for the extraction of the data present is imperative. This paper presents the results of dye analysis performed on the excavated textile find HTR-73 from the Kerameikos cemetery in Athens. The Kerameikos textile find is from the 5th century BC, and has...... been preserved in association with copper. The techniques applied were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis, Cathodoluminescence and micro Raman. For the first time Cathodoluminescence from an indigoid compound is reported. Comparison of the analysis results...... on samples from the find with the contemporary reference samples lead to the identification of purple dye as a dibromoindigo compound with the origin from molluscs of Murex trunculus species. The application of non-destructive analytical methods of investigation was successful in analysing dyes on excavated...

  13. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1) by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  14. Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB on growth and stevioside (ST yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  15. [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xing; He, Bing-Hui; Mei, Xue-Mei; Liang, Yan-Ling; Xiong, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Taking bare land as the control, this paper studied the effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area. For the test six planting modes, the soil permeability was in the order of Eriobotrya japonica > Citrus limon > Vetiveria zizanioides hedgerows +corn >Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows + corn> Hemerocallis fulva > corn> bare land, and decreased with increasing depth. The eigenvalues of soil infiltration were in the order of initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate> stable infiltration rate. The soil permeability had significant positive linear correlations with soil total porosity, non-capillary porosity, initial moisture content, water holding capacity, and organic matter content, and significant negative linear correlation with soil bulk density. The common empirical infiltration model could well fit the soil moisture infiltration processes under the six planting modes, while the Kostiakov equation could not.

  16. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  17. Purple Sweet Potato Attenuate Weight Gain in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ronghui; Zheng, Shujuan; Luo, Hongxia; Wang, Changgang; Duan, Lili; Sheng, Yao; Zhao, Changhui; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (PSP) is widely grown in Asia and considered as a healthy vegetable. The objective of the current study was to determine the anti-obesity effect of the PSP on high fat diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The mice were administrated with high fat diet supplemented with the sweet potato (SP) or PSP at the concentration of 15% and 30% for 12 wk, respectively. The results showed that the supplementation of SP or PSP at 30% significantly ameliorated high fat diet induced obesity and its associated risk factors, including reduction of body weight and fat accumulation, improvement of lipid profile and modulation of energy expenditure. Moreover, PSP also posed beneficial effect on the liver and kidney functions. These results indicate that PSP and SP have anti-obesity effect and are effective to reduce the metabolic risk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Isolation, purification, and characterization of AgUCGalT1, a galactosyltransferase involved in anthocyanin galactosylation in purple celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Liu, Jie-Xia; Li, Jing-Wen; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2018-03-08

    This study showed that a galactosyltransferase, AgUCGalT1, is involved in anthocyanin galactosylation in purple celery. Celery is a well-known vegetable because of its rich nutrients, low calories, and medicinal values. Its petioles and leaf blades are the main organs acting as nutrient sources. UDP-galactose: cyanidin 3-O-galactosyltransferase can transfer the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to the 3-O-position of cyanidin through glycosylation. This process enhances the stability and water solubility of anthocyanins. In the present study, LC-MS data indicated that abundant cyanidin-based anthocyanins accumulated in the petioles of purple celery ('Nanxuan liuhe purple celery'). A gene encoding UDP-galactose: cyanidin 3-O-galactosyltransferase, namely AgUCGalT1, was isolated from purple celery and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Sequence alignments revealed that the AgUCGalT1 protein contained a highly conserved putative secondary plant glycosyltransferase (PSPG) motif. The glycosylation product catalyzed by AgUCGalT1 was detected using UPLC equipment. The recombinant AgUCGalT1 had an optimal enzyme activity at 35 °C and pH 8.0, and showed highest enzyme activity toward cyanidin among the enzyme activities involving other substances, namely, peonidin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The expression levels of AgUCGalT1 were positively correlated with the total anthocyanin contents in purple and non-purple celery varieties. Crude enzymes extracted from purple celery exhibited glycosylation ability, whereas crude enzymes obtained from non-purple celery did not have this ability. This work provided evidence as a basis for investigations on the function of AgUCGalT1 in anthocyanin glycosylation in purple celery.

  19. Cloning and characterization of nif structural and regulatory genes in the purple sulfur bacterium, Halorhodospira halophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Hisayoshi; Yamazaki, Yoichi; Kamikubo, Hironari; Imamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Mikio

    2006-03-01

    Halorhodospira halophila is a halophilic photosynthetic bacterium classified as a purple sulfur bacterium. We found that H. halophila generates hydrogen gas during photoautotrophic growth as a byproduct of a nitrogenase reaction. In order to consider the applied possibilities of this photobiological hydrogen generation, we cloned and characterized the structural and regulatory genes encoding the nitrogenase, nifH, nifD and nifA, from H. halophila. This is the first description of the nif genes for a purple sulfur bacterium. The amino-acid sequences of NifH and NifD indicated that these proteins are an Fe protein and a part of a MoFe protein, respectively. The important residues are conserved completely. The sequence upstream from the nifH region and sequence similarities of nifH and nifD with those of the other organisms suggest that the regulatory system might be a NifL-NifA system; however, H. halophila lacks nifL. The amino-acid sequence of H. halophila NifA is closer to that of the NifA of the NifL-NifA system than to that of NifA without NifL. H. halophila NifA does not conserve either the residue that interacts with NifL or the important residues involved in NifL-independent regulation. These results suggest the existence of yet another regulatory system, and that the development of functional systems and their molecular counterparts are not necessarily correlated throughout evolution. All of these Nif proteins of H. halophila possess an excess of acidic residues, which acts as a salt-resistant mechanism.

  20. Purple perilla extracts with α-asarone enhance cholesterol efflux from oxidized LDL-exposed macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Paek, Ji Hun; Shin, Daekeun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-04-01

    The cellular accumulation of cholesterol is critical in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating the efflux of excess cholesterol. In the current study, we investigated whether purple Perilla frutescens extracts (PPE) at a non-toxic concentration of 1-10 µg/ml stimulate the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden J774A.1 murine macrophages exposed to 50 ng/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Purple perilla, an annual herb in the mint family and its constituents, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and cytostatic activity, as well as to exert anti-allergic effects. Our results revealed that treatment with oxidized LDL for 24 h led to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the macrophages. PPE suppressed the oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation by blocking the induction of scavenger receptor B1. However, PPE promoted the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and subsequently accelerated cholesterol efflux from the lipid-loaded macrophages. The liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, TO-091317, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, pioglitazone, increased ABCA1 expression and treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE further enhanced this effect. PPE did not induce LXRα and PPARγ expression per se, but enhanced their expression in the macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone was isolated from PPE and characterized as a major component enhancing the induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone, but not β-asarone was effective in attenuating foam cell formation and enhancing cholesterol efflux, revealing an isomeric difference in their activity. The results from the present study demonstrate that PPE promotes cholesterol efflux from macrophages by activating the interaction of PPARγ-LXRα-ABC transporters.

  1. Regulation of dissimilatory sulfur oxidation in the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

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    Frauke eGrimm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum, thiosulfate oxidation is strictly dependent on the presence of three periplasmic Sox proteins encoded by the soxBXAK and soxYZ genes. It is also well documented that proteins encoded in the dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase operon, dsrABEFHCMKLJOPNRS, are essential for the oxidation of sulfur that is stored intracellularly as an obligatory intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide. Until recently, detailed knowledge about the regulation of the sox genes was not available. We started to fill this gap and show that these genes are expressed on a low constitutive level in A. vinosum in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds. Thiosulfate and possibly sulfide lead to an induction of sox gene transcription. Additional translational regulation was not apparent. Regulation of soxXAK is probably performed by a two-component system consisting of a multisensor histidine kinase and a regulator with proposed di-guanylate cyclase activity. Previous work already provided some information about regulation of the dsr genes encoding the second important sulfur-oxidizing enzyme system in the purple sulfur bacterium. The expression of most dsr genes was found to be at a low basal level in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds and enhanced in the presence of sulfide. In the present work, we focused on the role of DsrS, a protein encoded by the last gene of the dsr locus in A. vinosum. Transcriptional and translational gene fusion experiments suggest a participation of DsrS in the post-transcriptional control of the dsr operon. Characterization of an A. vinosum ΔdsrS mutant showed that the monomeric cytoplasmic 41.1 kDa protein DsrS is important though not essential for the oxidation of sulfur stored in the intracellular sulfur globules.

  2. Diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria in shrimp ponds with varying mercury levels

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    Kanokwan Mukkata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB and to investigate the effect of Hg concentrations in shrimp ponds on PNSB diversity. Amplification of the pufM gene was detected in 13 and 10 samples of water and sediment collected from 16 shrimp ponds in Southern Thailand. In addition to PNSB, other anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB were also observed; purple sulfur bacteria (PSB and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB although most of them could not be identified. Among identified groups; AAPB, PSB and PNSB in the samples of water and sediment were 25.71, 11.43 and 8.57%; and 27.78, 11.11 and 22.22%, respectively. In both sample types, Roseobacter denitrificans (AAPB was the most dominant species followed by Halorhodospira halophila (PSB. In addition two genera, observed most frequently in the sediment samples were a group of PNSB (Rhodovulum kholense, Rhodospirillum centenum and Rhodobium marinum. The UPGMA dendrograms showed 7 and 6 clustered groups in the water and sediment samples, respectively. There was no relationship between the clustered groups and the total Hg (HgT concentrations in the water and sediment samples used (<0.002–0.03 μg/L and 35.40–391.60 μg/kg dry weight for studying the biodiversity. It can be concluded that there was no effect of the various Hg levels on the diversity of detected APB species; particularly the PNSB in the shrimp ponds.

  3. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

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    Yuhan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  4. Anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract inhibit diabetes-associated glomerular angiogenesis.

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    Min-Kyung Kang

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major diabetic complications and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Abnormal angiogenesis results in new vessels that are often immature and play a pathological role in DN, contributing to renal fibrosis and disrupting glomerular failure. Purple corn has been utilized as a daily food and exerts disease-preventive activities. This study was designed to investigate whether anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract (PCE prevented glomerular angiogenesis under hyperglycemic conditions. Human endothelial cells were cultured in conditioned media of mesangial cells exposed to 33 mM high glucose (HG-HRMC-CM. PCE decreased endothelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α induced by HG-HRMC-CM. Additionally, PCE attenuated the induction of the endothelial marker of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1 and integrin β3 enhanced in HG-HRMC-CM. Endothelial tube formation promoted by HG-HRMC-CM was disrupted in the presence of PCE. In the in vivo study employing db/db mice treated with 10 mg/kg PCE for 8 weeks, PCE alleviated glomerular angiogenesis of diabetic kidneys by attenuating the induction of VEGF and HIF-1α. Oral administration of PCE retarded the endothelial proliferation in db/db mouse kidneys, evidenced by its inhibition of the induction of vascular endothelium-cadherin, PECAM-1 and Ki-67. PCE diminished the mesangial and endothelial induction of angiopoietin (Angpt proteins under hypeglycemic conditions. The induction and activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 were dampened by treating PCE to db/db mice. These results demonstrate that PCE antagonized glomerular angiogenesis due to chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes through disturbing the Angpt-Tie-2 ligand-receptor system linked to renal VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Therefore, PCE may be a potent therapeutic agent targeting abnormal angiogenesis in DN leading to kidney failure.

  5. Effect of sprouting on anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color intensity and color attributes in purple sweet potatoes

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    Yudiono, K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes stored in a humid state will generally sprout, leading to them being deemed inedible by customers. During the sprouting process enzyme activities increase and as such it was assumed that there had been changes in the nutrition and secondary metabolism compounds, e.g. anthocyanins. The purpose of this research was to investigate the changes occurred in the characteristics of anthocyanins during the purple sweet potatoes’ sprouting. One-factor Randomized Block Design was used in the research design, i.e. the sprouting time in 6 stages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity is 51.61±2.11%, the highest color intensity is 0.72±0.72, and the lowest hue angle value or the lowest h is 30.75±0.93o, occurring in the 4th week of sprouting. While the highest total anthocyanin is 222.07±2.65 mg/kg wet weight, and the highest red color value or a* is 12.80±0.49, occurring in the 3rd week of sprouting. The major components that compose purple sweet potatoes are Cyanidin-3-0-glucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 286.50 to 287.50 and [M]+ = m/z 449 and Peonidin -3,5-0-diglucoside ([M-X]+ = m/z 462.50 to 463.50 and [M]+ = m/z 625.

  6. Long-term fertilisation causes excess supply and loss of phosphorus in purple paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Wen, Ming-Xia; Li, Xue-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss from cropland is accelerating the eutrophication of waters around the world such as the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. We investigated whether purple paddy soil under long-term P applications was a major source of P efflux to the TGR. Substantial surplus P in the plough layer (0-20 cm) was evident after 15-year P applications. Available P (Olsen-P) in the plough layer ranged from 1.9 to 42.4 mg kg(-1) and some of which will exceed the threshold of 30 mg kg(-1) for environmental concern within 7 years of P application (inorganic NPK with or without organic fertiliser). Between 30 and 70% of Olsen-P was leached out of the 0-30 cm soil layer. Surplus P resulted in high P concentrations in the surface water during the rice cropping season, and these concentrations exceeded those in most waters of the TGR and exceeded the critical level for eutrophication (0.1 mg L(-1)) during the first 10 days after rice planting. Furthermore, total P in run-off due to rainfall events exceeded the level for eutrophication, with a total loss of 43.2-147.9 g P ha(-1) depending on the fertilisation. Current agronomic P management in purple paddy soil is environmentally unsustainable in terms of the adverse impact on surface water quality. Integrated P management practices are urgently required to optimise crop yield while minimising P loss in order to protect surface water quality in the TGR region. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  8. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  10. First visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M. Ehlers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a rocky intertidal gastropod of the North Atlantic coast. Individual shell color varies. Common colors range between white and brown, with darker dogwhelks being more affected by heat stress than lighter-colored conspecifics. Other reported shell colors are purple, black, mauve, pink, yellow, and orange from UK coasts, red and gray from the Bay of Fundy coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Canada, and purple, black, gray, yellow, and orange from the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts (USA, with purple being considered as a rare color. On the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, dogwhelks are active from April until November, but information on dogwhelk shell color is missing for this coast. On 16 June 2016, we found two purple-colored dogwhelks in the mid-to-high intertidal zone of a moderately wave-exposed rocky shore near Duncans Cove, on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia while collecting dogwhelks (n= 1000 during low tide for manipulative field experiments. All other dogwhelks collected on that day were of common white and brown colors. During earlier dogwhelk collections in Atlantic Nova Scotia (between 2011-2013 and field surveys in Duncans Cove (between 2014-2016, we did not find any purple-colored dogwhelks, indicating the rareness of this color in that region. Apparently, our observations provide the first visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

  11. [Effect of Different Purple Parent Rock on Removal Rates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organics in Landscape Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-jiao; Liu, Xiao-chen; Li, Zhen-lun; Shi, Wen-hao; Yang, Shan

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand the impacts of physicochemical properties of purple parent rock on the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in landscape water systems, four types of purple parent rocks including Peng-lai-zhen Formation (S1) , Sha-xi-miao Formation (S2) , Fei-xian-guan Formation (S3) and Sui-ning Formation (S4) , which distribute widely in Chongqing, were selected and autoclaved, and added to unsterile landscape water collected from Chong-de Lake in Southwest University, and the landscape water only was used as control. And several indicators such as total nitrogen and phosphorus and so on of every disposal were investigated periodically. The results indicated that: (1) The highest removal rates of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and Ammonia nitrogen were observed in Sl, which were 45.1%, 62.3% and 90%, respectively; the highest removal rate of COD was 94.5% in S4; the ammonia nitrogen content in the purple parent rocks was not obviously changed before and after the experiments, which indicated that the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on purple parent rock surface was not the main reason for the decrease of ammonia nitrogen in water. (2) Arsenate had inhibitory effect on the sulfate-reducing bacteria, while copper and magnesium had promoting effect on gram-negative bacteria. (3) The microbial diversity was positively correlated to total nitrogen in water. (4) Based on the PCA analyses of microbial community structure and environmental factors, the mineral elements released from parent rock affected the structure and composition of microbial community in the test water, and then influenced the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in water systems.

  12. Use of membrane technology and resins for the separation and purification of polyphenols purple tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav)

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Beltrán; Dominique Pallet; Edwin Vera; Jenny Ruales

    2016-01-01

    The polyphenols fractionation of mesocarp juices, placenta and purple tree tomato peel using the pore size of the membrane as a means of selection was performed using micro and ultrafiltration tangential; tests made with HPLC showed that fractionation of phenolic compounds was not performed. The processes of concentration of the clarified juices of placenta and tree tomato peel by reverse osmosis obtained a volumetric concentration factor of 2 and 2.2 respectively. The polyphenol concentratio...

  13. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Garrard; Waldron, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), plane polarized (PPL) and cross-polarized (XPL) light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF) micros...

  14. Germination and growth of purple passion fruit seedlings under pre-germination treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation1

    OpenAIRE

    Gil,Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez; Agudelo,Melissa Muñoz; Bedoya,Laura Osorno; Osorio,Nelson Walter; Osorio,Juan Gonzalo Morales

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe cultivation of purple passion fruit plants has increased in Colombia, as a direct result of its well-accepted consumption. Therefore, there is a need for technological solutions aimed at the sustainable growth of its fruit, such as improving seed germination and decreasing phosphorus (P) deficiencies, given its low availability in tropical soils. This study aimed to evaluate pre-germination treatments (control, apical and basal seed cuts, alternation of temperature, photoperiod, a...

  15. Investigation on antimicrobial effects of essential oil of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. and identification of its chemical compounds

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    Zahra Izadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.

  16. Metabolomic profiling of the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum during growth on different reduced sulfur compounds and malate

    OpenAIRE

    Weissgerber, Thomas; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Dahl, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations require rapid adjustment of the physiology of bacteria. Anoxygenic phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria, like Allochromatium vinosum, thrive in environments that are characterized by steep gradients of important nutrients for these organisms, i.e., reduced sulfur compounds, light, oxygen and carbon sources. Changing conditions necessitate changes on every level of the underlying cellular and molecular network. Thus far, two global analyses of A. vinosum responses to ...

  17. A Purple Cupredoxin from Nitrosopumilus maritimus Containing a Mononuclear Type 1 Copper Center with an Open Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Tian, Shiliang; Marshall, Nicholas M.; Hemp, James; Mullen, Timothy; Nilges, Mark J.; Gao, Yi-Gui; Robinson, Howard; Stahl, David A.; Gennis, Robert B.; Lu, Yi

    2016-05-25

    Mononuclear cupredoxin proteins usually contain a coordinately saturated type 1 copper (T1Cu) center and function exclusively as electron carriers. Here we report a cupredoxin isolated from the nitrifying archaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, called Nmar1307, that contains a T1Cu center with an open binding site containing water. It displays a deep purple color due to strong absorptions around 413 nm (1880 M–1 cm–1) and 558 nm (2290 M–1 cm–1) in the UV–vis electronic spectrum. EPR studies suggest the protein contains two Cu(II) species of nearly equal population, one nearly axial, with hyperfine constant A∥ = 98 × 10–4 cm–1, and another more rhombic, with a smaller A∥ value of 69 × 10–4 cm–1. The X-ray crystal structure at 1.6 Å resolution confirms that it contains a Cu atom coordinated by two His and one Cys in a trigonal plane, with an axial H2O at 2.25 Å. Both UV–vis absorption and EPR spectroscopic studies suggest that the Nmar1307 can oxidize NO to nitrite, an activity that is attributable to the high reduction potential (354 mV vs SHE) of the copper site. These results suggest that mononuclear cupredoxins can have a wide range of structural features, including an open binding site containing water, making this class of proteins even more versatile.

  18. Toxic, antimicrobial and hemagglutinating activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo V.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, hemagglutinating and toxic activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela are described. Intact or dialyzed purple fluid inhibited the growth of species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the action was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. The active factor or factors were heat labile and sensitive to extreme pH values. The fluid preferentially agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and, to a lesser extent, human blood cells, and this activity was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, a fact suggesting the presence of a lectin. The fluid was also toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LD50 141.25 µg protein/ml and to mice injected intraperitoneally (LD50 201.8 ± 8.6 mg protein/kg, in a dose-dependent fashion. These toxic activities were abolished when the fluid was heated. Taken together, the data suggest that the activities of the purple fluid are due primarily to substance(s of a protein nature which may be involved in the chemical defense mechanism of this sea hare.

  19. Purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) polyacetylenes decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammatory proteins in macrophage and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2008-05-28

    Carrots ( Daucus carota L.) contain phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolics, polyacetylenes, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes. Purple carrots also contain anthocyanins. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and phytochemicals from purple carrots was investigated by determining attenuation of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A bioactive chromatographic fraction (Sephadex LH-20) reduced LPS inflammatory response. There was a dose-dependent reduction in nitric oxide production and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) and iNOS in macrophage cells. Protein secretions of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were reduced 77 and 66% in porcine aortic endothelial cells treated with 6.6 and 13.3 microg/mL of the LH-20 fraction, respectively. Preparative liquid chromatography resulted in a bioactive subfraction enriched in the polyacetylene compounds falcarindiol, falcarindiol 3-acetate, and falcarinol. The polyacetylenes were isolated and reduced nitric oxide production in macrophage cells by as much as 65% without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that polyacetylenes, not anthocyanins, in purple carrots are responsible for anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

  20. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with natural dyes extracted from Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers as sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Satriani, Wilda; Gareso, P. L.; Abdullah, B.

    2018-03-01

    DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell) prototype has been investigated using Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers as natural dyes. DSSC consists of working electrode and counter electrode. A working electrode composed of semiconductor nanoparticles TiO2 that has been coated with dye molecules. Dye molecules serve as light photon catchers, while semiconductor nanoparticles TiO2 function to absorb and forward photons into electrons. In the electrode counter given catalyst carbon, serves to accelerate the reaction kinetics of triiodide reduction process on transparent conductive oxide (TCO). DSSC using TiO2 as a semiconductor material and natural dyes as sensitizer from Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers are successful produced. The physical properties of the working electrode have been determined by using XRD and the chemical properties of the TiO2 powder and dye powder using FTIR and dye solution using UV-Vis. The resulted fabrications are also examined its I-V characteristics. The best performance is generated by mixed dye 1.91 x 10-3 % compared than those DSSC for dye extracted from Jatropha leaves or purple Chrysanthemum. The characterization results show that the higher of the absorption wavelength of the DSSC efficiency is high.

  1. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

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    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  2. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  3. Protective mechanisms of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Choi, Jun Min; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-01

    Anthocyanins have been shown to exert anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-carcinogenic activity. In the present work, we investigated the protective effects of anthocyanin fraction (AF) from purple sweet potato on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and in rat liver. The result showed that the oral pretreatment of AF before t-BHP treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of the hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and reduced oxidative stress of the liver by evaluation of malondialdehyde and glutathione. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that AF reduced the incidence of liver lesions. The in vitro result showed that AF significantly reduced t-BHP-induced oxidative injury, as determined by cell cytotoxicity, intracellular glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and caspases activation. Also, AF up-regulated antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. Moreover, AF induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Akt and ERK1/2 activation, pathways that are involved in inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of AF against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity may, at least in part, be due to its ability to scavenge ROS and to regulate the antioxidant enzyme HO-1 via the Akt and ERK1/2/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyphenolic diversity and characterization in the red-purple berries of East Asian wild Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Kamigakiuchi, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Mochioka, Ryosuke; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2017-02-01

    Grapes (Vitis spp.) produce diverse polyphenolic compounds, which are phytochemicals that contribute to human health. In this study, the polyphenolic profiles of the red-purple berries of two wild grape species native to Japan, Vitis ficifolia and V. coignetiae, and their interspecific hybrid cultivars were investigated and compared with the profiles of V. vinifera and V. × labruscana cultivars. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were present at lower concentrations in both skins and seeds of wild grape species and their hybrid cultivars than those in V. vinifera cultivars. They also differed in their composition, consisting mainly of epicatechin in wild grape species, but containing considerable amounts of both epigallocatechin in the skins and epicatechin gallate in the seeds of V. vinifera. In contrast, V. ficifolia varieties and their hybrid cultivars accumulated high concentrations of diverse anthocyanins, and whose compositions of anthocyanins and flavonols differed between species in their degree of modification by glucosylation, acylation, methylation and B-ring hydroxylation. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the polyphenolic constituents clearly separate V. vinifera and V. × labruscana cultivars from the wild grape species as well as between wild grape species, V. coignetiae and V. ficifolia. Intermediate compositions were also observed in the hybrid cultivars between these wild grape species and V. vinifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of pretreatment on purple-fleshed sweet potato flour for cake making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutasoit, M. S.; Julianti, E.; Lubis, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The purple-fleshed sweet-potato (PFSP) flour was produced by varying pretreatment of washed chips: dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min, dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min and followed by steam blanching for 5 min. The pretreatment effect on cake quality was investigated. The results showed that PFSP flour produced from pretreatment with dipping in 0.5% citric acid for 30 min followed by steam blanching for 5 min had higher lightness (L*) value and lower browning index, higher hedonic value of color and aroma and baking expansion. The specific volume of cake from pretreated flour, untreated flour and wheat flour were 44.87, 43.83, and 50.43cm3/g, respectively. The sensory evaluation of cake indicated that cake from pretreated PFSP flour was acceptable compare to those of cake from wheat flour.

  6. Biochemical characterization of the purple form of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus nitrous oxide reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Simone; Pauleta, Sofia R.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) catalyses the final step of the denitrification pathway—the reduction of nitrous oxide to nitrogen. The catalytic centre (CuZ) is a unique tetranuclear copper centre bridged by inorganic sulphur in a tetrahedron arrangement that can have different oxidation states. Previously, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus N2OR was isolated with the CuZ centre as CuZ*, in the [1Cu2+ : 3Cu+] redox state, which is redox inert and requires prolonged incubation under reductive conditions to be activated. In this work, we report, for the first time, the isolation of N2OR from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus in the ‘purple’ form, in which the CuZ centre is in the oxidized [2Cu2+ : 2Cu+] redox state and is redox active. This form of the enzyme was isolated in the presence of oxygen from a microaerobic culture in the presence of nitrate and also from a strictly anaerobic culture. The purple form of the enzyme was biochemically characterized and was shown to be a redox active species, although it is still catalytically non-competent, as its specific activity is lower than that of the activated fully reduced enzyme and comparable with that of the enzyme with the CuZ centre in either the [1Cu2+ : 3Cu+] redox state or in the redox inactive CuZ* state. PMID:22451106

  7. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  8. A C-banded karyotype of mitotic chromosomes in diploid purple coneflower (Echinacea purpureaL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weizhen; Li, Qingling; Chen, Xiaolu; Ren, Yi; Chen, Rong; Wu, Hong; Yang, Yuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploid ermpglasm is an important resource for genetic studies and identification of individual chromosomes in the cells of the aneuploid is an important step. The karyotype has already been established for purple coneflower ( Echinacea purpurea L.), but due to the high similarity in the morphology of several pairs of chromosomes in this species, it cannot be used to identify individual chromosomes in its own complement. The objectives of this study are to develop and evaluate the Giemsa C-banding technique for the purpose of identifying the individual chromosomes in Echinacea purpurea . The established karyotype with C-bands showed that all the 11 pairs of chromosomes possessed centromeric bands. Telomeric bands appeared most frequently in almost all the chromosomes with only two exceptions, the short arm of the chromosome 9 and the long arm of the chromosome 10. Intercalary bands were found mainly in the long arm of some chromosomes with only two exceptions, the chromosomes 1 and 2 that had intercalary bands on both arms. The chromosome 4 was the only chromosome where intercalary bands were absent. Chromosomes in E. purpurea could be stained with Giemsa to bear C-bands. By classifying the chromosomes into groups and judging the C-bands, each chromosome could be identified. The methods established in this study might be used for the identification of chromosome constitution in aneuploid E. purpurea created in a breeding program.

  9. Modeling the electron transport chain of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Grammel, Hartmut; Straube, Ronny; Ghosh, Robin; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillaceae) have been extensively employed for studying principles of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport phosphorylation and for investigating the regulation of gene expression in response to redox signals. Here, we use mathematical modeling to evaluate the steady-state behavior of the electron transport chain (ETC) in these bacteria under different environmental conditions. Elementary-modes analysis of a stoichiometric ETC model reveals nine operational modes. Most of them represent well-known functional states, however, two modes constitute reverse electron flow under respiratory conditions, which has been barely considered so far. We further present and analyze a kinetic model of the ETC in which rate laws of electron transfer steps are based on redox potential differences. Our model reproduces well-known phenomena of respiratory and photosynthetic operation of the ETC and also provides non-intuitive predictions. As one key result, model simulations demonstrate a stronger reduction of ubiquinone when switching from high-light to low-light conditions. This result is parameter insensitive and supports the hypothesis that the redox state of ubiquinone is a suitable signal for controlling photosynthetic gene expression.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of four homeobox genes from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassi, Giorgio; Imai, Janice Hitomi; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Homeobox genes cloned from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus (Phylum Echinodermata/Class Asteroidea) were used along with related sequences available from members of other representative animal phyla to generate molecular phylogenies for Distal-less/Dlx, Hox5, Hox7, and Hox9/10 homeobox genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred based on the predicted 60 amino acid homeodomain, using amino acid (AA) and nucleotide (NT) models as well as the recently developed codon substitution models of sequence evolution. The resulting phylogenetic trees were mostly congruent with the consensus species-tree, grouping these newly identified genes with those isolated from other Asteroidea. This analysis also allowed a preliminary comparison of the performance of codon models with that of NT and AA evolutionary models in the inference of homeobox phylogeny. We found that, overall, the NT models displayed low reliability in recovering major clades at the Superphylum/Phylum level, and that codon models were slightly more dependable than AA models. Remarkably, in the majority of cases, codon substitution models seemed to outperform both AA and NT models at both the Class level and homeobox paralogy-group level of classification.

  11. Fried Green Tomatoes and The Color Purple: A case study in lesbian friendship and cultural controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proehl, Kristen

    2018-01-02

    Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship. As filmmakers Steven Spielberg and Jon Avnet adapted these novels for the screen, they made decisions about how to portray the texts' representations of homoerotic friendship and same-sex love. Both films generated significant cultural controversy as a result, particularly as some viewers claimed that the films elided the novels' representations of lesbian sexuality. Building upon recent scholarship in critical race theory, queer theory, and friendship studies, I argue that Walker's and Flagg's representations of queer friendship, a term that I describe in more detail throughout the essay, subvert dominant classifications of romantic, familial, and platonic love. By comparatively analyzing the American public's reception of the two film adaptations in conjunction with close readings of scenes from the novels and films, I reveal how representations of queer friendship not only catalyze cultural controversy, but also serve as a vehicle of social criticism.

  12. Optimal level of Purple Acid Phosphatase5 is required for maintaining complete resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar eRavichandran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess an exceedingly complex innate immune system to defend against most pathogens. However, a relative proportion of the pathogens overcome host’s innate immunity and impair plant growth and productivity. We previously showed that mutation in purple acid phosphatase (PAP5 lead to enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000. Here, we report that an optimal level of PAP5 is crucial for mounting complete basal resistance. Overexpression of PAP5 impaired ICS1, PR1 expression and salicylic acid (SA accumulation similar to pap5 knockout mutant plants. Moreover, plant overexpressing PAP5 was impaired in H2O2 accumulation in response to Pst DC3000. PAP5 is localized in to peroxisomes, a known site of generation of reactive oxygen species for activation of defense responses. Taken together, our results demonstrate that optimal levels of PAP5 is required for mounting resistance against Pst DC3000 as both knockout and overexpression of PAP5 lead to compromised basal resistance.

  13. Effects of altitudinal variation on pollination in purple passion fruit crops (passiflora edulis f. edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gutierrez, Julian; Ospina Torres, Rodulfo; Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study in two crops of purple passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. edulis harvested at different altitudes (2225 m.a.s.l. and 1657 m.a.s.l.) in the municipality of Buenavista - Boyaca, located in the eastern Mountain range of Colombia, in order to familiarize with visitors and pollinators. This study reveals that in both crops there were differences found in composition, the number of visitors and pollinators. In the crop at 2225 m.a.s.l., 7 species were registered, while 18 species were recorded at the 1657 m.a.s.l. crop. In order to achieve this, collected material by the visitors and the floral structures with which they approach, were observed; at the same time four experiments took place: passive pollination, natural pollination, manual pollination and pollinator's efficiency. These experiments established that pollinator species are: in C1 Apis mellifera, and in C2 and Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa lachnea and Epicharis sp.

  14. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the electrokinetic properties of purple membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doltchinkova, V.; Baldjiiska, M.; Stoilova, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation (5, 10 and 15 Gy) on the kinetic surface charge of purple membranes (PM) was followed by means of particle microelectrophoresis. The changes in electrophoretic mobility (EPM) were examined at 2, 5 and 26 h, respectively, following irradiation of native PM, and at 2, 26, 50 h and 5 days following irradiation of delipidated PM. It was concluded that the high inhomogeneity of the suspension, even after sonication, largely affects the measured zeta-potential. The 15-Gy treatment significantly increased the net negative surface charge density at 5 and 26 h after irradiation of native PM. However, the opposite effect of approximately twofold reduction of EPM values was derived from simultaneous studies concerning their delipidated form. Low irradiation doses clearly induced an enhancement of negative surface charge density at 2 h post-exposure as well as the formation of unstable structures of delipidated PM. The changes in electrokinetic properties might reflect the specific aggregate formation in both native and delipidated PM. It was suggested that the effect observed of both types of PM was mainly a structural phenomenon possibly related to the modification of functionally active residues. (orig.)

  16. Competition for sulfide among colorless and purple sulfur bacteria in cyanobacterial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, B. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical zonation of light, O2, H2S, pH, and sulfur bacteria was studied in two benthic cyanobacterial mats from hypersaline ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico. The physical-chemical gradients were analyzed in the upper few mm at < or = 100 micrometers spatial resolution by microelectrodes and by a fiber optic microprobe. In mats, where oxygen produced by photosynthesis diffused far below the depth of the photic zone, colorless sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa sp.) were the dominant sulfide oxidizing organisms. In a mat, where the O2-H2S interface was close to the photic zone, but yet received no significant visible light, purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatium sp.) were the dominant sulfide oxidizers. Analysis of the spectral light distribution here showed that the penetration of only 1% of the incident near-IR light (800-900 nm) into the sulfide zone was sufficient for the mass development of Chromatium in a narrow band of 300 micromoles thickness. The balance between O2 and light penetration down into the sulfide zone thus determined in micro-scale which type of sulfur bacteria became dominant.

  17. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  18. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M A; Casanova-González, E; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J L

    2017-05-05

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M. A.; Casanova-González, E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400 nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500 nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  20. Biotransformation of anthocyanins from two purple-fleshed sweet potato accessions in a dynamic gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Azadi, Behnam; Sadeghi Ekbatan, Shima; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Das, Dharani Dhar; Prakash, Satya; Burgos, Gabriela; Zum Felde, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Cooked, milled purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) accessions, PM09.812 and PM09.960, underwent digestion in a dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model that simulates gut digestive conditions to study the bioaccessibility and biotransformation of anthocyanins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed accession-dependent variations in anthocyanin release and degradation. After 24h, more anthocyanin species were detected in the small intestinal vessel relative to other vessels for accession PM09.960 whereas more species appeared in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was increased in the small intestinal vessel for PM09.960 and in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812, corresponding to the appearance of a majority of anthocyanins for each accession. These results show that intestinal and colonic microbial digestion of PFSP leads to an accession-dependent pattern for anthocyanin bioaccessibility and degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A new energy transfer channel from carotenoids to chlorophylls in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin; Tseng, Chi-Wei; Chen, Tingwei; Leng, Xia; Yin, Huabing; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Rohlfing, Michael; Ma, Yuchen

    2017-07-10

    It is unclear whether there is an intermediate dark state between the S 2 and S 1 states of carotenoids. Previous two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements support its existence and its involvement in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls, but there is still considerable debate on the origin of this dark state and how it regulates the energy transfer process. Here we use ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated two-dimensional electronic spectrum of carotenoids from purple bacteria to provide evidence supporting that the dark state may be assigned to a new A g + state. Our calculations also indicate that groups on the conjugation backbone of carotenoids may substantially affect the excited-state levels and the energy transfer process. These results contribute to a better understanding of carotenoid excited states.Carotenoids harvest energy from light and transfer it to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. Here, Feng et al. perform ab initio calculations on excited-state dynamics and simulated 2D electronic spectrum of carotenoids, supporting the existence of a new excited state in carotenoids.

  2. Using genetically modified tomato crop plants with purple leaves for absolute weed/crop classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lati, Ran N; Filin, Sagi; Aly, Radi; Lande, Tal; Levin, Ilan; Eizenberg, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    Weed/crop classification is considered the main problem in developing precise weed-management methodologies, because both crops and weeds share similar hues. Great effort has been invested in the development of classification models, most based on expensive sensors and complicated algorithms. However, satisfactory results are not consistently obtained due to imaging conditions in the field. We report on an innovative approach that combines advances in genetic engineering and robust image-processing methods to detect weeds and distinguish them from crop plants by manipulating the crop's leaf color. We demonstrate this on genetically modified tomato (germplasm AN-113) which expresses a purple leaf color. An autonomous weed/crop classification is performed using an invariant-hue transformation that is applied to images acquired by a standard consumer camera (visible wavelength) and handles variations in illumination intensities. The integration of these methodologies is simple and effective, and classification results were accurate and stable under a wide range of imaging conditions. Using this approach, we simplify the most complicated stage in image-based weed/crop classification models. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. DECOLORIZATION OF BROMOCRESOL PURPLE (BCP PHOTOINDUCED BY A Fe (III OXYHYDROXYDE (GOETHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S BELATTAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the decolorization of bromocresol purple (BCP using Fe (III oxyhydroxide (Goethite as an inducer. The mixture dye- Goethite in dark condition and ambient temperature, shows a reaction between the dye and the Fe (III oxyhydroxide. Indeed, the tracking of the reaction using UV-visible spectrophotometry showed a low decrease in the principal band of the dye. This reveal the existence of an interaction between the substrate and the Goethite whitch is important in acidic medium. The irradiation at 365 nm of mixture Goethite-BCP (1g.L-1- 10-4 M leads to a transformation of substrate. The decrease of the band at 432nm and the presence of an isosbestic point at 508 nm support the transformation of BCP.  The substrate kinetics disappearances are improved in acidic medium. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (5.10-3 mol.L-1 in a suspension of Goethite, accelerate significantly the rate of disappearance of the dye. Natural radiation tests showed that the degradation was faster than artificial one at 365 nm. Studies on mineralization using COD method certify that this method, compatible with the environment, may be considered in the treatment of wastewater.

  4. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  5. Analytical method for determining rill detachment rate of purple soil as compared with that of loess soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing; Huang, Chi-hua

    2017-06-01

    Rill detachment is an important process in rill erosion. The rill detachment rate is the fundamental basis for determination of the parameters of a rill erosion model. In this paper, an analytical method was proposed to estimate the rill detachment rate. The method is based on the exact analytical solution of rill erosion to the differential equation of rill detachment. The rill sediment concentration distribution as a function of rill length was identified through laboratory experiments under different slope gradients and flow rates. The sediment concentration processes from experiments on loess and purple rills were considered to estimate the rill detachment rates of both soils analytically. They were respectively used as a function of rill length and sediment concentration. The analytical detachment rates were compared with the numerically determined values to verify the analytical methods. The rill detachment rates of the two soils under different flow rates and slope gradients estimated by the analytical method were further compared on the basis of detachment-sediment function and detachment-rill length function. Results indicated that the analytically estimated values were very close to the numerically estimated values. Numerical and analytical methods were equally useful for rill detachment rate estimation. Therefore, the analytical method was verified to be rational and applicable for the rapid determination of the rill detachment rates based on either sediment concentration or rill length. The analytical detachment values of purple and loess soils suggested that the detachment rates of loess soil were significantly and considerably higher than those of purple soil. The erosion potentials of loess soil were also significant higher than those of purple soil. The differences in the erosion of the two soils decreased as the slope gradient and flow rate increased. These observations implied that the degree of loess soil erosion was greater than that of purple

  6. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis Leer en español What Is Deep vein thrombosis ( ... life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people who have ...

  7. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  8. Characterization of yellow -, red-, and purple- kernel maize (zea mays L.) accessions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansah, G.

    2013-07-01

    Twenty yellow-, red-, and purple-kernel maize accessions were collected from three regions in Ghana for the study. The objectives were to characterize the yellow-, red- and purple-kernel maize accessions in Ghana using phenotypic traits in order to determine their identity, using molecular traits for confirmation of their identity and to determine the presence of the opaque-2 gene and β-carotene content of the grains as a way of assessing nutritional quality. A replicated field experiment was conducted to evaluate and characterize the accessions based on 16 quantitative and eleven qualitative traits. The same accessions were characterized based on 16 SSR markers. Variability in β-carotene content was determined by HPLC while presence of opaque 2-gene was determined by a light box. The results revealed that accessions GH4055 and GH4863 are extra early maturing and therefore can be very useful for urban farmers producing fresh maize and for cultivation in the coastal savanna ecological zone. However, they produce smaller cobs (Cob weight = 58.24g) as compared to other accessions. Significant variability in morphological traits was observed among the accessions with cob weight, number of kernels per row, plant height and 1000 seed weight having coefficient of variation of 42.7544, 20.5828, 11.4634, 13.0634 and 26.76 respectively. Few traits contributed to the variations observed as revealed by the principal components analysis and these include days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% of leaf senescence, plant height and cob weight. A dendrogram generated from morphological traits clustered the accessions based on kernel colour, physical structure of the plant and geographical location. Two duplicates were identified among the accessions and widest genetic distance was observe between NYRI and GH4055. Strong correlation exist between most of the morphological traits measured (r= 0.9193) but negative correlation was observed between most important yield parameters and

  9. Purple chromoprotein gene serves as a new selection marker for transgenesis of the microalga Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chen-Han; Chen, Hsiao-Yin; Lee, Hung-Chieh; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Among the methods used to screen transgenic microalgae, antibiotics selection has raised environmental and food safety concerns, while the observation of fluorescence proteins could be influenced by the endogenous fluorescence of host chloroplasts. As an alternative, this study isolated the purple chromoprotein (CP) from Stichodacyla haddoni (shCP). A plasmid in which shCP cDNA is driven by a heat-inducible promoter was linearized and electroporated into 2.5×10(8) protoplasts of Nannochloropsis oculata. Following regeneration and cultivation on an f/2 medium plate for two weeks, we observed 26 colonies that displayed a slightly dark green coloration. After individually subculturing and performing five hours of heat shock at 42°C, a dark brown color was mosaically displayed in five of these colonies, indicating that both untransformed and transformed cells were mixed together in each colony. To obtain a uniform expression of shCP throughout the whole colony, we continuously isolated each transformed cell that exhibited brown coloration and subcultured it on a fresh plate, resulting in the generation of five transgenic lines of N. oculata which stably harbored the shCP gene for at least 22 months, as confirmed by PCR detection and observation by the naked eye. As shown by Western blot, exogenous shCP protein was expressed in these transgenic microalgae. Since shCP protein is biodegradable and originates from a marine organism, both environmental and food safety concerns have been eliminated, making this novel shCP reporter gene a simple, but effective and ecologically safe, marker for screening and isolating transgenic microalgae.

  10. Profiling of anthocyanins in transgenic purple-fleshed sweet potatoes by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingqiu; Hu, Yijie; Wang, Hongxia; Huang, Yuanshe; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato (PSP) are beneficial to human health. The leaf color (Lc) gene is a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The anthocyanin profiles of wild-type PSP of Ayamurasaki and its three Lc-transgenic lines were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In vitro antioxidant activities of wild-type and Lc-transgenic lines, including reducing power activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity, ABTS free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity, were measured. The results showed that the total anthocyanin contents increased 1.5-1.9 times in three transgenic lines compared with that in wild-type PSP. Seventeen anthocyanins were found in wild-type PSP, while 19 in Lc-transgenic lines including cyanidin-based, peonidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. Three pelargonidin-based anthocyanins were detected in three Lc-transgenic lines. Among them, the relative contents of cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins increased 1.9-2.0 and 3.4-4.5 times respectively, while peonidin-based anthocyanins decreased 1.8-1.9 times in Lc-transgenic lines, compared with wild-type PSP. PSP from wild-type Ayamurasaki and three Lc-transgenic lines exhibited potent antioxidant activities, whereas there was no distinct difference among them. The transgene Lc significantly increased the content of total anthocyanins and remarkably changed the anthocyanin profiles in Ayamurasaki. Such novel and high content of anthocyanins obtained in the Lc-transgenic lines with potent antioxidant activities may provide unique functional products with potential helpful for human health. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Identification of soybean purple acid phosphatase genes and their expression responses to phosphorus availability and symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengchen; Gui, Shunhua; Yang, Tao; Walk, Thomas; Wang, Xiurong; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are members of the metallo-phosphoesterase family and have been known to play important roles in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. Low P availability is a major constraint to growth and production of soybean, Glycine max. Comparative studies on structure, transcription regulation and responses to phosphate (Pi) deprivation of the soybean PAP gene family should facilitate further insights into the potential physiological roles of GmPAPs. BLAST searches were performed to identify soybean PAP genes at the phytozome website. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to investigate their gene structure, conserve motifs and phylogenetic relationships. Hydroponics and sand-culture experiments were carried out to obtain the plant materials. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyse the expression patterns of PAP genes in response to P deficiency and symbiosis. In total, 35 PAP genes were identified from soybean genomes, which can be classified into three distinct groups including six subgroups in the phylogenetic tree. The expression pattern analysis showed flowers possessed the largest number of tissue-specific GmPAP genes under normal P conditions. The expression of 23 GmPAPs was induced or enhanced by Pi starvation in different tissues. Among them, nine GmPAP genes were highly expressed in the Pi-deprived nodules, whereas only two GmPAP genes showed significantly increased expression in the arbuscular mycorrhizal roots under low-P conditions. Most GmPAP genes are probably involved in P acquisition and recycling in plants. Also we provide the first evidence that some members of the GmPAP gene family are possibly involved in the response of plants to symbiosis with rhizobia or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under P-limited conditions.

  12. Bose-Einstein condensation in the Han purple compound: a high field NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Steffen; Horvatic, Mladen; Berthier, Claude [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Stern, Raivo [NICPB, Tallinn (Estonia); Kimura, Tsuyoshi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The quasi-2D, antiferromagnetic exchange coupled spin-1/2 dimer compound BaCuSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} (Han purple) is considered as a prototype of the magnetic field induced Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) of triplet excitations on a lattice. Recently, BaCuSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} has been claimed to exhibit an unusual reduction of dimensionality of the BEC from 3D to 2D when lowering the temperature, induced by frustration between adjacent planes. However, due to a structural transformation at 90 K, different intradimer exchange couplings and different gaps ({delta}{sub B}/{delta}{sub A}=1.16) exist in every second plane along the c axis. First Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments have shown that this leads to a population of bosons in the B planes, n{sub B}, much smaller than in A planes in the field range {delta}{sub A}/g{mu}{sub B} < H < {delta}{sub B}/g{mu}{sub B} where n{sub B}=0 is expected in a model of uncoupled planes. More recently, a better model has been presented, which takes into account both frustration and quantum fluctuations. This leads to a non-zero population n{sub B} of uncondensed bosons in the B plane, increasing quadratically with (H-H{sub c1}), as compared to the linear dependence of n{sub A}. In our contribution we compare our new NMR results, obtained at high magnetic fields (23-27 T) and low temperatures (50 mK), to these models.

  13. Purple perilla extracts allay ER stress in lipid-laden macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Hye Park

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that excess lipids, hypoxic stress and other inflammatory signals can stimulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in metabolic diseases. However, the pathophysiological importance and the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unknown. The current study investigated that 50 ng/ml oxidized LDL promoted unfolded protein response (UPR and ER stress in J774A1 murine macrophages, which was blocked by extracts (PPE of purple Perilla frutescens, a plant of the mint family Lamiaceae. The ER stressor tunicamycin was employed as a positive control. Treating 1-10 µg/ml oxidized LDL for 24 h elicited lipotoxic apoptosis in macrophages with obvious nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, which was inhibited by PPE. Tunicamycin and oxidized LDL activated and induced the UPR components of activating transcription factor 6 and ER resident chaperone BiP/Grp78 in temporal manners and such effects were blocked by ≥5 µg/ml PPE. In addition, PPE suppressed the enhanced mRNA transcription and splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1 by tunicamycin and oxidized LDL. The protein induction and nuclear translocation of XBP1 were deterred in PPE-treated macrophages under ER stress. The induction of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-B1 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 was abolished by the ER stressor in activated macrophages. The protein induction of ABCA1 and ICAM1 but not SR-B1 was retrieved by adding 10 µg/ml PPE to cells. These results demonstrate that PPE inhibited lipotoxic apoptosis and demoted the induction and activation of UPR components in macrophages. PPE restored normal proteostasis in activated macrophages oxidized LDL. Therefore, PPE was a potent agent antagonizing macrophage ER stress due to lipotoxic signals associated with atherosclerosis.

  14. Infrared spectroscopic study of photoreceptor membrane and purple membrane. Protein secondary structure and hydrogen deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, N.W.; Bruchman, T.J.; Hazzard, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the interval from 1800 to 1300 cm-1 has been used to investigate the secondary structure and the hydrogen/deuterium exchange behavior of bacteriorhodopsin and bovine rhodopsin in their respective native membranes. The amide I' and amide II' regions from spectra of membrane suspensions in D2O were decomposed into constituent bands by use of a curve-fitting procedure. The amide I' bands could be fit with a minimum of three theoretical components having peak positions at 1664, 1638, and 1625 cm-1 for bacteriorhodopsin and 1657, 1639, and 1625 cm-1 for rhodopsin. For both of these membrane proteins, the amide I' spectrum suggests that alpha-helix is the predominant form of peptide chain secondary structure, but that a substantial amount of beta-sheet conformation is present as well. The shape of the amide I' band was pH-sensitive for photoreceptor membranes, but not for purple membrane, indicating that membrane-bound rhodopsin undergoes a conformation change at acidic pH. Peptide hydrogen exchange of bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin was monitored by observing the change in the ratio of integrated absorbance (Aamide II'/Aamide I') during the interval from 1.5 to 25 h after membranes were introduced into buffered D2O. The fraction of peptide groups in a very slowly exchanging secondary structure was estimated to be 0.71 for bacteriorhodopsin at pD 7. The corresponding fraction in vertebrate rhodopsin was estimated to be less than or equal to 0.60. These findings are discussed in relationship to previous studies of hydrogen exchange behavior and to structural models for both proteins

  15. Perturbation of gut bacteria induces a coordinated cellular immune response in the purple sea urchin larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch Ho, Eric; Buckley, Katherine M; Schrankel, Catherine S; Schuh, Nicholas W; Hibino, Taku; Solek, Cynthia M; Bae, Koeun; Wang, Guizhi; Rast, Jonathan P

    2016-10-01

    The purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) genome sequence contains a complex repertoire of genes encoding innate immune recognition proteins and homologs of important vertebrate immune regulatory factors. To characterize how this immune system is deployed within an experimentally tractable, intact animal, we investigate the immune capability of the larval stage. Sea urchin embryos and larvae are morphologically simple and transparent, providing an organism-wide model to view immune response at cellular resolution. Here we present evidence for immune function in five mesenchymal cell types based on morphology, behavior and gene expression. Two cell types are phagocytic; the others interact at sites of microbial detection or injury. We characterize immune-associated gene markers for three cell types, including a perforin-like molecule, a scavenger receptor, a complement-like thioester-containing protein and the echinoderm-specific immune response factor 185/333. We elicit larval immune responses by (1) bacterial injection into the blastocoel and (2) seawater exposure to the marine bacterium Vibrio diazotrophicus to perturb immune state in the gut. Exposure at the epithelium induces a strong response in which pigment cells (one type of immune cell) migrate from the ectoderm to interact with the gut epithelium. Bacteria that accumulate in the gut later invade the blastocoel, where they are cleared by phagocytic and granular immune cells. The complexity of this coordinated, dynamic inflammatory program within the simple larval morphology provides a system in which to characterize processes that direct both aspects of the echinoderm-specific immune response as well as those that are shared with other deuterostomes, including vertebrates.

  16. Innate immune complexity in the purple sea urchin: diversity of the Sp185/333 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Courtney Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. Several large gene families that function in immunity in this species includes the Sp185/333 gene family with ~50 (±10 members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus SNPs within the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. An Sp185/333-positive BAC insert has a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes. RNA editing is detectible throughout the messages and putative post-translational modifications to the proteins result in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full-length and truncated proteins, including some with missense sequence. Current results suggest that both native and a recombinant Sp185/333 protein bind bacteria and are likely important in sea urchin

  17. The immune gene repertoire encoded in the purple sea urchin genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Taku; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Messier, Cynthia; Majeske, Audrey J; Cohen, Avis H; Terwilliger, David P; Buckley, Katherine M; Brockton, Virginia; Nair, Sham V; Berney, Kevin; Fugmann, Sebastian D; Anderson, Michele K; Pancer, Zeev; Cameron, R Andrew; Smith, L Courtney; Rast, Jonathan P

    2006-12-01

    Echinoderms occupy a critical and largely unexplored phylogenetic vantage point from which to infer both the early evolution of bilaterian immunity and the underpinnings of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Here we present an initial survey of the purple sea urchin genome for genes associated with immunity. An elaborate repertoire of potential immune receptors, regulators and effectors is present, including unprecedented expansions of innate pathogen recognition genes. These include a diverse array of 222 Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and a coordinate expansion of directly associated signaling adaptors. Notably, a subset of sea urchin TLR genes encodes receptors with structural characteristics previously identified only in protostomes. A similarly expanded set of 203 NOD/NALP-like cytoplasmic recognition proteins is present. These genes have previously been identified only in vertebrates where they are represented in much lower numbers. Genes that mediate the alternative and lectin complement pathways are described, while gene homologues of the terminal pathway are not present. We have also identified several homologues of genes that function in jawed vertebrate adaptive immunity. The most striking of these is a gene cluster with similarity to the jawed vertebrate Recombination Activating Genes 1 and 2 (RAG1/2). Sea urchins are long-lived, complex organisms and these findings reveal an innate immune system of unprecedented complexity. Whether the presumably intense selective processes that molded these gene families also gave rise to novel immune mechanisms akin to adaptive systems remains to be seen. The genome sequence provides immediate opportunities to apply the advantages of the sea urchin model toward problems in developmental and evolutionary immunobiology.

  18. Dynamics of hydration water in deuterated purple membranes explored by neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K; Plazanet, M; Gabel, F; Kessler, B; Oesterhelt, D; Zaccai, G; Weik, M

    2008-06-01

    The function and dynamics of proteins depend on their direct environment, and much evidence has pointed to a strong coupling between water and protein motions. Recently however, neutron scattering measurements on deuterated and natural-abundance purple membrane (PM), hydrated in H2O and D2O, respectively, revealed that membrane and water motions on the ns-ps time scale are not directly coupled below 260 K (Wood et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:18049-18054, 2007). In the initial study, samples with a high level of hydration were measured. Here, we have measured the dynamics of PM and water separately, at a low-hydration level corresponding to the first layer of hydration water only. As in the case of the higher hydration samples previously studied, the dynamics of PM and water display different temperature dependencies, with a transition in the hydration water at 200 K not triggering a transition in the membrane at the same temperature. Furthermore, neutron diffraction experiments were carried out to monitor the lamellar spacing of a flash-cooled deuterated PM stack hydrated in H2O as a function of temperature. At 200 K, a sudden decrease in lamellar spacing indicated the onset of long-range translational water diffusion in the second hydration layer as has already been observed on flash-cooled natural-abundance PM stacks hydrated in D2O (Weik et al. in J Mol Biol 275:632-634, 2005), excluding thus a notable isotope effect. Our results reinforce the notion that membrane-protein dynamics may be less strongly coupled to hydration water motions than the dynamics of soluble proteins.

  19. [Dynamic change of phosphorus leaching of neutral purple soil at different re-wetting rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Lan; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Re-wetting was one of the most common forms of abiotic stresses experienced by soils. To investigate the effects of soil re-wetting rate on phosphorus (P) leaching and the relationship between soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and forms of P in leachate; five kinds of neutral purple soils of different fertilizer treatments were analyzed using simulating lab test at re-wetting rate of 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 24 h and 48 h. The results showed that: (1) The lowest content of MBC appeared at the rate of 2 h during the soil re-wetting process, and the content of MBC increased with the reducing re-wetting rate. (2) Slower re-wetting helped to enhance soil microbial activity and the enhancement effect of organic fertilizer with NPK fertilizer (MNPK) was more significant. (3) The P leaching events of all fertilizer treatments occurred mainly at rapid re-wetting rates such as 0 h, 2 h, 4 h. Slower re-wetting was an important measure to prevent P leaching especially for the soils applied with chemical fertilizers, and it was of great significance in the field management of P. (4) Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) was the primary leaching part in leachate, and the variation range of ratio of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) to total phosphorus (TP) and DOP to TP was 35.42%-85.99% and 29.74%-78.58% respectively. (5) With the reducing of re-wetting rate, significant negative correlation was observed between MBC and TP, TDP as well as DOP in the leachate (P soil leachate mainly came from soil microorganisms.

  20. Perturbation of gut bacteria induces a coordinated cellular immune response in the purple sea urchin larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    CH Ho, Eric; Buckley, Katherine M; Schrankel, Catherine S; Schuh, Nicholas W; Hibino, Taku; Solek, Cynthia M; Bae, Koeun; Wang, Guizhi; Rast, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    The purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) genome sequence contains a complex repertoire of genes encoding innate immune recognition proteins and homologs of important vertebrate immune regulatory factors. To characterize how this immune system is deployed within an experimentally tractable, intact animal, we investigate the immune capability of the larval stage. Sea urchin embryos and larvae are morphologically simple and transparent, providing an organism-wide model to view immune response at cellular resolution. Here we present evidence for immune function in five mesenchymal cell types based on morphology, behavior and gene expression. Two cell types are phagocytic; the others interact at sites of microbial detection or injury. We characterize immune-associated gene markers for three cell types, including a perforin-like molecule, a scavenger receptor, a complement-like thioester-containing protein and the echinoderm-specific immune response factor 185/333. We elicit larval immune responses by (1) bacterial injection into the blastocoel and (2) seawater exposure to the marine bacterium Vibrio diazotrophicus to perturb immune state in the gut. Exposure at the epithelium induces a strong response in which pigment cells (one type of immune cell) migrate from the ectoderm to interact with the gut epithelium. Bacteria that accumulate in the gut later invade the blastocoel, where they are cleared by phagocytic and granular immune cells. The complexity of this coordinated, dynamic inflammatory program within the simple larval morphology provides a system in which to characterize processes that direct both aspects of the echinoderm-specific immune response as well as those that are shared with other deuterostomes, including vertebrates. PMID:27192936

  1. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  2. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoidsxPopulus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Liqiang

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoidsxPopulus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98+/-19.22 and 576.75+/-40.55 microg cadmium per plant with 110.77+/-12.68 and 202.54+/-19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  4. Copigmentation Of Anthocyanin Extract of Purple Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea Batatas L.) Using Ferulic Acid And Tannic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, I.; Wijaya, H.; Hasanah, F.; Heryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Copigmentation is one of the methods to improve the color stability and intensity of anthocyanin extract. This study aimed to do the copigmentation of the anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato using ferulic acid and tannic acid. The anthocyanin extraction was conducted with distilled water at pH 7 and pH 2 while the copigmentation was conducted by varying the concentration of ferulic acid and tannic acid. The results showed that best anthocyanin extraction method of the purple sweet potato was using distilled water at pH 2. The yield of freeze dried anthocyanin on the extraction with distilled water at pH 2 was 1710 ppm, while the yield when using distilled water at pH 7 was 888 ppm. Ferulic acid and tannic acid can be used for the copigmentation of anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato by observing the maximum wavelength shift (bathochromic effect, Δλmax) and increase of color intensity (hyperchromic effect, ΔAmax). The bathochromic effect of ferulic acid began to occur at a concentration of 0.01M, while the hypochromic effect on tannic acid occurred at a concentration of 0.005M and remained up to a concentration of 0.02M. The best copigmentation concentration of ferulic acid was 0.015M, while tannic acid was 0.02M. The use of tannic acid 0.02M is recommended compared to ferulic acid 0.015M because with the same bathocromic effect (Δλmaks = 3,9) results hyperchromic effect (ΔA = 0,258) higher by tannic acid.

  5. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chunji

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  6. Different visible colors and green fluorescence were obtained from the mutated purple chromoprotein isolated from sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like proteins have been studied with the aim of developing fluorescent proteins. Since the property of color variation is understudied, we isolated a novel GFP-like chromoprotein from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla haddoni, termed shCP. Its maximum absorption wavelength peak (λ(max)) is located at 574 nm, resulting in a purple color. The shCP protein consists of 227 amino acids (aa), sharing 96 % identity with the GFP-like chromoprotein of Heteractis crispa. We mutated aa residues to examine any alteration in color. When E63, the first aa of the chromophore, was replaced by serine (E63S), the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-E63S was shifted to 560 nm and exhibited a pink color. When Q39, T194, and I196, which reside in the surrounding 5 Å of the chromophore's microenvironment, were mutated, we found that (1) the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-Q39S was shifted to 518 nm and exhibited a red color, (2) shCP-T194I exhibited a purple-blue color, and (3) an additional mutation at I196H of the mutated protein shCP-E63L exhibited green fluorescence. In contrast, when the aa located neither at the chromophore nor within its microenvironment were mutated, the resultant proteins shCP-L122H, -E138G, -S137D, -T95I, -D129N, -T194V, -E138Q, -G75E, -I183V, and -I70V never altered their purple color, suggesting that mutations at the shCP chromophore and the surrounding 5 Å microenvironment mostly control changes in color expression or cause fluorescence to develop. Additionally, we found that the cDNAs of shCP and its mutated varieties are faithfully and stably expressed both in Escherichia coli and zebrafish embryos.

  7. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  8. Optimization of Polysaccharide Ultrasonic Extraction Conditions Using Purple Sweet Potato Tubers Based on Free Radical Scavenging and Glycosylation Inhibitory Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haihua; Kong, Fansheng; Yan, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    The purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas , belongs to the family Convolvulaceae . It is one of the most widely consumed tubers in Asia and is found in many dishes. Many people with diabetes eat purple sweet potato tubers to help reduce blood glucose in China. To predict the ultrasonic conditions for getting the optimal in vitro antioxidant and antiglycated activity of ultrasonic extracted polysaccharides from purple sweet potato ( I. batatas ) tubers, the artificial neural network (ANN) regression models was used in this study. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharides was quantified by evaluating the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect after ultrasonic extraction, and the data were used in conjunction with optimized extraction conditions to train the predictive ANN models. The following conditions were predicted to yield optimal hydroxyl scavenging activity: 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min. In contrast, conditions of 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min yielded the greatest inhibitory effect on albumin nonenzymatic glycosylation. The accuracy and predictive ability of the models ranged from good to excellent, as indicated by R 2 values ranging from 0.953 to 0.998. The results of the present study showed that ANN predictive models are useful in ultrasonic processing, which can rapidly and accurately predict the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides based on their antioxidant and antiglycated activities. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the consumption of sweet potatoes may help reduce free radicals in the body and prevent or treat diabetes. Ultrasonic extraction conditions were simulated and optimized using artificial neural networkBioactivities showed nonlinear relationship with ultrasonic conditionsThe optimal extraction conditions were 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min for the highest antioxidant capacityThe optimal extraction conditions were 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min for the highest antiglycated effect. Abbreviations used: IBP: Polysaccharide of

  9. IBM Deep Learning Service

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Bishwaranjan; Boag, Scott; Doshi, Chandani; Dube, Parijat; Herta, Ben; Ishakian, Vatche; Jayaram, K. R.; Khalaf, Rania; Krishna, Avesh; Li, Yu Bo; Muthusamy, Vinod; Puri, Ruchir; Ren, Yufei; Rosenberg, Florian; Seelam, Seetharami R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning driven by large neural network models is overtaking traditional machine learning methods for understanding unstructured and perceptual data domains such as speech, text, and vision. At the same time, the "as-a-Service"-based business model on the cloud is fundamentally transforming the information technology industry. These two trends: deep learning, and "as-a-service" are colliding to give rise to a new business model for cognitive application delivery: deep learning as a servi...

  10. Deep cascade learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Enrique, Salvador; Hare, Jonathon; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for efficient training of deep neural networks in a bottom-up fashion using a layered structure. Our algorithm, which we refer to as Deep Cascade Learning, is motivated by the Cascade Correlation approach of Fahlman who introduced it in the context of perceptrons. We demonstrate our algorithm on networks of convolutional layers, though its applicability is more general. Such training of deep networks in a cascade, directly circumvents the well-know...

  11. On the role of cytochrome c8 in photosynthetic electron transfer of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, A.; Ciurli, S.; Kofod, Pauli

    1997-01-01

    We report on the isolation, purification and functional characterization of a soluble c-type cytochrome from light-grown cells of the purple phototroph Rhodoferax fermentans. This cytochrome is basic (pI = 8), has a molecular mass of 12 kDa, and is characterized by a midpoint reduction potential...... center, in a fast (sub-ms) and a slow (ms) phase. Competition experiments in the presence of both cytochrome c8 and high potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP), isolated from the same microorganism, show that cytochrome c8 oxidation is decreased upon addition of HiPIP. These observations suggest...

  12. Development of Colorectal-Targeted Dietary Supplement Tablets Containing Natural Purple Rice Bran Oil as a Colorectal Chemopreventive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busaban Sirithunyalug

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study investigated rice bran oil from natural purple rice bran, which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactive compound content of natural purple rice bran oil (NPRBO derived from native Thai purple rice and the anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO in colorectal cancer cells, and to develop a colorectal delivery platform in the form of film-coated tablets. NPRBO from the rice bran of five different Thai purple rice cultivars, namely Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua (KGLP, Khao’ Gam Boung (KGB, Khao’ Gam Thor (KGT, Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw (KGPEK, and Khao’ Niaw Dam (KND, were extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique. The amount of γ-oryzanol (ORY, tocotrienols, and tocopherols present in NPRBOs and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO were investigated. The highest anti-inflammatory NPRBO was transformed into a dry and free-flowing powder by liquisolid techniques. Then, it was compressed into core tablets and coated with Eudragit®L100 and Eudragit® NE30D. The in vitro release study of the film-coated NPRBO tablets was performed in three-phase simulated gastrointestinal media. The cultivar KGLP was superior to the other samples in terms of the ORY, tocotrienol and tocopherol contents and anti-inflammatory activity. Aerosil® was the most suitable absorbent for transforming NPRBO into a free-flowing powder and was used to prepare the NPRBO core tablets. The in vitro KGLP-NPRBO film-coated tablet release profile showed that no ORY was released at gastric pH while 85% of ORY was released at pH 7.4 after 6 h; this would be expected to

  13. Identification and growth conditions of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria isolated from palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziah Ariffin

    2004-01-01

    An indigenous strain of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium, isolated from palm oil mill effluent was presumably identified as species of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Cultivation in synthetic medium under different conditions indicated that it gave maximum carotenoid and bacteriophyll synthesis under anaerobic conditions in the light with values of 12.6 and 108.1 mg/g dry cell weight respectively. These values were significantly higher than the pigment content obtained from aerobic cultivation. The specific growth rates in anaerobic was twice those in aerobic conditions in the light. Growth was not occurred in anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the dark. (Author)

  14. In Silico Modeling of Indigo and Tyrian Purple Single-Electron Nano-Transistors Using Density Functional Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shityakov, Sergey; Roewer, Norbert; Förster, Carola; Broscheit, Jens-Albert

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an in silico model of indigoid-based single-electron transistor (SET) nanodevices, which consist of indigoid molecules from natural dye weakly coupled to gold electrodes that function in a Coulomb blockade regime. The electronic properties of the indigoid molecules were investigated using the optimized density-functional theory (DFT) with a continuum model. Higher electron transport characteristics were determined for Tyrian purple, consistent with experimentally derived data. Overall, these results can be used to correctly predict and emphasize the electron transport functions of organic SETs, demonstrating their potential for sustainable nanoelectronics comprising the biodegradable and biocompatible materials.

  15. Identification of a consistent polyene component of purple pigment in diseased sclerites of Caribbean corals across region, species, and insult agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Monty L.; Leverette, Chad L.; Perez, Christopher; Smith, Garriet W.

    2017-10-01

    Gorgonians respond to insult (damage and disease) by producing sclerites containing a purple pigment as opposed to the normal white sclerites. Raman microscopy is used to study the purple areas of three species of diseased coral, Gorgonia ventalina, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Eunicea laciniata obtained from Puerto Rico. These spectra were compared to Gorgonia ventalina samples previously reported that were obtained from San Salvador, Bahamas. Spectra from two samples of G. ventalina that had been infected by different agents, Aspergillus sydowii and a slime mold, were also obtained. The results indicate that the purple compounds (polyenes) generated by the coral in response to infection are similar regardless of region from which the coral were harvested, of species of coral, and of the infective agent. A discussion of the Raman spectra of G. ventalina and the other coral species is presented.

  16. Metabolic network modeling of redox balancing and biohydrogen production in purple nonsulfur bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammel Hartmut

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB are facultative photosynthetic bacteria and exhibit an extremely versatile metabolism. A central focus of research on PNSB dealt with the elucidation of mechanisms by which they manage to balance cellular redox under diverse conditions, in particular under photoheterotrophic growth. Results Given the complexity of the central metabolism of PNSB, metabolic modeling becomes crucial for an integrated analysis of the accumulated biological knowledge. We reconstructed a stoichiometric model capturing the central metabolism of three important representatives of PNSB (Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Using flux variability analysis, the model reveals key metabolic constraints related to redox homeostasis in these bacteria. With the help of the model we can (i give quantitative explanations for non-intuitive, partially species-specific phenomena of photoheterotrophic growth of PNSB, (ii reproduce various quantitative experimental data, and (iii formulate several new hypotheses. For example, model analysis of photoheterotrophic growth reveals that - despite a large number of utilizable catabolic pathways - substrate-specific biomass and CO2 yields are fixed constraints, irrespective of the assumption of optimal growth. Furthermore, our model explains quantitatively why a CO2 fixing pathway such as the Calvin cycle is required by PNSB for many substrates (even if CO2 is released. We also analyze the role of other pathways potentially involved in redox metabolism and how they affect quantitatively the required capacity of the Calvin cycle. Our model also enables us to discriminate between different acetate assimilation pathways that were proposed recently for R. sphaeroides and R. rubrum, both lacking the isocitrate lyase. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the metabolic model also for potential biotechnological applications: we examine the theoretical

  17. Metabolic network modeling of redox balancing and biohydrogen production in purple nonsulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädicke, Oliver; Grammel, Hartmut; Klamt, Steffen

    2011-09-25

    Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are facultative photosynthetic bacteria and exhibit an extremely versatile metabolism. A central focus of research on PNSB dealt with the elucidation of mechanisms by which they manage to balance cellular redox under diverse conditions, in particular under photoheterotrophic growth. Given the complexity of the central metabolism of PNSB, metabolic modeling becomes crucial for an integrated analysis of the accumulated biological knowledge. We reconstructed a stoichiometric model capturing the central metabolism of three important representatives of PNSB (Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris). Using flux variability analysis, the model reveals key metabolic constraints related to redox homeostasis in these bacteria. With the help of the model we can (i) give quantitative explanations for non-intuitive, partially species-specific phenomena of photoheterotrophic growth of PNSB, (ii) reproduce various quantitative experimental data, and (iii) formulate several new hypotheses. For example, model analysis of photoheterotrophic growth reveals that--despite a large number of utilizable catabolic pathways--substrate-specific biomass and CO₂ yields are fixed constraints, irrespective of the assumption of optimal growth. Furthermore, our model explains quantitatively why a CO₂ fixing pathway such as the Calvin cycle is required by PNSB for many substrates (even if CO₂ is released). We also analyze the role of other pathways potentially involved in redox metabolism and how they affect quantitatively the required capacity of the Calvin cycle. Our model also enables us to discriminate between different acetate assimilation pathways that were proposed recently for R. sphaeroides and R. rubrum, both lacking the isocitrate lyase. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the metabolic model also for potential biotechnological applications: we examine the theoretical capabilities of PNSB for photoheterotrophic

  18. Innate immune complexity in the purple sea urchin: diversity of the sp185/333 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. There are several large gene families that function in immunity in this species including the Sp185/333 gene family that has ∼50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus single nucleotide polymorphisms-based variants of the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. Sequence of a bacterial artificial chromosome insert shows a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites in which the Sp185/333 genes and flanking regions are located, are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes plus flanking regions. RNA editing is detectible throughout the mRNAs based on comparisons to the genes, which, in combination with putative post-translational modifications to the proteins, results in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full

  19. Innate Immune Complexity in the Purple Sea Urchin: Diversity of the Sp185/333 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. There are several large gene families that function in immunity in this species including the Sp185/333 gene family that has ∼50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus single nucleotide polymorphisms-based variants of the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. Sequence of a bacterial artificial chromosome insert shows a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites in which the Sp185/333 genes and flanking regions are located, are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes plus flanking regions. RNA editing is detectible throughout the mRNAs based on comparisons to the genes, which, in combination with putative post-translational modifications to the proteins, results in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full

  20. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  1. PEMANFAATAN UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN TEPUNG TERIGU DAN SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN PADA ROTI TAWAR [Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir as a Partial Subtitute of Wheat flour and Source of Antioxidant on Plain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir is potential for functional food, especially as antioxidant source due to its purple color and other nutrient content. The objective of this research was to produce plain bread containing antioxidant by partial substitution of wheat flour with purple sweet potato flour. The result showed that the best plain bread was produced by a maximum substitution of 20% purple sweet potato flour to wheat flour. The hedonic characteristics of the resulting bread including aroma, taste, and texture were not significantly different from bread without substitution. Nevertheless, the crust was harder and darker. Addition of 1.0% GMS emulsifier and reduction of purple potato flour to 15% increased the score of softness, hedonic texture, acceptance level, as well as the volume of the bread. The substituted bread had antioxidant activity of 55833.78 ppm DPPH as shown by the IC50 value and contained 4.30% of dietary fiber.

  2. Antioxidant and prebiotic activity of five peonidin-based anthocyanins extracted from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanju; Zhang, Pingping; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lou, Qiuyan; He, Shudong

    2018-03-22

    Twelve kinds of anthocyanins from the Chinese purple sweet potato cultivar (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were extracted and identified using LC-MS/MS, which had a high content of peonidin-based anthocyanins. Five peonidin-based anthocyanin monomers (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) were isolated by preparative liquid chromatography with structural analyses using an Impact II Q-TOF MS/MS. Then, the functional properties of the anthocyanin monomers, such as the antioxidant activities, proliferative effects on probiotics, and their inhibition on harmful bacteria in vitro, were investigated. The peonidin-based components in purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) showed good properties regarding scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anions, and had good potential in reducing the total power activity and Fe 2+ chelating ability. While the order of the antioxidant abilities was as follows: P4 > P5 > P3 > P2 > P1 > PSPAs. Microbial cultivations showed that P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and PSPAs could induce the proliferation of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and they inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium, suggesting the anthocyanins might have prebiotic-like activity through the modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Our results indicate that peonidin-based anthocyanins could be further utilized in health foods and pharmaceutical developments.

  3. De novo sequencing and comprehensive analysis of the mutant transcriptome from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peiyong; Bian, Xiaofeng; Jia, Zhaodong; Guo, Xiaoding; Xie, Yizhi

    2016-01-10

    Purple sweet potatoes, rich in anthocyanin, have been widely favored in light of increasing awareness of health and food safety. In this study, a mutant of purple sweet potato (white peel and flesh) was used to study anthocyanin metabolism by high-throughput RNA sequencing and comparative analysis of the mutant and wild type transcriptomes. A total of 88,509 unigenes ranging from 200nt to 14,986nt with an average length of 849nt were obtained. Unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Functional enrichment using GO and KEGG annotations showed that 3828 of the differently expressed genes probably influenced many important biological and metabolic pathways, including anthocyanin biosynthesis. Most importantly, the structural and transcription factor genes that contribute to anthocyanin biosynthesis were downregulated in the mutant. The unigene dataset that was used to discover the anthocyanin candidate genes can serve as a comprehensive resource for molecular research in sweet potato. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  5. Determination and Quantification of the Vinblastine Content in Purple, Red, and White Catharanthus Roseus Leaves Using RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohanizah Abdul Rahim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine and quantify vinblastine in different varieties of Catharanthus roseus using reversed-phase HPLC method. Methods: The liquid chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed phase C18, Microsorb - MV column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm at room temperature and eluted with a mobile phase containing methanol – phosphate buffer (5 mM, pH 6.0 – acetonitrile with different proportion gradient elution at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 and detection at 254 nm. Results: The HPLC method was utilized for the quantification of vinblastine in purple, red and white varieties of Catharanthus roseus leaves. The separation was achieved in less than 8 min. The peak confirmation was done based on the retention times and UV spectra of the reference substance. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and quantification. Results showed that the purple variety gives 1.2 and 1.5 times more vinblastine concentration compared to the white and pink varieties, respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results from different varieties are thus useful for the purpose of vinblastine production from Catharanthus roseus plant.

  6. Abrupt onset of large scale nonproton ion release in purple membranes caused by increasing pH or ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, T

    1987-06-01

    The abrupt onset of large scale nonproton ion release by photo-excited purple membrane suspensions has been observed near neutral pH using transient conductivity measurements. At pH 7 and low ionic strength, the conductivity transients due to proton and nonproton ions are of comparable magnitude but of opposite sign: fast proton release and ion uptake, followed by slow proton uptake and ion release. By increasing either the pH or the NaCl concentration, the amplitude of the conductivity transient increases sharply and the signal is then dominated by nonproton ion release. These results can be understood in terms of light-induced changes in the population of counterions condensed at the purple membrane surface caused by changes in the surface charge density. The critical charge density required for condensation to occur is evidently achieved near neutral pH by ionizing dissociable groups on the membrane by either titration (increasing the pH) or shifting their pKs (increasing the ionic strength).

  7. Mass spectrometry imaging reveals new biological roles for choline esters and Tyrian purple precursors in muricid molluscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, David; Ronci, Maurizio; Johnston, Martin R.; Guinan, Taryn; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advances in chemical ecology, the biodistribution, temporal changes and ecological function of most marine secondary metabolites remain unknown. One such example is the association between choline esters and Tyrian purple precursors in muricid molluscs. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) on nano-structured surfaces has emerged as a sophisticated platform for spatial analysis of low molecular mass metabolites in heterogeneous tissues, ideal for low abundant secondary metabolites. Here we applied desorption-ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) to examine in situ changes in biodistribution over the reproductive cycle. DIOS-MSI showed muscle-relaxing choline ester murexine to co-localise with tyrindoxyl sulfate in the biosynthetic hypobranchial glands. But during egg-laying, murexine was transferred to the capsule gland, and then to the egg capsules, where chemical ripening resulted in Tyrian purple formation. Murexine was found to tranquilise the larvae and may relax the reproductive tract. This study shows that DIOS-MSI is a powerful tool that can provide new insights into marine chemo-ecology. PMID:26324173

  8. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from purple sweet potato using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Guan, Qingyan; Guo, Ying; He, Jingren; Liu, Gang; Li, Shuyi; Barba, Francisco J.; Jaffrin, Michel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of valuable components (anthocyanins and phenolics) from purple sweet potatoes using water as a solvent. The Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing extraction responses of anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption. Conditions to obtain maximal anthocyanin extraction yield, maximal phenolic extraction yield, and minimal specific energy consumption were different; an overall desirability function was used to search for overall optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 68ºC, ultrasonic treatment time of 52 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 20. The optimized anthocyanin extraction yield, phenolic extraction yield, and specific energy consumption were 4.91 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight, 3.24 mg g-1 fresh weight, and 2.07 kWh g-1, respectively, with a desirability of 0.99. This study indicates that ultrasound-assisted extraction should contribute to a green process for valorization of purple sweet potatoes.

  9. Investigation on the appropriate dose of 6Co-γ irradiation for tubers of purple sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Huijuan; Yan Wenzhao; Wu Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to investigate the appropriate dose of 60 Co-γ irradiation for tubers of purple sweet potato. [Methods] The tubers of two purple sweet potato varieties Xuzi L-7 and Yuenanzi were used as experimental materials, and treated with 60 Co-γ irradiation at different doses (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy) to determine the emergence rate, number of emerged seedlings per tuber and fresh weight per seedling. [Results] After the 60 Co-γ irradiation at different doses, the emergence period of tubers was postponed while the emergence rate, number of emerged seedlings per tuber and fresh weight per plant were decreased, and the differences between different varieties and different irradiation doses reached significance level. Compared with the control, the emergence period of tubers at irradiation doses above 25 Gy were postponed by 2, 3, 5, 6 and 12 d, respectively. [Conclusion] The half lethal dose (LD 50 of Xuzi L-7 was 66.73 Gy, and that of Yuenanzi was 74.96 Gy

  10. The Combined Extract of Purple Waxy Corn and Ginger Prevents Cataractogenesis and Retinopathy in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphaphat Thiraphatthanavong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the crucial roles of oxidative stress and aldose reductase on diabetic complications and the protective effect against diabetic eye complication of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG together with the synergistic effect concept, we aimed to determine anticataract and antiretinopathy effects of the combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG. The streptozotocin diabetics with the blood glucose levels >250 mg·dL−1 were orally given the extract at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg·BW−1 for 10 weeks. Then, lens opacity and histopathology of retina were determined. The changes of MDA together with the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were also determined using biochemical assays. All doses of PWCG decreased lens opacity, MDA, and AR in the lens of diabetic rats. The elevation of CAT and GPx activities was also observed. The antiretinopathy property of the combined extract was also confirmed by the increased number of neurons in ganglion cell layer and thickness of total retina and retinal nuclear layer in diabetic rats. PWCG is the potential functional food to protect against diabetic cataract and retinopathy. However, further studies concerning toxicity and clinical trial are still essential.

  11. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-09-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  13. Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of infant cereals produced from purple wheat and red rice grains and LC-MS analysis of their anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirawan, Rhanissa; Diehl-Jones, William; Beta, Trust

    2011-12-14

    Cellular oxidative damage by endogenous and exogenous sources of free radicals and reactive oxygen species is a particular threat in infants. Antioxidant protection is normally achieved through a balance between pro-oxidants and endogenous and/or dietary antioxidants. Comprehensive research is required on optimization to achieve good antioxidant protection through infant foods, in particular, the commercially available infant cereals. This study therefore investigated the properties of whole purple wheat, unpolished red rice, and partially polished red rice before and after processing to produce infant cereals. Total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), individual anthocyanin components, and cellular antioxidant activity were measured. Home-made and laboratory-made pigmented infant cereals differed in that the latter required longer exposure to higher temperature and enzymatic hydrolysis. Home-made and laboratory-made unpolished red rice infant cereals showed higher total phenolic contents and peroxyl radical scavenging activity than home-made and laboratory-made purple wheat infant cereals; however, the latter had higher TAC. Pigmented infant cereals generally had higher TPC, TAC, and ORAC than the commercial ones (p red rice. C-Glycosyl apigenin was found in both whole purple wheat and unpolished red rice. Processing significantly decreased anthocyanin and C-glycosyl apigenin contents (p red rice ones (p < 0.05). Whole purple wheat infant cereals showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial infant cereal, suggesting a possibility of improving infant antioxidant status by incorporating this grain in their diet.

  14. Isolation and identification of colourless caffeoyl compounds in purple sweet potato by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Xue, Ren-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-10-15

    More than 10 red anthocyanins and related glucosides have been isolated and identified from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Ayamurasaki) in the recent decades. This paper reports the isolation of colourless caffeoyl compounds from purple sweet potato using AB-8 macroresin absorption and semi-preparative HPLC-DAD. The structures of the five isolated monomers were identified as: 5-caffeoylquinic acid (1), 6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2-1)-α-d-glucopyranoside (2) and trans-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5), and by ESI/MS and NMR. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 were reported previously in combination with anthocyanins in purple sweet potato, whereas 2 and 3 were found for the first time. In vitro antioxidant assay showed trans-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid has significant antioxidant activities. These results should lay the groundwork for further work identifying purple sweet potato as a healthy food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  16. Deep Learning in Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharchuk, G; Gong, E; Wintermark, M; Rubin, D; Langlotz, C P

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly. This review article describes the reasons, outlines the basic methods used to train and test deep learning models, and presents a brief overview of current and potential clinical applications with an emphasis on how they are likely to change future neuroradiology practice. Facility with these methods among neuroimaging researchers and clinicians will be important to channel and harness the vast potential of this new method. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Deep Space Atomic Clock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) project will develop a small, low mass atomic clock based on mercury-ion trap technology and demonstrate it in space providing the...

  18. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  19. Pathogenesis of deep endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Stephan; Koninckx, Philippe; Brosens, Ivo

    2017-12-01

    The pathophysiology of (deep) endometriosis is still unclear. As originally suggested by Cullen, change the definition "deeper than 5 mm" to "adenomyosis externa." With the discovery of the old European literature on uterine bleeding in 5%-10% of the neonates and histologic evidence that the bleeding represents decidual shedding, it is postulated/hypothesized that endometrial stem/progenitor cells, implanted in the pelvic cavity after birth, may be at the origin of adolescent and even the occasionally premenarcheal pelvic endometriosis. Endometriosis in the adolescent is characterized by angiogenic and hemorrhagic peritoneal and ovarian lesions. The development of deep endometriosis at a later age suggests that deep infiltrating endometriosis is a delayed stage of endometriosis. Another hypothesis is that the endometriotic cell has undergone genetic or epigenetic changes and those specific changes determine the development into deep endometriosis. This is compatible with the hereditary aspects, and with the clonality of deep and cystic ovarian endometriosis. It explains the predisposition and an eventual causal effect by dioxin or radiation. Specific genetic/epigenetic changes could explain the various expressions and thus typical, cystic, and deep endometriosis become three different diseases. Subtle lesions are not a disease until epi(genetic) changes occur. A classification should reflect that deep endometriosis is a specific disease. In conclusion the pathophysiology of deep endometriosis remains debated and the mechanisms of disease progression, as well as the role of genetics and epigenetics in the process, still needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep Time Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Weir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An artist from London researching the effects of deprioritised subjectivity and contemporary art, Weir presents acoustic recordings made in deep geological repository sites. Repurposing these sites from their typical use as storage space for nuclear waste, Weir addresses the extra-human scale of Deep Time through sonic-fiction. Inhumanly enduring and impinging upon humanity largely imperceptibly, what agency—at what scale—is present?

  1. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  2. Mathematics of Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Rene; Bruna, Joan; Giryes, Raja; Soatto, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the performance of recognition systems due to the introduction of deep architectures for representation learning and classification. However, the mathematical reasons for this success remain elusive. This tutorial will review recent work that aims to provide a mathematical justification for several properties of deep networks, such as global optimality, geometric stability, and invariance of the learned representations.

  3. Proteomic approach reveals that starch degradation contributes to anthocyanin accumulation in tuberous root of purple sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Pan, Dezhuo; Lv, Xiaojie; Song, Xiaomin; Qiu, Zhimin; Huang, Chunmei; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-30

    A comparative proteomic approach was carried out to investigate anthocyanin biosynthesis in the tuberous roots of yellow sweet potato (YSP) and purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars. More than 800 proteins were reproducibly detected through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), of which 50 proteins with 39 more and 11 less accumulated in PSP were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Most of the analyzed proteins are annotated to be involved in starch metabolism and glycolysis. The more abundant starch phosphorylase (SP) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) in PSP promoted the synthesis of precursors for anthocyanin synthesis. The results implied that starch degradation provided abundant substrates for anthocyanin biosynthesis in tuberous roots of PSP. 24kDa vacuolar protein (VP24) is related to anthocyanin transport and accumulation in vacuoles. Vacuole-associated annexin protein, VCaB42, is correlated with tonoplast biogenesis. Synergistic action of the two proteins is probably involved in the microautophagy and the intravacuolar trapping of anthocyanins. Interestingly, both VCaB42 and VP24 were more accumulated in PSP, suggesting that anthocyanins generated in the cytosol were transported into and became stored in the vacuoles of PSP. The present study provides new insights into the mechanism of tuberous root-specific anthocyanin accumulation in PSP. Sweet potato ranks as the seventh most important crop worldwide. Purple sweet potato, a special sweet potato cultivar, has been extensively investigated because large amounts of anthocyanin accumulate in its tuberous roots. Anthocyanin is well known for its free radical-scavenging activity and beneficial effects on human health. Its biosynthetic pathway has been well characterized in model plants. Although large-scale systematic studies have been performed to identify the proteins present in sweet potato, information on the

  4. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  5. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP.

  6. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of an anthocyanin-rich gene, BnaA.PL1, conferring purple leaves in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zhu, Lixia; Yuan, Gaigai; Heng, Shuangping; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Because of the advantages of anthocyanins, the genetics and breeding of crops rich in anthocyanins has become a hot research topic. However, due to the lack of anthocyanin-related mutants, no regulatory genes have been mapped in Brassica napus. In this study, we first report the characterization of a B. napus line with purple leaves and the fine mapping and candidate screening of the BnaA.PL1 gene. The amount of anthocyanins in the purple leaf line was six times higher than that in a green leaf line. A genetic analysis indicated that the purple character was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. Through map-based cloning, we localized the BnaA.PL1 gene to a 99-kb region at the end of B. napus chromosome A03. Transcriptional analysis of 11 genes located in the target region revealed that the expression level of only the BnAPR2 gene in seedling leaves decreased from purple to reddish green to green individuals, a finding that was consistent with the measured anthocyanin accumulation levels. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of BnAPR2 showed that the purple individual-derived allele contained 17 variants. Markers co-segregating with BnaA.PL1 were developed from the sequence of BnAPR2 and were validated in the BC4P2 population. These results suggested that BnAPR2, which encodes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is likely to be a valuable candidate gene. This work may lay the foundation for the marker-assisted selection of B. napus vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins and for an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling anthocyanin accumulation in Brassica.

  7. Why & When Deep Learning Works: Looking Inside Deep Learnings

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    The Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Computational Intelligence (ICRI-CI) has been heavily supporting Machine Learning and Deep Learning research from its foundation in 2012. We have asked six leading ICRI-CI Deep Learning researchers to address the challenge of "Why & When Deep Learning works", with the goal of looking inside Deep Learning, providing insights on how deep networks function, and uncovering key observations on their expressiveness, limitations, and potential. The outp...

  8. Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) anthocyanins: preventive effect on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage and dealcoholic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Liu, Xingli; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang

    2014-03-19

    This study aimed to investigate the dealcoholic effect and preventive effect of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (PSPAs) on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage (ALD). Seven-week-old male inbred mice were grouped into five groups: control group (without PSPAs and ethanol treatments), model group (with ethanol treatment only), low-dose group (50 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), middle-dose group (125 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and high-dose group (375 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and the mice in all groups were administered intragastrically. Biochemical parameters of serum and liver were determined, and the histopathological changes of liver tissue were also analyzed. Results showed that all tested parameters were ameliorated after consumption of PSPAs. Therefore, PSPAs have preventive effect on acute and subacute ALD. It is suggested that PSPAs could be used as a supplementary reagent during prophylactic and curative managements of ALD.

  9. STUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF PERIPHERAL LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEXES (LH2 IN PURPLE NON-SULPHUR PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatas H.P. Brotosudarmo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis provides an example of a natural process that has been optimized during evolution to harness solar energy efficiently and safely, and finally to use it to produce a carbon-based fuel. Initially, solar energy is captured by the light harvesting pigment-protein complexes. In purple bacteria these antenna complexes are constructed on a rather simple modular basis. Light absorbed by these antenna complexes is funnelled downhill to reaction centres, where light drives a trans-membrane redox reaction. The light harvesting proteins not only provide the scaffolding that correctly positions the bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoid pigments for optimal energy transfer but also creates an environment that can modulate the wavelength at which different bacteriochlorophyll molecules absorb light thereby creating the energy funnel. How these proteins can modulate the absorption spectra of the bacteriochlorophylls will be discussed in this review.

  10. Bidirectional mediation of TiO2 nanowires field effect transistor by dipole moment from purple membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Gan, Ye; Song, Qun Liang; Zhu, Zhi Hong; Shi, Jingsheng; Yang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Peng; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-08-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membrane (bR-PM) is one of the most promising biomaterials for various bioelectronics applications. In this work, we demonstrate that a dipole bio-originated from bR-PM can bidirectionally mediate the performance of a bottom-contact TiO2 nanowire field effect transistor (FET) for performance improvement. When negative gate voltage is applied, both transfer and output characteristics of the TiO2 nanowire FET are enhanced by the bR-PM modification, resulting in a hole mobility increased by a factor of 2. The effect of the number of the deposited bR-PM layers on the normalized ΔID of the FET suggests that the additional electric field generated by the dipole moment natively existing in bR-PM actually boosts the performance of the TiO2 nanowires FET.

  11. Identification of a non-purple tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: an evolutionary link to Ser/Thr protein phosphatases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume David A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases (TRAcPs, also known as purple acid phosphatases (PAPs, are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals and fungi. The human enzyme is a major histochemical marker for the diagnosis of bone-related diseases. TRAcPs can occur as a small form possessing only the ~35 kDa catalytic domain, or a larger ~55 kDa form possessing both a catalytic domain and an additional N-terminal domain of unknown function. Due to its role in bone resorption the 35 kDa TRAcP has become a promising target for the development of anti-osteoporotic chemotherapeutics. Findings A new human gene product encoding a metallohydrolase distantly related to the ~55 kDa plant TRAcP was identified and characterised. The gene product is found in a number of animal species, and is present in all tissues sampled by the RIKEN mouse transcriptome project. Construction of a homology model illustrated that six of the seven metal-coordinating ligands in the active site are identical to that observed in the TRAcP family. However, the tyrosine ligand associated with the charge transfer transition and purple color of TRAcPs is replaced by a histidine. Conlusion The gene product identified here may represent an evolutionary link between TRAcPs and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. Its biological function is currently unknown but is unlikely to be associated with bone metabolism.

  12. Genome Sequence of Rhodoferax antarcticus ANT.BRT; A Psychrophilic Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium from an Antarctic Microbial Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Baker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhodoferax antarcticus is an Antarctic purple nonsulfur bacterium and the only characterized anoxygenic phototroph that grows best below 20 °C. We present here a high-quality draft genome of Rfx. antarcticus strain ANT.BRT, isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat. The circular chromosome (3.8 Mbp of Rfx. antarcticus has a 59.1% guanine + cytosine (GC content and contains 4036 open reading frames. In addition, the bacterium contains a sizable plasmid (198.6 kbp, 48.4% GC with 226 open reading frames that comprises about 5% of the total genetic content. Surprisingly, genes encoding light-harvesting complexes 1 and 3 (LH1 and LH3, but not light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2, were identified in the photosynthesis gene cluster of the Rfx. antarcticus genome, a feature that is unique among purple phototrophs. Consistent with physiological studies that showed a strong capacity for nitrogen fixation in Rfx. antarcticus, a nitrogen fixation gene cluster encoding a molybdenum-type nitrogenase was present, but no alternative nitrogenases were identified despite the cold-active phenotype of this phototroph. Genes encoding two forms of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were present in the Rfx. antarcticus genome, a feature that likely provides autotrophic flexibility under varying environmental conditions. Lastly, genes for assembly of both type IV pili and flagella are present, with the latter showing an unusual degree of clustering. This report represents the first genomic analysis of a psychrophilic anoxygenic phototroph and provides a glimpse of the genetic basis for maintaining a phototrophic lifestyle in a permanently cold, yet highly variable, environment.

  13. Runoff, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from purple slope cropland soil under rating fertilization in Three Gorges Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraima, Abdel-Kabirou; He, Binghui; Tian, Taiqiang

    2016-03-01

    Soil erosion along with soil particles and nutrients losses is detrimental to crop production. We carried out a 5-year (2010 to 2014) study to characterize the soil erosion and nitrogen and phosphorus losses caused by rainfall under different fertilizer application levels in order to provide a theoretical evidence for the agricultural production and coordinate land management to improve ecological environment. The experiment took place under rotation cropping, winter wheat-summer maize, on a 15° slope purple soil in Chongqing (China) within the Three Gorges Region (TGR). Four treatments, control (CK) without fertilizer, combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1), chemical fertilization (T2), and chemical fertilizer with increasing fertilization (T3), were designed on experimental runoff plots for a long-term observation aiming to study their effects on soil erosion and nutrients losses. The results showed that fertilization reduced surface runoff and nutrient losses as compared to CK. T1, T2, and T3, compared to CK, reduced runoff volume by 35.7, 29.6, and 16.8 %, respectively and sediment yield by 40.5, 20.9, and 49.6 %, respectively. Regression analysis results indicated that there were significant relationships between soil loss and runoff volume in all treatments. The combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1) treatment highly reduced total nitrogen and total phosphorus losses by 41.2 and 33.33 %, respectively as compared with CK. Through this 5-year experiment, we can conclude that, on the sloping purple soil, the combined application of manure with fertilizer is beneficial for controlling runoff sediments losses and preventing soil erosion.

  14. Food preferences of Knysna and purple-crested turacos fed varying concentrations of equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy-Leigh; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-02-15

    The effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on food preferences of avian frugivores have been relatively poorly studied. Although it has been recently advocated that preference is based on equicaloric energy it is also important to note whether preferences change as energy content changes. Therefore, sugar preferences of equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit of different sugar types at varying concentrations and molarities were investigated in two relatively large South African frugivores, Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) turacos. Artificial fruits containing 6.6, 12.4 or 22% sucrose or glucose, and artificial fruits containing 0.42, 0.83 or 1.66 mol l(-1) sucrose or glucose, were used to determine sugar preferences. Knysna turacos preferred the sucrose to the glucose equicaloric artificial fruit diet at low concentrations whereas purple-crested turacos showed no preference for either diet. Both turacos species preferred the sucrose equimolar artificial fruit diet to the glucose at low concentrations. At high concentrations neither species showed a preference for either equicaloric or equimolar artificial fruit diets. This suggests that energy requirements influence food preferences more than sugar type and that birds will select fruit that is higher in energy irrespective of sugar type. This complements an earlier study on digestion of differing equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit sugar types. It again emphasizes the need for future studies looking at the composition of indigenous forest fruit sugars in order to obtain insight into the role of these avian frugivores as potential seed dispersers of fruiting tree species.

  15. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. Copyright © 2015

  16. Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance

  17. The influences of purple sweet potato anthocyanin on the growth characteristics of human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocyanins have been proven to be beneficial to the eyes. However, information is scarce about the effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, L. anthocyanin (PSPA, a class of anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato roots, on visual health. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSPA could have influences on the growth characteristics (cellular morphology, survival, and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, which perform essential functions for the visual process. Methods: The RPE cell line D407 was used in the present study. The cytotoxicity of PSPA was assessed by MTT assay. Then, cellular morphology, viability, cell cycle, Ki67expression, and PI3K/MAPK activation of RPE cells treated with PSPA were determined. Results: PSPA exhibited dose-dependent promotion of RPE cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 µg/ml. RPE cells treated with PSPA demonstrated a predominantly polygonal morphology in a mosaic arrangement, and colony-like cells displayed numerous short apical microvilli and typical ultrastructure. PSPA treatment also resulted in a better platform growing status, statistically higher viability, an increase in the S-phase, and more Ki67+ cells. However, neither pAkt nor pERK were detected in either group. Conclusions: We found that PSPA maintained high cell viability, boosted DNA synthesis, and preserved a high percentage of continuously cycling cells to promote cell survival and division without changing cell morphology. This paper lays the foundation for further research about the damage-protective activities of PSPA on RPE cells or human vision.

  18. Extraction Of Bioactive Compounds From Cob And Pericarp Of Purple Corn (zea Mays L.) By Sequential Extraction In Fixed Bed Extractor Using Supercritical Co2, Ethanol, And Water As Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy; Yaneth M.; Rodrigues; Rodney A. F.; Sartoratto; Adilson; Cabral; Fernando A.

    2016-01-01

    Purple corn (Zea mays L.) is traditionally used in Peru in the preparation of desserts and juices. Purple corn cob and kernel extracts have intense color and are rich in anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. Purple corn cob, whole grain, ground grain, and pericarp extracts were obtained by supercritical fluid technology in a fixed bed at 50 degrees C and 400 bar in a sequential extraction process using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as a solvent in the first step, ethanol in a second s...

  19. Deep Overbite Dan Cara Penanggulangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rofiah Nasution

    2008-01-01

    Masalah deep overbite dan seluruh dimensi vertikal harus dipertimbangkan pada setiap perawatan maloklusi. Deep overbite merupakan keadaan pada relasi sentrik di mana terdapat jarak vertikal yang besar antara kedua insisal insisivus rahang atas dan bawah dengan hubungan oklusal posterior yang normal. Berdasarkan etiologi deep overbite dapat dibedakan atas dua bagian besar yaitu deep overbite dentoalveolar (melibatkan gigi dan tulang alveolar) dan deep overbite skeletal (melibatkan gigi, tulang...

  20. Deep Learning from Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Pereira, Francisco Camara

    Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the stateof-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently......, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributors with different levels of expertise. In this paper, we address the problem of learning deep neural...... networks from crowds. We begin by describing an EM algorithm for jointly learning the parameters of the network and the reliabilities of the annotators. Then, a novel general-purpose crowd layer is proposed, which allows us to train deep neural networks end-to-end, directly from the noisy labels...

  1. Holography as deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen-Cong; Shu, Fu-Wen

    Quantum many-body problem with exponentially large degrees of freedom can be reduced to a tractable computational form by neural network method [G. Carleo and M. Troyer, Science 355 (2017) 602, arXiv:1606.02318.] The power of deep neural network (DNN) based on deep learning is clarified by mapping it to renormalization group (RG), which may shed lights on holographic principle by identifying a sequence of RG transformations to the AdS geometry. In this paper, we show that any network which reflects RG process has intrinsic hyperbolic geometry, and discuss the structure of entanglement encoded in the graph of DNN. We find the entanglement structure of DNN is of Ryu-Takayanagi form. Based on these facts, we argue that the emergence of holographic gravitational theory is related to deep learning process of the quantum-field theory.

  2. Deep Dysgraphia in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Raman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep dysgraphic patients make semantic errors when writing to dictation and they cannot write nonwords. Extant reports of deep dysgraphia come from languages with relatively opaque orthographies. Turkish is a transparent orthography because the bidirectional mappings between phonology and orthography are completely predictable. We report BRB, a biscriptal Turkish-English speaker who has acquired dysgraphia characterised by semantic errors as well as effects of grammatical class and imageability on writing in Turkish. Nonword spelling is abolished. A similar pattern of errors is observed in English. BRB is the first report of acquired dysgraphia in a truly transparent writing system. We argue that deep dysgraphia results from damage to the mappings that are common to both languages between word meanings and orthographic representations.

  3. News on Deep Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, John C.; Dearborn, Davis S. P.; Eggleton, Peter P.

    2008-04-01

    We briefly summarize the abundant observational evidence for the need of a ``deep mixing'' mechanism in first-ascent red-giant stars, and probably in AGB stars as well. By the term ``deep mixing'' we mean some mixing mechanism which operates in the radiative zone below the convective envelope, and which transports material from the convective region to hotter regions, near the top of the hydrogen shell, where nuclear burning may take place. We then discuss a recent discovery of deep-mixing caused by the burning of 3He following first dredge-up in low-mass stars. This is expected to be a thermohaline process and preliminary calculations show that it has many of the properties required to explain the observations.

  4. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  5. Deep Learning Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rivenson, Yair; Gorocs, Zoltan; Gunaydin, Harun; Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Hongda; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with rem...

  6. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interaction experiments are renewed. Singlet and non-singlet structure functions are measured and the consistency of the different results is checked. A detailed analysis of the scaling violation is performed in terms of the quantum chromodynamics predictions [fr

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-05

    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  8. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  9. Teaching for Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy Wilson; Colby, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research focused on students' depth of learning as well as teachers' efforts to foster deep learning. Findings from a study examining the teaching practices and student learning outcomes of sixty-four teachers in seventeen different states (Smith et al. 2005) indicated that most of the learning in these classrooms…

  10. Deep Trawl Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Otter trawl (36' Yankee and 4-seam net deepwater gear) catches from mid-Atlantic slope and canyons at 200 - 800 m depth. Deep-sea (200-800 m depth) flat otter trawls...

  11. The deep universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, AR; Longair, MS

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the concept of the deep universe from two conflicting theoretical viewpoints: firstly as a theory embracing the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present; and secondly through observations gleaned over the years on stars, galaxies and clusters.

  12. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OWNER

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized surgical patients. The occurrence of the disease is related to presence of risk factors, which are related primarily to trauma, venous stasis and hyper-coagulability. DVT seems not to be taken seriously ...

  13. Deep Learning Policy Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wolfshaar, Jos; Wiering, Marco; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of actor-critic approach for deep reinforcement learning which is based on learning vector quantization. We replace the softmax operator of the policy with a more general and more flexible operator that is similar to the robust soft learning vector quantization algorithm.

  14. Real-time UV-visible spectroscopy analysis of purple membrane-polyacrylamide film formation taking into account Fano line shapes and scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomariz, María; Blaya, Salvador; Acebal, Pablo; Carretero, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally analyze the formation of thick Purple Membrane (PM) polyacrylamide (PA) films by means of optical spectroscopy by considering the absorption of bacteriorhodopsin and scattering. We have applied semiclassical quantum mechanical techniques for the calculation of absorption spectra by taking into account the Fano effects on the ground state of bacteriorhodopsin. A model of the formation of PM-polyacrylamide films has been proposed based on the growth of polymeric chains around purple membrane. Experimentally, the temporal evolution of the polymerization process of acrylamide has been studied as function of the pH solution, obtaining a good correspondence to the proposed model. Thus, due to the formation of intermediate bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogel, by controlling the polymerization process, an alternative methodology for the synthesis of bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogels can be provided.

  15. Real-time UV-visible spectroscopy analysis of purple membrane-polyacrylamide film formation taking into account Fano line shapes and scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gomariz

    Full Text Available We theoretically and experimentally analyze the formation of thick Purple Membrane (PM polyacrylamide (PA films by means of optical spectroscopy by considering the absorption of bacteriorhodopsin and scattering. We have applied semiclassical quantum mechanical techniques for the calculation of absorption spectra by taking into account the Fano effects on the ground state of bacteriorhodopsin. A model of the formation of PM-polyacrylamide films has been proposed based on the growth of polymeric chains around purple membrane. Experimentally, the temporal evolution of the polymerization process of acrylamide has been studied as function of the pH solution, obtaining a good correspondence to the proposed model. Thus, due to the formation of intermediate bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogel, by controlling the polymerization process, an alternative methodology for the synthesis of bacteriorhodopsin-doped nanogels can be provided.

  16. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses preformed phytase activity in the grain that is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism and in food and feed (Brejnholt S. et al., 2011). Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases, PAPhy (Dionisio G. et al., 2011a). Mature......., Skov L. Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011). The degradation of phytate by microbial and wheat phytases is dependent on the phytate matrix and the phytase origin. J. Sci. Food Agri. (in press). Dionisio G., Madsen C.K., Holm P.B., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M., Stoger E., Arcalis E., Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011a......) Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol. [in press, Jan 10, Epub ahead of print] Dionisio G., Brinch-Pedersen H., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M. (2011b...

  17. Moist and soft, dry and stiff: a review of neutron experiments on hydration-dynamics-activity relations in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccai, G

    2000-08-30

    Twenty-five years of neutron experiments on hydration and thermal dynamics in purple membranes of Halobacterium salinarum are reviewed. Neutron diffraction, elastic and quasielastic scattering, allowed to map the distribution of water and lipids and to measure thermal fluctuations and correlation times in the membranes, under various conditions of temperature, hydration and lipid environment. Strong correlations were established between dynamics parameters and the activity of bacteriorhodopsin (the purple membrane protein), as a light driven proton pump supporting the hypothesis that the influence of hydration on activity is in fact due to its effects on membrane thermal dynamics. Hydrogen-deuterium labelling experiments highlighted stiffer and softer parts in the bacteriorhodopsin structure. The soft parts would allow the conformational changes involved in activity, while the stiffer ones may control a valve-like function in vectorial proton transfer.

  18. Deep Convection in the Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McWilliams, James

    1999-01-01

    ... mechanism of water mass transformation. The resultant newly mixed deep water masses form a component of the thermohaline circulation, and hence it is essential to understand the deep convection process if the variability of the meridional...

  19. A Comparative Analysis Of Woman Physical Abuse In The Novels The Color Purple By Alice Walker And Women At Point Zero By Nawal El-Saadawi

    OpenAIRE

    Syahri, Nur Alfi

    2014-01-01

    Skripsi ini diberi judul “A Comparative Analysis of Woman Physical Abuse in the Novels The Color Purple by Alice Walker and Women at Point Zero by Nawal el-Saadawi” yang menganalisa tentang pelecehan fisik terhadap wanita, yang terkandung dalam 4 unsur, yaitu pelecehan fisik yang dilakukan dalam hubungan keluarga, pelecehan yang dilakukan dalam hubungan pernikahan, pelecehan yang dilakukan dalam hubungan berpacaran, dan pelecehan yang dilakukan dalam hubungan sosial dan politik. Keempat unsur...

  20. Alternative expression of vacuolar iron transporter and ferritin genes leads to blue/purple coloration of flowers in tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Tosiaki

    2010-02-01

    Flowers of tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho' have a purple perianth except for the bottom region, which is blue in color even though it has the same anthocyanin, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, as the entire perianth. The development of the blue coloration in the perianth bottom is due to complexation by anthocyanin, flavonol and iron (Fe), as well as a vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1. Although transient expression of TgVit1 in the purple cells led to a color change to light blue, the coloration of the transformed cells did not coincide with the dark blue color of the cells of the perianth bottom. We thought that another factor is required for the blue coloration of the cells of perianth bottom. To examine the effect of ferritin (FER), an Fe storage protein, on blue color development, we cloned an FER gene (TgFER1) and performed expression analyses. TgFER1 transcripts were found in the cells located in the upper region of the petals along with purple color development by anthocyanin and were not found in the blue cells of the perianth bottom. This gene expression is in contrast to that of TgVit1, expressed only in the cells of the perianth bottom. Co-expression of TgVIT1 and TgFER-RNAi, constructed for suppressing endogenous TgFER1 by RNA interference (RNAi), changed the purple petal cells to a dark blue color similar to that of the natural perianth bottom. These results strongly suggest that TgVit1 expression and TgFER1 suppression are critical for the development of blue color in the perianth bottom.

  1. Bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins from purple root vegetables using mono- and co-culture cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Hassan, Yousef I; Renaud, Justin; Liu, Ronghua; Yang, Cheng; Sun, Yong; Tsao, Rong

    2017-10-01

    Immune-inflammatory signaling and metabolic effects are the main pillars for bioactivity of anthocyanins derived from highly pigmented root vegetables. This study aims to assess the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of purple carrot and potato derived anthocyanins and the molecular mechanisms of their ability to ameliorate cellular inflammation in a mono- and co-culture cell models. An in vitro gastrointestinal model was used and demonstrated bioaccessibility of 44.62 and 71.8% for anthocyanins of purple carrot and potato, respectively. These accessible anthocyanins significantly inhibited cellular inflammation in Caco-2 cells. Intact cyanidinglycoside or petunidinglycoside (respectively from carrots and potatoes) were transported across a transmembrane cell model and detected by LC-MS/MS. Computational docking and glucose uptake analyses suggested uptake of anthocyanins was mediated by hexose transporters. Subsequent experiment using an inflamed Caco-2 BBe1/THP-1 co-culture cell model showed these transported anthocyanins inhibited IL-8 and TNF-α secretion,and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by blocking NF-κB, and MAPK mediated inflammatory cellular signaling cascades, but with varying degrees due to structural features. Anthocyanins from purple carrots and potatoes possess a promising anti-inflammatory effect in model gut system. They can be absorbed and act differently but are in general beneficial for inflammation-mediated diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) and their color modulation by the addition of phenolic acids and food-grade phenolic plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Claudia C; Nemetz, Nicole; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-11-15

    Anthocyanin profiles and contents of three purple sweet potato provenances were investigated by HPLC-DAD-MS n . In contrast to widely uniform profiles, the contents of total (558-2477mg/100gDM) and individual anthocyanins varied widely. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative effects of intermolecular co-pigmentation were studied by adding chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, and food-grade phenolic apple and rosemary extracts at various dosages to a diluted purple sweet potato concentrate at pH 0.9, 2.6, 3.6, and 4.6. Addition of co-pigments generally increased pK H estimate -values of anthocyanins from 3.28 (without co-pigments) to up to 4.71, thus substantially broadening the pH range wherein colored forms prevail. The most pronounced hyperchromic shift by up to +50.5% at the absorption maximum was observed at pH 4.6. Simply by blending the co-pigments with purple sweet potato anthocyanins at pH-values ranging from 2.6 to 4.6, purplish-blue, light pink, magenta, brick-red, and intense red hues were accessible as expressed by CIE-L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ color values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of cadmium stress on the microbial biodiversity in purple soil and alluvial soil potted with a poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ao; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Wang, Xu-Xi; Han, Yu

    2011-07-01

    Effects of current Cd contamination levels on microbial biodiversity were studied under the typical Cd contaminated soils in the Yangtze Basin. Purple soil and alluvial soil potted with a poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) were selected, and the culturable soil microbial amounts by flat method, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure by PCR-DGGE were investigated. Cd supplies significantly increased the culturable amounts of bacteria and actinomyces in purple soil, but decreased the culturable amounts of fungi and the content of microbial biomass N. Fingerprint of DGGE also showed that bacterial community structure have obviously changed under different Cd supplies. In contrast, the lower Cd supplies slightly increased the culturable amounts of bacteria and fungi in alluvial soil, but higher Cd supply treatment decreased the culturable amounts of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the content of microbial biomass N. However, only a slight change was observed under different Cd supplies by DGGE fingerprint. Additionally, there were few effects of Cd supplies on the content of microbial biomass C in both purple soil and alluvial soil. The results provided basic data to understand the effects of present Cd contamination levels on soil microbial characteristics.

  4. Anthocyanin condensed forms do not affect color or chemical stability of purple corn pericarp extracts stored under different pHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego; Li, Qian; West, Leslie; West, Megan; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-10-01

    Purple corn is rich in anthocyanins, some of which are condensed with flavanols. The aim was to determine the impact of anthocyanin condensed forms extracted from purple corn pericarp on color and chemical stability at different pHs compared with the complete extract, and an extract without condensed forms. Extracts were dissolved at pH values ranging from 2.0 to 6.0 and stored for 12weeks at 22°C. Color stability of anthocyanins decreased as the pH increased. Slight color differences were observed throughout time at pH 2 (ΔE from 0.2 to 3.6). After 12weeks, pH 6 caused substantial changes in color (ΔE=17.7 to 47.5); and reduced the predicted half-life of total anthocyanins (ranging from 1.8 to 3weeks), compared to pH 2 (44.6 to 60.7weeks). Condensed forms had degradation kinetics similar to monomeric anthocyanins. Purple corn pericarp pigments can be used in acid beverages with an acceptable shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "The Purple Island" of Phineas Fletcher: allusions to the anatomy of the human body in English poetry up to the end of the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Riddington

    2005-06-01

    The Bible declared that God created man in His own image. The concept that this divine pattern occurred not only in Man (the Microcosm), but was eternally repeated throughout Creation in the Macrocosm (Universe) and the Geocosm (Earth), was the basis of the important Doctrine of Correspondences, in which similarities were sought between man and nature, (e.g. the comparable morphology of a human brain and a walnut). This article outlines the relevance of this concept in early herbal medicine. Contemporary poems describing correspondences to the anatomy of the human body are the examined, in particular The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher. The Reverend Phineas Fletcher (1582 - 1650) was an English metaphysical poet and The Purple Island (1633), his most famous work, was an epic poem describing the anatomy of the human body in allegorical terms. It is compared to an island, with veins and arteries as purple rivers flowing through the chief cities of Liver, Heart and Braine. This has been acknowledged as one of the best and also one of the last great examples of the tradition of poetic correspondence in English literature.

  6. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  7. Deep Energy Retrofit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhivov, Alexander; Lohse, Rüdiger; Rose, Jørgen

    Deep Energy Retrofit – A Guide to Achieving Significant Energy User Reduction with Major Renovation Projects contains recommendations for characteristics of some of core technologies and measures that are based on studies conducted by national teams associated with the International Energy Agency...... Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (IEA-EBC) Annex 61 (Lohse et al. 2016, Case, et al. 2016, Rose et al. 2016, Yao, et al. 2016, Dake 2014, Stankevica et al. 2016, Kiatreungwattana 2014). Results of these studies provided a base for setting minimum requirements to the building...... envelope-related technologies to make Deep Energy Retrofit feasible and, in many situations, cost effective. Use of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in addition to core technologies bundle and high-efficiency appliances will foster further energy use reduction. This Guide also provides best practice...

  8. Deep Learning Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Number of people who participated in n or more events .......................................................... 4 v 1. INTRODUCTION CS231N is a...talked about his work doing predictive analytics on V -22 aircraft for the Comprehensive Automated Maintenance Environment Optimized/Readiness... MOOC Wiki Page.” https://wiki.spawar.navy.mil/ confluence/display/ MOOC /Machine+Learning. Accessed 12 August 2016. 5. Rainey, K. 2016. “Deep Learning

  9. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh

    2018-01-01

    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  10. Deep Discrete Supervised Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Qing-Yuan; Cui, Xue; Li, Wu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Hashing has been widely used for large-scale search due to its low storage cost and fast query speed. By using supervised information, supervised hashing can significantly outperform unsupervised hashing. Recently, discrete supervised hashing and deep hashing are two representative progresses in supervised hashing. On one hand, hashing is essentially a discrete optimization problem. Hence, utilizing supervised information to directly guide discrete (binary) coding procedure can avoid sub-opti...

  11. Deep learning from crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Pereira, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the state-of-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributor...

  12. Deep Mutual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Tao; Hospedales, Timothy M.; Lu, Huchuan

    2017-01-01

    Model distillation is an effective and widely used technique to transfer knowledge from a teacher to a student network. The typical application is to transfer from a powerful large network or ensemble to a small network, that is better suited to low-memory or fast execution requirements. In this paper, we present a deep mutual learning (DML) strategy where, rather than one way transfer between a static pre-defined teacher and a student, an ensemble of students learn collaboratively and teach ...

  13. Deep Visual Attention Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we aim to predict human eye fixation with view-free scenes based on an end-to-end deep learning architecture. Although Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made substantial improvement on human attention prediction, it is still needed to improve CNN based attention models by efficiently leveraging multi-scale features. Our visual attention network is proposed to capture hierarchical saliency information from deep, coarse layers with global saliency information to shallow, fine layers with local saliency response. Our model is based on a skip-layer network structure, which predicts human attention from multiple convolutional layers with various reception fields. Final saliency prediction is achieved via the cooperation of those global and local predictions. Our model is learned in a deep supervision manner, where supervision is directly fed into multi-level layers, instead of previous approaches of providing supervision only at the output layer and propagating this supervision back to earlier layers. Our model thus incorporates multi-level saliency predictions within a single network, which significantly decreases the redundancy of previous approaches of learning multiple network streams with different input scales. Extensive experimental analysis on various challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate our method yields state-of-the-art performance with competitive inference time.

  14. Seasonal and nightly variations of gravity-wave energy density in the middle atmosphere measured by the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Sica

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL is a large power-aperture product monostatic Rayleigh-Raman-Sodium-resonance-fluorescence lidar, which has been in operation at the Delaware Observatory (42.9° N, 81.4° W, 237 m elevation near the campus of The University of Western Ontario since 1992. Kinetic-energy density has been calculated from the Rayleigh-scatter system measurements of density fluctuations at temporal-spatial scales relevant for gravity waves, e.g. soundings at 288 m height resolution and 9 min temporal resolution in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The seasonal averages from 10 years of measurements show in all seasons some loss of gravity-wave energy in the upper stratosphere. During the equinox periods and summer the measurements are consistent with gravity waves growing in height with little saturation, in agreement with the classic picture of the variations in the height at which gravity waves break given by Lindzen (1981. The mean values compare favourably to previous measurements when computed as nightly averages, but the high temporal-spatial resolution measurements show considerable day-to-day variability. The variability over a night is often extremely large, with typical RMS fluctuations of 50 to 100% at all heights and seasons common. These measurements imply that using a daily or nightly-averaged gravity-wave energy density in numerical models may be highly unrealistic.

  15. Characterization of Acylated Anthocyanins in Callus Induced From Storage Root of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato, Ipomoea batatas L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terahara, N.

    2004-01-01

    Four anthocyanins were isolated from a highly pigmented callus induced from the storage root of purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) cultivar Ayamurasaki. The anthocyanins were respectively identified as cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside) -5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-p -coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(E)-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-p -coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)- 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and peonidin 3-O-(2-O-(6-O-(E)-p -coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. These anthocyanins were examined with respect to the stability in neutral aqueous solution as well as the radical scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. These acylated anthocyanins exhibited both higher stability and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than corresponding nonacylated cyanidin and peonidin 3-O-sophoroside-5-O-glucosides. PMID:15577190

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries.

  17. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of "Purple Endosperm Rice" by Engineering Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Endosperm with a High-Efficiency Transgene Stacking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinlong; Yu, Suize; Zeng, Dongchang; Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Huicong; Yang, Zhongfang; Xie, Xianrong; Shen, Rongxin; Tan, Jiantao; Li, Heying; Zhao, Xiucai; Zhang, Qunyu; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-07-05

    Anthocyanins have high antioxidant activities, and engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in staple crops, such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), could provide health-promoting foods for improving human health. However, engineering metabolic pathways for biofortification remains difficult, and previous attempts to engineer anthocyanin production in rice endosperm failed because of the sophisticated genetic regulatory network of its biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency vector system for transgene stacking and used it to engineer anthocyanin biosynthesis in rice endosperm. We made a construct containing eight anthocyanin-related genes (two regulatory genes from maize and six structural genes from Coleus) driven by the endosperm-specific promoters,plus a selectable marker and a gene for marker excision. Transformation of rice with this construct generated a novel biofortified germplasm "Purple Endosperm Rice" (called "Zijingmi" in Chinese), which has high anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity in the endosperm. This anthocyanin production results from expression of the transgenes and the resulting activation (or enhancement) of expression of 13 endogenous anthocyanin biosynthesis genes that are silenced or expressed at low levels in wild-type rice endosperm. This study provides an efficient, versatile toolkit for transgene stacking and demonstrates its use for successful engineering of a sophisticated biological pathway, suggesting the potential utility of this toolkit for synthetic biology and improvement of agronomic traits in plants. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 Properties of Purple Prairie Clover and Sainfoin Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannins (CT from purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent. and sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia were assessed for anti-Escherichia coli activity by comparing their ability to react with proteins and liposome, cause cell aggregation, and alter outer membrane (OM morphology and permeability. The PPC CT had greater (P < 0.01 protein-precipitating capacity than SF CT using either bovine serum albumin or ribulose 1,5-disphosphate carboxylase as model proteins. Minimum inhibitory concentration of PPC CT for two strains of E. coli and five strains of E. coli O157:H7 was four to six times lower than that of SF CT. E. coli exposed to 10 µg/mL of both CT had higher (P < 0.05 OM permeability than controls and was greater (P < 0.05 for PPC than for SF CT. Addition of both CT at 50 and 200 µg/mL caused cell aggregation which was more evident (P < 0.05 for PPC than for SF CT. Transmission electron microscopy showed electron dense material on the cell surface when cells were exposed to 50 µg/mL of PPC CT. The greater anti-E. coli activity of PPC than SF CT was due to its enhanced ability to precipitate protein that increased OM permeability and promoted cell aggregation.

  20. Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 properties of purple prairie clover and sainfoin condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Li; Hao, Yong-Qing; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhong-Jun; McAllister, Tim A; Wang, Yuxi

    2013-02-08

    Condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent.) and sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia) were assessed for anti-Escherichia coli activity by comparing their ability to react with proteins and liposome, cause cell aggregation, and alter outer membrane (OM) morphology and permeability. The PPC CT had greater (P < 0.01) protein-precipitating capacity than SF CT using either bovine serum albumin or ribulose 1,5-disphosphate carboxylase as model proteins. Minimum inhibitory concentration of PPC CT for two strains of E. coli and five strains of E. coli O157:H7 was four to six times lower than that of SF CT. E. coli exposed to 10 µg/mL of both CT had higher (P < 0.05) OM permeability than controls and was greater (P < 0.05) for PPC than for SF CT. Addition of both CT at 50 and 200 µg/mL caused cell aggregation which was more evident (P < 0.05) for PPC than for SF CT. Transmission electron microscopy showed electron dense material on the cell surface when cells were exposed to 50 µg/mL of PPC CT. The greater anti-E. coli activity of PPC than SF CT was due to its enhanced ability to precipitate protein that increased OM permeability and promoted cell aggregation.

  1. Use of membrane technology and resins for the separation and purification of polyphenols purple tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenols fractionation of mesocarp juices, placenta and purple tree tomato peel using the pore size of the membrane as a means of selection was performed using micro and ultrafiltration tangential; tests made with HPLC showed that fractionation of phenolic compounds was not performed. The processes of concentration of the clarified juices of placenta and tree tomato peel by reverse osmosis obtained a volumetric concentration factor of 2 and 2.2 respectively. The polyphenol concentration increased by 1.5 times for placenta and 2.4 times for peel and antioxidant capacity increased by 2.4 times for both juices. The anthocyanins of placenta increased by 2.6 times. The use of the resin XA 5071 FG concentrated phenolic compounds with an increase of antioxidant capacity in a range between 4 and 5.5, and anthocyanins concentration was increased 1.8 times in the placenta juice. In conclusion the process of polyphenols concentration of tree tomato was more efficient using the resin XA 5071 FG than the reverse osmosis applied in this research.

  2. [The influence and mechanisms of purple sweet potato anthocyanins on the growth of bladder cancer BIU87 cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W L; Ji, G H; Zhang, X Z; Yu, H Y

    2018-02-06

    Objective: To observe the effect of purple sweet potato anthocyanins on the proliferation of bladder cancer cell line BIU87 and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Methods: Bladder cancer BIU87 cells were cultured and exposed to anthocyanins at the different concentrations of 100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition of anthocyanins on BIU87 cells were evaluated by morphometry and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and the cell apoptosis rate was detected by Flow cytometry (FCM). Results: Morphometry showed that the number of BIU87 cells decreased, the volume shrank, the intercellular space enlarged, the ability of cell adherence weakened, and the cell shape changed when the concentration of anthocyanins increased. CCK-8 assay showed that when 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/ml anthocyanins treated BIU87 cells for 48 h, the absorbance was 24 ± 0.07, 1.15 ± 0.11, 0.90 ± 0.08, 0.56 ± 0.09, respectively. Compared with the control group, anthocyanins-treated groups significantly inhibited the proliferation of BIU87 cells ( P sweet potato anthocyanins can inhibit the growth of bladder cancer BIU87 cells through inducing cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Hydrogen from food processing wastes via photofermentation using Purple Non-sulfur Bacteria (PNSB) – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Shiladitya; Dairkee, Umme Kulsoom; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Food processing wastes/wastewaters are potential feedstocks for PNSB-bioH 2 systems. • Several bottlenecks exist in efficient usage of food processing wastes/wastewaters by PNSBs. • Pretreatment of feedstocks is a challenging issue. • Genetic modification significantly enhances the H 2 outcome of PNSBs. • Food waste/wastewater - PNSB is a sustainable combination for production of H 2 . - Abstract: Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) mediated production of biohydrogen utilizing solid food waste and food processing wastewater possess enormous potential to be implemented as an ideal “green energy technology”. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art utilization of solid wastes and wastewaters of several food and beverage processing industries in photofermentative H 2 production systems. Detailed accounts of the complex composition of various solid food wastes and food processing wastewaters along with the pretreatments used for enhancement of H 2 production by PNSBs have been presented. Factors like compositional complexity, presence of inhibitory compounds and resistance to light penetration are identified as the prime bottlenecks hindering the efficient utilization of food waste and wastewaters in photofermentative H 2 production. Genetic manipulation of the PNSBs to overcome the inherent metabolic complications has been discussed as a probable amelioration strategy for enhancement of H 2 yield. Based on profound discussions the scopes for upgradation of the photofermentative biohydrogen systems using food waste/wastewater have been highlighted and recommended for the overall enhancement of the sustainability of the processes.

  4. Multifunctional carbon nanotubes/ruthenium purple thin films: preparation, characterization and study of application as sensors and electrochromic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Samantha; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2015-04-07

    This work reports the preparation, characterization and application as both electrochromic materials and electrochemical sensors of novel materials: carbon nanotubes/ruthenium purple nanocomposites. Using an innovative route based on a heterogeneous electrochemical reaction involving iron oxide species encapsulated within the cavities of the carbon nanotubes, the nanocomposite materials were obtained as transparent thin films deposited over transparent electrodes. Several experimental parameters related to the nanocomposite synthesis were evaluated and related to the characteristics of the obtained materials, such as morphology and stability. The films were characterized by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis and Raman spectroelectrochemistry. Four different materials were applied as H2O2 sensors and exhibited impressive analytical parameters, including a limit of detection of 1.27 nmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 39.6 A M(-1) cm(-2). These nanocomposites also showed great electrochromic properties, with high stability and coloration efficiency over 95% maintained during stability cycles.

  5. Neuroprotective and Memory-Enhancing Effect of the Combined Extract of Purple Waxy Corn Cob and Pandan in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sittichai; Jittiwat, Jinatta; Suriharn, Bhalang; Lertrat, Kamol

    2017-01-01

    The neuroprotectant and memory enhancer supplement for menopause is required due to the side effects of hormone replacement therapy. Since purple waxy corn cob and pandan leaves exert antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI) effects, we hypothesized that the combined extract of both plants (PCP) might provide synergistic effect leading to the improved brain damage and memory impairment in experimental menopause. To test this hypothesis, female Wistar rats were ovariectomized bilaterally and orally given various doses of the functional drink at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg for 28 days. The animals were assessed nonspatial memory using object recognition test every 7 days throughout the study period. At the end of study, they were assessed with oxidative stress status, AChEI, neuron density, and ERK1/2 signal in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Interestingly, all doses of PCP increased object recognition memory and neuron density but decreased oxidative stress status in PFC. Low dose of PCP also decreased AChE activity while medium dose of PCP increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in PFC. Therefore, the improved oxidative stress status and cholinergic function together with signal transduction via ERK in PFC might be responsible for the neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects of PCP.

  6. Neuroprotective and Memory-Enhancing Effect of the Combined Extract of Purple Waxy Corn Cob and Pandan in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranan Kirisattayakul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotectant and memory enhancer supplement for menopause is required due to the side effects of hormone replacement therapy. Since purple waxy corn cob and pandan leaves exert antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI effects, we hypothesized that the combined extract of both plants (PCP might provide synergistic effect leading to the improved brain damage and memory impairment in experimental menopause. To test this hypothesis, female Wistar rats were ovariectomized bilaterally and orally given various doses of the functional drink at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg for 28 days. The animals were assessed nonspatial memory using object recognition test every 7 days throughout the study period. At the end of study, they were assessed with oxidative stress status, AChEI, neuron density, and ERK1/2 signal in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Interestingly, all doses of PCP increased object recognition memory and neuron density but decreased oxidative stress status in PFC. Low dose of PCP also decreased AChE activity while medium dose of PCP increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in PFC. Therefore, the improved oxidative stress status and cholinergic function together with signal transduction via ERK in PFC might be responsible for the neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects of PCP.

  7. Presence, distribution and effect of white, pink and purple morphs on pollination in the orchid Orchis mascula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Schatz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How floral polymorphism of flowering plants can be maintained in evolutionary time has long intrigued ecologists and is still debated. In particular, how floral colour polymorphism influences reproductive success is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the case of Orchis mascula, a deceptive orchid species in which the presence of rare white-flowered individuals is known to increase the percentage pollination of co-occurring coloured morphs. In a brief review, we report all the orchid species for which rare colour morphs are recorded and show that colour polymorphism occurs in most orchid genera occurring in France. In this study, more than 20,000 individuals of O. mascula were surveyed and some rare clear pink morphs were recorded. The frequencies of white-flowered and clear pink-flowered individuals were 0.59% and 0.28%, respectively. These two rare-colour flowered individuals were not randomly distributed and restricted to a few populations. In addition, the presence of pink-flowered individuals and the use of experimental pink lures resulted in an increase in the percentage pollination of surrounding purple-flowered individuals, as previously shown for white-flowered individuals and white lures. These new observations favour kin selection as the means by which floral colour polymorphism is maintained in this species. We suggest conducting comparative studies of other species in order to evaluate the importance of this mechanism in orchid pollination and that of other plant families.

  8. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E and γ-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics, and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from six cultivars having different bran colours were investigated. Parboiling rough and brown rice increased the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in whole grain rice but decreased the concentrations of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities found in the soluble fraction. After hydrothermal processing of purple bran rice, the retention of extractable anthocyanins was low, but was high for simple phenolics. For proanthocyanidins found in red bran rice, the extractable oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 4, increased up to 6-fold; while for oligomers with DP⩾4 and polymers, there was a significant decrease that was positively correlated with the DP and the temperature of the processing methods. The presence of hulls helped to retain water-soluble antioxidants during parboiling. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Nonproton ion release by purple membranes exhibits cooperativity as shown by determination of the optical cross-section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, T

    1988-08-01

    The amplitudes of the conductivity transients in photoexcited purple membranes were studied as a function of the energy of the actinic flash to determine the optical cross section of the process giving rise to the conductivity transient. Heating of the solution by the absorbed light causes an additional conductivity change and serves as an internal actinometer; the experiment directly yields the ratio of the cross section of ion release/uptake to that for light absorption. In effect, this counts the number of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) molecules involved in the conductivity transient per photon absorbed. At pH 7 in 0.4-0.5 M NaCl, where the conductivity signals are dominated by nonproton ions, the ratio is between 3 and 4, i.e., excitation of any one of several chromophores generates the same ion release signal. The simplest interpretation is that at pH 7 cooperative conformational changes cause a transient change in the surface charge distribution near all the affected bR molecules, resulting in the transient release of numerous counterions. As a comparison, at pH 4 where the signals are due to protons alone, the cross section data indicate that only a single bR molecule is involved in the proton movements. In this case, the results also show that the sum of the primary forward and reverse quantum yields (for the reactions: bR----K) is 0.88 +/- 0.09.

  10. Large transient nonproton ion movements in purple membrane suspensions are abolished by solubilization in Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, T; Mauzerall, D

    1986-09-01

    Light-induced release/uptake of both protons and other ions cause transient changes in conductivity in suspensions of purple membrane (PM) fragments (Marinetti, Tim, and David Mauzerall, 1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:178-180). We find that the release/uptake of nonproton ions with quantum yield greater than 1 is observed at most pHs and ionic strengths. Only at both low pH and low ionic strength is the conductivity transient mostly due to protons. Our hypothesis is that during the photocycle, changes occur in the PM's dense surface charge distribution that result in changes in the number of counterions bound or condensed at the membrane surface. To test this, the PM structure was perturbed with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Immediately after addition, Triton does not abolish the nonproton ion movements; in fact at low detergent concentrations (0.02% vol/vol) the signal amplitudes increased considerably. However, when PM is completely solubilized into monomers in Triton, the conductivity transients are due to protons alone, though at lower quantum yield compared with native PM. These results suggest that changes in the surface charge distribution in native PM's photocycle could contribute to proton transfer between the aqueous phase and bR itself.

  11. Spectral effects of LEDs on chlorophyll fluorescence and pigmentation in Phalaenopsis ‘Vivien’ and ‘Purple Star’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    , which increased the light absorption in the green/yellow part of the spectrum. The permanent downregulation of PSII moved a substantial part of the thermal dissipation from the light regulated NPQ to non-regulated energy losses estimated by ΦNPQ and ΦNO and the difference found in the balance between......We examined the effect of light emitting diode (LED) lighting in greenhouse facilities on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigmentation in Phalaenopsis 'Vivien' and 'Purple Star' under purpose-built LED arrays yielding c. 200μmolm-2s-1 at plant height for 14h per day and 24/18°Cday....../night temperature, respectively, from January to April 2013. The light treatments were (1) 40% blue in 60% red (40% B/R), (2) 0% blue in 100% red (0% B/R) and (3) white LEDs with 32% blue in white (32% B/W, control), with background daylight under shade screens. The plants were harvested twice for leaf growth...

  12. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome in tissues secreting purple and white nacre in the pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Bai

    Full Text Available The triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea is the most important mussel species used for commercial freshwater pearl production in China. Mussel color is an important indicator of pearl quality. To identify genes involved in the nacre coloring, we conducted RNA-seq and obtained 541,268 sequences (298 bp average size and 440,034 sequences (293 bp average size in secreting purple and white nacre libraries (P- and W-libraries, respectively. The 981,302 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs were assembled into 47,812 contigs and 289,386 singletons. In BLASTP searches of the deduced protein, 22,495 were proteins with functional annotations. Thirty-three genes involved in pearl or shell formation were identified. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 358 differentially expressed genes, and 137 genes in the P-library and 221 genes in the W-library showed significantly higher expression. Furthermore, a set of SSR motifs and SNPs between the two samples was identified from the ESTs, which provided the markers for genetic linkage, QTL analysis and future breeding. These EST sequences provided valuable information to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation, color determination and evolution of the pearl or shell.

  13. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Transcriptome in Tissues Secreting Purple and White Nacre in the Pearl Mussel Hyriopsis cumingii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyun; Wang, Guiling; Li, Jiale

    2013-01-01

    The triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea) is the most important mussel species used for commercial freshwater pearl production in China. Mussel color is an important indicator of pearl quality. To identify genes involved in the nacre coloring, we conducted RNA-seq and obtained 541,268 sequences (298 bp average size) and 440,034 sequences (293 bp average size) in secreting purple and white nacre libraries (P- and W-libraries), respectively. The 981,302 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were assembled into 47,812 contigs and 289,386 singletons. In BLASTP searches of the deduced protein, 22,495 were proteins with functional annotations. Thirty-three genes involved in pearl or shell formation were identified. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 358 differentially expressed genes, and 137 genes in the P-library and 221 genes in the W-library showed significantly higher expression. Furthermore, a set of SSR motifs and SNPs between the two samples was identified from the ESTs, which provided the markers for genetic linkage, QTL analysis and future breeding. These EST sequences provided valuable information to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation, color determination and evolution of the pearl or shell. PMID:23341956

  15. Modeling the eco-physiology of the purple mauve stinger, Pelagia noctiluca using Dynamic Energy Budget theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Starrlight; Rosa, Sara; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Carlotti, François; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    2014-11-01

    Parameters for the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model were estimated for the purple mauve stinger, Pelagia noctiluca, using literature data. Overall, the model predictions are in good agreement with data covering the full life-cycle. The parameter set we obtain suggests that P. noctiluca is well adapted to survive long periods of starvation since the predicted maximum reserve capacity is extremely high. Moreover we predict that the reproductive output of larger individuals is relatively insensitive to changes in food level while wet mass and length are. Furthermore, the parameters imply that even if food were scarce (ingestion levels only 14% of the maximum for a given size) an individual would still mature and be able to reproduce. We present detailed model predictions for embryo development and discuss the developmental energetics of the species such as the fact that the metabolism of ephyrae accelerates for several days after birth. Finally we explore a number of concrete testable model predictions which will help to guide future research. The application of DEB theory to the collected data allowed us to conclude that P. noctiluca combines maximizing allocation to reproduction with rather extreme capabilities to survive starvation. The combination of these properties might explain why P. noctiluca is a rapidly growing concern to fisheries and tourism.

  16. STABILITY OF BETACYANIN PIGMENTS FROM RED PURPLE PITAYA FRUIT (Hylocereus polyrhizus : INFLUENCE OF PH, TEMPERATURE, METAL IONS AND ASCORBIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C.S Tang, C.S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin pigments from red-purple pitaya fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus could be an attractive source of red colourant for food application. This paper presents results on the extraction of betacyanin pigments from pitaya fruits grown locally in Malaysia. Both the flesh of the fruit and its mesocarp were investigated and it was found that the flesh had higher pigment contents compared to its peel component. The concentration of betacyanins expressed as betanin equivalents per 100 g of flesh and peel were 10.1 ± 0.6 mg and 6.7 ± 0.2 mg, respectively when 80% methanol was used.  The stability of betacyanin pigments were investigated at different pH, temperature and in presence of different concentrations of metal ions (Cu2+ and Fe2+ and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the pigment was most stable at pH range between 5 and 6. However, it forfeited its stability to the heat induced at elevated temperatures. Metal ions (Cu2+ and Fe2+ proved to be capable of accelerating betacyanin degradation, with Cu2+ exhibiting the greatest effect. By contrast, supplementation with ascorbic acid could enhance the pigment stability against the detrimental effects caused by pH, temperature and metal ions. Nevertheless, if the concentration of ascorbic acid exceeds 0.7 %, it may change its role from pigment stabilizer to become a pro-oxidant.    Keywords: Betacyanin, pigments, pitaya fruit, Hylocereus polyrhizus, ascorbic acid

  17. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  18. Intelligent pH indicator film composed of agar/potato starch and anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Jun Young; Lacroix, Monique; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-03-01

    A new colorimetric pH indicator film was developed using agar, potato starch, and natural dyes extracted from purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas. Both agar and potato starch are solid matrices used to immobilize natural dyes, anthocyanins. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum of anthocyanin extract solutions and agar/potato starch films with anthocyanins showed color variations to different pH values (pH 2.0-10.0). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis region spectra showed compatibility between agar, starch, and anthocyanin extracts. Color variations of pH indicator films were measured by a colorimeter after immersion in different pH buffers. An application test was conducted for potential use as a meat spoilage sensor. The pH indicator films showed pH changes and spoilage point of pork samples, changing from red to green. Therefore, the developed pH indicator films could be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of food spoilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of Antocyanins Activity from Purple Sweet Potato for Reducing Apoptotic Cells Expression of The Cerebellum On Ischemic Stroke Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Oka Adnyana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine anthocyanin antioxidant performance with a dose of 2 cc/day based on the expression of apoptotic cells on ischemic stroke rats cerebellum. Research was conducted using ischemic stroke rats (Rattus norvegicus that prepared by ligated for 3 h on the Common Carotid Artery (CCA and External Carotid Artery (ECA followed by reperfusion that commonly known as MCAO (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion. The anthocyanin extract was characterized by LC-MS and its IC50 was measured by DPPH method. The rats were divided into five groups 1 negative control; 2 reperfusion 1 h; 3 reperfusion 72 h; 4 reperfusion 24 h, with anthocyanin therapy; 5 reperfusion 72 h, with anthocyanin therapy. The results of LC-MS showed that anthocyanin from purple sweet potato extracts contained Petunidin-3,5-O-diglucoside (Pt-DG with an IC50 value of 22.16 μg/mL, categorized as very strong antioxidant. The results showed that apoptotic cells expression of cerebellum decreased significantly (p<0.01 after 72 h reperfusion with anthocyanins therapy until 2.42%. The current work proved that anthocyanin extract effectively suppresses the apoptotic cell’s expression of the cerebellum on stroke ischemic rats.

  20. Phenolic Composition and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Free and Bound Phenolic Fractions from a Peruvian Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Christopher, Ashish; Sarkar, Dipayan; Shetty, Kalidas; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David

    2017-12-01

    Beneficial effects on overall gut health by phenolic bioactives-rich foods are potentially due to their modulation of probiotic gut bacteria and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Based on this rationale, the effect of the free and bound phenolic fractions from a Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 on probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum and the gastric cancer-related pathogen Helicobacter pylori was evaluated. The free and bound phenolic composition was also determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds (310.04 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dry weight, DW) in the free phenolic fraction along with hydroxycinnamic acids such as p-coumaric acid derivatives, followed by caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives. The bound phenolic form had only hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and a ferulic acid derivative with ferulic acid being the major phenolic compound (156.30 mg/100 g DW). These phenolic compounds were compatible with beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as L. helveticus and B. longum as these bacteria were not inhibited by the free and bound phenolic fractions at 10 to 50 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL of sample doses, respectively. However, the pathogenic H. pylori was also not inhibited by both purple corn phenolic forms at same above sample doses. This study provides the preliminary base for the characterization of phenolic compounds of Peruvian purple corn biodiversity and its potential health benefits relevant to improving human gut health. This study provides insights that Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 can be targeted as a potential source of health-relevant phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins along with hydroxycinnamic acids linked to its dietary fiber fraction. Additionally, these phenolic fractions did not affect the gut health associated beneficial bacteria nor the pathogenic

  1. Romanowsky dyes and Romanowsky-Giemsa effect. 5. Structural investigations of the purple DNA-AB-EY dye complexes of Romanowsky-Giemsa staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K; Seiffert, W; Zimmermann, H W

    1990-01-01

    A reproducible Romanowsky-Giemsa staining (RGS) can be carried out with standardized staining solutions containing the two dyes azure B (AB) and eosin Y (EY). After staining, cell nuclei have a purple coloration generated by DNA-AB-EY complexes. The microspectra of cell nuclei have a sharp and intense absorption band at 18,100 cm-1 (552 nm), the so called Romanowsky band (RB), which is due to the EY chromophore of the dye complexes. Other absorption bands can be assigned to the DNA-bound AB cations. Artificial DNA-AB-EY complexes can be prepared outside the cell by subsequent staining of DNA with AB and EY. In the first step of our staining experiments we prepared thin films of blue DNA-AB complexes on microslides with 1:1 composition: each anionic phosphodiester residue of the nucleic acid was occupied by one AB cation. Microspectrophotometric investigations of the dye preparations demonstrated that, besides monomers and dimers, mainly higher AB aggregates are bound to DNA by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These DNA-AB complexes are insoluble in water. Therefore it was possible to stain the DNA-AB films with aqueous EY solutions and also to prepare insoluble DNA-AB-EY films in the second step of the staining experiments. After the reaction with EY, thin sites within the dye preparations were purple. The microspectra of the purple spots show a strong Romanowsky band at 18,100 cm-1. Using a special technique it was possible to estimate the composition of the purple dye complexes. The ratio of the two dyes was approximately EY:AB approximately 1:3. The EY anions are mainly bound by hydrophobic interaction to the AB framework of the electrical neutral DNA-AB complexes. The EY absorption is red shifted by the interaction of EY with the AB framework of DNA-AB-EY. We suppose that this red shift is caused by a dielectric polarization of the bound EY dianions. The DNA chains in the DNA-AB complexes can mechanically be aligned in a preferred direction k. Highly

  2. Deep Space Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  3. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  4. [Deep mycoses rarely described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, D

    1986-01-01

    Beside deep mycoses very well known: histoplasmosis, candidosis, cryptococcosis, there are other mycoses less frequently described. Some of them are endemic in some countries: South American blastomycosis in Brazil, coccidioidomycosis in California; some others are cosmopolitan and may affect everyone: sporotrichosis, or may affect only immunodeficient persons: mucormycosis. They do not spare Africa, we may encounter basidiobolomycosis, rhinophycomycosis, dermatophytosis, sporotrichosis and, more recently reported, rhinosporidiosis. Important therapeutic progresses have been accomplished with amphotericin B and with antifungus imidazole compounds (miconazole and ketoconazole). Surgical intervention is sometime recommended in chromomycosis and rhinosporidiosis.

  5. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  6. Deep Learning in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Morgan P; Awan, Omer A; Colucci, Andrew T; Ghobadi, Comeron W; Kadom, Nadja; Kansagra, Akash P; Tridandapani, Srini; Auffermann, William F

    2018-03-29

    As radiology is inherently a data-driven specialty, it is especially conducive to utilizing data processing techniques. One such technique, deep learning (DL), has become a remarkably powerful tool for image processing in recent years. In this work, the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on Deep Learning provides an overview of DL for the radiologist. This article aims to present an overview of DL in a manner that is understandable to radiologists; to examine past, present, and future applications; as well as to evaluate how radiologists may benefit from this remarkable new tool. We describe several areas within radiology in which DL techniques are having the most significant impact: lesion or disease detection, classification, quantification, and segmentation. The legal and ethical hurdles to implementation are also discussed. By taking advantage of this powerful tool, radiologists can become increasingly more accurate in their interpretations with fewer errors and spend more time to focus on patient care. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-05-12

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably better resolution, matching the performance of higher numerical aperture lenses, also significantly surpassing their limited field-of-view and depth-of-field. These results are transformative for various fields that use microscopy tools, including e.g., life sciences, where optical microscopy is considered as one of the most widely used and deployed techniques. Beyond such applications, our presented approach is broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, also spanning different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be used to design computational imagers that get better and better as they continue to image specimen and establish new transformations among different modes of imaging.

  8. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene from purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Gong, Yifu; Lu, Xu; Huang, Chengtao; Gao, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H: EC 1.14.13.21) is an important enzyme which determines the hydroxylation pattern of anthocyanins. In this study, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of F3'H were isolated and characterized from the purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). IbF3''H was 1,789 bp containing a 1,554 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatic analysis revealed that IbF3'H was highly homologous with F3'Hs from other plant species. Conserved domain search revealed that IbF3'H was a cytochrome P450 dependent enzyme. Three F3'H-specific motifs (V75VVAAS80, G427GEK430 and V433DVKG437) were conserved in IbF3'H. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IbF3'H was clustered into the same subgroup with the homologues from I. purpurea, I. tricolor and I. nil. There were multiple copies of the IbF3'H gene in the genome of I. batatas. IbF3'H was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues including fibrous roots, thick roots, storage roots, stems and leaves. During storage root formation, IbF3'H was expressed most abundantly in the storage roots, suggesting that the anthocyanin biosynthesis is also active in the under-ground organs. IbF3'H expression was associated with anthocyanin accumulation in five different sweet potato cultivars tested. Complementative analysis implied that the full-length cDNA of IbF3'H could encode a functional protein and had a special catalytic activity of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase.

  10. Fingerprinting and characterization of anthocyanins in 94 colored wheat varieties and blue aleurone and purple pericarp wheat crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Stephanie; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2018-02-23

    Colored wheat varieties and crosses were analyzed to figure out their anthocyanin profiles, and thus, their potential as health-related food. After method development, the obtained 94 anthocyanin fingerprints allowed the clear differentiation of the blue aleurone and purple pericarp genotypes as well as their breeding lines. The method was trimmed so that the complete analysis of the whole grain flour including sample preparation of up to 20 samples on one plate took less than 3 h (<9 min per sample) and total costs including sample preparation were <1.0 Euro/sample. Sample preparation of the complex wheat matrix was reduced to a minimum (only acidified methanol extraction of the ground whole wheat grain). Separation was well achieved on amino phases with a mixture of ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, water and formic acid. It was superior to the separation on either normal or reversed phases and more robust with regard to intrinsic pH variances of the sample extracts. Pattern recognition of anthocyanins was simply performed by visual detection (the image), a key feature of high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Wheat varieties and crosses with higher anthocyanin contents were easily selectable, and thus, successfully made out. Prominent anthocyanin zones were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Their sugar moiety was characterized via methanolysis and compared with the sugars available freely in the whole wheat grain. The developed profiling is a fast and efficient screening tool with option for quantification or identification on the same HPTLC plate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecologically and Geologically Relevant Isotope Signatures of C, N, and S in Okenone Producing Purple Sulfur Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Steele, A.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) cycles are linked in euxinic environments by purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). PSB could be responsible for the isotopic enrichments that have been observed in both fresh and marine anoxic basins. Okenane, the only recognized molecular fossil unique to PSB, is derived from okenone, a carotenoid pigment unique to Chromatiaceae. Since PSB have this exclusive molecular fossil and are fundamental components in the overall ecology of euxinic environments, a comprehensive study was undertaken to assess the C, N, and S metabolisms PSB carryout under precise laboratory conditions. The consequential isotopic fractionations that may be documented in modern environments and geologic record were examined. Autotrophic cultures of Marichromatium purpuratum DSMZ 1591 (Mpurp1591) were observed to have a fractionation between CO2 and biomass (Δ13Cbiomass - CO2), ranging from -16.1 to -37.6‰, dependent on growth stage. This rather large range of CO2 fractionation expands previously reported values for RuBisCO in PSB. Ammonium assimilation, controlled by glutamate dehydrogenase, was shown to have a fractionation (Δ15Nbiomass - NH4) of -15‰ in autotrophic cultures of Mpurp1591 and Thiocapsa marina 5653, documented for the first time in PSB. While it has been previously shown that phototrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria connect sulfur and carbon cycling in euxinic ecosystems, the percentage of elemental sulfur and bulk biomass δ34S values of Mpurp1591 cells were contingent upon their carbon metabolisms. Here we show that the isotopic enrichments of S and N observed in freshwater and marine anoxic basins could be explained by the prevalence of PSB.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the epidermis of the purple quail-like (q-lp) mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dingguo; Tang, Shunming; Shen, Xingjia

    2017-01-01

    A new purple quail-like (q-lp) mutant found from the plain silkworm strain 932VR has pigment dots on the epidermis similar to the pigment mutant quail (q). In addition, q-lp mutant larvae are inactive, consume little and grow slowly, with a high death rate and other developmental abnormalities. Pigmentation of the silkworm epidermis consists of melanin, ommochrome and pteridine. Silkworm development is regulated by ecdysone and juvenile hormone. In this study, we performed RNA-Seq on the epidermis of the q-lp mutant in the 4th instar during molting, with 932VR serving as the control. The results showed 515 differentially expressed genes, of which 234 were upregulated and 281 downregulated in q-lp. BLASTGO analysis indicated that the downregulated genes mainly encode protein-binding proteins, membrane components, oxidation/reduction enzymes, and proteolytic enzymes, whereas the upregulated genes largely encode cuticle structural constituents, membrane components, transport related proteins, and protein-binding proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to verify the accuracy of the RNA-Seq data, focusing on key genes for biosynthesis of the three pigments and chitin as well as genes encoding cuticular proteins and several related nuclear receptors, which are thought to play key roles in the q-lp mutant. We drew three conclusions based on the results: 1) melanin, ommochrome and pteridine pigments are all increased in the q-lp mutant; 2) more cuticle proteins are expressed in q-lp than in 932VR, and the number of upregulated cuticular genes is significantly greater than downregulated genes; 3) the downstream pathway regulated by ecdysone is blocked in the q-lp mutant. Our research findings lay the foundation for further research on the developmental changes responsible for the q-lp mutant. PMID:28414820

  14. Ocean acidification research in the 'post-genomic' era: Roadmaps from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler G; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Pespeni, Melissa H; Chan, Francis; Menge, Bruce A; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Russell, Ann D; Palumbi, Stephen R; Sanford, Eric; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2015-07-01

    Advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology are removing obstacles that historically prevented use of genomics within ocean change biology. As one of the first marine calcifiers to have its genome sequenced, purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) have been the subject of early research exploring genomic responses to ocean acidification, work that points to future experiments and illustrates the value of expanding genomic resources to other marine organisms in this new 'post-genomic' era. This review presents case studies of S. purpuratus demonstrating the ability of genomic experiments to address major knowledge gaps within ocean acidification. Ocean acidification research has focused largely on species vulnerability, and studies exploring mechanistic bases of tolerance toward low pH seawater are comparatively few. Transcriptomic responses to high pCO₂ seawater in a population of urchins already encountering low pH conditions have cast light on traits required for success in future oceans. Secondly, there is relatively little information on whether marine organisms possess the capacity to adapt to oceans progressively decreasing in pH. Genomics offers powerful methods to investigate evolutionary responses to ocean acidification and recent work in S. purpuratus has identified genes under selection in acidified seawater. Finally, relatively few ocean acidification experiments investigate how shifts in seawater pH combine with other environmental factors to influence organism performance. In S. purpuratus, transcriptomics has provided insight into physiological responses of urchins exposed simultaneously to warmer and more acidic seawater. Collectively, these data support that similar breakthroughs will occur as genomic resources are developed for other marine species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the epidermis of the purple quail-like (q-lp) mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingyang; Qiu, Zhiyong; Xia, Dingguo; Tang, Shunming; Shen, Xingjia; Zhao, Qiaoling

    2017-01-01

    A new purple quail-like (q-lp) mutant found from the plain silkworm strain 932VR has pigment dots on the epidermis similar to the pigment mutant quail (q). In addition, q-lp mutant larvae are inactive, consume little and grow slowly, with a high death rate and other developmental abnormalities. Pigmentation of the silkworm epidermis consists of melanin, ommochrome and pteridine. Silkworm development is regulated by ecdysone and juvenile hormone. In this study, we performed RNA-Seq on the epidermis of the q-lp mutant in the 4th instar during molting, with 932VR serving as the control. The results showed 515 differentially expressed genes, of which 234 were upregulated and 281 downregulated in q-lp. BLASTGO analysis indicated that the downregulated genes mainly encode protein-binding proteins, membrane components, oxidation/reduction enzymes, and proteolytic enzymes, whereas the upregulated genes largely encode cuticle structural constituents, membrane components, transport related proteins, and protein-binding proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to verify the accuracy of the RNA-Seq data, focusing on key genes for biosynthesis of the three pigments and chitin as well as genes encoding cuticular proteins and several related nuclear receptors, which are thought to play key roles in the q-lp mutant. We drew three conclusions based on the results: 1) melanin, ommochrome and pteridine pigments are all increased in the q-lp mutant; 2) more cuticle proteins are expressed in q-lp than in 932VR, and the number of upregulated cuticular genes is significantly greater than downregulated genes; 3) the downstream pathway regulated by ecdysone is blocked in the q-lp mutant. Our research findings lay the foundation for further research on the developmental changes responsible for the q-lp mutant.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize, and Rice[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K.; Holm, Preben B.; Welinder, Karen G.; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains. PMID:21220762

  17. Enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins gene in purple-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Seyeon; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important root crop that produces low molecular weight antioxidants such as carotenoids and anthocyanin. The sweetpotato orange (IbOr) protein is involved in the accumulation of carotenoids. To increase the levels of carotenoids in the storage roots of sweetpotato, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbOr-Ins under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in an anthocyanin-rich purple-fleshed cultivar (referred to as IbOr plants). IbOr plants exhibited increased carotenoid levels (up to 7-fold) in their storage roots compared to wild type (WT) plants, as revealed by HPLC analysis. The carotenoid contents of IbOr plants were positively correlated with IbOr transcript levels. The levels of zeaxanthin were ∼ 12 times elevated in IbOr plants, whereas β-carotene increased ∼ 1.75 times higher than those of WT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that most carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes were up-regulated in the IbOr plants, including PDS, ZDS, LCY-β, CHY-β, ZEP and Pftf, whereas LCY-ɛ was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCD1, CCD4 and NCED, which are related to the degradation of carotenoids, were also up-regulated in the IbOr plants. Anthocyanin contents and transcription levels of associated biosynthetic genes seemed to be altered in the IbOr plants. The yields of storage roots and aerial parts of IbOr plants and WT plants were not significantly different under field cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that overexpression of IbOr-Ins can increase the carotenoid contents of sweetpotato storage roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in purple sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus) following an intracoelomic injection or extended immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Justin F; Haulena, Martin; Phillips, Brianne E; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A; Lahner, Lesanna L; Papich, Mark G

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine population pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in purple sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus) administered an intracoelomic injection of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) or immersed in an enrofloxacin solution (5 mg/L) for 6 hours. ANIMALS 28 sea stars of undetermined age and sex. PROCEDURES The study had 2 phases. Twelve sea stars received an intracoelomic injection of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) or were immersed in an enrofloxacin solution (5 mg/L) for 6 hours during the injection and immersion phases, respectively. Two untreated sea stars were housed with the treated animals following enrofloxacin administration during both phases. Water vascular system fluid samples were collected from 4 sea stars and all controls at predetermined times during and after enrofloxacin administration. The enrofloxacin concentration in those samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. For each phase, noncompartmental analysis of naïve averaged pooled samples was used to obtain initial parameter estimates; then, population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed that accounted for the sparse sampling technique used. RESULTS Injection phase data were best fit with a 2-compartment model; elimination half-life, peak concentration, area under the curve, and volume of distribution were 42.8 hours, 18.9 μg/mL, 353.8 μg•h/mL, and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. Immersion phase data were best fit with a 1-compartment model; elimination half-life, peak concentration, and area under the curve were 56 hours, 36.3 μg•h/mL, and 0.39 μg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the described enrofloxacin administration resulted in water vascular system fluid drug concentrations expected to exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for many bacterial pathogens.

  19. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxi

    2017-01-01

    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  20. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  1. Deep learning for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  2. Deep inelastic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental situation of the deep inelastic scattering for electrons (muons) is reviewed. A brief history of experimentation highlights Mohr and Nicoll's 1932 experiment on electron-atom scattering and Hofstadter's 1950 experiment on electron-nucleus scattering. The phenomenology of electron-nucleon scattering carried out between 1960 and 1970 is described, with emphasis on the parton model, and scaling. Experiments at SLAC and FNAL since 1974 exhibit scaling violations. Three muon-nucleon scattering experiments at BFP, BCDMA, and EMA, currently producing new results in the high Q 2 domain suggest a rather flat behaviour of the structure function at fixed x as a function of Q 2 . It is seen that the structure measured in DIS can then be projected into a pure hadronic process to predict a cross section. Protonneutron difference, moment analysis, and Drell-Yan pairs are also considered

  3. Deep 6-DOF Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Mathieu; Lalonde, Jean-Francois

    2017-11-01

    We present a temporal 6-DOF tracking method which leverages deep learning to achieve state-of-the-art performance on challenging datasets of real world capture. Our method is both more accurate and more robust to occlusions than the existing best performing approaches while maintaining real-time performance. To assess its efficacy, we evaluate our approach on several challenging RGBD sequences of real objects in a variety of conditions. Notably, we systematically evaluate robustness to occlusions through a series of sequences where the object to be tracked is increasingly occluded. Finally, our approach is purely data-driven and does not require any hand-designed features: robust tracking is automatically learned from data.

  4. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  5. From Serendipity to Rational Design: Tuning the Blue Trigonal Bipyramidal Mn3+ Chromophore to Violet and Purple through Application of Chemical Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Lorger, Simon; Stalick, Judith K; Sleight, Arthur W; Subramanian, M A

    2016-10-03

    We recently reported that an allowed d-d transition of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) Mn 3+ is responsible for the bright blue color in the YIn 1-x Mn x O 3 solid solution. The crystal field splitting between a'(d z 2 ) and e'(d x 2 -y 2 , d xy ) energy levels is very sensitive to the apical Mn-O distance. We therefore applied chemical pressure to compress the apical Mn-O distance in YIn 1-x Mn x O 3 , move the allowed d-d transition to higher energy, and thereby tune the color from blue to violet/purple. This was accomplished by substituting smaller cations such as Ti 4+ /Zn 2+ and Al 3+ onto the TBP In/Mn site, which yielded novel violet/purple phases. The general formula is YIn 1-x-2y-z Mn x Ti y Zn y Al z O 3 (x = 0.005-0.2, y = 0.1-0.4, and z ≤ 0.1), where the color darkens with the increasing amount of Mn. Higher y or small additions of Al provide a more reddish hue to the resulting purple colors. Substituting other rare earth cations for Y has little impact on color. Crystal structure analysis by neutron powder diffraction confirms a shorter apical Mn-O distance compared with that in the blue YIn 1-x Mn x O 3 . Magnetic susceptibility measurements verify the 3+ oxidation state for Mn. Diffuse reflection spectra were obtained over the wavelength region 200-2500 nm. All samples show excellent near-infrared reflectance comparable to that of commercial TiO 2 , making them ideal for cool pigment applications such as energy efficient roofs of buildings and cars where reducing solar heat to save energy is desired. In a comparison with commercial purple pigments, such as Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , our pigments are much more thermally stable and chemically inert, and are neither toxic nor carcinogenic.

  6. Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Phenolic Compounds Profile and Its Assessment as an Agent Against Oxidative Stress in Isolated Mouse Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited

  7. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel; Yáñez, Jaime A

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited considerable in vitro

  8. Generation of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betacyanins in thermally treated purified fruit extract from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) monitored by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2005-08-24

    Pigments of purple pitaya [Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C. Weber) Britton and Rose] fruits were submitted to extraction and were decarboxylated during heating experiments in acidified ethanolic and aqueous solutions. Groups of betacyanins with different decarboxylation levels were identified in the heating products by LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS. The main decarboxylation products were 2-decarboxy-betacyanins, 17-decarboxy-betacyanins, and 2,17-bidecarboxy-betacyanins. The structures of other compounds were assigned to 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-betacyanins and 14,15-dehydrogenated derivatives (neo-derivatives) of all decarboxylated betacyanins found.

  9. Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins and coenzyme-Q10 ameliorate post treatment reactive encephalopathy associated with cerebral human African trypanosomiasis in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Khalid; Wachira, Francis N; Nyariki, James N; Isaac, Alfred O

    2014-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a tropical disease caused by two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, the East African variant T. b. rhodesiense and the West African variant T. b. gambiense. Melarsoprol, an organic arsenical, is the only drug used to treat late stage T. b. rhodesiense infection. Unfortunately, this drug induces an extremely severe post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE) in up to 10% of treated patients, half of whom die from this complication. A highly reproducible mouse model was adapted to assess the use of Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins and/or coenzyme-Q10 in blocking the occurrence of PTRE. Female Swiss white mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with approximately 10(4) trypanosome isolate T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537 and treated sub-curatively 21days post infection with 5mg/kg diminazene aceturate (DA) daily for 3days to induce severe late CNS infection that closely mirrors PTRE in human subjects. Thereafter mice were monitored for relapse of parasitemia after which they were treated with melarsoprol at a dosage of 3.6mg/kg body weight for 4days and sacrificed 24h post the last dosage to obtain brain samples. Brain sections from mice with PTRE that did not receive any antioxidant treatment showed a more marked presence of inflammatory cells, microglial activation and disruption of the brain parenchyma when compared to PTRE mice supplemented with either coenzyme-Q10, purple tea anthocyanins or a combination of the two. The mice group that was treated with coenzyme-Q10 or purple tea anthocyanins had higher levels of GSH and aconitase-1 in the brain compared to untreated groups, implying a boost in brain antioxidant capacity. Overall, coenzyme-Q10 treatment produced more beneficial effects compared to anthocyanin treatment. These findings demonstrate that therapeutic intervention with coenzyme-Q10 and/or purple tea anthocyanins can be used in an experimental mouse model to ameliorate PTRE associated with cerebral HAT. Copyright

  10. Deep Ecology: Beyond Mere Environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the principles of deep ecology, a movement that questions the societal values that have resulted in damage to the earth's life-supporting biosphere. In contrast to shallow reform, deep ecology encourages individuals to examine their values and relationship to nature to address the environmental crisis. (LP)

  11. Context and Deep Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Tom; Ravenscroft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual clarification is essential if we are to establish a stable and deep discipline of technology enhanced learning. The technology is alluring; this can distract from deep design in a surface rush to exploit the affordances of the new technology. We need a basis for design, and a conceptual unit of organization, that are applicable across…

  12. Using Bromocresol Purple to Determine Fecal Coliforms with the Most Probable Number Technique; Utilizacion de purpura de bromocresol para la determinacion de coliformes fecales con la tecnica del numero mas probable (NMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Mendez Novelo, R.

    2003-07-01

    The object of this piece of research was to determine the reliability of using bromocresol purple as an indicator for determining fecal coliforms by means of the most probable number (MPN) technique using multiple tubes and comparing the results obtained in this way with those obtained using the traditional technique of the formation of carbon dioxide in a Durham tube. Twelve samples of different types of water were analysed using sets of nine tubes, one with a Durham tube and another with the addition of bromocresol purple. In the former case, a reaction was jadged as positive (indicating the presence of coliforms) if CO{sub 2} was formed in the Durham tube. In the latter case, the reaction was considered as positive if a change in colour-from purple to yellow-of the culture medium was observed. A statistical analysis was performed to determine the significant differences in the sensitivity and specificity of both methods. (Author)

  13. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004 [1]. Keywords: Purple rice, Red rice, Black rice, Proanthocyanidins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Rice bran

  14. The Capodimonte Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    A Window towards the Distant Universe Summary The Osservatorio Astronomico Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) is a multi-colour imaging survey project that is opening a new window towards the distant universe. It is conducted with the ESO Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel advanced camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). As a pilot project at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (OAC) [1], the OACDF aims at providing a large photometric database for deep extragalactic studies, with important by-products for galactic and planetary research. Moreover, it also serves to gather experience in the proper and efficient handling of very large data sets, preparing for the arrival of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) with the 1 x 1 degree 2 OmegaCam facility. PR Photo 15a/01 : Colour composite of the OACDF2 field . PR Photo 15b/01 : Interacting galaxies in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15c/01 : Spiral galaxy and nebulous object in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15d/01 : A galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15e/01 : Another galaxy cluster in the OACDF2 field. PR Photo 15f/01 : An elliptical galaxy in the OACDF2 field. The Capodimonte Deep Field ESO PR Photo 15a/01 ESO PR Photo 15a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 426 pix - 73k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 851 pix - 736k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3190 pix - 7.3M] Caption : This three-colour image of about 1/4 of the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF) was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the la Silla Observatory. It covers "OACDF Subfield no. 2 (OACDF2)" with an area of about 35 x 32 arcmin 2 (about the size of the full moon), and it is one of the "deepest" wide-field images ever obtained. Technical information about this photo is available below. With the comparatively few large telescopes available in the world, it is not possible to study the Universe to its outmost limits in all directions. Instead, astronomers try to obtain the most detailed

  15. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ES KRIM SUSU KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWA [The Influence of Purple Sweet Potato Increment og Organoleptic Characteristic of Goat Milk Ice Cream of Etawa Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is perishable foodstuffs and has  low shelf life. One way to preserve it is process goat milk into ice cream. This is usefulforreducingthe damagenutritiongoat milk. Purple sweet potatoes which contain some anthosianin can be added to inprove the texture. However, the amount of purple sweet potato  added will affect the texture and body of icecream.  Therfore this research is needed. This research was purposed to find concentration of purple sweet potato that will produce the best ice cream especially on organoleptic characteristic. The experiment was arranged in  Latin Square design in single factor that consist of 5 levels  concentrations of purple sweet potato paste. There were 0% (reference, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (b/b with 5 replications. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance . furtehre tested using the HSD Test in 5% level of signiificance. The The results showed that addition of  30%  sweet potato paste produced the best quality of goat milk ice cream of Etawa . The score of aroma was 3,5 (not specific goat milk, the taste’s score was 3,47 (sweet, color’s score was 2,8 (rather purple, texture’s score was 3,5 (soft, and the overall  of acceptance was 3,203 (rather like. This ice cream contained water, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, and total carbohidrate as amuch as 66,98%, protein was 5,5%, 11,86%, 1,34%, 0,3% and 14,2%. Keyword : goat milk, ice cream, purple sweet potato

  16. Deep Learning the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiwangi; Bard, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is an effective tool to map the structure of matter in the universe, and has been used for more than ten years as a probe of the nature of dark energy. Beyond the well-established two-point summary statistics, attention is now turning to methods that use the full statistical information available in the lensing observables, through analysis of the reconstructed shear field. This offers an opportunity to take advantage of powerful deep learning methods for image analysis. We present two early studies that demonstrate that deep learning can be used to characterise features in weak lensing convergence maps, and to identify the underlying cosmological model that produced them.We developed an unsupervised Denoising Convolutional Autoencoder model in order to learn an abstract representation directly from our data. This model uses a convolution-deconvolution architecture, which is fed with input data (corrupted with binomial noise to prevent over-fitting). Our model effectively trains itself to minimize the mean-squared error between the input and the output using gradient descent, resulting in a model which, theoretically, is broad enough to tackle other similarly structured problems. Using this model we were able to successfully reconstruct simulated convergence maps and identify the structures in them. We also determined which structures had the highest “importance” - i.e. which structures were most typical of the data. We note that the structures that had the highest importance in our reconstruction were around high mass concentrations, but were highly non-Gaussian.We also developed a supervised Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for classification of weak lensing convergence maps from two different simulated theoretical models. The CNN uses a softmax classifier which minimizes a binary cross-entropy loss between the estimated distribution and true distribution. In other words, given an unseen convergence map the trained CNN determines

  17. Rabbit dietary supplementation with pale purple coneflower. 1. Effects on the reproductive performance and immune parameters of does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, S; Rotolo, L; Kovitvadhi, A; Bergagna, S; Dezzutto, D; Barbero, R; Rubiolo, P; Schiavone, A; De Marco, M; Helal, A N; Zoccarato, I; Gasco, L

    2016-07-01

    Echinacea pallida (EPAL), also known as pale purple coneflower, is a herbaceous flowering plant with immune-enhancement and antioxidative properties. The effect of EPAL on the reproductive performance, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters of rabbit does has been studied here. A total of 100, 21-week-old Grimaud rabbit does, were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E), while the other was fed the basal diet without the supplementation (control group, C). The reproductive performance of the does was not affected by the treatment (P>0.05). The haematological parameters of pregnant rabbits showed that there was no interaction between gestation day and treatment. The EPAL supplementation induced a reduction (-47.3%) in the basophil cell rate (0.55% and 0.29%, for the control and treatment groups, respectively; P=0.049). The gestation day significantly affected most of the haematological parameters (P<0.05). The white blood cell counts declined progressively after day 14. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and eosinophils increased steadily throughout the study, and reached a maximum value on day 28. The red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and neutrophils increased slightly up to day 14, and then subsequently decreased progressively until day 28. The lymphocytes and platelet distribution width decreased until day 14, and then increased to a maximum value on day 28. No significant effect of gestation day or treatment was observed on the blood serum chemistry. As far as the immune parameters are concerned, no significant differences were observed between groups, while a significant effect of gestation day was observed for lysozymes (6.02 v. 7.99 v. 1.91; for 0, 14 and 28 days, respectively; P=0.014). In conclusion, a lack of effect of EPAL has been observed

  18. Deep video deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-11-25

    Motion blur from camera shake is a major problem in videos captured by hand-held devices. Unlike single-image deblurring, video-based approaches can take advantage of the abundant information that exists across neighboring frames. As a result the best performing methods rely on aligning nearby frames. However, aligning images is a computationally expensive and fragile procedure, and methods that aggregate information must therefore be able to identify which regions have been accurately aligned and which have not, a task which requires high level scene understanding. In this work, we introduce a deep learning solution to video deblurring, where a CNN is trained end-to-end to learn how to accumulate information across frames. To train this network, we collected a dataset of real videos recorded with a high framerate camera, which we use to generate synthetic motion blur for supervision. We show that the features learned from this dataset extend to deblurring motion blur that arises due to camera shake in a wide range of videos, and compare the quality of results to a number of other baselines.

  19. Operation Deep Sweep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Fifty scientists and a crew of 18 have embarked on a 64,000 km odyssey to explore the Pacific from pole to pole—the most ambitious program in the history of the marine geology branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Called Operation Deep Sweep, the 1-year cruise will search areas above the Arctic Circle, off of Alaska, to McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. The 63-m, 1,300-tonne research vessel Samuel P. Lee sailed from its home port of Redwood City, Calif., to San Francisco to begin the first leg of the lengthy journey.According to USGS officials and the cosponsoring Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the cruise will ultimately involve 150 scientists, some of them representing Germany, France, Australia, and New Zealand. David Howell, branch chief of Pacific Marine Geology for the USGS, said the voyage of the Lee was “the most far reaching and of the longest duration” ever attempted by his unit. He said the cruise would string together a large number of scientific experiments spanning the Pacific. Howell likened the voyage to the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803-1806 (which explored Louisiana and the western United States) because “we're going into unknown territory and into regions not studied except in the most cursory manner.”

  20. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  1. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  2. Evaluation of structure and bioprotective activity of key high molecular weight acylated anthocyanin compounds isolated from the purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No.8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chun-Li; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Zi-Wei; Wang, Rui-Dan; Zhang, Jiu-Liang

    2018-02-15

    In order to figure out the key acylated anthocyanin compounds accounting for the bioprotective activity of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), ODS packing column, semi-preparative HPLC method, activity evaluation assays, and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) assays were employed. Additionally, our study revealed that the structures of two acylated monomeric anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside and peonidin 3-dicaffeoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside were found to have the strongest bioprotective activity, which was identified to be closely related with the ortho-dihydroxybenzene structure, suggesting the more the special structures of catechol moieties, such as caffeoyl and cyanidin, the stronger the bioprotective activity will be. Besides, the aglycon of cyanidin had higher antioxidant capacity than the peonidin, and the acylated residues strengthened the capacity which followed the order of caffeoyl>feruloyl>p-hydroxybenzoyl. These results will lay the groundwork for further researching the structure-activity relationships of acylated monomeric anthocyanins from purple sweet potato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  4. Protection of color and chemical degradation of anthocyanin from purple corn (Zea mays L.) by zinc ions and alginate through chemical interaction in a beverage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego; Cortez, Regina; Ongkowijoyo, Paulina; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Anthocyanin-rich purple corn pericarp water extract (PCW) has the potential to be used as a natural pigment in beverages. However, it has a limited shelf-life in aqueous solutions. The aim was to evaluate the effect of zinc ion (Zn 2+ ) and alginate on color and chemical stability of anthocyanins from colored corn (PCW) in a beverage model for 12weeks. PCW was incorporated to Kool-Aid® Invisible™ along with ZnCl 2 and/or alginate. Individual ANC were quantified through HPLC, and color stability was evaluated through the CIE-L*a*b* color system. Complexation between PCW and Zn/alginate was evaluated with fluorescence spectroscopy. The combination of Zn and alginate was the most effective treatment improving the half-life of total ANC concentration (10.4weeks), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (7.5weeks) and chroma (18.4weeks), compared to only PCW (6.6, 4.5 and 12.7weeks, respectively). Zn and alginate had bimolecular quenching constants (Zn k q : 3.4×10 11 M -1 S -1 and AA k q : 1.0×10 12 M -1 S -1 ) suggesting that fluorescence quenching was binding rather than collisional. Results suggested that Zn/alginate interacted with ANC from purple corn slowing its chemical degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purple spot damage dynamics investigated by an integrated approach on a 1244 A.D. parchment roll from the Secret Vatican Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Luciana; Thaller, Maria Cristina; Vendittozzi, Giulia; Mejia, Astrid Yazmine; Mercuri, Fulvio; Orlanducci, Silvia; Rubechini, Alessandro

    2017-09-07

    Ancient parchments are commonly attacked by microbes, producing purple spots and detachment of the superficial layer. Neither standard cultivation nor molecular methods (DGGE) solved the issue: causative agents and colonization model are still unknown. To identify the putative causal agents, we describe the 16 S rRNA gene analysis (454-pyrosequencing) of the microbial communities colonizing a damaged parchment roll dated 1244 A.D. (A.A. Arm. I-XVIII 3328, Vatican Secret Archives). The taxa in damaged or undamaged areas of the same document were different. In the purple spots, marine halotolerant Gammaproteobacteria, mainly Vibrio, were found; these microorganisms are rare or absent in the undamaged areas. Ubiquitous and environmental microorganisms were observed in samples from both damaged and undamaged areas. Pseudonocardiales were the most common, representing the main colonizers of undamaged areas. We hypothesize a successional model of biodeterioration, based on metagenomic data and spectroscopic analysis of pigments, which help to relate the damage to a microbial agent. Furthermore, a new method (Light Transmitted Analysis) was utilized to evaluate the kind and entity of the damage to native collagen. These data give a significant advance to the knowledge in the field and open new perspectives to remediation activity on a huge amount of ancient document.

  6. Bioaccumulation of Stentorin, the Probable Causative Agent for Discolored ("Purple") Eggs and Ovaries in Blue Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from Eufaula Lake, Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W; Papoulias, Diana M; Schmitt, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    Observations of reddish to "purple" discolored eggs in the ovaries of adult female blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) from the northern arm of Eufaula Lake, a eutrophic multiuse impoundment in east-central Oklahoma, were first reported in 2006. Blue catfish eggs are normally cream to light yellow. Reports peaked in 2007-2008 and declined through 2009-2010; purple eggs have not been reported between 2010 and 2014. In the laboratory, all tissues and fluids of affected fish were strongly orange-red fluorescent under UV illumination, with the fluorescence most apparent in the lipid-rich ovaries and eggs. The causative agent was isolated chromatographically and confirmed by mass spectrometry as stentorin (1,3,4,6,8,10,11,13-octahydroxy-2,5-diisopropyl-phenanthro[1,10,9,8,o,p,q,r,a]perylene-7,14-dione), the fluorescent, lipophilic pigment associated with the photoreceptor protein of the ciliated protozoan Stentor coeruleus (Heterotrichea; Stentoridae). Larval medaka (Orizias latipes) readily consumed S. coeruleus in the laboratory and were observed to fluoresce in the same manner as the affected blue catfish. Potential deleterious effects of stentorin bioaccumulation remain to be determined, as do the geographic extent and the identities of other fluorescent compounds isolated from catfish eggs and ovaries.

  7. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L. leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRA C. PEDRO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  8. An Uncommon Plant Growth Regulator, Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate, Is Highly Effective in Tissue Cultures of the Important Medicinal Plant Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of various concentrations of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6 on the regeneration and growth of adventitious buds in in vitro purple coneflower cultures. Among the 3 types of explants tested, leaf explants required higher concentrations of DA-6 than petiole and root explants in order to obtain high regeneration rates, while root explants required the lowest concentration of DA-6. Additionally, explants with higher ploidy levels were more sensitive to the addition of DA-6, while explants with lower ploidy levels required higher concentrations of DA-6 to achieve its maximal regeneration rate. Interestingly, the application of a concentration that was conducive to the regeneration of explants with lower ploidy levels was inhibitory to the regeneration of explants with higher ploidy levels. Moreover, during the growth of regenerated buds, DA-6 application significantly improved plant height and weight, root weight, root thickness, root number, primary root length, total root length, and root/top ratio. Differences in the responses of explants to supplementation with DA-6 were also observed among explants with different ploidy levels, with buds having lower ploidy levels responding to lower concentrations of DA-6. Taken together, the results of the present experiments showed that proper application of DA-6 could increase in vitro culture efficiency in purple coneflower.

  9. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  10. Deep learning for computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Garrett B; Hodas, Nathan O; Vishnu, Abhinav

    2017-06-15

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties that distinguish them from traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including quantitative structure activity relationship, virtual screening, protein structure prediction, quantum chemistry, materials design, and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non-neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network-based models often exceeded the "glass ceiling" expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a valuable tool for computational chemistry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Deep learning for computational chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Garrett B. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Hodas, Nathan O. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Vishnu, Abhinav [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354

    2017-03-08

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both the fields of computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on “deep” neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning the computer science domain, notably in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties as compared to traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including QSAR, virtual screening, protein structure modeling, QM calculations, materials synthesis and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network based models often exceeded the “glass ceiling” expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a useful tool and may grow into a pivotal role for various challenges in the computational chemistry field.

  12. Deep learning applications in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ehsan

    2018-05-01

    To describe the emerging applications of deep learning in ophthalmology. Recent studies have shown that various deep learning models are capable of detecting and diagnosing various diseases afflicting the posterior segment of the eye with high accuracy. Most of the initial studies have centered around detection of referable diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Deep learning has shown promising results in automated image analysis of fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography images. Additional testing and research is required to clinically validate this technology.

  13. Distributed Deep Q-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Hao Yi; Chavez, Kevin; Hong, Augustus

    2015-01-01

    We propose a distributed deep learning model to successfully learn control policies directly from high-dimensional sensory input using reinforcement learning. The model is based on the deep Q-network, a convolutional neural network trained with a variant of Q-learning. Its input is raw pixels and its output is a value function estimating future rewards from taking an action given a system state. To distribute the deep Q-network training, we adapt the DistBelief software framework to the conte...

  14. Deep-sea genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Desbruyere, D; Arnaud-haond, Sophie; Fabri, Marie-claire; Guezennec, Jean; Querellou, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Two third of our Planet are covered by oceans more than 3,000m deep (~ 307 millions km2) and the mean depth of the sea is approximately 3,800m. The volume of the deep ocean (aphotic) is about 1,280 Millions of km3 while the volume of terrestrial ecosystems is only 125 Millions of km3. Therefore, the deep-sea ecosystem is by far the largest complex biome on the Earth. However, it suffers from a general disinterest of the public and decision makers due to its remoteness and inaccessibility. Edw...

  15. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » All Disorders Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page What research is being done? The ...

  16. Woe patient is purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Dogan

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Traumatic asphyxia is a clinical condition caused by blunt thoracoabdominal trauma, and with good trauma management patients can be discharged with less mortality and morbidity. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 914-917

  17. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  18. Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GCD Program funded Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Project is targeting at least 10x higher instantaneous downlink data-rate while utilizing the...

  19. Telepresence for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incorporating telepresence technologies into deep space mission operations can give the crew and ground personnel the impression that they are in a location at time...

  20. Weakly Supervised Deep Detection Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bilen, Hakan; Vedaldi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Weakly supervised learning of object detection is an important problem in image understanding that still does not have a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we address this problem by exploiting the power of deep convolutional neural networks pre-trained on large-scale image-level classification tasks. We propose a weakly supervised deep detection architecture that modifies one such network to operate at the level of image regions, performing simultaneously region selection and classificati...

  1. Deep Learning and Bayesian Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper Harrison B.

    2017-01-01

    A revolution is underway in which deep neural networks are routinely used to solve diffcult problems such as face recognition and natural language understanding. Particle physicists have taken notice and have started to deploy these methods, achieving results that suggest a potentially significant shift in how data might be analyzed in the not too distant future. We discuss a few recent developments in the application of deep neural networks and then indulge in speculation about how such meth...

  2. Deep space infections of neck

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluskar, S.; Bajaj, P.; Bane, P.

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989–1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig’s angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the ne...

  3. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  4. Variations in Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Re-Vegetation of Hilly Slopes with Purple Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dongsheng; Yang, Manyuan; Lin, Zhonggui

    2016-01-01

    Crust restoration is increasingly being done but we lack quantitative information on soil improvements. The study aimed to elucidate the dynamics involving soil microbial biomass carbon and soil dissolved organic carbon in the re-vegetation chronosequences of a hillslope land with purple soil in Hengyang, Hunan Province. The soil can cause serious disasters with both soil erosion and seasonal drought, and also becomes a typical representative of ecological disaster area in South China. Using the space-for-time method, we selected six typical sampling plots, designated as follows: grassplot community, meadow thicket community, frutex community, frutex and arbor community, arbor community, and top-level vegetation community. These plots were established to analyze the changes in soil microbial biomass carbon, soil microbial quotien, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon/soil organic carbon, and soil basal respiration in 0–10, 10–20, and 20–40 cm soil layers. The relationships of these parameters with soils physic-chemical properties were also determined. The ecological environment of the 6 plant communities is similar and typical; they denoted six different successive stages of restoration on hillslopes with purple soils in Hengyang, Hunan Province. The soil microbial biomass carbon and soil basal respiration contents decreased with increasing soil depth but increased with re-vegetation. By contrast, soil microbial quotient increased with increasing soil depth and re-vegetation. From 0–10 cm soil layer to 20–40 cm soil layer, the dissolved organic carbon content decreased in different re-vegetation stages. In the process of re-vegetation, the dissolved organic carbon content increased in the 0–10 and 10–20 cm soil layers, whereas the dissolved organic carbon content decreased after an initial increase in the 20–40 cm soil layers. Meanwhile, dissolved organic carbon/soil organic carbon increased with increasing soil depth but decreased

  5. Hybrid deep drawing tool for lubricant free deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleaume, Christina; Mousavi, Ali; Brosius, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a concept for a hybrid deep drawing tool based on polymer concrete and first results from actual deep drawing tests using a prototype of the newly developed tool. The hybrid tool presented here has a defined macro-structure of the blankholder and drawing die as implemented before by Brosius et al. [1] in a steel tool for a lubricant free deep drawing process. The macro structure has a positive effect on the lubrication free deep drawing process, because it reduces the contact surface, increases the sheet's stability against wrinkling in the flange, reduces the necessary blank holder force and thereby the contact pressure, and offers a means to control the material flow [1]. The main objective in transferring this concept to a new hybrid tool from polymer concrete is an enhanced possibility to easily integrate other functional elements like temperature and pressure sensors, graphite inlays or roller bearings into the drawing die or blankholder. Since polymer concrete is cast in a cold exothermal process of no more than 60° Celsius, these elements are not subjected to high thermal loads and their positioning is relatively simple and precise. Polymer concrete moreover has good mechanical properties regarding compressive strength [2] and Young's modulus [3] and is therefore well suited for a deep drawing tool application.

  6. FORT UNION DEEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  7. FORT UNION DEEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  8. What Really is Deep Learning Doing?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Chuyu

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has achieved a great success in many areas, from computer vision to natural language processing, to game playing, and much more. Yet, what deep learning is really doing is still an open question. There are a lot of works in this direction. For example, [5] tried to explain deep learning by group renormalization, and [6] tried to explain deep learning from the view of functional approximation. In order to address this very crucial question, here we see deep learning from perspect...

  9. Effects of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8) on the serum uric acid level and xanthine oxidase activity in hyperuricemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Cheng; Su, Guan-Hua; Luo, Chun-Li; Pang, Ya-Lu; Wang, Lin; Li, Xing; Wen, Jia-Hao; Zhang, Jiu-Liang

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the hypouricemic effect of the anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE). In vitro, APSPE has been proved to significantly inhibit XO activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, APSPE could not only inhibit the XO activity in mouse liver, but also reduce the serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic mice and affect the expression of mRNA levels of related renal transporters, such as mURAT1, mGLUT9, mOAT1 and mOCTN2. Moreover, APSPE could effectively regulate BUN and Cr levels to normal and decrease the inflammatory cellular influx in the tubule of the hyperuricemic mice. This study indicates the potential clinical utility of APSPE as a safe and effective anti-hyperuricemia bioactive agent or functional food.

  10. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A. Yu., E-mail: borissov@belozersky.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute of Physicochemical Biology (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural 'antenna' complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  11. Baltikinin: A New Myotropic Tryptophyllin-3 Peptide Isolated from the Skin Secretion of the Purple-Sided Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa baltea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daning Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the identification of a novel tryptophyllin-3 peptide with arterial smooth muscle relaxation activity from the skin secretion of the purple-sided leaf frog, Phyllomedusa baltea. This new peptide was named baltikinin and had the following primary structure, pGluDKPFGPPPIYPV, as determined by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS fragmentation sequencing and from cloned skin precursor-encoding cDNA. A synthetic replicate of baltikinin was found to have a similar potency to bradykinin in relaxing arterial smooth muscle (half maximal effective concentration (EC50 is 7.2 nM. These data illustrate how amphibian skin secretions can continue to provide novel potent peptides that act through functional targets in mammalian tissues.

  12. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics, mass transport characteristics, and structural changes during air-drying of purple yam (Dioscorea Alata L.) at different process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Comaling, Leif Anthony B.; Lao, Iya Ray Alyanna M.; Caparanga, Alvin R.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    This experiment was designed to follow the 2k factorial design to study the effects of the three drying parameters on the drying characteristics and effective moisture diffusivity and to fit each run performed on the best thin-layer drying kinetics model. Raw purple yam samples were pre-treated and undergone the designed drying procedures at which the weight of the samples were recorded every minute until such time that the sample weights become constant. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is utilized for qualitative analysis of the dried samples. The number of pores per unit area and the overall aesthetics of the surface of the dried samples were compared also using SEM. Considering the qualitative analysis conducted on the samples from the images of SEM, dried samples from run 2 has the most desirable conditions such as high temperature and low air velocity for drying because the samples from this run have large pore diameters with minimal cell breakages.

  14. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  15. A Root-Preferential DFR-Like Gene Encoding Dihydrokaempferol Reductase Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xiang, Min; Fan, Yufang; Yang, Chunxian; Zeng, Lingjiang; Zhang, Qitang; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato is good for health due to rich anthocyanins in tubers. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well understood in up-ground organs of plants, the knowledge on anthocyanin biosynthesis in underground tubers is limited. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a root-preferential gene encoding dihydrokaempferol reductase (IbDHKR) from purple-fleshed sweet potato. IbDHKR showed highly similarity with the reported dihydroflavonol reductases in other plant species at the sequence levels and the NADPH-binding motif and the substrate-binding domain were also found in IbDHKR. The tissue profile showed that IbDHKR was expressed in all the tested organs, but with much higher level in tuber roots. The expression level of IbDHKR was consistent with the anthocyanin content in sweet potato organs, suggesting that tuber roots were the main organs to synthesize anthocyanins. The recombinant 44 kD IbDHKR was purified and fed by three different dihydroflavonol substrates including dihydrokaempferol (DHK), dihydroquerctin, and dihydromyrecetin. The substrate feeding assay indicated that only DHK could be accepted as substrate by IbDHKR, which was reduced to leucopelargonidin confirmed by LC-MS. Finally, IbDHKR was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. The IbDHKR-overexpression tobacco corolla was more highly pigmented and contained higher level of anthocyanins than the wild-type tobacco corolla. In summary, IbDHKR was a root-preferential gene involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and its encoding protein, specifically catalyzing DHK reduction to yield leucopelargonidin, was a candidate gene for engineering anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:28293252

  16. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

  17. A Root-Preferential DFR-Like Gene Encoding Dihydrokaempferol Reductase Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xiang, Min; Fan, Yufang; Yang, Chunxian; Zeng, Lingjiang; Zhang, Qitang; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato is good for health due to rich anthocyanins in tubers. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well understood in up-ground organs of plants, the knowledge on anthocyanin biosynthesis in underground tubers is limited. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a root-preferential gene encoding dihydrokaempferol reductase ( IbDHKR ) from purple-fleshed sweet potato. IbDHKR showed highly similarity with the reported dihydroflavonol reductases in other plant species at the sequence levels and the NADPH-binding motif and the substrate-binding domain were also found in IbDHKR. The tissue profile showed that IbDHKR was expressed in all the tested organs, but with much higher level in tuber roots. The expression level of IbDHKR was consistent with the anthocyanin content in sweet potato organs, suggesting that tuber roots were the main organs to synthesize anthocyanins. The recombinant 44 kD IbDHKR was purified and fed by three different dihydroflavonol substrates including dihydrokaempferol (DHK), dihydroquerctin, and dihydromyrecetin. The substrate feeding assay indicated that only DHK could be accepted as substrate by IbDHKR, which was reduced to leucopelargonidin confirmed by LC-MS. Finally, IbDHKR was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. The IbDHKR-overexpression tobacco corolla was more highly pigmented and contained higher level of anthocyanins than the wild-type tobacco corolla. In summary, IbDHKR was a root-preferential gene involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and its encoding protein, specifically catalyzing DHK reduction to yield leucopelargonidin, was a candidate gene for engineering anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  18. Analysis of risk factors in elderly patients with purple urine bag syndrome: A retrospective analysis in a medical center in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Chun Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS, an uncommon phenomenon that turns urine tubes or bags purple or blue, can be encountered in long-term-care facilities. A thorough literature review shows that East Asia has a high incidence of PUBS. It is important to recognize the clinical features and risk factors of this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of patients with PUBS and correlate the onset of PUBS symptoms with risk factors. Materials and Methods: We reported nine cases of clinically confirmed PUBS between January 2009 and June 2013. Pertinent clinical information was collected, including age, feeding type, renal function, type of Foley catheter, urine analysis, and bacteriological data. Results: All of patients with PUBS presented with stable vital signs without evidence of clinical infection, such as fever or chills. The mean age of the patients was 86.6 ± 10.1 years, with a preponderance of females (77%. Five PUBS patients (55% had a history of chronic renal insufficiency. Six patients (66% had constipation. A logistic regression univariate analysis demonstrated a statistically significant urine pH in patients with PUBS [odds ratio (OR, 3.078; P = 0.036]. Risk factors, such as gender, were found to be significant using logistic regression multivariate analysis (OR, 0.031; P = 0.021. During the follow-up, all of the patients had Foley catheters re-inserted, and all of the patients received health education. Conclusion: The incidence of PUBS in the elderly population is associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, urine pH, and gender but not renal function, type of feeding, or type of Foley catheter used. To understand PUBS and maintain urological hygiene, it is important to educate families and health care workers about PUBS and to recognize that PUBS is not regarded as a symptom of severe disease.

  19. Effect of Slope, Rainfall Intensity and Mulch on Erosion and Infiltration under Simulated Rain on Purple Soil of South-Western Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple soil is widely distributed in the hilly areas of the Sichuan basin, southwest China, and is highly susceptible to water erosion. The triggering of this process is related to slope, rainfall intensity and surface cover. Therefore, this study assesses the effects of different simulated rainfall intensities with different slopes on hydrological and erosional processes in un-mulched and mulched purple soils. Results show that the sediment and water losses increased with an increase of rainfall intensity and slope steepness. Generally, the slope contribution (Sc on water and sediment losses decreased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness under both un-mulched and mulched soil. In un-mulched conditions, water losses were independent of slope steepness (Sc < 50% during the highest rainfall intensity. However, in mulched soil, the higher contributions of slope (Sc and rainfall (Rc were found for water and sediment losses, respectively, i.e., >50%, except during the increase in slope steepness from 15° to 25° under the highest rainfall intensity (120 mm·h−1. The effectiveness of mulch was more pronounced in reducing sediment losses (81%–100% compared with water losses (14%–100%. The conservation effectiveness of mulch both decreased and increased with slope steepness for water and sediment losses, respectively, under higher rainfall intensities. Water infiltration and recharge coefficient (RC decreased with an increase of slope steepness, while with an increase in rainfall intensity, the water infiltration and RC were increased and decreased, respectively, in both un-mulched and mulched soil. On the other hand, mulched soil maintained a significantly (α = 0.05 higher infiltration capacity and RC compared to that of the un-mulched soil.

  20. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Deep Learning and Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper Harrison B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A revolution is underway in which deep neural networks are routinely used to solve diffcult problems such as face recognition and natural language understanding. Particle physicists have taken notice and have started to deploy these methods, achieving results that suggest a potentially significant shift in how data might be analyzed in the not too distant future. We discuss a few recent developments in the application of deep neural networks and then indulge in speculation about how such methods might be used to automate certain aspects of data analysis in particle physics. Next, the connection to Bayesian methods is discussed and the paper ends with thoughts on a significant practical issue, namely, how, from a Bayesian perspective, one might optimize the construction of deep neural networks.

  2. Accounting for Organic Carbon Change in Deep Soil Altered Carbon Sequestration Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Liang, F.; Xu, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Study on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration under fertilization practices in croplands lacks information of soil C change at depth lower than plow layer (i.e. 20 30-cm). By synthesizing long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in four typical Chinese croplands representing black soil at Gongzhuling(GZL), aquatic Chao soil at Zhengzhou(ZZ), red soil at Qiyang(QY) and purple soil at Chongqing(CQ) city, we calculated changes in SOC storage relative to initial condition (ΔSOC) in 0-20cm and 0-60cm, organic C inputs (OC) from the stubble, roots and manure amendment, and C sequestration efficiency (CSE: the ratio of ΔSOC over OC) in 0-20cm and 0-60cm. The fertilization treatments include cropping with no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed SOC storage generally decreased with soil depth (i.e. 0-20 > 20-40, 40-60 cm) and increased with fertilizations (i.e. initial 20cm) can act as important soil carbon sinks in intrinsically high fertility soils (i.e. black soil) but less likely at poor fertility soil (i.e. aquatic Chao soil). It thus informs the need to account for C change in deep soils for estimating soil C sequestration capacity particularly with indigenously fertile cropland soils.

  3. Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Armstrong, David; Ganguli, Malika; Roopra, Sandeep; Kantipudi, Neha; Albashir, Siwar; Kamath, Markad V

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly. However, as in other areas of clinical medicine, such as histopathology and radiology, many studies have documented marked interobserver and intraobserver variability in lesion recognition. Thus, there is a clear need and opportunity for techniques or methodologies that will enhance the quality of lesion recognition and diagnosis and improve the outcomes of GI endoscopy. Deep learning models provide a basis to make better clinical decisions in medical image analysis. Biomedical image segmentation, classification, and registration can be improved with deep learning. Recent evidence suggests that the application of deep learning methods to medical image analysis can contribute significantly to computer-aided diagnosis. Deep learning models are usually considered to be more flexible and provide reliable solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. The use of fast computers offers the possibility of real-time support that is important for endoscopic diagnosis, which has to be made in real time. Advanced graphics processing units and cloud computing have also favored the use of machine learning, and more particularly, deep learning for patient care. This paper reviews the rapidly evolving literature on the feasibility of applying deep learning algorithms to endoscopic imaging.

  4. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  5. Deep Learning and Music Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An adversary is an agent designed to make a classification system perform in some particular way, e.g., increase the probability of a false negative. Recent work builds adversaries for deep learning systems applied to image object recognition, exploiting the parameters of the system to find...... the minimal perturbation of the input image such that the system misclassifies it with high confidence. We adapt this approach to construct and deploy an adversary of deep learning systems applied to music content analysis. In our case, however, the system inputs are magnitude spectral frames, which require...

  6. Deep space infections of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S; Bajaj, P; Bane, P

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989-1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig's angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the neck is discussed to gether with bacteriology, antibiotic treatment and surgical management.

  7. Deep learning? What deep learning? | Fourie | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research is, therefore, to discuss the extent to which a South African Higher Education institute promotes and develops a deep approach to learning in its undergraduates, and to describe any changes in students' approaches to learning as they progress through their studies. (South African Journal of ...

  8. DeepSimulator: a deep simulator for Nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu

    2017-12-23

    Motivation: Oxford Nanopore sequencing is a rapidly developed sequencing technology in recent years. To keep pace with the explosion of the downstream data analytical tools, a versatile Nanopore sequencing simulator is needed to complement the experimental data as well as to benchmark those newly developed tools. However, all the currently available simulators are based on simple statistics of the produced reads, which have difficulty in capturing the complex nature of the Nanopore sequencing procedure, the main task of which is the generation of raw electrical current signals. Results: Here we propose a deep learning based simulator, DeepSimulator, to mimic the entire pipeline of Nanopore sequencing. Starting from a given reference genome or assembled contigs, we simulate the electrical current signals by a context-dependent deep learning model, followed by a base-calling procedure to yield simulated reads. This workflow mimics the sequencing procedure more naturally. The thorough experiments performed across four species show that the signals generated by our context-dependent model are more similar to the experimentally obtained signals than the ones generated by the official context-independent pore model. In terms of the simulated reads, we provide a parameter interface to users so that they can obtain the reads with different accuracies ranging from 83% to 97%. The reads generated by the default parameter have almost the same properties as the real data. Two case studies demonstrate the application of DeepSimulator to benefit the development of tools in de novo assembly and in low coverage SNP detection. Availability: The software can be accessed freely at: https://github.com/lykaust15/DeepSimulator.

  9. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  10. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  11. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  12. Electrochemical Machining Removes Deep Obstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is effective way of removing obstructing material between two deep holes supposed to intersect but do not because of misalignment of drilling tools. ECM makes it possible to rework costly castings otherwise scrapped. Method fast even for tough or hard alloys and complicated three-dimensional shapes.

  13. Digging Deeper: The Deep Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the Deep Web, defined as Web content in searchable databases of the type that can be found only by direct query. Discusses the problems of indexing; inability to find information not indexed in the search engine's database; and metasearch engines. Describes 10 sites created to access online databases or directly search them. Lists ways…

  14. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  15. Deep-Sky Video Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A guide to using modern integrating video cameras for deep-sky viewing and imaging with the kinds of modest telescopes available commercially to amateur astronomers. It includes an introduction and a brief history of the technology and camera types. It examines the pros and cons of this unrefrigerated yet highly efficient technology

  16. Distributed Episodic Exploratory Planning (DEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    38 Figure 16: Chromosome representation for the DEEP-StarCraft GA ......................................................... 39 Figure 17...air mission planning and execution environment. The JAGUAR case base contains historical executed plans and objectives, along with the anomalies ... anomalies detected during execution of the underlying models, and plan message data (e.g., world state, monitored events), that was collected during the

  17. Deep Space Gateway "Recycler" Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L.; Fries, M.; Hamilton, J.; Landis, R.; John, K.; O'Hara, W.

    2018-02-01

    Use of the Deep Space Gateway provides a hub for a reusable planetary sample return vehicle for missions to gather star dust as well as samples from various parts of the solar system including main belt asteroids, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars moon.

  18. Associative Learning Should Go Deep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón, Esther; Alonso, Eduardo; Kokkola, Niklas

    2017-11-01

    Conditioning, how animals learn to associate two or more events, is one of the most influential paradigms in learning theory. It is nevertheless unclear how current models of associative learning can accommodate complex phenomena without ad hoc representational assumptions. We propose to embrace deep neural networks to negotiate this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  20. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  1. Deep Web and Dark Web: Deep World of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Emine

    2018-01-01

    The Internet is undoubtedly still a revolutionary breakthrough in the history of humanity. Many people use the internet for communication, social media, shopping, political and social agenda, and more. Deep Web and Dark Web concepts not only handled by computer, software engineers but also handled by social siciensists because of the role of internet for the States in international arenas, public institutions and human life. By the moving point that very importantrole of internet for social s...

  2. Deep Neuromuscular Blockade Improves Laparoscopic Surgical Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Herring, W Joseph; Blobner, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic cholecys...

  3. Hot and sour in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, Christopher L.

    2017-12-01

    Stable layering in the ocean limits the rate that human-derived carbon dioxide can acidify the deep ocean. Now observations show that ocean warming, however, can enhance deep-ocean acidification through increased organic matter decomposition.

  4. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor. PMID:26828495

  5. DeepSurveyCam--A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-28

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  6. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kwasnitschka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor, and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS. The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  7. Deep Neuromuscular Blockade Improves Laparoscopic Surgical Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Herring, W Joseph; Blobner, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic cholecys......INTRODUCTION: Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic...

  8. Genetic Algorithms for Evolving Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    David, Eli; Greental, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, deep learning methods applying unsupervised learning to train deep layers of neural networks have achieved remarkable results in numerous fields. In the past, many genetic algorithms based methods have been successfully applied to training neural networks. In this paper, we extend previous work and propose a GA-assisted method for deep learning. Our experimental results indicate that this GA-assisted approach improves the performance of a deep autoencoder, producing a sparser...

  9. Deep Learning for Sentiment Analysis : A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Deep learning has emerged as a powerful machine learning technique that learns multiple layers of representations or features of the data and produces state-of-the-art prediction results. Along with the success of deep learning in many other application domains, deep learning is also popularly used in sentiment analysis in recent years. This paper first gives an overview of deep learning and then provides a comprehensive survey of its current applications in sentiment analysis.

  10. PENGARUH PENGOLAHAN PANAS TERHADAP KONSENTRASI ANTOSIANIN MONOMERIK UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L (Efect of Heat Processing on Monomeric Anthocyanin of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mahmudatussa'adah

    2015-09-01

    content in PSP during heat processing of flakes. The other purpose of this reseach was to observe the order kinetics model of effect temperature and time baking on total anthocyanin monomeric of fresh PSP and rehydration PSP flakes. The experimental applied a completely randomized design with three replications. The color and amount of anthocyanin (L * = 23.38 ± 0.71, C = 9.84 ± 0.98, Hue = 12.25 ± 1.61. Total monomeric anthocyanin in fresh PSP was 1.45 ± 0.00 mg cyanidin equivalent (CyE/g dry basis (db. In general, the color and the amount of PSP anthocyanin changed during the flakes processing. Steamed PSP for 7 minutes turned its color into a bright purple (L * = 25.88 ± 0.47, C = 24.64 ± 0.25, Hue = 348.83 ± 0.33 with the amount of monomeric anthocyanin increased to 3.76 ± 0.01 CyE mg/g db. Flakes PSP was very bright purple (L * = 36.12 ± 0.11, C = 9.97 ± 0.18, Hue = 359.29 ± 0.31 and the amount of monomericanthocyanin was slightly lower than that of steamed sweet potato (3.19 ± 0.12 mg CyE / g db. Total monomeric anthocyanin of fresh PSP and rehydration flakes PSP decrease during baking time. Keywords: Color, anthocyanin, purple sweet potato, flakes, degradation kinetics   ABSTRAK Antosianin merupakan salah satu kelompok zat warna alami yang terdapat pada tanaman, seperti daun, bunga, umbi, buah atau sayur. Salah satu sumber antosianin pada tanaman adalah ubi jalar ungu (UJU yang mengandung lebih dari 98% antosianin terasilasi dari konsentrasi antosianin umbi. Warna antosianin bervariasi mulai dari merah, ungu, biru, sampai kuning. Warna dan konsentrasi antosianin dapat berubah karena pengaruh panas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari perubahan warna dan konsentrasi antosianin monomerik sebagai akibat proses pengolahan dalam pembuatan  UJU. Penelitian ini mengkaji juga mengenai model kinetika reaksi pengaruh suhu dan waktu panggang terhadap konsentrasi antosianin UJU segar dan  rehidrasi. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap

  11. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight) of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004) [1].

  12. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with

  13. TOPIC MODELING: CLUSTERING OF DEEP WEBPAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Muhunthaadithya C; Rohit J.V; Sadhana Kesavan; E. Sivasankar

    2015-01-01

    The internet is comprised of massive amount of information in the form of zillions of web pages.This information can be categorized into the surface web and the deep web. The existing search engines can effectively make use of surface web information.But the deep web remains unexploited yet. Machine learning techniques have been commonly employed to access deep web content.

  14. Is Multitask Deep Learning Practical for Pharma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsundar, Bharath; Liu, Bowen; Wu, Zhenqin; Verras, Andreas; Tudor, Matthew; Sheridan, Robert P; Pande, Vijay

    2017-08-28

    Multitask deep learning has emerged as a powerful tool for computational drug discovery. However, despite a number of preliminary studies, multitask deep networks have yet to be widely deployed in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. This lack of acceptance stems from both software difficulties and lack of understanding of the robustness of multitask deep networks. Our work aims to resolve both of these barriers to adoption. We introduce a high-quality open-source implementation of multitask deep networks as part of the DeepChem open-source platform. Our implementation enables simple python scripts to construct, fit, and evaluate sophisticated deep models. We use our implementation to analyze the performance of multitask deep networks and related deep models on four collections of pharmaceutical data (three of which have not previously been analyzed in the literature). We split these data sets into train/valid/test using time and neighbor splits to test multitask deep learning performance under challenging conditions. Our results demonstrate that multitask deep networks are surprisingly robust and can offer strong improvement over random forests. Our analysis and open-source implementation in DeepChem provide an argument that multitask deep networks are ready for widespread use in commercial drug discovery.

  15. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition......'s attempt to "wave the Danish flag". The expedition was the first scientific expedition to have on board a separate press section communicating its scientific results as well as Danish nationality to the wider public. In this poster, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench are placed within this context...

  16. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  17. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  18. DeepFlavour in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Flavour-tagging of jets is an important task in collider based high energy physics and a field where machine learning tools are applied by all major experiments. A new tagger (DeepFlavour) was developed and commissioned in CMS that is based on an advanced machine learning procedure. A deep neural network is used to do multi-classification of jets that origin from a b-quark, two b-quarks, a c-quark, two c-quarks or light colored particles (u, d, s-quark or gluon). The performance was measured in both, data and simulation. The talk will also include the measured performance of all taggers in CMS. The different taggers and results will be discussed and compared with some focus on details of the newest tagger.

  19. Deep Learning for ECG Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakillya, B.; Kazachenko, N.; Mikhailovsky, N.

    2017-10-01

    The importance of ECG classification is very high now due to many current medical applications where this problem can be stated. Currently, there are many machine learning (ML) solutions which can be used for analyzing and classifying ECG data. However, the main disadvantages of these ML results is use of heuristic hand-crafted or engineered features with shallow feature learning architectures. The problem relies in the possibility not to find most appropriate features which will give high classification accuracy in this ECG problem. One of the proposing solution is to use deep learning architectures where first layers of convolutional neurons behave as feature extractors and in the end some fully-connected (FCN) layers are used for making final decision about ECG classes. In this work the deep learning architecture with 1D convolutional layers and FCN layers for ECG classification is presented and some classification results are showed.

  20. Habit Formation: Deep and Uncertain

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Choudhary; Young-Bae Kim

    2007-01-01

    We extend the Ravn, Schmitt-Grohe and Uribe (Review of Economic Studies, 2006) model of external deep-habits with the idea that some product varieties are more prone to habit formation than others. This s uncertainty in habit formation which affects firm's pricing. Provided that uncertainty is strong, a profound implication is that role of market frictions, such as habit formation, and its consequences for the dynamic variations in the markups can be reversed.

  1. Pictures, Images and Deep Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the support provided by multimodal children’s literature in the development of literacy. The focus is on reading in a second language and the negotiation of understanding due to information gaps in the narrative, and on reading pleasure due to sensory anchoring through pictures. The development of deep reading is differentiated from the acquisition of functional literacy skills. Further, the differentiation between the medium-embeddedness of pictures and the perceptual-tr...

  2. Extraction of natural colorant from purple sweet potato and dyeing of fabrics with silver nanoparticles for augmented antibacterial activity against skin pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Kim, Jae-In; Kim, Kangmin; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chang, Woo-Suk; Park, Yool-Jin; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to extract natural colorant from purple sweet potato powder (PSPP) via a water bath and ultrasound water bath using acidified ethanol (A. EtOH) as the extraction solvent. When optimizing the colorant extraction conditions of the solvents, acidified ethanol with ultrasound yielded a high extraction capacity and color intensity at pH2, temperature of 80°C, 20mL of A. EtOH, 1.5g of PSPP, time of 45min, and ultrasonic output power of 75W. Subsequently, the colorant was extracted using the optimized conditions for dyeing of textiles (leather, silk, and cotton). This natural colorant extraction technique can avoid serious environmental pollution during the extraction and is an alternative to synthetic dyes, using less solvent and simplified abstraction procedures. The extracted purple sweet potato natural colorant (PSPC) was used to dye leather, silk, and cotton fabrics in an eco-friendly approach with augmented antibacterial activity by in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and dyeing. The optimal dyeing conditions for higher color strength (K/S) values were pH2 and 70°C for 45min. The colorimetric parameters L ∗ , a ∗ , b ∗ , C, and H were measured to determine the depth of the color. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of undyed control, dyed with PSPC and dyed with blend of PSPC and AgNPs treated leather, silk and cotton fabric were investigated to study the interaction among fiber type, nanoparticles, and dye. The structural morphology of leather and silk and cotton fabrics and the anchoring of AgNPs with elemental compositions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dry and wet rubbing fastness for dye alone and dye with nanoparticles were grade 4-5 and 4, respectively. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that in situ synthesis of AgNPs along with dyeing should be considered in the development of

  3. Effect of Zinc Sulfate and Ascorbic Acid on some Morpho-Physiological Traits of Echinacea purpurea (Purple coneflower under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farahvash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the response of some morpho-physiological traits of Echinacea purpurea to thr application of zinc sulfate and ascorbic acid under water deficit, an experiment was carried out in split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011-12. Experimental factors consisted of water stress as the main factor with three levels (irrigation after70mm evaporation, irrigation after120mm evaporation and irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan, Secondary factor consisted of: application of microelement with two levels (control and application of zinc sulfate 0.005 concentration and ascorbic acid with four levels (not application, application of 50 mg/l of ascorbic acid, application of 100 mg/l of ascorbic acid and application of 150 mg/l of ascorbic acid. The results showed that the effect of water deficit on purple coneflower caused significant differences in diameter of stem, number of flowering branch, stomata density, zinc concentration of aerial parts plant, fresh weight, relative water content of leaf, LAI, proline concentration, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Comparison of means for water deficits between the different levels of drought stress showed that the maximum LAI, with 2.85, belonged to control. Comparison of means for interaction effects between drought stress and application of zinc sulfate revealed that the maximum proline concentration belonged to spraying plants with zinc sulfate at irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan with 10.16 mg/g.fw. Minimum proline concentration was due to without applying zinc sulfate in complete irrigation (control with 0.08 mg/g.fw. Maximum crop growth rate with 6.77 g/m2.day was was related to control and the minimum, with 4.16 g/m2.day, to irrigation after 170mm. Maximum relative crop growth rate, with 0.19 g/m2.day, belonged to control and the

  4. Tropical deep convective cloud morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Matthew R.

    A cloud-object partitioning algorithm is developed. It takes contiguous CloudSat cloudy regions and identifies various length scales of deep convective clouds from a tropical, oceanic subset of data. The methodology identifies a level above which anvil characteristics become important by analyzing the cloud object shape. Below this level in what is termed the pedestal region, convective cores are identified based on reflectivity maxima. Identifying these regions allows for the assessment of length scales of the anvil and pedestal of the deep convective clouds. Cloud objects are also appended with certain environmental quantities from the ECMWF reanalysis. Simple geospatial and temporal assessments show that the cloud object technique agrees with standard observations of local frequency of deep-convective cloudiness. Additionally, the nature of cloud volume scale populations is investigated. Deep convection is seen to exhibit power-law scaling. It is suggested that this scaling has implications for the continuous, scale invariant, and random nature of the physics controlling tropical deep convection and therefore on the potentially unphysical nature of contemporary convective parameterizations. Deep-convective clouds over tropical oceans play important roles in Earth's climate system. The response of tropical, deep convective clouds to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is investigated using this new data set. Several previously proposed feedbacks are examined: the FAT hypothesis, the Iris hypothesis, and the Thermostat hypothesis. When the data are analyzed per cloud object, each hypothesis is broadly found to correctly predict cloud behavior in nature, although it appears that the FAT hypothesis needs a slight modification to allow for cooling cloud top temperatures with increasing SSTs. A new response that shows that the base temperature of deep convective anvils remains approximately constant with increasing SSTs is introduced. These cloud-climate feedbacks are

  5. Evolving Deep Networks Using HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Steven R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Rose, Derek C. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Johnston, Travis [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Heller, William T. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Karnowski, thomas P. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Potok, Thomas E. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Patton, Robert M. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Perdue, Gabriel [Fermilab; Miller, Jonathan [Santa Maria U., Valparaiso

    2017-01-01

    While a large number of deep learning networks have been studied and published that produce outstanding results on natural image datasets, these datasets only make up a fraction of those to which deep learning can be applied. These datasets include text data, audio data, and arrays of sensors that have very different characteristics than natural images. As these “best” networks for natural images have been largely discovered through experimentation and cannot be proven optimal on some theoretical basis, there is no reason to believe that they are the optimal network for these drastically different datasets. Hyperparameter search is thus often a very important process when applying deep learning to a new problem. In this work we present an evolutionary approach to searching the possible space of network hyperparameters and construction that can scale to 18, 000 nodes. This approach is applied to datasets of varying types and characteristics where we demonstrate the ability to rapidly find best hyperparameters in order to enable practitioners to quickly iterate between idea and result.

  6. Deep Space Gateway Science Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincy, C. D.; Charles, J. B.; Hamill, Doris; Sidney, S. C.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Life Sciences Research Capabilities Team (LSRCT) has been discussing deep space research needs for the last two years. NASA's programs conducting life sciences studies - the Human Research Program, Space Biology, Astrobiology, and Planetary Protection - see the Deep Space Gateway (DSG) as affording enormous opportunities to investigate biological organisms in a unique environment that cannot be replicated in Earth-based laboratories or on Low Earth Orbit science platforms. These investigations may provide in many cases the definitive answers to risks associated with exploration and living outside Earth's protective magnetic field. Unlike Low Earth Orbit or terrestrial locations, the Gateway location will be subjected to the true deep space spectrum and influence of both galactic cosmic and solar particle radiation and thus presents an opportunity to investigate their long-term exposure effects. The question of how a community of biological organisms change over time within the harsh environment of space flight outside of the magnetic field protection can be investigated. The biological response to the absence of Earth's geomagnetic field can be studied for the first time. Will organisms change in new and unique ways under these new conditions? This may be specifically true on investigations of microbial communities. The Gateway provides a platform for microbiology experiments both inside, to improve understanding of interactions between microbes and human habitats, and outside, to improve understanding of microbe-hardware interactions exposed to the space environment.

  7. Deep roots delay flowering and relax the impact of floral traits and associated pollinators in steppe plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrached, Rachda; Kadik, Leila; Ait Mouheb, Hocine; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Strong seasonality in abiotic harshness and pollinator availability shape the reproductive success of plants. Plant species can avoid or can tolerate harsh abiotic conditions and can attract different pollinators, but it remains unknown (i) which of these capacities is most important for flowering phenology, (ii) whether tolerance/avoidance of abiotic harshness reinforces or relaxes the phenological differentiation of species attracting different pollinators. We assembled possibly the first functional trait database for a North African steppe covering 104 species. We inferred avoidance of harshness (drought) from dormancy, i.e. annual life-span and seed size. We inferred tolerance or resistance to harshness from small specific leaf area, small stature, deep roots and high dry matter content. We inferred the type of pollinators attracted from floral colour, shape and depth. We found that avoidance traits did not affect flowering phenology, and among tolerance traits only deep roots had an effect by delaying flowering. Flower colour (red or purple), and occasionally flower depth, delayed flowering. Dish, gullet and flag shape accelerated flowering. Interactive effects however were at least as important, inversing the mentioned relationship between floral characters and flowering phenology. Specifically, among drought-tolerant deep-rooted species, flowering phenologies converged among floral types attracting different pollinators, without becoming less variable overall. Direct and interactive effects of root depth and floral traits explained at least 45% of the variance in flowering phenology. Also, conclusions on interactive effects were highly consistent with and without including information on family identity or outliers. Overall, roots and floral syndromes strongly control flowering phenology, while many other traits do not. Surprisingly, floral syndromes and the related pollinators appear to constrain phenology mainly in shallow-rooted, abiotically little

  8. Towards a semiquantitative non invasive characterisation of Tyrian purple dye composition: Convergence of UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy and fast-high temperature-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Nowik, Witold; Romani, Aldo; Cardon, Dominique; Trojanowicz, Marek; Davantès, Athénaïs; Chaminade, Pierre

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, partial least square (PLS) regression is innovatively applied for a semi-quantitative non invasive study of the most precious dye of Antiquity: Tyrian purple. This original approach for the study of organic dyes in the cultural heritage field, is based on the correlation of spectrophotometric (UV-Visible) and chromatographic (Fast-HT-HPLC-PDA) data from an extensive set of textiles prepared with different snail species according to historical recipes. A cross-validated PLS model, based on the quantity of 6,6'-dibromoindigotin, displays an excellent correlation factor (R(2)Y = 0.987) between values determined by chromatography and those predicted from reflectance spectra. This indicates that the spectral features of Tyrian purple on textile fibre is strictly related to the amount of this indigoid component whose content may be non invasively predicted from reflectance spectrum. The studied correlation also highlights that, independently of the dyeing method and nature of the textile fibre used, the relative content of 6,6'-dibromindigotin may be used as a parameter to distinguish samples prepared with Hexaplex trunculus L. snails from those prepared with further mollusc species. To validate this model, archaeological textile fragments dating from the Roman period were successfully examined. The results achieved open an absolutely new way in Tyrian purple analysis in cultural heritage by non invasive spectroscopic techniques attesting their convergence with HPLC and giving them a semi-quantitative value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the DeepWind concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Borg, Michael; Gonzales Seabra, Luis Alberto

    The report describes the DeepWind 5 MW conceptual design as a baseline for results obtained in the scientific and technical work packages of the DeepWind project. A comparison of DeepWi nd with existing VAWTs and paper projects are carried out and the evaluation of the concept in terms of cost......, as well as the technical and scientific recommendations are performed. The work is a result of the contributions within the DeepWind project which is supported by the European Commission, Grant 256769 FP7 Energy 2010 - Future emerging technologies, and by the DeepWind beneficiaries: DTU(DK), AAU...

  10. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth. Its three great faunal environments--the twilight mesopelagic zone, the dark bathypelagic zone and the vast flat expanses of the benthic habitat--are home to a rich fauna of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the mesopelagic zone (150-1000 m), the down-welling daylight creates an extended scene that becomes increasingly dimmer and bluer with depth. The available daylight also originates increasingly from vertically above, and bioluminescent point-source flashes, well contrasted against the dim background daylight, become increasingly visible. In the bathypelagic zone below 1000 m no daylight remains, and the scene becomes entirely dominated by point-like bioluminescence. This changing nature of visual scenes with depth--from extended source to point source--has had a profound effect on the designs of deep-sea eyes, both optically and neurally, a fact that until recently was not fully appreciated. Recent measurements of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of deep-sea eyes--particularly from the camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods and the compound eyes of crustaceans--reveal that ocular designs are well matched to the nature of the visual scene at any given depth. This match between eye design and visual scene is the subject of this review. The greatest variation in eye design is found in the mesopelagic zone, where dim down-welling daylight and bio-luminescent point sources may be visible simultaneously. Some mesopelagic eyes rely on spatial and temporal summation to increase sensitivity to a dim extended scene, while others sacrifice this sensitivity to localise pinpoints of bright bioluminescence. Yet other eyes have retinal regions separately specialised for each type of light. In the bathypelagic zone, eyes generally get smaller and therefore less sensitive to point sources with increasing depth. In fishes, this insensitivity, combined with surprisingly high spatial resolution, is very well adapted to the

  11. Deep iCrawl: An Intelligent Vision-Based Deep Web Crawler

    OpenAIRE

    R.Anita; V.Ganga Bharani; N.Nityanandam; Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    The explosive growth of World Wide Web has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. Deep web pages are created dynamically as a result of queries posed to specific web databases. The structure of the deep web pages makes it impossible for traditional web crawlers to access deep web contents. This paper, Deep iCrawl, gives a novel and vision-based app...

  12. Concentrations of oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice brans. A 4.3-fold variation in total proanthocyanidins (sum of oligomers and polymers) in the extractable fraction was found and the concentration was highly correlated with total phenolics, total flavonoids and antiradical capacity. Variation in the proportion of oligomers and polymers existed, with monomers to trimers, 4-6mers, 7-10mers and polymers accounting for 7, 18, 26.5 and 48.7%, respectively, of the total. The redness value a(∗) of whole grain rice measured in CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) color space was negatively and positively correlated with extractable and non-extractable proanthocyanidins, respectively. The variation found indicates it is possible to select rice with bran containing high levels of total proanthocyanidins and specific degree of polymerization profiles. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Biomonitoring of traffic-related nitrogen oxides in the Maurienne valley (Savoie, France), using purple moor grass growth parameters and leaf (15)N/(14)N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffray, Xavier; Rose, Christophe; Garrec, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Effects of traffic-related nitrogenous emissions on purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench) transplants, used here as a new biomonitoring species, were assessed along 500 m long transects orthogonal to roads located in two open areas in the Maurienne valley (French Alps). Leaves were sampled during summer 2004 and 2005 for total N-content and (15)N-abundance determination while nitrogen oxides (NO and NO(2)) concentrations were determined using passive diffusion samplers. A significant and negative correlation was observed between plant total N-content, and (15)N-abundance and the logarithm of the distance to the road axis. The strongest decreases in plant N parameters were observed between 15 and 100 m from road axis. They were equivalent to background levels at a distance of about 800 m from the roads. In addition, motor vehicle pollution significantly affected vegetation at road edge, as was established from the relationship between leaf (15)N-abundance, total N-content and road traffic densities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution.

  15. Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Carvalho Pires

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-roxo (Passiflora edulis, apesar de ser desconhecido no Brasil, pode tornar-se numa fonte de renda alternativa para o agricultor, devido à boa remuneração e aceitação da fruta in natura no mercado europeu. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de mudas clonais de maracujá-roxo provenientes da Austrália, foi realizado um experimento no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade de Brasília entre os meses de maio de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 x 3, sendo sete porta-enxertos, duas variedades-copa e três épocas de avaliação. A parcela foi formada por 3 plantas úteis. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos (PE as espécies P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e o híbrido P. coccinea X P. setacea, e como copa (CP, as variedades '96A' e '25' de maracujazeiro-roxo. As estacas enraizadas foram transferidas para sacolas plásticas e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. A enxertia foi efetuada 30 dias após. As avaliações do índice de pegamento foram efetuadas aos 31 e 61 dias após a enxertia (DAE. As combinações CP/PE (entre "25" e "96 A" X P. nitida, seguidas das combinações ("25" e "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0', com 100%, 90%, 90% e 80%, respectivamente, obtiveram alto índice de pegamento aos 61 DAE. A produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-roxo enxertadas nas espécies de maracujazeiro silvestres e comerciais P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e P. edulis é viável do ponto de vista técnico, pois não ocorreram problemas de incompatibilidade, e os enxertos apresentaram alta taxa de pegamento.Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, even though is unknown in Brazil, can be an alternative income for the farmers due to good price and acceptance by the European market. Aiming to

  16. Purple Sweet Potato Color Ameliorates Cognition Deficits and Attenuates Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Aging Mouse Brain Induced by D-Galactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qun; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuanlin; Li, Jing; Zhou, Zhong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Zifeng; Fan, Shaohua; Mao, Zhen; Wang, Yong-jian; Ma, Daifu

    2009-01-01

    Purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a naturally occurring anthocyanin, has a powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explores whether PSPC has the neuroprotective effect on the aging mouse brain induced by D-galactose (D-gal). The mice administrated with PSPC (100 mg/kg.day, 4 weeks, from 9th week) via oral gavage showed significantly improved behavior performance in the open field and passive avoidance test compared with D-gal-treated mice (500 mg/kg.day, 8 weeks). We further investigate the mechanism involved in neuroprotective effects of PSPC on mouse brain. Interestingly, we found, PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and catalase (CAT), and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:19865488

  17. The effect of pigment matrix, temperature and amount of carrier on the yield and final color properties of spray dried purple corn (Zea mays L.) cob anthocyanin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Fei; Giusti, M Monica

    2017-07-15

    Spray drying is an economic technique to produce anthocyanin-based colorants. High pigments yields with minimum color degradation are desirable to maximize quality and profits. This study evaluated the impacts of purple corncob (PCC) anthocyanin extraction matrices (hot water, 40% ethanol, C18 purified), drying inlet temperature (130, 150, 170°C) and amount of carrier (2%, 5%, 10% maltodextrin) on the yields and quality of PCC anthocyanin powders. Monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins, color properties (CIELch, haze), and pigments composition before and after spray drying were determined. The yield and final color quality of spray dried PCC anthocyanins were affected (p<0.05) by all parameters evaluated. The pigment matrix, inlet temperature, and carrier amount had biggest impacts on product water solubility, pigments degradation and yield, respectively. The optimal combination of hot water extracts spray dried with 5% maltodextrin at 150°C gave the highest pigment yield (∼90%) with good solubility with the least color loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E E; Ohlendorf, H M; Cromartie, E

    1980-12-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  19. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  20. Spontaneous stacking of purple membranes during immobilization with physical cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with retaining native-like functionality of bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yasunori; Tanaka, Hikaru; Yano, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kikukawa, Takashi; Sonoyama, Masashi; Takenaka, Koshi

    2017-05-01

    We previously discovered the correlation between light-induced chromophore color change of a photo-receptor membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and its two-dimensional crystalline state in the membrane. To apply this phenomenon to a novel optical memory device, it is necessary that bR molecules are immobilized as maintaining their structure and functional properties. In this work, a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel with physical cross-linkages (hydrogen bonds between PVA chains) that resulted from repeated freezing-and-thawing (FT) cycles was used as an immobilization medium. To investigate the effects of physically cross-linked PVA gelation on the structure and function of bR in purple membranes (PMs), spectroscopic techniques were employed against PM/PVA immobilized samples prepared with different FT cycle numbers. Visible circular dichroism spectroscopy strongly suggested PM stacking during gelation. X-ray diffraction data also indicated the PM stacking as well as its native-like crystalline lattice even after gelation. Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy showed that bR photocycle behaviors in PM/PVA immobilized samples were almost identical to that in suspension. These results suggested that a physically cross-linked PVA hydrogel is appropriate for immobilizing membrane proteins in terms of maintaining their structure and functionality.