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Sample records for decrease cholesterol levels

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  2. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM.......005 between genders for the mean [95 % CI] fasting adjusted difference at 4.5 h in the change versus time 0 in LDL-C; gender by time interaction: p50.007 (repeated measures mixed model)). Conclusions. In T2DM patients served a fat-rich meal, levels of LDL-C decreased significantly more in women compared...

  3. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

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    Madalina Rujoi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles.The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds.Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  4. Lack of Abcg1 results in decreased plasma HDL cholesterol levels and increased biliary cholesterol secretion in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Nijstad, Niels; de Boer, Jan Freark; Out, Ruud; Hogewerf, Wytse; Van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Objective: The ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) has been implicated in cholesterol efflux towards HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Biliary cholesterol secretion is considered as an important step in RCT. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of Abcg1

  5. Sevelamer does not decrease lipopolysaccharide or soluble CD14 levels but decreases soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with untreated HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Choi, Andrew I; Robinson, Janet K; Fine, Derek M; Coombs, Robert W; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Landay, Alan L; Douek, Daniel C; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W; Wilson, Cara C; Deeks, Steven G; Lederman, Michael M; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. NCT 01543958. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  7. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  8. Activity test of various mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract fractions to decrease fasting blood cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation activity in diabetic mice

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    Saikhu Akhmad Husen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of various fractions of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to the changes of the fasting blood cholesterol and serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels on diabetic mice (Mus musculus. Thirty 3-4 months old male mice strain BALB/c, weight 20-30 g were divided into six groups. The first group was KN as a non diabetic control group, KD as a diabetic control, KM as a group of diabetic mice treated with metformin, and NP, SP, and P as the treatment groups that were treated by using three different fractions from mangosteen pericarp extract, non polar, semi polar, and polar respectively. The induction of Diabetes mellitus was done by the injection of STZ, and the mice were given a high fat diet treatment to induce the hiperlipidemia condition using lard for three weeks. The blood cholesterol levels were measured in all groups before and after the injection of lard, and day 1, 7, and 14 of treatment as well. The serum MDA level as the indicator of lipid peroxidation were measured by using QuantiChrom TBARS Assay Kit (DTBA-100. The data of cholesterol levels were statistically analyzed by t-test, while the data of serum MDA levels were analyzed by variance analysis followed by Duncan test. The results showed that the polar fraction of mangosteen pericarp had effect to decrease the fasting blood cholesterol level in mice, however the non polar and semi polar fraction had no simmilar effect. All of the fractions has shown significant effect to decrease the serum MDA level in mice. Key words: cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, Garcinia mangostana, malondialdehyde (mda, obesity.

  9. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • MicroRNA-27a decreases the level and efficiency of the LDL receptor and contributes to the dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Khosroheidari, Mahdieh; Eddy, Elena; Done, Stefania C

      2015-10-01

      A strong risk factor for atherosclerosis- the leading cause of heart attacks and strokes- is the elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood. The LDL receptor (LDLR) is the primary pathway for LDL-C removal from circulation, and their levels are increased by statins -the main treatment for high blood LDL-C. However, statins have low efficiency because they also increase PCSK9 which targets LDLR for degradation. Since microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of cholesterol homeostasis, our aim was to identify potential microRNA-based therapeutics to decrease blood LDL-C and prevent atherosclerosis. We over expressed and knocked down miR-27a in HepG2 cells to assess its effect on the expression of key players in the LDLR pathway using PCR Arrays, Elisas, and Western blots. We found that miR-27a decreases LDLR levels by 40% not only through a direct binding to its 3' untranslated region but also indirectly by inducing a 3-fold increase in PCSK9, which enhances LDLR degradation. Interestingly, miR-27a also directly decreases LRP6 and LDLRAP1, two other key players in the LDLR pathway that are required for efficient endocytosis of the LDLR-LDL-C complex in the liver. The inhibition of miR-27a using lock nucleic acids induced a 70% increase in LDLR levels and, therefore, it would be a more efficient treatment for hypercholesterolemia because of its desirable effects not only on LDLR but also on PCSK9. The results presented here provide evidence supporting the potential of miR-27a as a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    • Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

      Science.gov (United States)

      Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

      2017-09-01

      This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

    • Phenolics from Winemaking By-Products Better Decrease VLDL-Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels than Those of Red Wine in Wistar Rats.

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      de Oliveira, Walkia Polliana; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Marques, Valquíria Fernanda; Dos Santos, Ieda Maria; Magalhães, Kedma; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Negro-Dellacqua, Melissa; Miranda, Maria Spínola; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

      2017-10-01

      Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

    • Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lena Ohlsson

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

    • Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

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      ... total cholesterol level has been associated with some health problems. Doctors are still trying to find out more about the connection between low cholesterol and health risks. There is no consensus on how to ...

    • Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

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      Ratnayake Walisundera MN

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

    • Decreased Retinol Binding Protein 4 Concentrations are Associated With Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

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      Shen-Nien Wang

      2010-06-01

      Conclusion: Circulating RBP4 decreases in cholesterol gallstone disease independent of renal function. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between liver function and RBP4 levels in these patients.

    • MooPoong (Gye Young Jeong) increases HDL-cholesterol but decreases LDL cholesterol and body-weight.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chung, Hwan-Suck; Hong, Seung-Heon; Do, Keum-Rok; Rhee, Hyung-Koo; Jung, Sung-Ki; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Kim, Hyung-Min

      2004-05-01

      MooPoong (MP, Gye Young Jeong), a Korean traditional wine, has been used as a prevention and treatment agent of blood circulatory trouble. To evaluate such an effect of MP, we analyzed whether the plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and body weight change after rats were fed on high fat diet with MP for 8 weeks. Plasma LDL cholesterol level decreased by 5.6% in 0.128% MP treated group and by 11.1% in 0.640% MP treated group. However, HDL cholesterol was increased by 6.7% in 0.128% MP diet group and 33.3% in 0.640% MP diet group. In addition, there was a significant weight loss in the MP treated group compared with the high-fat diet group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that MP may contain compounds with actions which can treat blood circulatory trouble as well as overweight.

    • Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S.

      1990-01-01

      The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with [ 14 C]sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans

    • Blood cholesterol level in Sudanese females with hyperthyroidism

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ahmed, N. M.

      2004-08-01

      In view to high incidence of thyroid dis function among Sudanese females, this study was conducted, essentially to study the effect of thyroid disorders on lipids metabolism, mainly on total cholesterol. In this study samples were collected from RIA laboratory in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. 50 hyperthyroidism females were selected as a study group of age range (20-55) years. In addition 47 samples were collected with same age of study group used as control group. Thyroid related hormones thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, thyroid stimulating hormone TSH using the sensitive radioimmunoassay method and cholesterol were measured for the two groups using enzymatic-calorimetric test. Statistical analysis were done with SPSS computer program to compare the cholesterol levels in the control subjects with the patients levels. The results showed significantly decreased cholesterol level of patient group when compared with the control group (p<0.01). At the end of this study the result was agreed well with previous results concerning cholesterol level as affected by thyroid disorder. (Author)

    • Serum triglycerides, but not cholesterol or leptin, are decreased in suicide attempters with mood disorders.

      Science.gov (United States)

      da Graça Cantarelli, Maria; Nardin, Patrícia; Buffon, Andréia; Eidt, Murilo Castilhos; Antônio Godoy, Luiz; Fernandes, Brisa S; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

      2015-02-01

      Many peripheral biomarkers, including low cholesterol and its fractions, have been examined to identify suicidal behavior. Herein, we assessed serum lipid profile and some proteins putatively associated with suicidal behavior in subjects with mood disorder (bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) with a recent suicide attempt and with no lifetime history of suicide attempts. Fifty subjects had presented an episode of attempted suicide during the last 15 days, and 36 subjects had no history of any suicide attempt. We measured total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides as well as serum leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100B and C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals that had attempted suicide presented decreased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. After adjusting for these confounders, we found that triglycerides were decreased in attempted suicide subjects. We found no differences among total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL or leptin, S100B, CRP and BDNF. This is a cross-sectional study, and we cannot therefore assess whether a decrease in triglycerides caused a mood episode with suicidal ideation that led to a suicide attempt or if the presence of a mood episode originated a loss of appetite and consequent loss of weight, therefore decreasing triglyceride levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that lower levels of cholesterol are associated with suicidal behavior in a mood disorder sample. However, our data support the idea that adiposity is differentiated in these patients (reduced BMI, waist circumference and serum triglycerides), which could lead to an altered communication between the adipose tissue and brain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

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    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  2. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Gotto, Antonio M.; LaRosa, John C.; Maroni, Jaman; Szarek, Michael; Grundy, Scott M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Bittner, Vera; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear whether this association is maintained at very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the recently

  3. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Serum Cholesterol Levels and on Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... Myasnikova' was the first to show that vitamin Chad the ability to influence ~erum cholesterol levels of patients. She observed that the intravenous administration of high doses of vitamin C to patients with high levels of serum cholesterol resulted in a distinct decrease, whereas in patients with low values it ...

  4. Association between cholesterol plasma levels and craving among heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hsieh, Pei Chun; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Kao Chin

    2012-12-01

    Lipids may play some roles in the central nervous system functions that are associated with drug addiction. To date, cholesterol is known to influence relapse of cocaine use. However, the relationship between cholesterol and heroin craving is unclear. This study examined the concurrent association between cholesterol and craving. The serum lipid levels of 70 heroin users who were undergoing or had undergone a methadone maintenance therapy were measured. Their craving and demographic data were assessed. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are negatively associated with craving before (r = -0.33, P cognitive aspect of craving and may be a potential marker to predict risk of drug relapse.

  5. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J F; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K

    2011-10-01

    Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDLR-deficient mice (8 weeks old) had either access to a voluntary running wheel for 12 weeks (RUN) or remained sedentary (CONTROL). Both groups were fed a western-type/high cholesterol diet. Running activity and food intake were recorded. At 12 weeks of intervention, feces, bile and plasma were collected to determine fecal, biliary and plasma parameters of cholesterol metabolism and plasma cytokines. Atherosclerotic lesion size was determined in the aortic root. RUN weighed less (∼13%) while food consumption was increased by 17% (p=0.004). Plasma cholesterol levels were decreased by 12% (p=0.035) and plasma levels of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins decreased in RUN compared to control. Running modulated cholesterol catabolism by enhancing cholesterol turnover: RUN displayed an increased biliary bile acid secretion (68%, p=0.007) and increased fecal bile acid (93%, p=0.009) and neutral sterol (33%, p=0.002) outputs compared to control indicating that reverse cholesterol transport was increased in RUN. Importantly, aortic lesion size was decreased by ∼33% in RUN (p=0.033). Voluntary wheel running reduces atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. An increased cholesterol turnover, specifically its conversion into bile acids, may underlie the beneficial effect of voluntary exercise in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Linseed oil increases HDL3 cholesterol and decreases blood pressure in patients diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna H; Gluza, Ewa; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Skoczyńska, Marta

    2018-04-24

    Linseed oil has cardio-protective effects. However, its antihypertensive action has not yet been well characterized. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of short-term dietary supplementation with linseed oil on blood pressure (BP) and lipid metabolism in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of linseed oil on nitric oxide pathway and selected serum trace metals. 150 volunteers: 43 men (49.9±11.5 years) and 107 women (53.2±10.3 years), diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia, were assessed prospectively for BP and lipids' levels, before and after lipid-lowering diet plus linseed oil supplementation at a dose of 15 ml daily for 4 weeks (study groups) or 4-weekly lipid-lowering diet (control group). The multivariate logistic regression analysis model was used to determine the effect of linseed oil on BP after adjustment for age, gender, height, body weight, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption. The supplementation with linseed oil significantly decreased LDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, and increased HDL- and HDL₃- cholesterol levels. Additionally, linseed oil decreased diastolic BP in men (CI:-6.0;-1.1, poil reduced (poil consumption was associated with a decrease in mean BP (aOR 3.85, 95%CI 1.32-11.33). Our findings confirm the benefit of short-term linseed oil use in mild hypercholesterolemia, in particular in patients with increased blood pressure.

  7. Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Knopp, Robert H; Kahn, Steven E; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Fish, Brian; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2011-11-01

    The rise in LDL with egg feeding in lean insulin-sensitive (LIS) participants is 2- and 3-fold greater than in lean insulin-resistant (LIR) and obese insulin-resistant (OIR) participants, respectively. We determined whether differences in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or both could be responsible for these differences by measuring plasma sterols as indexes of cholesterol absorption and endogenous synthesis. Plasma sterols were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a random subset of 34 LIS, 37 LIR, and 37 OIR participants defined by the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and by BMI criteria selected from a parent group of 197 participants. Cholestanol and plant sterols provide a measure of cholesterol absorption, and lathosterol provides a measure of cholesterol synthesis. The mean (±SD) ratio of plasma total absorption biomarker sterols to cholesterol was 4.48 ± 1.74 in LIS, 3.25 ± 1.06 in LIR, and 2.82 ± 1.08 in OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of the absorption sterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS > OIR (P LIR (P OIR (P = 0.11). Lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were 0.71 ± 0.32 in the LIS participants, 0.95 ± 0.47 in the LIR participants, and 1.29 ± 0.55 in the OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS sterol concentrations were positively associated with S(I) and negatively associated with obesity, whereas lathosterol correlations were the opposite. Cholesterol absorption was highest in the LIS participants, whereas cholesterol synthesis was highest in the LIR and OIR participants. Therapeutic diets for hyperlipidemia should emphasize low-cholesterol diets in LIS persons and weight loss to improve S(I) and to decrease cholesterol overproduction in LIR and OIR persons.

  8. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  9. Bilirubin Decreases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Tosevska, Anela; Heiß, Elke H; Ladurner, Angela; Mölzer, Christine; Wallner, Marlies; Bulmer, Andrew; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-04-28

    Mild but chronically elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin is associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate whether unconjugated bilirubin influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, as a potential mechanism for the altered circulating lipoprotein concentrations observed in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages was assessed using plasma obtained from normo- and hyperbilirubinemic (Gilbert syndrome) humans (n=60 per group) or (heterozygote/homozygote Gunn) rats (n=20 per group) as an acceptor. Hyperbilirubinemic plasma from patients with Gilbert syndrome and Gunn rats induced significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared with normobilirubinemic plasma. Unconjugated bilirubin (3-17.1 μmol/L) exogenously added to plasma- or apolipoprotein A1-supplemented media also decreased macrophage cholesterol efflux in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also showed reduced protein expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transmembrane cholesterol transporter involved in apolipoprotein A1-mediated cholesterol efflux, in THP-1 macrophages treated with unconjugated bilirubin and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bilirubin accelerates the degradation rate of the ABCA1 protein in THP-1 macrophages. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is decreased in the presence of plasma obtained from humans and rats with mild hyperbilirubinemia. A direct effect of unconjugated bilirubin on cholesterol efflux was demonstrated and is associated with decreased ABCA1 protein expression. These data improve our knowledge concerning bilirubin's impact on cholesterol transport and represent an important advancement in our understanding of bilirubin's role in cardiovascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  10. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  11. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  12. Empagliflozin decreases remnant-like particle cholesterol in type 2 diabetes patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Sachiko

    2017-11-28

    Remnant lipoproteins are thought to be atherogenic. Remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), which reflects the levels of various kinds of remnant lipoproteins in the blood, has a significant correlation with insulin resistance. In the present study, we measured the effect of empagliflozin (EMPA) on the levels of RLP-C, and investigated whether EMPA-mediated change in RLP-C is associated with a change in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients who have insulin resistance. Patients were allocated to receive a placebo (n = 51) or EMPA (n = 58) as an add-on treatment. Fasting blood samples were collected before and 12 weeks after this intervention. EMPA significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin, bodyweight, systolic blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, liver transaminases and estimated glomerular filtration rate, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, EMPA decreased RLP-C and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. In the placebo group, there were no significant changes in these factors except for slight increases in liver transaminases. Multiple regression analysis showed that the change in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.0102) and the change in alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.0301) were significantly associated with the change in RLP-C in the EMPA group. The change in RLP-C significantly correlated with the change in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.503, 95% confidence interval 0.199-0.719; P = 0.00241). EMPA decreases RLP-C levels, which is closely associated with amelioration of insulin sensitivity in diabetes patients who have insulin resistance. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Protective effect of lemongrass oil against dexamethasone induced hyperlipidemia in rats: possible role of decreased lecithin cholesterol acetyl transferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V R Santhosh; Inamdar, Md Naseeruddin; Nayeemunnisa; Viswanatha, G L

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of lemongrass oil against in dexamethasone induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Administration of dexamethasone was given at 10 mg/kg, sc. to the adult rats for 8 d induces hyperlipidemia characterized by marked increase in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels along with increase in atherogenic index. Lemongrass oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, po.) treatment has showed significant inhibition against dexamethasone hyperlipidemia by maintaining the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index near to the normal levels and the antihyperlipidemic effect of the lemongross oil was comparable with atorvastatin 10 mg/kg, po. The possible mechanism may be associated with decrease in lecithin cholesterol acetyl transferase (LCAT) activity. These results suggested that Lemon gross oil possess significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cholesterol remnants and triglycerides are associated with decreased myocardial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Biering-Sørensen, Tor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, genetic studies have suggested a causal relationship between cholesterol remnants and ischemic heart disease. We aimed to determine whether cholesterol remnants and its marker, triglyceride levels, are associated with cardiac function as determined by sensitive echocardiogra......BACKGROUND: Recently, genetic studies have suggested a causal relationship between cholesterol remnants and ischemic heart disease. We aimed to determine whether cholesterol remnants and its marker, triglyceride levels, are associated with cardiac function as determined by sensitive...... secondary care centers. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, triglycerides and cholesterol remnants were not associated with left ventricular ejection fraction, but with subtle measures of systolic function, including global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking and longitudinal displacement by tissue...... Doppler echocardiography: global longitudinal strain [0.33 % (0.14), p = 0.02 per doubling in cholesterol remnants and 0.28 % (0.13), p = 0.03 per doubling in triglyceride levels] and with longitudinal displacement [-0.25 mm (0.10), p = 0.01 per doubling in cholesterol remnants and -0.25 mm (0.09), p = 0...

  16. Nordic Walking Training Causes a Decrease in Blood Cholesterol in Elderly Women Supplemented with Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Prusik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDifferent studies have demonstrated that regular exercise can induce changes in the lipid profile, but results remain inconclusive. Available data suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency can improve the lipid profile. In this study, we have hypothesized that Nordic Walking training will improve lipid profile in elderly women supplemented with vitamin D.MethodsA total of 109 elderly women (68 ± 5.12 years old took part in the study. First group [experimental group (EG: 35 women] underwent 12 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW training combined with vitamin D supplementation (4,000 IU/day, second group [supplementation group (SG: 48 women] was only supplemented with vitamin D (4,000 IU/day, and third group [control group (CG: 31 women] was not subject to any interventions. Blood analysis of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and 25-OH-D3 was performed at baseline and after the 12 weeks of NW training. Additionally, a battery of field tests specifically developed for older adults was used to assess the components of functional fitness. The same blood analysis was repeated for the EG 6 months after the main experiment.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of NW training and vitamin D supplementation, in the EG a decrease in TC, LDL-C, and TG was observed. In the SG, no changes in the lipid profile were observed, whereas in the CG an increase in the HDL-C level was noticed. Positive physical fitness changes were only observed in the EG.ConclusionOur obtained data confirmed baseline assumption that regular exercise induces positive alternations in lipid profile in elderly women supported by supplementation of vitamin D.

  17. Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant and Parturient Nigerian Women. Kashope D. Thomas, Oyebola G. Adeosun, Norah O. Akinola, Uche Onwudiegwu, Alexander T. Owolabi ...

  18. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  19. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  20. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  1. Dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption in rats. Effect of dietary cholesterol level and cholesterol saturation of bile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if cholesterol introduced into the duodenum of rats in a micellar form as occurs with bile, is absorbed more efficiently than cholesterol presented in a nonmicellar form, as occurs with dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption was measured during the constant intraduodenal infusion of liquid diets ([ 14 C] cholesterol) and artificial biles ([ 3 H] cholesterol) in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. Percentage absorption was calculated by dividing the rate of appearance of radiolabeled cholesterol in lymph by its rate of infusion when lymph cholesterol specific activity was constant. Results provide strong evidence that under certain conditions biliary cholesterol is more efficiently absorbed than is dietary cholesterol, and that this differential must be considered when evaluating the influence of diet or drug therapy on cholesterol absorption

  2. Serum cholesterol levels of Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C B; Allen, E S; Mikkelson, B; Kang-Jey, H

    1976-10-01

    Serum cholesterol levels and dietary habits were surveyed in 27 male and 34 female Seventh-day Adventist. All subjects studied were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and a few consumed some meat products. Their serum cholesterol levels, significantly lower than those of the United States general population, showed no sex difference but increased with age and were higher in overweight males. Their levels, however, were much higher than those of true vegetarians which was most likely attributable to their consumption, even though to a limited acount, of dairy foods.

  3. Ocimum basilicum ethanolic extract decreases cholesterol synthesis and lipid accumulation in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Elena; Amrani, Souliman; Aziz, Mohammed; Harnafi, Hicham; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2008-12-01

    Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. basilicum on lipid accumulation in human macrophages. As modification of LDL increase atherogenicity of the particles we evaluated the effects of the extract on LDL oxidation. The extract caused a dose-related increase of LDL-resistance to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation. Furthermore, at the dose of 60 microg/ml, significantly decreases the accumulation of macrophage lipid droplets induced by modified LDL evaluated as by red-oil staining. Cholesterol esterification and triacylglycerol synthesis in the cells were not affected. Macrophage treatment with 60 microg/ml, but not 20 microg/ml, of the extract reduced newly synthesized unesterified cholesterol by about 60% and decreased scavenger receptors activity by about 20-30%, evaluated by the internalization of cholesterol carried by [(3)H]CE-aggregated-LDL. The results suggest that O. basilicum ethanolic extract has the capability to reduce foam cell formation through the reduction of cholesterol synthesis and the modulation of the activity of surface scavenger receptors.

  4. Barley β-glucan reduces blood cholesterol levels via interrupting bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Harding, Scott V; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter J H; Ames, Nancy P

    2017-11-01

    Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs

  5. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (re)absorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory) mechanisms. PMID:22018353

  6. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  7. Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol decrease with age in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study 1984-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A; Barrett-Connor, E; Shan, J

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the effects of age, weight change, and covariates on lipid and lipoprotein levels cross-sectionally and prospectively in an elderly population. A community-based sample of 1041 men and 1303 women aged 50 to 93 years was studied cross-sectionally in 1984 to 1987, with follow-up of 372 men and 545 women 8 years later. In the cross-sectional study, levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased and levels of HDL cholesterol (HDLC) increased with age in men (all P or = 75 years) and in all weight change groups (> 2.5-kg loss, change within 2.5 kg, and > 2.5-kg gain) and in all waist girth change groups, for an overall decrement of approximately 1% per year. In multiple linear regression models, change in weight was the most important independent and consistent predictor of changes in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Similar results were obtained in analyses excluding subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or estrogen and in analyses adjusted for changes in cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, medication use, and incident myocardial infarction, cancer, or diabetes. Cross-sectional decrements in TC and LDL-C with age in men are not explained by survivor bias because they are also observed prospectively. Although weight change was the most important explanatory variable, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels also decreased in those who lost or gained weight. Age was not an independent predictor of change. Other prospective studies are recommended to better define the causes and consequences of cholesterol and lipoprotein changes in old age.

  8. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  9. Non-Cholesterol Sterol Levels Predict Hyperglycemia and Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Henna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A.; Paananen, Jussi; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stančáková, Alena; Smith, Ulf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N = 1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N = 273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23840693

  10. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  11. LECITHIN: CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IS DECREASED IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a major role in the removal of free cholesterol from tissues via assisting HDL-C maturation, and its activity has been proposed as the main indicator of HDL-C function. The aim of the study was to measure LCAT activity in type 2 diabetic patients and to elucidate whether LCAT is associated with metabolic control, and insulin resistance. A case-control study was conducted in Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2006, recruiting 45 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 45 healthy subjects. Cases and controls were matched regarding gender, age and body mass index (BMI. FBS, lipid profile, LCAT activity, HbA1C, insulin were measured and insulin resistance (HOMA-IRwas calculated for both patients and controls. The studied variables were then compared between the two groups, and the association of LCAT activity with any of the variables was examined. Twenty-five subjects were female and 20 male both among patients and controls. Mean age of diabetics was 49.9 yrs (range, 40-64, and of controls 51.1 yrs (range, 39-64. FBS, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and TG in patients were significantly higher than controls, and HDL-C in controls was significantly higher than patients. LCAT activity of patients (73 9.1 µmol/L/h was significantly lower than that in controls (88 4.5 µmol/L/h (p<0.001. LCAT activity had significant inverse correlations with HbA1C and duration of diabetes. After multilinear regression analysis in patients, LCAT activity was only correlated with HbA1C level (ß= -0.9, p<0.001. LCAT activity had no significant association with HDL-C and HOMA-IR in any of the groups."nLCAT activity is significantly decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with healthy controls, and has an inverse correlation with the magnitude of hyperglycemia.

  12. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  13. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in

  14. Reduction of VLDL secretion decreases cholesterol excretion in niemann-pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.

  15. The effect of indigestible dextrin and phytosterol on serum LDL-cholesterol level on hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Then

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and phytosterol 2x0.6g/day provided for 6 weeks in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol levels amongs hypercholesterolemic subjects.Methods A randomized clinical trial, two pararel groups, double blinded and randomly assigned to each different group was done in 16 subjects per-group.Results Before the, intervention the level of LDL cholesterol of both ID and FS group were 158.81 ± 17.74 mg/dL and 176.18 ± 25.31 mg/dL, respectively. After the intervention there was a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol level in both groups, i.e. among the ID group by 20.93 ± 12.65 mg/dL (13.24% with p value of <0.001, while the reduction of LDL cholesterol level among the PS group was 21.87 ± 28.76 mg/dL (11.21% with p value of 0.008. However, the reduction of cholesterol level between the two groups did not show any significant difference.Conclusion Consuming indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and 2x0.6g/day phytosterol (PS for 6 weeks will have the same ability to decrease the serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 114-9Key words: indigestible dextrin, phytosterol, cholesterol

  16. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... and restores high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined .... However, we found a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.96,.

  17. Lack of P2Y(13) in mice fed a high cholesterol diet results in decreased hepatic cholesterol content, biliary lipid secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Serhan, Nizar; Annema, Wijtske; Combes, Guillaume; Robaye, Bernard; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Perret, Bertrand; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Laffargue, Muriel; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The protective effect of HDL is mostly attributed to their metabolic function in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a process whereby excess cellular cholesterol is taken up from peripheral cells, processed in HDL particles, and later delivered to the liver for further metabolism and

  18. Mitofusin2 decreases intracellular cholesterol of oxidized LDL-induced foam cells from rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Chen, Ying; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ming; Fan, Yu-jin; Guo, Xiao-mei

    2013-04-01

    Mitofusin2 (Mfn2) plays a pivotal role in the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the trafficking of intracellular cholesterol in the foam cells derived from rat VSMCs (rVSMCs) and also to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The rVSMCs were co-cultured with oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL, 80 μg/mL) to produce foam cells and cholesterol accumulation in cells. Before oxidized LDL treatment, different titers (20, 40 and 60 pfu/cell) of recombinant adenovirus containing Mfn2 gene (Adv-Mfn2) were added into the culture medium for 24 h to transfect the Mfn2 gene into the rVSMCs. Then the cells were harvested for analyses. The protein expression of Mfn2 was significantly higher in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group than in untransfected group (PLDL treatment, rVSMCs became irregular and their nuclei became larger, and their plasma abounded with red lipid droplets. However, the number of red lipid droplets was significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group. At 48 h after oxidized LDL treatment, the intracellular cholesterol in rVSMCs was significantly increased (P0.05), the phosporylation levels of PPARγ were significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group (Pcholesterol in oxidized LDL-induced rVSMCs possibly by decreasing PPARγ phosporylation and then increasing protein expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which may be helpful to suppress the formation of foam cells.

  19. Sex specific response in cholesterol level in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after long-term exposure of difenoconazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiyan; Wang, Kai; Chai, Tingting; Zhu, Lizhen; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Pang, Sen; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Difenoconazole is a widely used triazole fungicide, its extensive application may potentially cause toxic effects on non-target organisms. To investigate the effect of difenoconazole on cholesterol content and related mechanism, adult zebrafish were exposed to environmental related dosage (0.1, 10 and 500 μg/L) difenoconazole. The body weight and hepatic total cholesterol (TCHO) level was tested at 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure (dpe). The expressions of eight cholesterol synthesis genes and one cholesterol metabolism gene were assessed via Quantitative PCR method. The significant decrease of TCHO level in male zebrafish liver was observed at 15 and 30 dpe, which was accompanied by apparent hepatic cholesterol-genesis genes expression decline. In comparison with males, female zebrafish showed different transcription modification of tested genes, and the cholesterol content maintain normal level during the whole exposure. - Highlights: • Difenoconazle could reduce TCHO level in male zebrafish liver. • Difenoconazole could inhibit sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. • Female zebrafish didn't show obvious change of TCHO level after exposure. • Difenoconazole could inhibit body weight of both male and female zebrafish. - Difenoconazle could reduce cholesterol level and sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. While female zebrafish showed no obvious cholesterol content change during exposure

  20. Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Robert H; Kahn, Steven E; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Fish, Brian; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rise in LDL with egg feeding in lean insulin-sensitive (LIS) participants is 2- and 3-fold greater than in lean insulin-resistant (LIR) and obese insulin-resistant (OIR) participants, respectively. Objective: We determined whether differences in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or both could be responsible for these differences by measuring plasma sterols as indexes of cholesterol absorption and endogenous synthesis. Design: Plasma sterols were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a random subset of 34 LIS, 37 LIR, and 37 OIR participants defined by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and by BMI criteria selected from a parent group of 197 participants. Cholestanol and plant sterols provide a measure of cholesterol absorption, and lathosterol provides a measure of cholesterol synthesis. Results: The mean (±SD) ratio of plasma total absorption biomarker sterols to cholesterol was 4.48 ± 1.74 in LIS, 3.25 ± 1.06 in LIR, and 2.82 ± 1.08 in OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of the absorption sterol–cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS > OIR (P LIR (P OIR (P = 0.11). Lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were 0.71 ± 0.32 in the LIS participants, 0.95 ± 0.47 in the LIR participants, and 1.29 ± 0.55 in the OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS sterol concentrations were positively associated with SI and negatively associated with obesity, whereas lathosterol correlations were the opposite. Conclusions: Cholesterol absorption was highest in the LIS participants, whereas cholesterol synthesis was highest in the LIR and OIR participants. Therapeutic diets for hyperlipidemia should emphasize low-cholesterol diets in LIS persons and weight loss to improve SI and to decrease cholesterol overproduction in LIR and OIR persons. PMID:21940599

  1. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  2. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  3. High cholesterol level is essential for myelin membrane growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Brügger, Britta; Lappe-Siefke, Corinna; Möbius, Wiebke; Tozawa, Ryu-ichi; Wehr, Michael C; Wieland, Felix; Ishibashi, Shun; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2005-04-01

    Cholesterol in the mammalian brain is a risk factor for certain neurodegenerative diseases, raising the question of its normal function. In the mature brain, the highest cholesterol content is found in myelin. We therefore created mice that lack the ability to synthesize cholesterol in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Mutant oligodendrocytes survived, but CNS myelination was severely perturbed, and mutant mice showed ataxia and tremor. CNS myelination continued at a reduced rate for many months, and during this period, the cholesterol-deficient oligodendrocytes actively enriched cholesterol and assembled myelin with >70% of the cholesterol content of wild-type myelin. This shows that cholesterol is an indispensable component of myelin membranes and that cholesterol availability in oligodendrocytes is a rate-limiting factor for brain maturation.

  4. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and molar ratios of LDL/HDL, TC/ HDL, and TC/TG. Methods: One hundred and seventy four ...

  5. [Effectiveness of a nutritional education program in lowering blood cholesterol levels in a public health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, M; Yamaguchi, T

    1993-06-01

    An educational program for persons found to have high blood cholesterol during health examinations at the Nerima Public Health Center was begun in April, 1989. This program was differed from the usual program in two areas. First, new educational material was developed consisting of a check list of 30 items to assess eating patterns. By checking these items, participants could gain an understanding of what they should change in their eating behavior. Secondly, the table of restricted foods was not used. Participants were advised to achieve healthy eating patterns and followed up with a nutritional consultation that was held after three months, at which time they were interviewed regarding compliance and had their blood cholesterol levels measured. The effectiveness of the new educational program and the relationship between achievement of healthy eating patterns and reduction in blood cholesterol levels were analyzed. The main results were as follows: 1) In subjects (n = 79) who received the new education program in 1989-1990, serum cholesterol levels showed significant reduction, as compared with controls (n = 38) who received the usual education program in 1988-1989. 2) Subjects were divided into three groups according to their changes in serum cholesterol levels,--normalized, improved and unimproved--and the number of items complied with were counted for analysis. The mean score of compliance was highest in the normalized group with significant difference between the normalized and the unimproved groups. 3) The items of the high compliance score in the normalized group were in order of high score "to decrease high-fat meats", "to decrease cakes", "to choose lean meats and poultry without skin" and "to eat vegetables at every meal".

  6. 2013 Cholesterol Guidelines Revisited: Percent LDL Cholesterol Reduction or Attained LDL Cholesterol Level or Both for Prognosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Kastelein, John J.; Laskey, Rachel; Amarenco, Pierre; Demicco, David A.; Waters, David D.

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends moderate- to high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but departs from the traditional treat-to-target approach. Whether

  7. [Effect of healthy diet and physical activity on the level of non-HDL cholesterol in obese subjects without cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móczár, Csaba

    2015-10-18

    Prevention program including lifestyle changes was initiated with the participation of obese and overweight subjects recruited from the practices of 29 family doctors. The aim of the author was to analyse changes of non-HDL-cholesterol levels, especially when triglyceride levels were above 2.26 mmol/l, and when non-HDL cholesterol levels were high in association with low HDL-cholesterol levels in overweight or obese subjects who had no cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Data obtained from 1192 subjects (424 men and 768 women) before and 12 month after inclusion into the prevention program was analysed. The average level of non-HDL-cholesterol in the whole group of subjects decreased from 4.74 to 4.64 mmol/l, but the change was not significant. However, the average concentration of non-HDL-cholesterol was reduced significantly from 4.87 to 4.4 mmol/l in men, whereas no significant change was detected in women. In cases when triglyceride levels were higher than 2.26 mmol/l, the non-HDL-cholesterol level was reduced by 0.65 mmol/l. In cases when the non-HDL-cholesterol level was high in association with low HDL-cholesterol level, the non-HDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased from 5.22 to 4.48 mmol/l. In addition, in cases when HDL-cholesterol levels were low, the average level of the HDL-cholesterol significantly increased from 0.84 to 1.3 mmol/l. Lifestyle changes decrease the level of atherogenic lipid fractions, particularly in men with high triglyceride levels. Improvement of the atherogenic lipid profile in response to lifestyle changes is related not only to the reduction of atherogenic lipid fractions, but also to the increase of HDL-cholesterol level.

  8. The Comparison of Gemfibrozil and Lovastatin Therapy in Patients with High LDL and Low HDL Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    CLI ’T i-ITI2N 20. IM~IA~iN OF ASIRACTj OF REPORT OF TIIlS PAGF OF ARrsWiIlACT i The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin therapy in patients...PRESENTATIONS/SEMINARS: Jun 1990 The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin in a subpopulation of patients with high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels...aggressive ndical treatment. 2 Gemfibrozil is known to increase HDL cholesterol, decrease VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower LDL

  9. Inhibition of Cholesterol Synthesis in HepG2 Cells by GINST-Decreasing HMG-CoA Reductase Expression Via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Seung; Sung, Jong Hwan; Lee, Seung Kwon

    2017-11-01

    GINST, a hydrolyzed ginseng extract, has been reported to have antidiabetic effects and to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Hypercholesterolemia is caused by diet or genetic factors and can lead to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine whether GINST and the ginsenoside metabolite, IH-901 (compound K), reduce cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. Concentrations of cholesterol were measured by using an enzymatic method. Expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBPα), GAPDH, and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) were measured using western blot. Total cholesterol concentration decreased after GINST treatment for 24 and 48 h. Expression of HMGCR decreased more with GINST than with the inhibitors, U18666A and atorvastatin, after 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of AMPKα increased 2.5x by GINST after 360 min of treatment, and phosphorylation of Akt decreased after 120 and 360 min. We separated compound K from GINST extracts flash chromatography. Compound K decreased cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells at 24 and 48 h. Therefore, we conclude that GINST inhibits cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells by decreasing HMGCR expression via AMPKα activation. GINST, a hydrolyzed ginseng extract, can inhibit cholesterol synthesis in liver cells via activation of AMPKα. IH-901 (compound K), which is the main component with bioactivity in GINST, also has anticholesterol effects. Thus, we suggest that GINST can be used to reduce hypercholesterolemia. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  11. Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-12-11

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

  12. Cardiovascular disease markers responses in male receiving improved-fat meat-products vary by initial LDL-cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Celada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.

  13. A Statistical Study of Serum Cholesterol Level by Gender and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharu, Bhikhari Prasad; Tsokos, Chris P

    2017-07-25

    Cholesterol level (CL) is growing concerned as health issue in human health since it is considered one of the causes in heart diseases. A study of cholesterol level can provide insight about its nature and characteristics. A cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANS) II was conducted on a probability sample of approximately 28,000 persons in the USA and cholesterol level is obtained from laboratory results. Samples were selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition. Study included 11,864 persons for CL cases with 9,602 males and 2,262 females with races: whites, blacks, and others. Non-parametric statistical tests and goodness of fit test have been used to identify probability distributions. The study concludes that the cholesterol level exhibits significant racial and gender differences in terms of probability distributions. The study has concluded that white people are relatively higher at risk than black people to have risk line and high risk cholesterol. The study clearly indicates that black males normally have higher cholesterol. Females have lower variation in cholesterol than males. There exists gender and racial discrepancies in cholesterol which has been identified as lognormal and gamma probability distributions. White individuals seem to be at a higher risk of having high risk cholesterol level than blacks. Females tend to have higher variation in cholesterol level than males.

  14. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Guan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. Methods The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. Results The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940 and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 for 2 h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0 for 3 h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24 h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. Conclusion These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health.

  16. Effects of Moxibustion Temperature on Blood Cholesterol Level in a Mice Model of Acute Hyperlipidemia: Role of TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effects of moxibustion at two different temperatures (38°C and 46°C on the blood cholesterol level in a mice model of acute hyperlipidemia, to detect the different expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1 in the dorsal root ganglions of the wild mice, and to explore the correlation between TRPV1 and moxibustion’s cholesterol-lowering effects. Method. Two different mice models were used: C57BL/6J wild type (WT and TRPV1 gene knockout (TRPV1−/−. Each model was randomly divided into control group and model group with three subgroups after acute hyperlipidemia was established: model control group, 38°C moxibustion group, and 46°C moxibustion group. The mice in 38°C group and 46°C group were subject to moxibustion. After the therapy, the cholesterol concentration in serum was measured, and the expression of TRPV1 was quantified. Results. In WT mice, moxibustion caused a decrease in blood cholesterol level and upregulation of TRPV1 at the mRNA level, which was significantly greater in the 46°C group. In contrast, in TRPV1−/− mice, the differences of cholesterol-lowering effects of moxibustion were lost. Conclusions. Temperature is one of the important factors affecting the effects of moxibustion, and the cholesterol -lowering effect of moxibustion is related to the activation of TRPV1.

  17. LDL-C levels in older people: Cholesterol homeostasis and the free radical theory of ageing converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increases with age, up until the midpoint of life in males and females. However, LDL-C can decrease with age in older men and women. Intriguingly, a recent systematic review also revealed an inverse association between LDL-C levels and cardiovascular mortality in older people; low levels of LDL-C were associated with reduced risk of mortality. Such findings are puzzling and require a biological explanation. In this paper a hypothesis is proposed to explain these observations. We hypothesize that the free radical theory of ageing (FRTA) together with disrupted cholesterol homeostasis can account for these observations. Based on this hypothesis, dysregulated hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in older people is characterised by two distinct metabolic states. The first state accounts for an older person who has elevated plasma LDL-C. This state is underpinned by the FRTA which suggests there is a decrease in cellular antioxidant capacity with age. This deficiency enables hepatic reactive oxidative species (ROS) to induce the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase, the key rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. An increase in cholesterol synthesis elicits a corresponding rise in LDL-C, due to the downregulation of LDL receptor synthesis, and increased production of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). In the second state of dysregulation, ROS also trigger the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase. However, due to an age associated decrease in the activity of cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase, there is restricted conversion of excess free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol esters. Consequently, the secretion of VLDL-C drops, and there is a corresponding decrease in LDL-C. As intracellular levels of FC accumulate, this state progresses to a pathophysiological condition akin to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is our

  18. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol. LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup ... Teens How to Lower Cholesterol How to Lower Cholesterol with Diet LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol Nutrition Statins Triglycerides VLDL Cholesterol ...

  19. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) ( p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ( p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6-0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05-2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP.

  1. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  2. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  3. 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and pioglitazone synergistically decrease cholesterol ester via the PPARγ–LXRα–ABCA1 pathway in cholesterosis of the gallbladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing-Min; Wang, Dong; Tan, Yu-Yan; Zhao, Gang; Ji, Zhen-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cholesterosis is a metabolic disease characterized by excessive lipid droplets. • Lipid droplet efflux is mediated by the ABCA1 transporter. • 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol can activate LXRα and up-regulate ABCA1. • Pioglitazone up-regulates ABCA1 in a PPARγ–LXRα–ABCA1-dependent manner. • 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and pioglitazone synergistically decrease lipid droplets. - Abstract: Cholesterosis is a disease of cholesterol metabolism characterized by the presence of excessive lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. These lipid droplets are mainly composed of cholesterol esters derived from free cholesterol. The removal of excess cholesterol from gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs) is very important for the maintenance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and the preservation of gallbladder function. Several lines of evidence have indicated that the activation of either peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) or liver X receptor α (LXRα) relates to cholesterol efflux. While pioglitazone can regulate the activation of PPARγ, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol can activate LXRα and is a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. However, the effect of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol in combination with pioglitazone on cholesterosis of the gallbladder is unclear. GBECs were treated with pioglitazone, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or PPARγ siRNA followed by Western blot analysis for ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), PPARγ and LXRα. Cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was determined, and Oil Red O staining was performed to monitor variations in lipid levels in treated GBECs. Our data showed that 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol can modestly up-regulate LXRα while simultaneously increasing ABCA1 by 56%. The combination of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and pioglitazone resulted in a 3.64-fold increase in ABCA1 expression and a high rate of cholesterol efflux. Oil Red O staining showed an obvious reduction in the lipid droplets

  4. The effect of dietary phytosphingosine on cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Sleddering, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Frölich, M.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Jazet, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sphingolipids, like phytosphingosine (PS) are part of cellular membranes of yeasts, vegetables and fruits. Addition of PS to the diet decreases serum cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in rodents and improves insulin sensitivity.Objective:To study the effect of dietary

  5. The effect of dietary phytosphingosine on cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Sleddering, M. A.; Pijl, H.; Nieuwenhuizen, W. F.; Frölich, M.; Havekes, L. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Jazet, I. M.

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids, like phytosphingosine (PS) are part of cellular membranes of yeasts, vegetables and fruits. Addition of PS to the diet decreases serum cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in rodents and improves insulin sensitivity. To study the effect of dietary supplementation with PS on

  6. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serumic levels of lipids and lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Khayat Nouri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. High blood cholesterol affects the general health and increases the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. High levels of cholesterol in the diet increases LDL levels and decreases the activity of LDL receptors in the liver. Oxidation of vascular LDL lipoproteins increases the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have indicated that consumption of antioxidants decreases hypercholesterolemia. This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation on blood lipid levels in high cholesterol-fed rats. In this experimental study, three groups of male rats (n=10 for each group were used. The control group received basic diet and one of the other two groups received a diet containing one percent cholesterol and while the other received the same diet plus vitamin E supplement (2500 IU/kg in dry matter of the diet for one month. After determining the values of TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TG the results indicated that in rats fed with 1% cholesterol apart from HDL and VLDL the other lipids had increased significantly compared with the control group (p

  7. Prevalence of obesity and high level of cholesterol in hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine what proportion of patients with hypertension are obese and or have elevated serum cholesterol. The data of two hundred and fifty patients who attended the outpatient clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from January 1998 to December 2001 were analysed. Almost half ...

  8. Effect of herbicide (primextra) on tissue cholesterol level in Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (0.04, 0.06 and 0.10μg/L) of primextra for 21 days in a static renewal bioassay system. The changes in the tissue cholesterol concentrations were determined every seven days. The result showed that primextra had adverse effect on the tissue ...

  9. Diet and lifestyle: its association with cholesterol levels among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and high cholesterol (>240) was 21.1 % and 9.4 % among select tribal populations. It was found that 71.7% were nonvegetarian and 28.3% were vegetarian out which 82.6% were males and 63.2% were females. It was observed that males ...

  10. [Beclobrate (Turec) in the treatment of primary hyperlipoproteinemia. I. Effect on cholesterol, lipid and apoprotein levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J; Idzior-Waluś, B; Zabiński, J; Wybrańska, I; Korzus, G; Iwanejko, J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a new fibric acid derivative--beclobrate (Turec, Zyma) on serum lipid and apoprotein concentrations in 63 patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia were examined. Beclobrate was given in the evening, 100 mg, once daily. After 3 months of beclobrate treatment mean total cholesterol concentration in serum decreased from 9.35 to 7.73 mmol/l (17.3%), mean LDL-cholesterol concentration from 6.32 to 5.38 mmol/l (14.9%), mean HDL-cholesterol concentration increased by 0.21 mmol/l (15.3% of initial value). The greatest decrease was observed in triglyceride concentration--by 50% of the initial value. Apoprotein B concentration decreased by 19.7%, apoprotein A1 and A2 concentration increased by 20.3% and 26.8% respectively. Higher initial values of total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum were associated with greater concentration decrease after beclobrate treatment.

  11. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  12. Thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE) decreases Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels by modulating APP processing, up-regulating IDE and LRP1, and down-regulating BACE1 and RAGE in response to high fat/cholesterol diet-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus Abu; Yida, Zhang; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-11-01

    Though the causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are yet to be understood, much evidence has suggested that excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation due to abnormal amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ metabolism are crucial processes towards AD pathogenesis. Hence, approaches aiming at APP processing and Aβ metabolism are currently being actively pursued for the management of AD. Studies suggest that high cholesterol and a high fat diet have harmful effects on cognitive function and may instigate the commencement of AD pathogenesis. Despite the neuropharmacological attributes of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) extracts and its main active compound, thymoquinone (TQ), limited records are available in relation to AD research. Nanoemulsion (NE) is exploited as drug delivery systems due to their capacity of solubilising non-polar active compounds and is widely examined for brain targeting. Herewith, the effects of thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE), thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE) and their counterparts' conventional emulsion in response to high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD)-induced rats were investigated. Particularly, the Aβ generation; APP processing, β-secretase 1 (BACE1), γ-secretases of presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2), Aβ degradation; insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), Aβ transportation; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were measured in brain tissues. TQRFNE reduced the brain Aβ fragment length 1-40 and 1-42 (Aβ40 and Aβ42) levels, which would attenuate the AD pathogenesis. This reduction could be due to the modulation of β- and γ-secretase enzyme activity, and the Aβ degradation and transportation in/out of the brain. The findings show the mechanistic actions of TQRFNE in response to high fat and high cholesterol diet associated to Aβ generation, degradation and transportation in the rat's brain tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  13. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  14. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Rohollah; Hosseini Askarabadi, Siroos; Karampour, Sedigheh; Abdolhamid Tehrani, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to consider the effect of 10 weeks resistance trainings on cholesterol and blood triglyceride (TG) levels of patients with having fatty liver, aged 50 to 60 in National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC). This research is practical and its plan has been done experimentally with pretest and post-test on experimental and control groups. In this study, 20 samples from 100 patients who referred to sonography clinic in NISOC with distinction of fatty liver were selected randomly and divided into two groups of control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Cholesterol and blood trigly-ceride were measured as pretest. Test of normality for TG was (p = 0/200) by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and (p = 0/070) for cholesterol by Shapiro-Wilk test. After 10 weeks resistance trainings, the analysis and resolution of data were done by computer and SPSS (16) software as well as the descriptive and statistical methods (t-test). Comparison between these two groups showed that 8 weeks resistance trainings with a ≤ 0.05 causes significant decrease in the amount of TG but did not any significant effect on cholesterol of fatty liver patients. How to cite this article: Valizadeh R, Askarabadi SH, Karampour S, Tehrani MA. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):64-65.

  15. Normal cholesterol levels with lovastatin (Mevinolin) therapy in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia following liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, C.; Grundy, S.M.; Bilheimer, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia produce no normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and as a result, LDL accumulates in plasma, causing severe premature atherosclerosis. Two years ago, liver transplantation was performed in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, restoring LDL receptor activity to about 60% of normal and reducing the LDL cholesterol level by 81%. However, the patient's lipoprotein levels remained significantly elevated for her age and sex. Treatment with lovastatin (mevinolin) one year after transplantation produced a marked improvement in the patient's lipoprotein profile. The total and LDL cholesterol levels fell 40% and 49%, respectively, to values within the normal range. The level of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fell 41%, and the level of total triglycerides declined 28%. While lovastatin therapy decreased the production rate of LDL by 35%, it did not affect the LDL fractional clearance rate. Thus, the combination of liver transplantation and lovastatin restored total and LDL cholesterol levels to normal in this patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

  16. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients.MethodsIn 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis.ResultsSodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case.ConclusionDespite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.

  17. Circulating PCSK9 affects serum LDL and cholesterol levels more than SREBP-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Asghar; Shabani, Mohamad; Naseri, Faezeh; Hosseni, Bita; Soltanmohammadi, Elham; Piran, Sadegh; Najafi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is dependent upon the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) regulatory system and the functioning of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Many studies have also reported that low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels in cellular membranes are related to the functioning of these proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of lipid profiles with circulating PCSK9 protein values and SREBP-2 expression levels in normal subjects. The study involved 120 randomly chosen healthy subjects. Their lipid profiles were measured using routine laboratory techniques, and the plasma PCSK9 protein and SREBP-2 expression levels were determined by ELISA and real time quantitative PCR methods, respectively. A statistical analysis was carried out using a statistical software package. Linear regression analyses showed a significant correlation between total cholesterol and PCSK9 (3.54 ± 1.31 ng/mL), as well as between total cholesterol and SREBP-2 (0.1-35.38) (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, multiple regression analyses showed strict correlations between PCSK9 and cholesterol-related parameters especially the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (β = 3.53, p = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between circulating PCSK9 and SREBP-2 expression levels (r = 1.2, p = 0.3). The study results revealed that serum cholesterol-related parameters are strictly associated with plasma PCSK9 values, suggesting that PCSK9 function has a greater effect on serum total cholesterol levels than SREBP-2 expression does. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator for evaluating PCSK9 level than total cholesterol.

  18. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  19. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or

  20. Comparison of different statin therapy to change low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korean patients with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECT OF THE LEVEL AND TYPE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE METABOLISM OF CHOLESTEROL AND BETA LIPOPROTEINS IN THE CEBUS MONKEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Oscar W.; Hegsted, D. Mark; Stare, Fredrick J.; Bruno, Dorothy; Murphy, Robert; Sinisterra, Leonardo

    1956-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of the level and type of dietary fat on the concentration of cholesterol and beta lipoproteins in the sera of Cebus monkeys. Three groups of monkeys were fed isocaloric diets containing a fixed ratio of alpha protein and cholesterol to calories but with different amounts of corn oil and sucrose. Corn oil provided 10, 32, and 45 per cent of the calories in the three diets, and the level of sucrose was varied inversely. After 8 weeks the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoprotein concentrations were significantly greater in the medium and high fat groups. When corn oil was decreased from 45 to 10 per cent of dietary calories and sucrose was increased, the serum cholesterol fell in all cases, and when the reverse change was made, the concentration of serum cholesterol increased. Variation in dietary sucrose had no specific effect. Substitution of starch for sucrose with diets otherwise constant did not cause significant change in the concentration of serum cholesterol. When monkeys fed corn oil diets at any of three levels were changed to hydrogenated cottonseed oil diets at the same level, the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoproteins rose. However, hydrogenated cottonseed oil had no greater hypercholesteremic effect than did corn oil in the absence of dietary cholesterol. Diets containing lard with cholesterol also produced strikingly greater serum lipide responses than did diets based on corn oil and cholesterol. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil had a greater hypercholesteremic effect than an unhydrogenated cottonseed oil from the same lot. Preliminary studies indicated that the saturated fats (hydrogenated cottonseed oil) produced the most striking elevation of serum cholesterol values (above controls fed corn oil) when casein was the dietary protein. PMID:13376806

  2. Effects of Fatty Acids at Different Positions in the Triglycerides on Cholesterol Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, S.S.; Voon, P.T.; Ng, Y.T.; Ong, S.H.; Augustine, S.H.O.; Choo, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies established a series of regression equations for predicting the risk factor effects from serum cholesterol concentrations. However, the degree of saturation was solely based on total fatty acid composition in triglycerides. Our article is focused on the relationships between the published human nutrition studies and predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acid compositions and at sn-2 position in triglycerides. Twenty-two published human nutrition studies were chosen to assess the effects of palm olein, olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower seed oil, corn oil, soyabean oil, grape seed oil, groundnut oil and rice bran oil diets on serum cholesterol levels. There were no statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on fatty acids at sn-2 position and the published human nutrition studies as proven by the statistical analyses with p values more than 0.05. In contrast, there were statistically significant differences between the predicted values of serum cholesterol levels based on total fatty acids and the published human nutritional studies with p values less than 0.05. Fatty acids at sn-2 position appear to influence the cholesterol levels rather than total fatty acids of the triglyceride. (author)

  3. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  4. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  6. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  7. Central Nervous System Demyelination and Remyelination is Independent from Systemic Cholesterol Level in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Barbara B; Sun, Wenhui; Brogden, Graham; Sun, Yanyong; Kammeyer, Patricia; Kalkuhl, Arno; Colbatzky, Florian; Deschl, Ulrich; Naim, Hassan Y; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    High dietary fat and/or cholesterol intake is a risk factor for multiple diseases and has been debated for multiple sclerosis. However, cholesterol biosynthesis is a key pathway during myelination and disturbances are described in demyelinating diseases. To address the possible interaction of dyslipidemia and demyelination, cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression, composition of the body's major lipid repositories and Paigen diet-induced, systemic hypercholesterolemia were examined in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) using histology, immunohistochemistry, serum clinical chemistry, microarrays and high-performance thin layer chromatography. TME-virus (TMEV)-infected mice showed progressive loss of motor performance and demyelinating leukomyelitis. Gene expression associated with cholesterol biosynthesis was overall down-regulated in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. Spinal cord levels of galactocerebroside and sphingomyelin were reduced on day 196 post TMEV infection. Paigen diet induced serum hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipidosis. However, high dietary fat and cholesterol intake led to no significant differences in clinical course, inflammatory response, astrocytosis, and the amount of demyelination and remyelination in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. The results suggest that down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis is a transcriptional marker for demyelination, quantitative loss of myelin-specific lipids, but not cholesterol occurs late in chronic demyelination, and serum hypercholesterolemia exhibited no significant effect on TMEV infection. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  8. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  9. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  10. Association of Serum LDL Cholesterol Level with Periodontitis among Patients Visiting a Tertiary-care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In recent years, some evidence has been presented that periodontitis,an infectious inflammatory condition of the periodontium, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To further elucidate this association, we have studied the levels of LDL cholesterol, a known risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in a periodontally-diseased group. Methods: The levels of serum LDL cholesterol in 47 subjects with mild to severe (clinical attachment loss equal to or greater than 1 mm chronic generalized (at least 30% of teeth affected periodontitis with the mean age of 42.21 ± 1.46 years were measured and compared with those obtained from 42 age (39.83 ± 0.94 and sex matched controls. Both groups were free from systemic illnesses. Results: The mean serum LDL cholesterol in periodontitis patients was found to be signifi cantly higher (P < 0.001 as compared to that of the controls. The mean clinical attachment loss was positively correlated with serum LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01 and gingival index (P<0.05. The frequency of persons with pathologic values of LDL cholesterol was signifi cantly higher in periodontitis patients compared with that of the controls. Conclusions: These results showed that high serum LDL cholesterol may be associated with periodontitis in healthy people. However, it is unclear whether periodontitis causes an increase in the levels of serum LDL or an increased LDL is a risk factor for both periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, LDL cholesterol, periodontitis.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  12. Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with 30-day Mortality from Ischemic Stroke in Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Chen, Chih-Hung; Lien, Li-Ming; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Chen, An-Chih; Lin, Huey-Juan; Chi, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Ta-Chang; Sun, Yu; Lee, Siu-Pak; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Po-Lin; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ma, Henry; Wen, Chi-Pang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Hsu, Chung Y

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the impact of serum cholesterol levels on 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke in dialysis patients. From the Taiwan Stroke Registry data, we identified 46,770 ischemic stroke cases, including 1101 dialysis patients and 45,669 nondialysis patients from 2006 to 2013. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 1.46-fold greater in the dialysis group than in the nondialysis group (1.75 versus 1.20 per 1000 person-days). The mortality rates were 1.64, .62, 2.82, and 2.23 per 1000 person-days in dialysis patients with serum total cholesterol levels of cholesterol levels of 120-159 mg/dL, the corresponding adjusted hazard ratios of mortality were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-17.4), 8.06 (95% CI = 2.02-32.2), and 6.89 (95% CI = 1.59-29.8) for those with cholesterol levels of cholesterol levels of ≥160 mg/dL or <120 mg/dL on admission are at an elevated hazard of 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  14. The levels of plasma low density lipoprotein are independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein in fish-oil fed F1B hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Phillip J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP plays a major role in regulating the levels of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. We previously observed a fish-oil-induced elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol concentration in F1B hamsters. The molecular mechanism/s by which fish oil induces hyperlipidaemic effect was investigated in this study. We examined whether the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations are due to fish-oil-induced alterations in plasma CETP activity. MIX diet, a diet supplemented with a mixture of lard and safflower oil, was used as the control diet. Results We found that fish oil feeding in hamsters reduced CETP mass as well as CETP activity. Increasing the dietary fat level of fish-oil from 5% to 20% (w/w led to a further decrease in CETP mass. Supplementation with dietary cholesterol increased both CETP mass and CETP activity in fish-oil and MIX-diet fed hamsters. However, there was no correlation between CETP mass as well as CETP activity and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that cholesterol ester transfer between HDL and LDL is not likely to play a major role in determining fish-oil-induced changes in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in F1B hamsters. A possible role of reduced clearance of LDL-particles as well as dietary fat level and dietary cholesterol dependent changes in LDL-lipid composition have been discussed.

  15. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  16. Treatment of HIV infection with a raltegravir-based regimen increases LDL levels, but improves HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Xu, Dihua; Playford, Martin P; Joshi, Aditya A; Andrade, Adriana; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation. We performed advanced lipid phenotyping using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Liposcience, Raleigh, NC, USA) for lipid particle size and number, and examined high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function measuring reverse cholesterol transport using J774 macrophages. We report significant increases in total cholesterol (13 mg/dl; PLDL; 8 mg/dl; P=0.03), with no change in triglycerides and without an increase in LDL particle number (P>0.1 all time points). HDL levels were increased over baseline levels at all time points (PLDL (oxLDL) levels decreased by week 12, but rose subsequently, and were not different from baseline at later time points. HDL increases were associated with increases in beneficial HDL particles and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, which may reduce future CVD events. Persistent inflammation in these HIV+ participants, may be a cause or consequence of oxLDL levels, and may contribute to declining levels of HDL over time. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972.

  17. Sublethal Effects of Diesel on Total Protein Levels and Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    were handpicked at the Eagle Cement area of the New Calabar River and subjected to different levels ... groups when compared to the control in both the muscle and the viscera of the periwinkle. ... In Nigeria, oil industry operations are both offshore and onshore. ... This acts as a means of assessing the hazard or potential ...

  18. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  19. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  20. Aerobic Exercise Training Selectively Changes Oxysterol Levels and Metabolism Reducing Cholesterol Accumulation in the Aorta of Dyslipidemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silva Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration.Methods: Sixteen-week old male apo E KO mice fed a chow diet were included in the protocol. Animals were trained in a treadmill running, 15 m/min, 5 days/week, for 60 min (T; n = 29. A control group was kept sedentary (S; n = 32. Plasma lipids and glucose were determined by enzymatic techniques and glucometer, respectively. Cholesterol and oxysterols in aortic arch and macrophages were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined by RT-qPCR. The effect of AMPK in oxysterols metabolism was determined in J774 macrophages treated with 0.25 mM AICAR.Results: Body weight and plasma TC, TG, HDL-c, glucose, and oxysterols were similar between groups. As compared to S group, AET enhanced 7β-hydroxycholesterol (70% and reduced cholesterol (32% in aorta. In addition, exercise increased Cyp27a1 (54%, Cd36 (75%, Cat (70%, Prkaa1 (40%, and Prkaa2 (51% mRNA. In macrophages, the activation of AMPK followed by incubation with HDL2 increased Abca1 (52% and Cd36 (220% and decrease Prkaa1 (19%, Cyp27a1 (47% and 7α-hydroxycholesterol level.Conclusion: AET increases 7β-hydroxycholesterol in the aortic arch of dyslipidemic mice, which is related to the enhanced expression of Cd36. In addition, the increase

  1. Effectiveness of Shelled Almonds in Decreasing Blood Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Nuts such as almonds are high in unsaturated lipids and antioxidants. Some studies indicate that nuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effectiveness of shelled almonds on reduction of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial (before and after and was done on 30 men volunteering for the study. They consumed 60 grams shelled almonds per day for four weeks. Their blood lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a levels were measured after and before almond consumption. Results: Shelled almond consumption caused significant decrease in serum cholesterol 36.1 mg/dl, triglyceride 45.94 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol 28.68 mg/dl and increase in HDL-cholesterol 10.64 mg/dl(p<0.001. Shelled almond consumption decreased lipoprotein (a (2.11 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B100 (8.93 mg/dl and increased apolipoprotein A (1 1.74 mg/dl levels, but this effect was insignificant statistically. Conclusion: Continuous consumption of shelled almonds has beneficial effect on blood lipids and may play a preventive role in Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. We therefore suggest that a daily intake of 60 grams of almonds can be used for treatment of hyprelipidemic patients.

  2. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  3. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipid peroxidation (LPO products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40 were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate transaminase (AST, cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO products (TBARS and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST. Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  4. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were assayed. ... Abiodun and Gwarzo: Association of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with haemolysis in sickle cell disease ... analyses were carried out to determine the correlation.

  5. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  6. Effects of intensive atorvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment on apolipoprotein B-48 and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin at maximal doses are both highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Rosuvastatin has been shown to be more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL-C, small dense LDL-C and in raising high-density lipoprote...

  7. Effect of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Levels in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Adey, S.; Tadelle, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different administration methods of effective microorganisms (EM®) on the performance and serum cholesterol level of broilers at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Uniform weight of mixed sex day-old-broilers of cobb-500 strain (n =

  8. Changes in levels of serum beta-carotene, vitamin A and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assessed for serum vitamin A, β - carotene and total cholesterol levels with their matched control (n = 20). The mean age and standard deviation of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients was 34.75± 6.57 while the mean age and standard deviation for controls was ...

  9. Royal Jelly Reduces Cholesterol Levels, Ameliorates Aβ Pathology and Enhances Neuronal Metabolic Activities in a Rabbit Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia characterized by aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ and neuronal loss. One of the risk factors for AD is high cholesterol levels, which are known to promote Aβ deposition. Previous studies have shown that royal jelly (RJ, a product of worker bees, has potential neuroprotective effects and can attenuate Aβ toxicity. However, little is known about how RJ regulates Aβ formation and its effects on cholesterol levels and neuronal metabolic activities. Here, we investigated whether RJ can reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in an AD rabbit model induced by 2% cholesterol diet plus copper drinking water. Our results suggest that RJ significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and decreased the level of Aβ in rabbit brains. RJ was also shown to markedly ameliorate amyloid deposition in AD rabbits from Aβ immunohistochemistry and thioflavin-T staining. Furthermore, our study suggests that RJ can reduce the expression levels of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, and increase the expression levels of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1 and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE. In addition, we found that RJ remarkably increased the number of neurons, enhanced antioxidant capacities, inhibited activated-capase-3 protein expression, and enhanced neuronal metabolic activities by increasing N-acetyl aspartate (NAA and glutamate and by reducing choline and myo-inositol in AD rabbits. Taken together, our data demonstrated that RJ could reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in AD rabbits, providing preclinical evidence that RJ treatment has the potential to protect neurons and prevent AD.

  10. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  11. ANALYSIS OF BILIARY CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN IRON-DEFICIENT PATIENTS OPERATED FOR GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal problem in day-to-day practice. The old concept that a typical gallstone sufferer is fat, fertile, flatulent female of 50. This is partially true as the disease has been found in women soon after their first delivery who are thin and underweight and in males also. Conditions that favour the formation of cholesterol gallstones are super saturation of bile with cholesterol, kinetically favourable nucleation and presence of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder long enough to agglomerate into a stone. Recent studies have defined the role of trace elements (Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu and defective pH in the formation of gallstones. The aim of the study is to determine the association of iron deficiency in super saturation of bile. This cross-sectional study of 50 patients was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. Biliary cholesterol and serum cholesterol were compared in iron deficient and non-iron deficient patients having gallstones. A low serum iron level is a factor in bile super saturation with respect to cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. 50 patients suffering from cholelithiasis confirmed by USG were divided into two groups based on serum iron values. Group A consists of patients with normal serum iron (non-anaemic and Group B of patients with less than normal serum iron (anaemic. RESULTS Serum total cholesterol of the patients of cholelithiasis was not different among groups categorised based on serum iron levels. There were no significant variations in the serum cholesterol contents of both the groups. Also, there was no significant variation of the above parameter in the male and female patients. CONCLUSION Though, it is difficult to draw a causal

  12. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  13. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  14. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  15. Levothyroxine treatment restored the decreased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Ning; Hu, Yanjin; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Li; Yao, Zhi; Xu, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endogenous regulator of energy metabolism. Thyroid hormone has been shown to regulate hepatic FGF21 expression in rodents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma FGF21 levels in participants with normal thyroid function, subclinical hypothyroidism, or overt hypothyroidism and to investigate the change of plasma FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism after levothyroxine treatment. A total of 473 drug-naive participants were recruited, including 250 healthy control subjects, 116 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 107 patients with overt hypothyroidism. Thirty-eight patients with overt hypothyroidism were assigned to receive levothyroxine treatment. The overt hypothyroidism group had decreased FGF21 levels compared with the control and subclinical hypothyroidism groups (Ptreatment markedly attenuated the increased circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with overt hypothyroidism. A significant increase in plasma FGF21 levels was observed after levothyroxine treatment (Ptreatment (FT3: r=0.44; FT4: r=0.53; all Ptreatment ameliorated metabolic disorders and restored the decreased circulating FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism. The increase in FGF21 levels after levothyroxine treatment might be partly associated with the amelioration of metabolic disorders in patients with hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hemorrhagic stroke in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Szarek, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study, atorvastatin 80 mg/day reduced the risk of stroke in patients with recent stroke or TIA. Post hoc analysis found this overall benefit included an increase in the numbers of treated patients having......: Of 4,731 patients, 67% had ischemic strokes, 31% TIAs, and 2% hemorrhagic strokes as entry events. In addition to atorvastatin treatment (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.59, p = 0.02), Cox multivariable regression including baseline variables significant in univariable analyses showed that hemorrhagic stroke...... and treatment. Multivariable analyses also found that having Stage 2 (JNC-7) hypertension at the last study visit before a hemorrhagic stroke increased risk (HR 6.19, 95% CI 1.47 to 26.11, p = 0.01), but there was no effect of most recent LDL-cholesterol level in those treated with atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS...

  17. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Tanvir, E. M.; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey...

  18. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  19. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  20. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G

    2011-01-01

    levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial...

  1. Mutations in the gene for lipoprotein lipase. A cause for low HDL cholesterol levels in individuals heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimstone, S. N.; Gagné, S. E.; Gagné, C.; Lupien, P. J.; Gaudet, D.; Williams, R. R.; Kotze, M.; Reymer, P. W.; Defesche, J. C.; Kastelein, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by elevated plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol resulting from mutations in the gene for the LDL receptor. Low HDL cholesterol levels are seen frequently in patients both heterozygous and homozygous for mutations in this gene. Suggested

  2. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  3. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz ... What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Common Misconceptions Cholesterol IQ Quiz • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes of High ...

  4. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of shift work on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the "Healthy Heart project" at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.

  6. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  7. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  9. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  10. Hepatic S1P deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol levels in apoB-containing lipoproteins when LDLR function is compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debapriya; Huq, Afroza; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Site-1 protease (S1P) is the key enzyme required for activation of the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) that govern lipid synthesis. While S1P has been speculated to influence plasma apoB-containing lipoprotein (Blp) metabolism, there has been little investigative work. LDL receptor (LDLR) is the major receptor for clearing plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-c). Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) modulates LDL-c through post-translational degradation of the LDLR. A hepatic-specific knockdown (KD) of S1P was achieved using floxed S1P mouse models (S1P(f/f) and LDLR(-/-)S1P(f/f)) and hepatic expression of Cre recombinase. Lipids were measured in total plasma and size fractionated plasma using colorimetric assays. Realtime polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA were used to determine hepatic expression of key genes/protein. Plasmid mediated overexpression and siRNA mediated knockdown of genes were performed in mouse primary hepatocytes to determine the mechanistic basis of PCSK9 gene regulation. A hepatic-specific KD of S1P resulted in a 45 % and 38 % reduction in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, respectively. Hepatic S1P KD had a minimal effect on plasma Blp cholesterol (Blp-c) in S1P(f/f) mice, despite significantly reducing VLDL secretion. Notably, hepatic S1P KD decreased the LDL receptor (LDLR) mRNA expression by 50 %. However, the reduction in LDLR protein levels was less than that of mRNA expression, especially under fed conditions. Further assessment of hepatic S1P deficiency revealed that it increased LDLR protein stability in vivo. Mechanistically, hepatic S1P KD was shown to decrease the liver and plasma levels of the protein proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which degrades LDLR protein. This effect was more prominent in the fed condition and sufficient to account for the discordance in LDLR mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic S1P was shown to regulate PCSK9

  11. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  13. The Effect of Giving Sago Waste, Shrimp Waste and Its Combination on Cholesterol Level and Growth of White Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ralahalu, T. N; Kartiarso,; Parakkasi, A; Wiryawan, K. G; Priyanto, R

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is very beneficial for the body but it needs attention when its level is increasing in the blood. The objective of the study was to determine cholesterol level and growth rate of white rat fed on ration containing sago waste, shrimp waste and their combinations. Fourty males Spraque dowley rats, aged two months with average body weight was 195.62 g, were randomly assigned to one of ten experimental treatments according to completely randomised design with four replication for each...

  14. Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl. (Thymelaeaceae Leaves Increase SR-BI Expression and Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosie Andriani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies of the activity of Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl (Thymelaeaceae leaves against the therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia were done using the HDL receptor (SR-BI and hypercholesterolemia-induced Sprague Dawley rats. The in vitro study showed that the active fraction (CF6 obtained from the ethyl acetate extract (EMD and its component 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxybenzophenone increased the SR-BI expression by 95% and 60%, respectively. The in vivo study has proven the effect of EMD at 0.5 g/kgbw dosage in reducing the total cholesterol level by 224.9% and increasing the HDL cholesterol level by 157% compared to the cholesterol group. In the toxicity study, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT activity were observed to be at normal levels. The liver histology also proved no toxicity and abnormalities in any of the treatment groups, so it can be categorized as non-toxic to the rat liver. The findings taken together show that P. macrocarpa leaves are safe and suitable as an alternative control and prevention treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Sprague Dawley rats.

  15. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  16. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina; Fonseca, Isabel; Dias, Sérgio; Mendes de Almeida, JC

    2014-01-01

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients

  17. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina [Gulbenkian Programme for Advanced Medical Education, Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, Isabel [Department of Pathology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Dias, Sérgio [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes de Almeida, JC [Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-02-26

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients.

  18. Genetic variation in FADS genes and plasma cholesterol levels in 2-year-old infants: KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moltó-Puigmartí

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with plasma lipid levels. We aimed to investigate whether these associations are already present early in life and compare the relative contribution of FADS SNPs vs traditional (non-genetic factors as determinants of plasma lipid levels. METHODS: Information on infants' plasma total cholesterol levels, genotypes of five FADS SNPs (rs174545, rs174546, rs174556, rs174561, and rs3834458, anthropometric data, maternal characteristics, and breastfeeding history was available for 521 2-year-old children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. For 295 of these 521 children, plasma HDLc and non-HDLc levels were also known. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to study the associations of genetic and non-genetic determinants with cholesterol levels. RESULTS: All FADS SNPs were significantly associated with total cholesterol levels. Heterozygous and homozygous for the minor allele children had about 4% and 8% lower total cholesterol levels than major allele homozygotes. In addition, homozygous for the minor allele children had about 7% lower HDLc levels. This difference reached significance for the SNPs rs174546 and rs3834458. The associations went in the same direction for non-HDLc, but statistical significance was not reached. The percentage of total variance of total cholesterol levels explained by FADS SNPs was relatively low (lower than 3% but of the same order as that explained by gender and the non-genetic determinants together. CONCLUSIONS: FADS SNPs are associated with plasma total cholesterol and HDLc levels in preschool children. This brings a new piece of evidence to explain how blood lipid levels may track from childhood to adulthood. Moreover, the finding that these SNPs explain a similar amount of variance in total cholesterol levels as the non-genetic determinants studied reveals the potential

  19. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).; We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels.; In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (b...

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  2. Simulation of decreasing reactor power level with BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Rivai, Abu Khalid

    2002-01-01

    Study on characteristic of BWR using Desktop PC Based Simulator Program was analysed. This simulator is more efficient and cheaper for analyzing of characteristic and dynamic respond than full scope simulator for decreasing power level of BW. Dynamic responses of BWR reactor was investigated during the power level reduction from 100% FP (Full Power) which is 3926 MWth to 0% FP with 25% steps and 1 % FP/sec rate. The overall results for core flow rate, reactor steam flow, feed-water flow and turbine-generator power show tendency proportional to reduction of reactor power. This results show that reactor power control in BWR could be done by control of re-circulation flow that alter the density of water used as coolant and moderator. Decreasing the re-circulation flow rate will decrease void density which has negative reactivity and also affect the position of control rods

  3. Esophageal acid exposure decreases intraluminal baseline impedance levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weijenborg, Pim W.; Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Loots, Clara M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Intraluminal baseline impedance levels are determined by the conductivity of the esophageal wall and can be decreased in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline impedance in GERD patients, on and off proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and in

  4. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Macrophage ABCA2 deletion modulates intracellular cholesterol deposition, affects macrophage apoptosis, and decreases early atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Zhao, Ying; de Graauw, Marjo; Ye, Dan; van Santbrink, Peter J; Mommaas, A Mieke; Foks, Amanda; Bot, Martine; Meurs, Illiana; Kuiper, Johan; Mack, Jody T; Van Eck, Miranda; Tew, Kenneth D; van Berkel, Theo J C

    2012-08-01

    The ABCA2 transporter shares high structural homology to ABCA1, which is crucial for the removal of excess cholesterol from macrophages and, by extension, in atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that ABCA2 sequesters cholesterol inside the lysosomes, however, little is known of the macrophage-specific role of ABCA2 in regulating lipid homeostasis in vivo and in modulating susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA2 were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA2 knockout (KO) mice into irradiated LDL receptor (LDLr) KO mice. Interestingly, lack of ABCA2 in macrophages resulted in a diminished lesion size in the aortic root (-24.5%) and descending thoracic aorta (-36.6%) associated with a 3-fold increase in apoptotic cells, as measured by both caspase 3 and TUNEL. Upon oxidized LDL exposure, macrophages from wildtype (WT) transplanted animals developed filipin-positive droplets in lysosomal-like compartments, corresponding to free cholesterol (FC) accumulation. In contrast, ABCA2-deficient macrophages displayed an abnormal diffuse distribution of FC over peripheral regions. The accumulation of neutral sterols in lipid droplets was increased in ABCA2-deficient macrophages, but primarily in cytoplasmic clusters and not in lysosomes. Importantly, apoptosis of oxLDL loaded macrophages lacking ABCA2 was increased 2.7-fold, probably as a consequence of the broad cellular distribution of FC. Lack of functional ABCA2 generates abnormalities in intracellular lipid distribution/trafficking in macrophages consistent with its lysosomal sequestering role, leading to an increased susceptibility to apoptosis in response to oxidized lipids and reduced atherosclerotic lesion development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of VCO and olive oil on HDL, LDL, and cholesterol level of hyperglycemic Rattus Rattus Norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Wachidah Yuiwarti, Enny; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Kusdiyantini, Endang

    2018-05-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil are edible oil containing an antioxidant that can prevent free radicals in Rattus rattus norvegicus hypoglycemic due to the damage of pancreatic beta cell after alloxan injection. Virgin coconut oil and olive oil are fatty acids when being consumed will affect lipid metabolism particularly HDL, LDL and cholesterol in serum. This research aims to determine the effect of VCO and Olive oil on cholesterol levels in hyperglycemic rats. Research materials were twenty male Rattus rattus norvegicus. Randomized Factorial Design was used in four treatment groups including P1(control), P2 (mice injected with alloxan), P3 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each VCO and vitamin E) and P4 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each olive oil and vitamin E. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Feed and water were provided adlibitum for four weeks. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the level of HDL serum across the treatments, but P4 had a significantly higher LDL than the other treatments. Moreover, total cholesterol was significantly increased in P4 compared to the other groups. It can be concluded that olive oil could increase the level of cholesterol and LDL in serum, while VCO did not increase the level of cholesterol and LDL so VCO more potential to maintain cholesterol in hyperglycemic Rattus rattus norvegicus.

  7. Disrupting Hepatocyte Cyp51 from Cholesterol Synthesis Leads to Progressive Liver Injury in the Developing Mouse and Decreases RORC Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlep, Žiga; Lorbek, Gregor; Perše, Martina; Jeruc, Jera; Juvan, Peter; Matz-Soja, Madlen; Gebhardt, Rolf; Björkhem, Ingemar; Hall, Jason A.; Bonneau, Richard; Littman, Dan R.; Rozman, Damjana

    2017-01-01

    Development of mice with hepatocyte knockout of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (HCyp51-/-) from cholesterol synthesis is characterized by the progressive onset of liver injury with ductular reaction and fibrosis. These changes begin during puberty and are generally more aggravated in the knockout females. However, a subgroup of (pre)pubertal knockout mice (runts) exhibits a pronounced male prevalent liver dysfunction characterized by downregulated amino acid metabolism and elevated Casp12. RORC transcriptional activity is diminished in livers of all runt mice, in correlation with the depletion of potential RORC ligands subsequent to CYP51 disruption. Further evidence for this comes from the global analysis that identified a crucial overlap between hepatic Cyp51-/- and Rorc-/- expression profiles. Additionally, the reduction in RORA and RORC transcriptional activity was greater in adult HCyp51-/- females than males, which correlates well with their downregulated amino and fatty acid metabolism. Overall, we identify a global and sex-dependent transcriptional de-regulation due to the block in cholesterol synthesis during development of the Cyp51 knockout mice and provide in vivo evidence that sterol intermediates downstream of lanosterol may regulate the hepatic RORC activity.

  8. Plasma klotho levels decrease in both anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Kaimoto, Kaori; Sameshima, Nanami; Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Haruta, Izumi; Tsai, Minglun; Nakahara, Toshihiro; Ushikai, Miharu; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Hamada, Satoshi; Inui, Akio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of klotho with body mass index (BMI) in patients with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (r-AN) and obesity. We examined plasma klotho as well as adiponectin and its isoform levels in comparison in 11 obese patients, 12 r-AN patients, and 11 control participants. Plasma klotho levels were markedly lower in the obesity and r-AN groups than in the control group. Moreover, plasma klotho levels increased significantly after the recovery of BMI in r-AN patients. Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels were significantly decreased only in obesity. There was no relationship between klotho and total adiponectin levels or klotho and respective adiponectin isoform levels in the entire study population. These results suggest that klotho may reflect normal nutritional state, and that the decrease of klotho in r-AN and obesity may underlie the deteriorating processes of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stairs instead of elevators at the workplace decreases PCSK9 levels in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  11. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. The Effect of the Cholesterol Levels on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mehmet Gokhan; Aydin, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), which is one of the most common occupational diseases among industrialized populations, is associated with longstanding exposure to high levels of noise. The pathogenesis of NIHL is not clear, but some genes and their activity at the tissue level have been investigated. Hypercholesterolemia, which can disturb the microcirculation, can be one of the underlying pathologies in hearing loss. Objective  To investigate the relationship between NIHL and hypercholesterolemia. Methods  The study group was selected among workers who had an occupational exposure of 85 dB of noise for at least 10 years. The audiologic assessment was recorded at seven frequencies (500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, 6,000 Hz and 8,000 Hz). A total of 456 workers were included in the study and divided into two groups: the control group (252 patients) and the NIHL group (204 patients). After the audiologic measurement, blood samples were taken and investigated for blood cholesterol levels. According to these results, the groups were compared. Results  Both groups were similarly distributed regarding age and occupational exposure time ( p  > 0.05). We could not detect any association between cholesterol levels and noise-induced hearing loss ( p   0.05). Conclusion  Noise-induced hearing loss is still a common occupational problem that can be prevented by hearing conservation programs and occupational health and safety training. Still, we know little about the relationship between NIHL and hypercholesterolemia. According to our findings, we cannot detect any relationship. Controlled studies and studies with human individuals can be made possible in the future with diagnostic innovations in tissue imaging and tissue microcircular sampling.

  13. Decreasing of pulsation intensity levels in X-ray receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoryankin, V F; Kudryashov, A A; Petrov, A G

    2002-01-01

    The low frequency filter is applied in the multichannel receiver on the basis of the GaAs epitaxial structures for decreasing the pulsations level at the signals amplifier outlet. The optimal band of the filter is determined by the transition processes by the detector scanning in the roentgen beams. The X-ray source of radiation with the medium-frequency feeding generator is used for verifying the quality of the obtained X-ray image

  14. Quantitative comparison of the efficacy of various compounds in lowering intracellular cholesterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary T Wehrmann

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC is a lethal, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 cholesterol transport proteins. NPC's hallmark symptoms include an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the late endosomal and lysosomal cellular compartments, causing progressive neurodegeneration and death. Although the age of onset may vary in those affected, NPC most often manifests in juveniles, and is usually fatal before adolescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of various drugs, many of which modify the epigenetic control of NPC1/NPC2 gene expression, in lowering the otherwise harmful elevated intracellular cholesterol levels in NPC cells. Our studies utilized a previously described image analysis technique, which allowed us to make quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of these drugs in lowering cholesterol levels in a common NPC1 mutant model. Of the drugs analyzed, several that have been previously studied (vorinostat, panobinostat, and β-cyclodextrin significantly lowered the relative amount of unesterified cellular cholesterol, consistent with earlier observations. In addition, a novel potential treatment, rapamycin, likewise alleviated the NPC phenotype. We also studied combinations of effective compounds with β-cyclodextrin; the addition of β-cyclodextrin significantly enhanced the cholesterol-lowering activity of vorinostat and panobinostat, but had mixed effects with rapamycin. Collectively, these results may provide a basis for the eventual development of improved NPC therapies.

  15. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  16. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  17. Decreased Circulating Levels of APRIL: Questioning Its Role in Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carvalho-Santos

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects over 382 million people worldwide. Type-1 Diabetes (T1D is classified as an autoimmune disease that results from pancreatic β-cell destruction and insulin deficiency. Type-2 Diabetes (T2D is characterized principally by insulin resistance in target tissues followed by decreased insulin production due to β-cell failure. It is challenging to identify immunological markers such as inflammatory molecules that are triggered in response to changes during the pathogenesis of diabetes. APRIL is an important member of the TNF family and has been linked to chronic inflammatory processes of various diseases since its discovery in 1998. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate APRIL serum levels in T1D and T2D. For this, we used the ELISA assay to measure serum APRIL levels of 33 T1D and 30 T2D patients, and non-diabetic subjects as control group. Our data showed a decrease in serum APRIL levels in T1D patients when compared with healthy individuals. The same pattern was observed in the group of T2D patients when compared with the control. The decrease of serum APRIL levels in diabetic patients suggests that this cytokine has a role in T1D and T2D. Diabetes is already considered as an inflammatory condition with different cytokines being implicated in its physiopathology. Our data suggest that APRIL can be considered as a potential modulating cytokine in the inflammatory process of diabetes.

  18. Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: An evidence map of the available science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, DeAnn J; Cook, Chad M; Wang, Ding Ding; Gaine, P Courtney; Baer, David J

    2016-12-01

    High intakes of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increase circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Published data on iTFA and LDL-C, however, represent higher intake levels than the U.S. population currently consume. This study used state-of-the-art evidence mapping approaches to characterize the full body of literature on LDL-C and iTFA at low intake levels. A total of 32 independent clinical trials that included at least one intervention or control group with iTFA at ≤3%en were found. Findings indicated that a wide range of oils and interventions were used, limiting the ability to determine an isolated effect of iTFA intake. Few data points were found for iTFA at available to assess the relationship of low levels of iTFA, particularly from PHO exposure, and LDL-C. Therefore, limited evidence is available to determine the effect of iTFA at current consumption levels on CHD risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulation by geraniol of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism leading to a reduction of serum-cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Marianela; Kladniew, Boris Rodenak; Castro, María Agustina; Villegas, Sandra Montero; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Polo, Mónica; de Bravo, Margarita García; Crespo, Rosana

    2015-07-15

    mechanisms may have mediated the decrease in plasma lipids levels in mice: a down-regulation of hepatocyte-cholesterol synthesis occurred as a result of decreased HMGCR protein levels and catalytic activity; the levels of LDLR mRNA became elevated, thus suggesting an increase in the uptake of serum LDL, especially by the liver; and TG synthesis became reduced very likely because of a decrease in fatty-acid synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jasmine G; O'Dea, Kerin; Walker, Karen Z

    2014-06-02

    Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia's Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation.

  1. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Attributable to Elevated Levels of Total Cholesterol Among Hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, Nicole L.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Although cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) among hypertensives, the burden of CHD among hypertensives that may be due to elevated cholesterol has not been well documented. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of incident myocardial infarction

  2. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroti, Camila; Souza Magri, Loyanne Francine; de Rezende Costa, Marcela; Cavallini, Daniela C U; Sivieri, Katia

    2012-02-22

    The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 10(8) UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10(8) UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia.

  3. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  4. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  5. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  6. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  7. The effect of germinated fenugreek seeds and clofibrat on blood cholesterol level and aortic fatty streak in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram delfan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the excess of fat and stiffness of arteries sidewalls in which specific areas of the circulatory system are involved, causing specific signs based on the involved area, the characteristics of the lesion, and the severity of involvement. The only factor necessary to cause atherosclerosis is the high level of LDL cholesterol. Today, drugs such as lovastatin, clofibrate, and Klystramyn are applied to reduce LDL and increase HDL levels. Material and methods: The effect of fenugreek seeds without any drugs or with clofibrat on blood lipids profile and fatty streak forming were evaluated in 25 male healthy rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 5 group of 5 and received the following diets and drugs for 45 days: Group Ι, normal diet without any drugs Group Π, high cholesterol diet without any drugs Group ΙΙΙ, high cholesterol diet in addition to germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid Group ΙV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and GroupV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid. The blood samples were collected after overnight fasting at the beginning and at the end of the test period and were estimated for lipids profile. Also autopsy and aortic cross-sectional sampling was conducted for microscopic study after the experiment. Result: The serum total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels of groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV,V increased less than those in group Π but HDL levels in groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV and V increased more than that in group Π (P<0.001. Furthermore, the intensity of fatty streak was less in group V. Conclusion: This result indicates the usefulness of fenugreek seeds in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis (P<0.05

  8. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    absorption inhibition with STAEST. Serum plant sterol concentrations decrease dose-dependently in response to plant stanols suggesting that the higher the plant stanol dose, the more cholesterol absorption is inhibited and the greater the reduction in LDL cholesterol level is that can be achieved. Clinical Trials Register # NCT00698256 [Eur J Nutr 2010, 49:111-117].

  9. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is more likely to clog blood vessels because ... Here's a way to remember the difference: the LDL cholesterol is the bad kind, so call it "lousy" ...

  10. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  11. Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking and Impact in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Arenas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a critical component of membrane bilayers where it plays key structural and functional roles by regulating the activity of diverse signaling platforms and pathways. Particularly enriched in brain, cholesterol homeostasis in this organ is singular with respect to other tissues and exhibits a heterogeneous regulation in distinct brain cell populations. Due to the key role of cholesterol in brain physiology and function, alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and levels have been linked to brain diseases and neurodegeneration. In the case of Alzheimer disease (AD, however, this association remains unclear with evidence indicating that either increased or decreased total brain cholesterol levels contribute to this major neurodegenerative disease. Here, rather than analyzing the role of total cholesterol levels in neurodegeneration, we focus on the contribution of intracellular cholesterol pools, particularly in endolysosomes and mitochondria through its trafficking via specialized membrane domains delineated by the contacts between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, in the onset of prevalent neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease as well as in lysosomal disorders like Niemann-Pick type C disease. We dissect molecular events associated with intracellular cholesterol accumulation, especially in mitochondria, an event that results in impaired mitochondrial antioxidant defense and function. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the distribution of cholesterol in intracellular compartments may shed light on the role of cholesterol homeostasis disruption in neurodegeneration and may pave the way for specific intervention opportunities.

  12. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morón Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10 has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5 encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille, recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015 and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025. Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006 and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029. In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029. Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our

  13. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  14. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  15. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  16. Body mass index and cholesterol level predict surgical outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ling; Li, Wan-Chun; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Ting, Chin-Tsung

    2016-04-19

    Curative surgical resection (CSR) remains the most effective therapeutic intervention for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, frequent post-surgical recurrence leads to high cancer related mortality. This study aimed to clarify the role of body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level in predicting post-surgical outcomes in HCC patients after CSR. A total of 484 HCC patients including 213 BMIhigh and 271 BMIlow patients were included. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were examined in patients with differential BMI and serum cholesterol level. The analysis showed that significant different 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates (P-value=0.015) and RFS rate (P-value=0.010) between BMIlow and BMIhigh patients. Further analysis in groups with differential serum cholesterol levels among BMIlow and BMIhigh patients indicated that the BMIlow/Chollow patients exhibited the significant lower cumulative OS and RFS rates in comparison with the remaining subjects (P-value=0.007 and 0.039 for OS and RFS rates, respectively). In conclusion, the coexistence of low BMI and low serum cholesterol level could serve as prognostic factors to predict post-operative outcomes in HCC patients undergoing surgical hepatectomy.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  18. Significant improvement in statin adherence and cholesterol levels after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Hilde Vaiva Tonstad; Køhn, Morten Ganderup; Berget, Oline Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time.......Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time....

  19. Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels <400 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2016-09-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels <400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL.

  20. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Hypertriglyceridemia on Carotid Stenosis Progression under Normal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagami, Masayuki; Yasuda, Ryuta; Toma, Naoki; Shiba, Masato; Nampei, Mai; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2017-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is a well-known risk factor for carotid stenosis progression, but triglycerides have attracted little attention. The aim of this study was to assess if serum triglycerides affect progression of carotid stenosis in patients with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This is a retrospective study in a single hospital consisting of 71 Japanese patients with internal carotid artery stenosis greater than or equal to 50% and normal serum LDL-C levels who underwent angiographic examination with or without the resultant carotid artery stenting or endarterectomy from 2007 to 2011, and were subsequently followed up for 4 years. Clinical factors including fasting serum triglyceride values were compared between the progression (≥10% increase in degree of carotid stenosis on ultrasonography) and the nonprogression groups. During 4 years, 15 patients (21.1%) had carotid stenosis progression on either side. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that symptomatic cases (hazard ratio [HR], 4.327; P = .019), coexisting intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis (HR, 5.341; P = .005), and hypertriglyceridemia (HR, 6.228; P = .011) were associated with subsequent progression of carotid stenosis. Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrated that the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher in patients without hypertriglyceridemia and intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis at baseline. Among patients with moderate to severe carotid stenosis and well-controlled LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia was an important risk factor for progression of carotid stenosis irrespective of surgical treatments. It would be worthwhile to test if triglyceride-lowering medications suppress carotid stenosis progression. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Very low levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship – a review of LCAT deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Savel,1,2 Marianne Lafitte,1 Yann Pucheu,1,3 Vincent Pradeau,1 Antoine Tabarin,2,3 Thierry Couffinhal1,3,41Centre d'Exploration, de Prévention et de Traitement de l'Athérosclérose, Hôpital Cardiologique, 2Service d'endocrinologie, CHU Bordeaux, Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France; 3Université de Bordeaux Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, 4INSERM, Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, U1034, Pessac, FranceAbstract: A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL level is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. HDL is believed to retard the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by removing excess cholesterol from cells and preventing endothelial dysfunction. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a central role in the formation and maturation of HDL, and in the intravascular stage of reverse cholesterol transport: a major mechanism by which HDL modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis. A defect in LCAT function would be expected to enhance atherosclerosis, by interfering with the reverse cholesterol transport step. As such, one would expect to find more atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in LCAT-deficient patients. But this relationship is not always evident. In this review, we describe contradictory reports in the literature about cardiovascular risks in this patient population. We discuss the paradoxical finding of severe HDL deficiency and an absence of subclinical atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient patients, which has been used to reject the hypothesis that HDL level is important in the protection against atherosclerosis. Furthermore, to illustrate this paradoxical finding, we present a case study of one patient, referred for evaluation of global cardiovascular risk in the presence of a low HDL cholesterol level, who was diagnosed with LCAT gene mutations.Keywords: atherosclerosis, LCAT function

  3. Role of Membrane Cholesterol Levels in Activation of Lyn upon Cell Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Morinaga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol, a major component of the plasma membrane, determines the physicalproperties of biological membranes and plays a critical role in the assembly of membranemicrodomains. Enrichment or deprivation of membrane cholesterol affects the activities of manysignaling molecules at the plasma membrane. Cell detachment changes the structure of the plasmamembrane and influences the localizations of lipids, including cholesterol. Recent studies showedthat cell detachment changes the activities of a variety of signaling molecules. We previously reportedthat the localization and the function of the Src-family kinase Lyn are critically regulated by itsmembrane anchorage through lipid modifications. More recently, we found that the localization andthe activity of Lyn were changed upon cell detachment, although the manners of which vary betweencell types. In this review, we highlight the changes in the localization of Lyn and a role of cholesterolin the regulation of Lyn’s activation following cell detachment.

  4. Effects of vitamin C supplementation in human volunteers with a range of cholesterol levels on biomarkers of oxygen radical-generated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, D.; Phillips, B.J.; Yu, T-W.; Edwards, A.J.; Ayesh, R.; Butterworth, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four men and 24 women, all nonsmoking, and maintaining normal dietary habits were assigned to 3 groups of 16. Each group comprising 4 males with "low" cholesterol levels (<6 mmol/L) matched for age and build with 4 males with "high" cholesterol levels (>6 mmol/L) and 8 similarly matched

  5. Effect of γ irradiation on the activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in plasma of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, N.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol and lecithin-cholesterol-acyl-transferase activity are studied in irradiated rats. Ionizing radiations cause an increase of cholesterol levels in plasma, concerning mainly ester fraction. Lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase activity in plasma of irradiated rats is lowered 48 hours after exposure. This decreased rate of LCAT is probably the consequence of the post-irradiation hypercholesterolemia [fr

  6. Normal LDL-Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Absence of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Fuster, Valentín; López-Melgar, Beatriz; Oliva, Belén; García-Ruiz, José M; Mendiguren, José; Bueno, Héctor; Pocock, Stuart; Ibáñez, Borja; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanz, Javier

    2017-12-19

    Absence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is traditionally considered low risk for atherosclerosis; however, individuals without CVRFs, as currently defined, still have events. This study sought to identify predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in CVRF-free individuals. Participants from the PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study (n = 4,184) without conventional CVRFs were evaluated (n = 1,779; 45.0 ± 4.1 years, 50.3% women). CVRF freedom was defined as no current smoking and untreated blood pressure cholesterol cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol ≥40 mg/dl. A subgroup with optimal CVRFs (n = 740) was also defined as having blood pressure cholesterol LDL-C was independently associated with atherosclerosis presence and extent, in both the CVRF-free and CVRF-optimal groups (odds ratio [×10 mg/dl]: 1.14 to 1.18; p LDL-C, even at levels currently considered normal, is independently associated with the presence and extent of early systemic atherosclerosis in the absence of major CVRFs. These findings support more effective LDL-C lowering for primordial prevention, even in individuals conventionally considered at optimal risk. (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis [PESA] Study; NCT01410318). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  8. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  9. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia provision on blood sugar level, cholesterols, and uric acid of Etawa Crossbreed Goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Hurip

    2018-05-01

    Previous research on male white rat with provision of Eurycoma longifolia until the 3rd days has increased significantly on the formation of final spermatid from spermatozoon, and testosterone, and increase activity of pituitary cell producing the LH hormone. However, these researches yet studied on possibility of side effects caused by provision of Eurycoma longifolia for 6 days on male EC goat. The research aims to measure the effect of Eurycoma longifolia on the levels of: 1). Blood sugar, 2). Cholesterols, and 3). Uric acid of Male Etawa Crossbreed (EC) goat. This research was conducted through two treatment groups, namely : 1). Control group (provision of aquadest) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days, 2) Eurycoma longifolia group with a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight (bb) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days. Measurements on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid level were conducted in the 1st, 2nd and 6th days. The obtained data were analyzed using Duncan test with confidence level by 95% (α=0,05) comparing the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid measured from the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days with the same compound level measured from the Eurycoma longifolia treatment group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. The result obtained there were no significant changes on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid levels between all Eurycoma longifolia treatment groups compared to the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. Thus, the Eurycoma longifolia provision until in the 6th day did not provide any negative side effects and can be applied in the Etawa crossbreed goat farm.

  10. A Prospective Birth Cohort Study on Maternal Cholesterol Levels and Offspring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insight on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuelong; Riley, Anne W; Lee, Li-Ching; Volk, Heather; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Angomas, Rayris; Stivers, Tom; Wahl, Anastacia; Ji, Hongkai; Bartell, Tami R; Burd, Irina; Paige, David; Fallin, Margaret D; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-12-23

    Growing evidence suggests that maternal cholesterol levels are important in the offspring's brain growth and development. Previous studies on cholesterols and brain functions were mostly in adults. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal cholesterol levels and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. We analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, enrolled at birth and followed from birth up to age 15 years. The final analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs: 303 children with ADHD, and 1176 neurotypical children without clinician-diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. The median age of the first diagnosis of ADHD was seven years. The multiple logistic regression results showed that a low maternal high-density lipoprotein level (≤60 mg/dL) was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, compared to a higher maternal high-density lipoprotein level, after adjusting for pertinent covariables. A "J" shaped relationship was observed between triglycerides and ADHD risk. The associations with ADHD for maternal high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were more pronounced among boys. The findings based on this predominantly urban low-income minority birth cohort raise a new mechanistic perspective for understanding the origins of ADHD and the gender differences and future targets in the prevention of ADHD.

  11. BmNHR96 participate BV entry of BmN-SWU1 cells via affecting the cellular cholesterol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Liu, Tai-Hang; Wang, Wei; Pan, Cai-Xia; Du, Guo-Yu; Wu, Yun-Fei; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2017-01-22

    B.mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which produces BV and ODV two virion phenotypes in its life cycle, caused the amount of economic loss in sericulture. But the mechanism of its infection was still unclear. In this study we characterized B.mori nuclear hormone receptor 96 (BmNHR96) as a NHR96 family member, which was localized in the nucleus. We also found BmNHR96 over-expression could enhance the entry of BV as well as cellular cholesterol level. Furthermore, we validated that BmNHR96 increased membrane fusion mediated by GP64, which could probably promote BV-infection. In summary, our study suggested that BmNHR96 plays an important role in BV infection and this function probably actualized by affecting cellular cholesterol level, and our results provided insights to the mechanisms of BV-infection of B.mori. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    circulating chemerin levels, which may act to reduce pregnancy-induced insulin resistance and prevent glucose intolerance. Women with gestational diabetes, however, have severely reduced chemerin levels that remain low after delivery, which may contribute to the insulin resistance, glucose intolerance......AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels...

  13. Modulation of microRNA Expression in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Decrease of Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophages via microRNA-33-Mediated Attenuation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complicated health problem that encompasses a variety of metabolic disorders. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the major biochemical parameters associated with MetS and circulating levels of microRNA (miR-33, miR-103, and miR-155. We found that miRNA-33 levels were positively correlated with levels of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol, but negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels. In the cellular study, miR-33 levels were increased in macrophages treated with high glucose and cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and pitavastatin. miR-33 has been reported to play an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 regulation and reverse cholesterol transport. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the linkage between miR-33 and statin treatment remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether atorvastatin and pitavastatin exert their functions through the modulation of miR-33 and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The results showed that treatment of the statins up-regulated miR-33 expression, but down-regulated ABCA1 mRNA levels in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Statin-mediated ABCA1 regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level through targeting of the 3'-UTR of the ABCA1 transcript by miR-33. Additionally, we found significant down-regulation of ABCA1 protein expression in macrophages treated with statins. Finally, we showed that high glucose and statin treatment significantly suppressed cholesterol efflux from macrophages. These findings have highlighted the complexity of statins, which may exert detrimental effects on metabolic abnormalities through regulation of miR-33 target genes.

  14. Modulation of microRNA Expression in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Decrease of Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophages via microRNA-33-Mediated Attenuation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ming; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lee, Wen-Jane; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chiang, An-Na

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complicated health problem that encompasses a variety of metabolic disorders. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the major biochemical parameters associated with MetS and circulating levels of microRNA (miR)-33, miR-103, and miR-155. We found that miRNA-33 levels were positively correlated with levels of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol, but negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels. In the cellular study, miR-33 levels were increased in macrophages treated with high glucose and cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and pitavastatin. miR-33 has been reported to play an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) regulation and reverse cholesterol transport. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the linkage between miR-33 and statin treatment remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether atorvastatin and pitavastatin exert their functions through the modulation of miR-33 and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The results showed that treatment of the statins up-regulated miR-33 expression, but down-regulated ABCA1 mRNA levels in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Statin-mediated ABCA1 regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level through targeting of the 3'-UTR of the ABCA1 transcript by miR-33. Additionally, we found significant down-regulation of ABCA1 protein expression in macrophages treated with statins. Finally, we showed that high glucose and statin treatment significantly suppressed cholesterol efflux from macrophages. These findings have highlighted the complexity of statins, which may exert detrimental effects on metabolic abnormalities through regulation of miR-33 target genes.

  15. Statin treatment and stroke outcome in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Zivin, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laboratory experiments suggest statins reduce stroke severity and improve outcomes. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial was a placebo-controlled, randomized trial designed to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin reduces...... or 4), moderate (modified Rankin Scale score 3 or 2), and mild (modified Rankin Scale score 1 or 0) outcome ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks and an increase in the proportion of event-free subjects randomized to atorvastatin (P

  16. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  17. Mitochondrial GWA Analysis of Lipid Profile Identifies Genetic Variants to Be Associated with HDL Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antònia Flaquer

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction has an influence on lipid metabolism. The fact that mitochondrial defects can be accumulated over time as a normal part of aging may explain why cholesterol levels often are altered with age. To test the hypothesis whether mitochondrial variants are associated with lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides we analyzed a total number of 978 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs in a sample of 2,815 individuals participating in the population-based KORA F4 study. To assess mtSNP association while taking the presence of heteroplasmy into account we used the raw signal intensity values measured on the microarray and applied linear regression. Ten mtSNPs (mt3285, mt3336, mt5285, mt6591, mt6671, mt9163, mt13855, mt13958, mt14000, and mt14580 were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol and one mtSNP (mt15074 with triglycerides levels. These results highlight the importance of the mitochondrial genome among the factors that contribute to the regulation of lipid levels. Focusing on mitochondrial variants may lead to further insights regarding the underlying physiological mechanisms, or even to the development of innovative treatments. Since this is the first mitochondrial genome-wide association analysis (mtGWAS for lipid profile, further analyses are needed to follow up on the present findings.

  18. Cellular Cholesterol Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cholesterol Export Proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C.; Brown, Andrew J.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C.; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes. PMID:24500716

  19. LCAT, HDL Cholesterol and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study of HDL Cholesterol in 54,500 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Ali Qayyum, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    , S208T (rs4986970, allele frequency 4%), associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both the CCHS and the CGPS was used to study causality of HDL cholesterol using instrumental variable analysis.Results:Epidemiologically, in the CCHS, a 13% (0.21 mmol/liter) decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol levels...... was associated with an 18% increase in risk of MI. S208T associated with a 13% (0.21 mmol/liter) decrease in HDL cholesterol levels but not with increased risk of MI or other ischemic end points. The causal odds ratio for MI for a 50% reduction in plasma HDL cholesterol due to S208T genotype in both studies......Background:Epidemiologically, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels associate inversely with risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Whether this is a causal relation is unclear.Methods:We studied 10,281 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and 50,523 participants...

  20. Gemfibrozil not fenofibrate decreases systemic glucose level via PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Danjun; Chu, Zanbo; Min, Luo; Zhen, Tan; Li, Pengxu; Han, Liyuan; Bu, Shizhong; yang, Julin; Gonzale, F J; Liu, Aiming

    2016-04-01

    Concurrence of high glucose or diabetes in patients with dyslipidemia is presenting major challenges for clinicians. Although sporadically reported, a rational basis for the use of fibrates for the treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent metabolic syndrome has not been established. In this study, wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null (KO) mice were fed a serial gemfibrozil- and fenofibrate-containing diet under the same experimental conditions for 14 days. Glucose level in the blood, glycogen storage in the liver tissues, and the potential toxic responses were assayed. Genes involved in glucose metabolism were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both the blood glucose level and the glycogen content in the liver were down-regulated by gemfibrozil but not by fenofibrate in WT mice, in a dose-dependent manner. This decrement did not occur in KO mice for either fibrate agent. Secondary regulation on the transcription of pyruvate kinase, and gluconolactonase were observed following gemfibrozil treatment, which was differential between WT mice and KO mice. Gemfibrozil, not fenofibrate, down-regulates systemic glucose level and glycogen storage in the liver dependent on PPARα, suggesting its potential value for treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent diabetes or high glucose levels.

  1. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  2. Effects of persimmon peel supplementation on pork quality, palatability, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of persimmon peel (PPM supplementation on carcass performance, pork quality, eating quality, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol concentration of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. Results No adverse effects of PPM supplementation were observed on carcass and meat quality characteristics among the treatment groups (P > 0.05, whereas pork loins from pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0.9 % persimmon peel (T3 showed more tender meat than did pork loins from pigs fed a control diet (P < 0.01, even though no significant difference was observed between the control and T1 group. The T3 group had higher ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to saturated fatty acids (0.33 vs. 0.28, P < 0.05 and lower total cholesterol concentration (94.4 vs. 99.1 mg/g, P < 0.05 compared to the control group. Persimmon peel appeared to have beneficial effects on fatty acid composition and cholesterol concentration, probably leading to a hypocholesterolemic effect. Conclusions Animal diets fortified with persimmon peel represents an efficient and useful method for improving the nutritional quality of pork without impairing growth performance and eating quality properties.

  3. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.

    2006-01-01

    level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed......Intravenously infused liposomes may induce cardiopulmonary distress in some human subjects, which is a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy." We have now examined liposome-mediated complement activation in human sera with elevated lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels, since...... abnormal or racial differences in serum lipid profiles seem to modulate the extent of complement activation and associated adverse responses. In accordance with our earlier observations, cholesterol-rich (45 mol% cholesterol) liposomes activated human complement, as reflected by a significant rise in serum...

  4. Decreased Serum 25-Hydroxycalciferol Levels in Pre-diabetic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, Q. A.; Khan, D. A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, F. A.; Latif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels [25(OH)D] in adults with pre-diabetes and normoglycaemia to examine a possible association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from November 2012 to July 2013. Methodology: A total of 272 adults including 136 pre-diabetics and 136 normoglycaemics of either gender aged 20 years and above were consecutively inducted. Patients with diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, rickets and osteomalacia, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease and chronic liver disease were excluded. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) was estimated with hexokinase method on Modular p800 Roche chemistry analyzer while serum 25(OH)D was measured on Diasorin Liaison immunoassay analyzer using the chemiluminescent technique. Mean 25(OH)D levels in pre-diabetic and normoglycaemic groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's correlation coefficient 'rs' was determined between serum 25(OH)D and FPG. Odds ratio for vitamin D deficiency was also calculated. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D level was low in pre-diabetics (23.2 nmol/L) as compared to normoglycaemics (29 nmol/L; p=0.001). Serum 25(OH)D level had inverse correlation with FPG (rs = -0.448, p=0.000). There was also significant association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes compared with normoglycaemia (OR: 2.21, p= 0.016; 95 percentage CI: 1.15-4.27). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes suggested that vitamin D may have an important role in pathogenesis of pre-diabetes. (author)

  5. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. (licorice Root on Serum Level of Glucose, Triglyceride and Cholesterol in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Letrozole in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Barazesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder which effects 15.6 %  of women in Iran. Licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra L. has phytoestrogenic and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydro-alcoholic Licorice root extract on blood sugar, triglycerides and cholesterol in the rats with PCOS. Methods: In the present experimental study, 50 female puber Sprague dawley (180±20 gr rats with regular sexual cycle were entered in the study.  Studied groups included: first, the Normal group, receiving carrier (normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 21 days. Then, the letrozole group which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days and then normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 30 days. The last groups, Treatment groups 1 and 2, which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days then hydroalcoholic extract of Licorice root (200 and 400 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg daily, orally for 30 days respectively. To conclude, blood samples were collected from the heart and also the serum level of blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p< 0.05. Results: The mean serum level of blood sugar increased in the Letrozole group compared to the normal group and decreased in the treatment groups compared to Letrozole group (p< 0.05. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean of serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol between all groups. Conclusion: The licoricecan extract improved the adverse side-effects caused by diabetese in polycystic ovary syndrome However, its effect on dyslipidemia in patients requiring further investigations.

  6. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budinastiti Ratih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24 that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL, K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL, K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL, and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL; p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL, K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL, and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL; p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL, K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL, K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL, and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL; p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  7. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  8. Gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and its importance for short and long time prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinarova, Lenka; Spinar, Jindrich; Vitovec, Jiri; Linhart, Ales; Widimsky, Petr; Fedorco, Marian; Malek, Filip; Cihalik, Cestmir; Miklik, Roman; Dusek, Ladislav; Zidova, Klaudia; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Parenica, Jiri

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and if there is an association of this parameter with short and long time mortality. The AHEAD MAIN registry is a database conducted in 7 university hospitals, all with 24 h cath lab service, in 4 cities in the Czech Republic. The database included 4 153 patients hospitalised for acute heart failure in the period 2006-2009. 2 384 patients had a complete record of their total cholesterol levels. 946 females and 1437 males were included in this analysis. According to the admission total cholesterol levels, patients were divided into 5 groups: 6.0 mmol/l (group E). The median total cholesterol levels were 4.24 in males and 4.60 in females (Ppercentage of women with total cholesterol levels above 6 mmol/l and lower percentage in the group below 4.5 mmol/l than in men. In all, total cholesterol categories women were older than men. Total cholesterol levels are important for in- hospital mortality and long term survival of patients admitted for acute heart failure.

  9. The photo biological effect of low level laser therapy on serum level of leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides in overweight and obese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.; Tawfik, M.S.; Youssef, S.S.; Serry, Z.M.; Aboel magd, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of low level laser for body contouring and weight reduction depends on the photochemical non thermal effect of laser light on the adipose tissue. LLLT was reported to liquefy or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment The concentration of leptin in adipose tissue and serum closely parallel the mass of adipose tissue and adipocyte size and triglycerides content. Thus, leptin increases in obesity and falls with weight loss. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on leptin hormone, Cholesterol and triglyceride in both overweight and obese females. Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30-40 years. They were divided into two equal groups. Group A (Overweight group): included 10 females with BMI between 25 and 29.9 Kg/m2 -Group B (Obese group): included 10 females with BMI . 30. Both groups received LLL to the abdomen using laser scanner for uniform distribution of the beam above and below the umbilicus. Duration of treatment was 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. Serum level of leptin was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). As regards serum cholesterol and triglyceride they were determined by enzymatic colorimetric test. Biochemical assessments were done before and after treatment. Results of the present study showed that in the overweight group laser treatment resulted in highly significant reduction in leptin serum level accompanied by highly significant increase in serum triglycerides level. Meanwhile, the increase in cholesterol level was insignificant. As regards the obese group, alteration in serum leptin level caused by laser treatment was not significant. In this group the increase in triglycerides and cholesterol serum levels after treatment were highly significant

  10. Decreased plasma prorenin levels in primary aldosteronism: potential diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Constance; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Harbaoui, Brahim; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Lantelme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism could exert a negative feedback on prorenin secretion, of possibly different magnitude, whether it is related to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or an idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of prorenin in three subgroups: APA, IHA, and essential hypertension; and the performance of the aldosterone-to-prorenin ratio (APR) for the diagnosis of an APA. Seven hundred and forty-six hypertensive patients with a standardized work-up, including a prorenin measurement, were considered. Ninety-six patients without neutral treatment and 38 patients with other forms of secondary hypertension were excluded. APA and IHA were categorized according to computed tomography scan, adrenal venous sampling, pathological analysis and improvement of hypertension after surgery. Thirty-five patients had a diagnosis of APA, 57 of IHA and 504 of essential hypertension. Prorenin was lower in APA and IHA than in essential hypertension (32.9, 40.4 and 50.3  pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). APR was higher in patients with APA and IHA than in those with essential hypertension (24.0, 11.8, and 4.0  pmol/l per pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). The APR was more discriminant than the aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify APA compared to IHA (area under the receiver operating curve at 0.750 and 0.639, respectively; P = 0.04). The optimal cut-off values were 22  pmol/l per pg/ml for APR (sensitivity 57.0%, specificity 93.0%) and 440  pmol/l per pg/ml for aldosterone-to-renin ratio (sensitivity 54.3%, specificity 82.5%). Primary aldosteronism and particularly its most caricatural form, that is APA, seems associated with a lower level of prorenin than essential hypertension. The APR could be included in the diagnostic strategy of APA.

  11. Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Castaño, PhD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods: This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ≥4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs, and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results: One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo from 3.57 (0.30 mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41 mmol/L (change, −19.9%. Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%] achieved a ≥15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%] (P<0.001. Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22 mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44 mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo (change, −12.3%; the mean (SD triglyceride (TG

  12. Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall

  13. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p < 0.05) fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids as well as the total amount of fecal short chain fatty acids. Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  14. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  15. [Level of knowledge and action on lipaemia among Spanish primary and specialist care doctors. Press cholesterol study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Alemán, José; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Martínez Pastor, Antonio; Hernández Menárguez, Fernando; García-Galbis Marín, José Antonio; Jara Gómez, Purificación

    2006-09-01

    To find the level of knowledge, the guidelines for action and the monitoring of lipaemia by Spanish primary care and specialist doctors. A self-defined questionnaire of 12 items was designed. Data on the population treated and the subjective evaluation of objectives, and on the management and monitoring of lipid parameters were filled in. A total of 1998 doctors from the whole of Spain took part; 68.8% of the doctors interviewed worked in primary health care and 30.2% in specialist centres or hospitals. A 91% of the doctors said they followed international consensus on monitoring lipaemia. The most commonly used objective therapeutic parameter for treating lipaemia was LDL-cholesterol (83%), followed by total cholesterol (62%), HDL-cholesterol (56%) and triglycerides (51%). If the patient's lipaemia was well controlled, then 21.8% of doctors reduced the doses of lipid-lowerers. In general terms, no great differences were appreciated between the criteria followed by PC and by specialist doctors. The criteria for action on lipaemia could be improved. There are no important differences of view or action in clinical and therapeutic criteria for Lipaemia cases between PC and specialist doctors.

  16. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Association of a cholesteryl ester transfer protein variant (rs1800777) with fat mass, HDL cholesterol levels, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Gomez, Emilia; Lopez, Juan Jose; Ortola, Ana; Aller, Rocio

    2018-04-25

    There is little evidence of the association between CETP SNPs and obesity and/or related metabolic parameters. To analyze the association of the polymorphism rs1800777 of the CETP gene with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome and its components, and adipokine levels in obese subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension. A population of 1005 obese subjects was analyzed. Electrical bioimpedance was performed, and blood pressure, presence of metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, physical activity, and biochemical tests were recorded. Nine hundred and sixty eight patients (96.3%) had the GG genotype, 37 patients the GA genotype (3.7%) (no AA genotype was detected). Fat mass (delta: 4.4±1.1kg; p=0.04), waist circumference (delta: 5.6±2.1cm; p=0.02), and waist to hip ratio (delta: 0.04±0.01cm; p=0.01) were higher in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers. HDL cholesterol levels were lower in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers (delta: 4.2±1.0mg/dL; p=0.04). In the logistic regression analysis, the GA genotype was associated to an increased risk of central obesity (OR 7.55, 95% CI 1.10-55.70, p=0.02) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.91, p=0.014). The CETP variant at position +82 is associated to lower HDL cholesterol levels, increased fat mass, and central obesity in obese subjects. These results may suggest a potential role of this variant gene in pathophysiology of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Nori- and sea spaghetti- but not wakame-restructured pork decrease the hypercholesterolemic and liver proapototic short-term effects of high-dietary cholesterol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; Benedi, Juana; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Reus, Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Restructured pork (RP) enriched in Seaweeds are potential functional foods. The antiapoptotic and hypocholesterolemic effects of consuming cholesterol enriched diets containing Wakame-RP (CW), Nori-RP (CN) and Sea Spaghetti (CS) were tested in a 1-wk study. Groups of six rats per group were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid as a cholesterol rising agent plus 15% RP containing alga. These diets were compared to control-RP diets enriched or not in cholesterol (CC and C, respectively). After 1-wk, cholesterol feeding significantly increased liver apoptosis markers which were significantly reduced by CS (cellular cycle DNA, caspase-3, and cytochrome c), CN (caspase-3 and cytochrome c) and CW (caspase-3) diets. CN and CS diets significantly blocked the cholesterolaemic rising effect observed in the CC group but no protective effect was observed in the CW group. Differences in seaweed composition added to RP appear responsible for blocking or not the proapoptotic and hypercholesterolemic effects of high cholesterol-RP consumption; thus, any generalization on seaweed effects or food containing seaweeds must be avoided. Although present results are worthy, future studies are demanded to ascertain the utility of consuming algal-RP as part of usual diets. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroula Proitsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD.We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n=10,578. We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013. Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10-8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5 × 10-8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]=1.005, 95% CI 0.82-1.24, p = 0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR=0.901, 95% CI 0.65-1.25, p=0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR=1.104, 95% CI 0.89-1.37, p=0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR=0.954, 95% CI 0.76-1.21, p=0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol. Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance.Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and

  1. CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF LIVER AND REPRODUCTION ABILITY OF BROOD CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN A IN FORMULATED FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of increased amounts of vitamin A in the diet on the fatty acid composition of esterified cholesterol of liver and reproduction ability of brood carp females and males. Methodology. The experiment was conducted in pre-spawning period using three groups of brood carp. The control group of carp received standard granulated feed. Experimental groups of brood carps additionally received retynilatsetat in the composition of the above-mentioned fodder. Findings. It was found that the liver of females and males of brood carp of experimental groups, which received vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of feed in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period had shown a dose-dependent reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. At the same time, the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid composition, however, there is an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids with paired and unpaired quantities of carbon atoms in the chain as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family and especially n-3 family. Females of brood carp in the experimental groups, which were fed with additional vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had an increase in working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, the output of larvae from eggs increases significantly and dose-dependently. Originality. For the first time it was found that the liver of brood carp females and males, which received increased quantities of vitamin A in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had the reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid

  2. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  3. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  4. Zonal differences in the distribution and morphology of lipid droplets using 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine to lower cholesterol level in the rat adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.

  5. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Fumiaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  6. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  7. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-10-01

    Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik , was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group ( P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and

  8. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using 14 C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD

  9. Pitfalls in the detection of cholesterol in Huntington's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marullo, Manuela; Valenza, Marta; Leoni, Valerio; Caccia, Claudio; Scarlatti, Chiara; De Mario, Agnese; Zuccato, Chiara; Di Donato, Stefano; Carafoli, Ernesto; Cattaneo, Elena

    2012-10-11

    Background Abnormalities in brain cholesterol homeostasis have been reported in Huntington's disease (HD), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion in the number of CAG repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. However, the results have been contradictory with respect to whether cholesterol levels increase or decrease in HD models. Biochemical and mass spectrometry methods show reduced levels of cholesterol precursors and cholesterol in HD cells and in the brains of several HD animal models. Abnormal brain cholesterol homeostasis was also inferred from studies in HD patients. In contrast, colorimetric and enzymatic methods indicate cholesterol accumulation in HD cells and tissues. Here we used several methods to investigate cholesterol levels in cultured cells in the presence or absence of mutant HTT protein. Results Colorimetric and enzymatic methods with low sensitivity gave variable results, whereas results from a sensitive analytical method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were more reliable. Sample preparation, high cell density and cell clonality also influenced the detection of intracellular cholesterol. Conclusions Detection of cholesterol in HD samples by colorimetric and enzymatic assays should be supplemented by detection using more sensitive analytical methods. Care must be taken to prepare the sample appropriately. By evaluating lathosterol levels using isotopic dilution mass spectrometry, we confirmed reduced cholesterol biosynthesis in knock-in cells expressing the polyQ mutation in a constitutive or inducible manner. *Correspondence should be addressed to Elena Cattaneo: elena.cattaneo@unimi.it.

  10. Secondary prevention care and effect: Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug use in women and men after incident myocardial infarction - The Tromsø Study 1994-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopstock, Laila A; Eggen, Anne Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) are gender neutral, but underutilisation of treatment in women has been reported. We investigated the change in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use after first-ever MI in a population-based study. We followed 10,005 participants (54% women) attending the Tromsø Study 1994-1995 and 8483 participants (55% women) attending the Tromsø Study 2007-2008 for first-ever MI up to their participation in 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, respectively. We used linear and logistic regression models to investigate sex differences in change in lipid levels. A total of 395 (MI cohort I) and 132 participants (MI cohort II) had a first-ever MI during 1994-2008 and 2007-2013, respectively. Mean change in total cholesterol was -2.34 mmol/L (SD 1.15) in MI cohort I, and in LDL cholesterol was -1.63 mmol/L (SD 1.12) in MI cohort II. Men had a larger decrease in lipid levels compared to women: the linear regression coefficient for change was -0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.51 to -0.14) for total cholesterol and -0.21 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.04) for LDL cholesterol, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. Men had 73% higher odds (95% CI 1.15-2.61) of treatment target achievement compared to women, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. LLD use was reported in 85% of women and 92% of men in MI cohort I, and 80% in women and 89% in men in MI cohort II. Compared to men, women had significantly less decrease in lipid levels after MI, and a smaller proportion of women achieved the treatment target.

  11. Plasma cholesterol and endogenous cholesterol synthesis during refeeding in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, F; Feillet-Coudray, C; Bard, J M; Parra, H J; Favre, E; Kabuth, B; Fruchart, J C; Vidailhet, M

    2000-04-01

    Normal or high levels of cholesterol have been measured in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Given that cholesterol intake in AN is usually very low, the reasons for this anomaly are not clearly understood. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles and endogenous cholesterol synthesis, estimated by serum lathosterol, in a population of 14 girls with AN, before and during a period of 30 days refeeding. The initial body mass index (BMI) of the patients was 13.41+/-1.62 kg/m(2). No changes were observed during refeeding in endocrine parameters (ACTH, cortisol and estradiol). At Day 0 the lipids data measured here showed normal levels of triglycerides, and total cholesterol at the upper limits of the normal range (5.44+/-1 mmol/l). At this time, total and LDL cholesterol were negatively correlated with transthyretin and BMI. Serum lathosterol (a precursor in cholesterol synthesis pathway) increased significantly (5.99+/-1.75 (Day 0) vs. 8.39+/-2.96 (Day 30); P=0.02) while there was a significant decrease in apo B (0.79+/-0.33 (Day 0) vs. 0. 60+/-0.17 g/l (Day 30), P=0.02) with refeeding. Thus, patients with initial high cholesterol levels have the worst nutritional status and high cholesterol levels are not related to a de novo synthesis. This profile returns to normal with refeeding. An increase of cellular cholesterol uptake may be responsible for this apparently paradoxical evolution with increase of cholesterol synthesis and decrease of apo B during renutrition.

  12. Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Ioanna

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, 1376 were men (45 ± 12 years old, range: 18 – 86 and 1396 women (45 ± 13 years old, range: 18 – 88. We assessed the relationship between physical activity status (measured in kcal/min expended per day and several lipids, after taking into account the effect of several characteristics of the participants. Results 578 (42% men and 584 (40% women were classified as physically active. Compared to sedentary physically active women had significantly lower levels of total serum cholesterol (p Conclusions Substantial independent increases in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, in a Mediterranean cohort.

  13. Influence of dietary cholesterol on 26-hydroxycholesterol and the effect of 26-hydroxycholesterol on the intracellular free calcium level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing serum level of 26-hydroxycholesterol after long-term consumption of cholesterol by animals. It is also to examine the effect of this sterol on intracellular free calcium level. Purified 26-hydroxycholesterol was synthesized from kryptogenin by the Clemmemsen and Wolff-Kishner reduction method. 26-Hydroxycholesterol was also used for fatty acid esters syntheses, and to study its influence on membranes. Tritiated 26-hydroxycholesterol which was synthesized by an enzymatic method, was used to monitor the 26-hydroxycholesterol loss during the procedure. The ester form of 26-hydroxycholesterol was also synthesized, and used to investigate its effects on membranes. The HPLC method that was developed for the analysis of 26-hydroxycholesterol levels in animal tissues was accurate, efficient, and reproducible for the determination of 26-hydroxycholesterol in plasma. However, it was not suitable for the analysis of other tissues, due to the overlapping of peaks making quantitation difficult

  14. [Prevalence of inapropriate LDL cholesterol levels in patients with coronary disease and/or type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Isla, L; Saltijeral Cerezo, A; Vitale, G; González Timón, B; Torres Do Rego, A; Alvarez-Sala Walther, L A

    2012-11-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend achieving concentrations of LDL cholesterol less than 100 mg/dl (and in some cases less than 70 mg/dl) in patients with coronary artery disease and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). We have examined the compliance with these objectives in patients treated in Spain with these conditions. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Data were obtained during the visit of the study or, in their absence, based on data contained in the medical record by 874 doctors of the 17 autonomous communities in Spain. Demographic information, risk factors, cardiovascular and prescribed treatments were collected. In the final analysis 6.988 (62.7% male) patients were included. 2586 (37%) had coronary disease, 2654 (38%) DM2 and 1748 (25%) both conditions. 65% had metabolic syndrome. Vascular risk factors median number was 4. 57% and 86% showed a concentration of LDL cholesterol >100 and >70 mg/dl respectively. The proportion patients with LDL concentration >100 mg/dl was 4% greater in the DM2 (62.4%) than in coronary patients (57.1%; p0.0001). Concentration of triglycerides >150 mg/dl was higher in patients with DM2 (50.5%) than in coronary patients (43.5%; p0.0001). The proportion of patients with LDL>70 mg/dl was similar in the coronary group and in the DM2 Group (88.4% and 87.0%, respectively). More than half of patients with coronary heart disease (57.5%) or DM2 (55.7%) showed inadequate levels of HDL (women). More than a half of patients with diabetes mellitus and/or coronary artery disease enrolled in the CODIMET study do not achieve the recommended LDL cholesterol target for high cardiovascular risk patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  16. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  17. The comparison of the effects of standard 20 mg atorvastatin daily and 20 mg atorvastatin every other day on serum LDL-cholesterol and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Telat; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Kayhan, Tuğba; Canbay, Alper; Sahin, Deniz; Durmaz, Tahir; Ozdemir, Ozcan; Aydoğdu, Sinan; Diker, Erdem

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we aimed at comparing the effects of standard once daily 20 mg atorvastatin treatment with that of atorvastatin 20 mg administered every other day on serum lipids and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Sixty-one patients with serum total cholesterol levels of above 200 mg/dl and low density lipoprotein (LDL)--cholesterol levels of above 130 mg/dl were included in this prospective, randomized study. The patients were randomized into daily treatment of 20 mg atorvastatin (standard treatment) and 20 mg atorvastatin every other day (every other day treatment) groups. Before the treatment and at each visit, serum lipids and hs-CRP levels of all the patients were measured. Statistical analyses were performed Chi-square, unpaired t and two-way repeated measurements ANOVA tests. In the every other day treatment group, there was a 36.1% reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels by the end of first month (p0.05). The LDL cholesterol levels of the group receiving 20 mg atorvastatin every day was reduced by %41 by the end of 1 month (pevery other day, there was a 21% decrease in hs-CRP levels compared to the basal measurements at the end of first month (pevery day the decrease in hs-CRP levels at the end of one month was more striking (37%, p0.05). Alternate-day dosing of atorvastatin causes a significant lipid-lowering and antiinflammatory effects similar to that of daily administration and yet may provide some cost savings.

  18. Type I diabetes mellitus decreases in vivo macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport despite increased biliary sterol secretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Annema, Wijtske; Schreurs, Marijke; van der Veen, Jelske N; van der Giet, Markus; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J F

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) increases atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. We investigated whether experimental T1DM impacts HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). C57BL/6J mice with alloxan-induced T1DM had

  19. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Magda O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic subphenotype characterized by low HDL-C with hypertriglyceridemia and high VLDL-C in association with other biomarkers, including those related to inflammation. This represents an important step toward a more reliable clinical prognosis. Additional studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and the probably mechanisms involved in this complex network of markers and their role in SCD pathogenesis.

  20. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  1. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  2. [Cholesterol reducing food certainly is useful].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenhoef, A F

    1997-12-27

    The effect of a low-cholesterol diet in open intervention studies depends in the long run on motivation, knowledge and dedication. The mean decrease of the serum cholesterol level is 10% (range: 0-20). Epidemiological and cohort studies clearly prove a connection between the intake of saturated fat, the serum cholesterol level and the risk of coronary heart disease and death. High-fat food slows down the clearance of the degradation products rich in cholesterol which appear in the blood after a meal and which are highly atherogenic (these products are not found at a fasting cholesterol assay). Cholesterol-reducing nutrition has additional useful effects, for instance on the blood pressure and the coagulation. The recommendations for healthy, low-cholesterol nutrition for the population as a whole apply particularly to patients with a high risk of coronary heart disease. Although advice given to individuals often has a disappointing effect, influencing the life pattern should be included in the strategy to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  3. How to Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes high triglyceride levels, low HDL (good) cholesterol levels, and being overweight with a large waist measurement (more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women). Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes ...

  4. VARIABILITY IN LEVELS OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA DEPENDING ON AGE AND SEX AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THIS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the ranges of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol depending on the age and gender of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC by an example of a sample of patients living in the Republic of Karelia.Material and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum of 219 patients (aged 52.5±1.7 years; males 38.3% with heterozygous FHC were studied before the start of statin therapy. Definite FHC was diagnosed in 102 patients. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic calorimetric method. The diagnosis of FHC was established according to the criteria of The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network.  Genetic analysis was performed in 102 patients (46.6%; pathogenic mutation in the LDL receptor was identified in 21 patients. The control group consisted of 539 people with the excluded diagnosis of FHC (aged 46.8±0.8 years; males 53.8%.Results. We determined the level of LDL cholesterol (LDLC associated with increased frequency of mutations of the LDL receptor in patients with definite FHC; mutation frequency was 3 times higher when LDLC level was more than 6.5 mmol/L. We revealed the following characteristic intervals of the LDLC levels in patients with a definite FHC: up to 20 years old – 4.8-6.2 mmol/l; in patients of 20-29 years old – 5.9-8.2 mmol/l; in the age range of 30-39 years the upper value of the LDLC levels reached 9.6 mmol/l; in individuals of 40-49 years old a stabilization, "plateau", was observed – LDLC level did not differ significantly compared to the previous decade, and was 5.4-9.0 mmol/l. In the age range  of 50-59 years the upper LDLC level was up to 11.4 mmol/l. Similar indicators were identified in patients aged 60-69 years. Patients older than 70 years with a definite FHC an upper level of LDLC was higher and reached 12.5 mmol/l. Tendency to increase in the characteristic values of LDLC with age was observed both in men and in women. Specific age-related trends  for men (an increase from a plateau by the age of 50

  5. Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Shi, Yong-hui; Niu, Dong-mei; Li, Han-qing; Zhang, Chun-ni; Wang, Jun-jun

    2012-06-01

    To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects. We determined RBP4, sdLDL-C, ox-LDL levels in 150 various dyslipidemia subjects and 50 controls. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The RBP4, sdLDL-C and ox-LDL levels were found increased in various dyslipidemia subjects. The sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with RBP4 (r=0.273, P=0.001) and ox-LDL (r=0.273, P=0.001). RBP4 levels were also correlated with ox-LDL (r=0.167, P=0.043). The multiple regression analysis showed that only sdLDL-C was a significant independent predictor for RBP4 (β coefficient=0.219, P=0.009; adjusted R(2)=0.041) and ox-LDL (β coefficient=0.253, P=0.003; adjusted R(2)=0.057) levels, respectively. The independent associations of sdLDL-C with RBP4 and ox-LDL were observed in dyslipidemia subjects. RBP4 may play an important role in lipid metabolism of atherosclerosis, particularly in formation of sdLDL. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure levels in Japanese type 1 and 2 diabetic patients: BioBank Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of characteristics of Japanese patients with diabetes from a large-scale population is necessary. Few studies have compared glycaemic controls, complications and comorbidities between type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. This paper focuses on illustrating a clinical picture of Japanese diabetic patients and comparing glycaemic control and prognoses between type 1 and 2 diabetes using multi-institutional data. The BioBank Japan Project enrolled adult type 1 and 2 diabetic patients between fiscal years 2003 and 2007. We have presented characteristics, controls of serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure, prevalence of complications and comorbidities and survival curves. We have also shown glycaemic controls according to various individual profiles of diabetic patients. A total of 558 type 1 diabetic patients and 30,834 type 2 diabetic patients participated in this study. The mean glycated haemoglobin A1c was higher in type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. In the type 1 diabetic patients, the glycated haemoglobin A1c had no consistent trend according to age and body mass index. The Kaplan-Meier estimates represented a longer survival time from baseline with type 1 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes. Compared with type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetic patients had double the prevalence of macrovascular complications. This work has revealed detailed plasma glucose levels of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients according to age, body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol levels and smoking and drinking habits. Our data have also shown that the prognosis is worse for type 2 diabetes than for type 1 diabetes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; Pdeath, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Increasing plasma fibrinogen, but unchanged levels of intraplatelet cyclic nucleotides, plasma endothelin-1, factor VII, and neopterin during cholesterol lowering with fluvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsäter, A; Anwaar, I; Lind, P; Mattiasson, I; Lindgärde, F

    1999-04-01

    Lipid-lowering statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improves endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and the macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator neopterin during lipid lowering. In addition, the endothelial production of platelet antiaggregatory and vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin-1, was assessed. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, endothelin-1, and the neopterin and intraplatelet nitric oxide and prostacyclin mediators cyclic 3'-5'guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic 3'-5'adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were measured before and 6 months after the institution of treatment with fluvastatin in 17 patients (eight men and nine women, median age 60 years) with vascular disease and previously untreated hypercholesterolemia. After 6 months, a decrease of 1.62 mmol/l [1.26-2.18 (19%); P factor VII [from 1.14 IE/ml (0.58-1.38) to 1.22 IE/ml (0.96-1.46); NS], or plasma neopterin [from 8.6 nmol/l (7.1-11.5) to 8.7 nmol/l (7.9-11.3); NS]. In conclusion, during cholesterol-lowering treatment with fluvastatin, plasma levels of fibrinogen increased whereas intraplatelet cyclic nucleotide levels and plasma endothelin-1, factor VII and neopterin levels were unchanged.

  9. Effect of Processing Methods on Cholesterol Contents and Cholesterol Oxides Formation in Some Dairy Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRowaily, Meshref A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pasteurization, boiling, microwaving, processing and storage of milk and some locally produced dairy products on cholesterol contents and cholesterol oxides formation were studied and evaluated. The 7-ketocholesterol were not detected (ND) in all raw milk samples. On the contrary, heating of milk led to formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), mostly, 7- ketocholesterol in different quantities. No significant effect of heating of milk on cholesterol level was observed with the exception of the ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk prepared from milk powder heated at 140 + - 1.0 degree C for 4 sec showed the highest value of 7-ketocholesterol (80.97 mgg-1), followed by microwave heated milk for 5 min (31.29 mgg-1), whereas the lowest value was in milk pasteurized at 85 + - 1.0 degree C for 16 sec (3.125 mgg-1). Commercial storage showed no significant effect on cholesterol and 7-ketocholestrol but lowered cholesterol concentration and increased 7-ketocholestrol level of UHT reconstituted milk. Cholesterol content of both yogurt and labaneh strained by centrifugal separator showed significant decrease while 7-ketochostrol level was increased significantly with refrigerated storage. The findings are discussed in the context with the results of previous similar studies. (author)

  10. [Increased oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in peritoneal fluid of women with advanced-stage endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Mazurek, Diana; Rogala, Ewelina; Nowicka, Aldona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Kotarski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Proinflammatory and prooxidative environment in the peritoneal cavity may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Imbalance between reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant capacity leads to oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The importance of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the development of atherosclerosis is well recognized. The aim of our study was to evaluate for the presence of ox-LDL in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with and without endometriosis. A total of 60 women who underwent laparoscopy were divided into groups: endometriosis sufferers with minimal to mild (n 20) and moderate to severe (n 20) stages, and the reference group (n 20) with functional follicle ovarian cysts. Oxidized LDL levels were determined in the PF using enzyme immunoassay Oxidized LDL levels were detectable in all peritoneal fluid samples. Significantly increased levels of ox-LDL were observed in PF of women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to the reference group (p = 0.03). However peritoneal fluid ox-LDL concentrations did not differ significantly between patients with minimal/mild and women with moderate/severe stage of the disease (p = 0.2). No significant difference in the PF ox-LDL concentrations was also found between women with stage I/II endometriosis and patients with follicle cysts (p = 0.3). Increased peritoneal fluid ox-LDL levels observed in women with advanced-stage endometriosis suggest the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  11. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid

  12. Impact of a public cholesterol screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P M; Guinan, K H; Burke, J J; Karp, W B; Richards, J W

    1990-12-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has endorsed physician case finding as the primary method to detect individuals with elevated cholesterol levels. Despite this recommendation, promotional and for-profit public screening programs have flourished. We surveyed participants of a mall-based cholesterol screening program 1 year after their screening. Sixty-four percent of those screened had not previously known their cholesterol levels. Those who were newly screened were less likely to benefit from this testing than the general public, since they were older (mean age, 55.3 years), more likely to be female (67.4%), and nonsmokers (88%). Screenees had excellent recall of their cholesterol level (mean absolute reporting error, 0.24 mmol/L [9 mg/dL]) and a good understanding of cholesterol as a coronary heart disease risk. Those with elevated cholesterol levels reported high distress from screening but no reduction in overall psychosocial well-being and an actual decrease in absenteeism. Only 53.7% of all who were advised to seek follow-up because of an elevated screening value had done so within the year following the screening program. However, of those with values greater than 6.2 mmol/L (240 mg/dL), 68% had sought follow-up. Many of those who participate in public screening programs have been previously tested, fall into low-benefit groups, or fail to comply with recommended follow-up. We therefore conclude that cholesterol screening programs of the type now commonly offered are unlikely to contribute greatly to the national efforts to further reduce coronary heart disease.

  13. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fats and oil in the diet on the other hand. Gallstones result from ... such factors as high levels of estrogens, multiple pregnancies, obesity, genetic factors and certain ... protein with an inner core of cholesterol and triglycerides. Lipoproteins are ...

  14. Effects of Cholesterol Levels on Mortality in Patients with Long-Term Peritoneal Dialysis Based on Residual Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chung Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dyslipidemia on peritoneal dialysis (PD patients based on the presence of residual renal function (RRF; renal creatinine clearance >2 mL/min/1.73 m2 is unknown. Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed to estimate the association between dyslipidemia and mortality in PD patients. Long-term PD patients (n = 8032 were divided into groups with (RRF; n = 2691, 33.5% and without RRF (non-RRF; n = 5341, 66.5%. The primary outcome was three-year mortality, and multivariate Cox regression was used for survival analysis. After stratifying the total cholesterol (TC level between the first and third years, the hazard ratio for mortality was estimated. In the non-RRF group, TC < 120 mg/dL was associated with independently increased risk of mortality. In the RRF group, low TC was not independently correlated with increased mortality, but TC > 285 mg/dL was associated with increased risk. PD patients with higher level of TC (>200 mg/dL in both first and third years of dialysis had significantly lower risk of mortality. In this nationwide cohort study, PD patients without RRF who had low TC level had the highest mortality, in contrast to those with RRF. Malnutrition in long-term PD patients without RRF is an important issue to be monitored.

  15. In situ probing of cholesterol in astrocytes at the single-cell level using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric imaging with colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdian, D C; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-30

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholesterol Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart diseases . There are two main types of cholesterol. LDL is the "bad" cholesterol. A high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in ... 75 years old, you have diabetes, and your LDL cholesterol level is 70 mg/dL or higher You ...

  18. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (Ptriglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  19. Myocardial remodeling in chronic heart failure with overweight and obesity taking into account the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bidzilya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that high lipid content is accompanied with better course and surviving in chronic heart failure (CHF, which was called “the lipids paradox”. There are a very limited number of investigations which studied the relationship of lipid levels and indices of myocardial remodeling. Aim. To study the features of myocardial remodeling in patients with CHF with overweight and obesity depending on the total cholesterol (TCL and triglyceride (TG levels. Materials and methods. 230 patients were examined and analyzed 101 case histories of patients of with CHF of I–III functional class on the background of overweight and obesity I–III degree. CHF FC was determined by the classification of the New York Heart Association (NYHA. Normal, excess body weight and degree of abdominal obesity were detected by calculating the body mass index. Biochemical method was used to determine the blood levels of TCL and TG. The condition of myocardial remodeling was investigated by echocardiography. Results. It has been established, that smallest manifestation of myocardial remodeling was observed in patients with CHF on the background of overweight and obesity with high TCL level. The most severe manifestations of the heart chambers dilatation, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH, and valvular functional changes characterized the patients with a low TCL concentration. High content of TG was also accompanied by a less pronounced cardiac remodeling, and the normal value of TG was characterized by more profound structural changes of theLV and valvular regurgitation. Conclusion. At CHF with overweight and obesity, lower TCL and TG levels are accompanied by more severe dilatation of the heart chambers and LVH, the prevalence of LVH eccentric type frequency, deeper functional valve disorders.

  20. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  1. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  2. THE REDUCTION OF CHOLESTEROL WITH CUPPING THERAPY ON CHOLESTEROL REDUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Fikri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor causes of death at younger ages. Hypercholesterolemia may increase the risk of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, pancreatitis (pancreas inflammation in organs, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, liver disease and kidney disease. Many patients with hypercholesterolemia using cupping therapy. Cupping therapy is alternative treatment process of throwing dirty blood from the body through the skin surface. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cupping therapy to decrease cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Method: Design used in this study was quasy experimental design. The population is all patients with hypercholesterolemia in the health center plaza Gresik. The total sample is 18 respondents, taken according to inclusion criteria. Independent variable is the cupping therapy. The dependent variable was the decrease in cholesterol levels. Data were collected using a questionnaire and observation of cholesterol. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and paired t tests with signi fi cance level α < 0.05. Result: The results show that cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia treated groups decreased majority. Independent statistical analysis using t-test showed p = 0.001 and with the Paired t-test p value = 0.003. Discussion: This result means that there are significant effects of cupping therapy on cholesterol reduction in patients with hypercholesterolemia aged 45 years and over. Further research needs to be done in control diet, lifestyle and daily activities for the success of cupping therapy.

  3. Higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease the mean velocity index of the retinal artery during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelić, Vladimir; Drnovšek Olup, Brigita; Žižek, Bogomir; Skitek, Milan; Jerin, Aleš

    2016-10-31

    To determine whether higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease mean velocity (MV) index of the central retinal artery (CRA) during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study was performed in the period from 2008 to 2015 at the University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana. 41 patients with T1D and 37 participants without diabetes were included. MV in the CRA was measured using Doppler ultrasound diagnostics in basal conditions and during 8 Hz flickering light irritation. The plasma levels of glucose, fructosamine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Patients with T1D had significantly higher levels of blood glucose (Ptriglycerides (P=0.108), cholesterol (P=0.531), and LDL (P=0.645) between the groups. Patients with T1D also had a significantly lower MV index in the CRA (1.11±0.15 vs 1.24±0.23; P=0.010). In the T1D group, a significant negative correlation was found between the level of glucose (r=0.58; Pindex in the CRA. At the same time, in this group fructosamine and 8-OHdG levels had a separate effect on the MV index (adjusted R2=0.38, Pglucose levels, the medium-term glucose level, and systemic oxidative stress could importantly reduce retinal vasodilatation during flickering light irritation in patients with T1D.

  4. Suplementasi Probiotik dan Temulawak pada Ayam Pedaging terhadap Populasi Salmonella sp dan kolesterol darah (PROBIOTICS AND TEMULAWAK SUPPLEMENTATION ON BROILER CHICKENS AGAINST SALMONELLA SP POPULATION AND BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartiawati Alipin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics is a live microbial feed supplements that improve the microbial balance in the digestivetract of cattle host. Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb is one of native Indonesian spices that areuseful for prevention and treatment of human disease but also can be used for broiler chickens supplement.Bioactive contents known acting as an anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fungal. The study wasconducted to determine the effects of probiotic and temulawak supplementation on population of Salmonellasp and broiler chickens blood cholesterol. This study used 300 DOC final stock. Probiotic concentration 109cell/mL administered through drinking water every day while of temulawak extract dose 0.25 g/L 0.50 g/Lonce a week, for five weeks. The variables measured were Salmonella sp populations and blood cholesterollevels. The results showed that combination administered of probiotics with temulawak dose 0.50 g/Ldecreased of population of Salmonella amount to 87.04% and decreased of blood cholesterol amount21,48% at administered of probiotics with temulawak dose 0,25 g/L. The conclusions of this study showedthat the percentage decrease of Salmonella sp population and blood cholesterol levels in combinationprobiotic and temulawak supplementation so that broiler produced is safe for consumption.

  5. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  6. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different total plasma cholesterol levels in middle aged men and women : a need for case-finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, A.J.; Westendorp, R.G.; Frölich, M.; Seidell, J C; Blokstra, A.; Smelt, A.H.M.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to determine whether screening of thyroid function is justified in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, we determined the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different levels of total plasma cholesterol in middle-aged men and women. DESIGN AND METHODS: 1200 participants

  7. Annurca (Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca) apple as a functional food for the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Emanuela; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-05-01

    Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 4-month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects: 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple per day among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples per day, since the weight of this cultivar is on average half that of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcome, allowing a reduction in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all P apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  9. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaater, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  10. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  11. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  12. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  13. String Bean Juice Decreases Blood Glucose Level Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harmayetty, Harmayetty; Krisnana, Ilya; Anisa, Faida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-po...

  14. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cholesterol is in this normal range. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is sometimes called "bad" cholesterol. ... to 3.3 mmol/l) are desired. VLDL (Bad) Cholesterol VLDL contains the highest amount of triglycerides. ...

  15. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Cholesterol There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL and HDL. The cholesterol blood test tells how much of each kind you have. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. This type is most ...

  16. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing High Cholesterol Cholesterol-lowering Medicine High Cholesterol Statistics and Maps High Cholesterol Facts High Cholesterol Maps ... Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ...

  17. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  18. Correction to: Dapagliflozin decreases small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein 2-cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes: comparison with sitagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Tomoyasu; Nakanishi, Noriko; Yamamoto, Saki; Tomoyasu, Masako; Osamura, Anna; Ohara, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuki; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2017-11-13

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors identified a number of errors. In Result (P.3), Table 1 (P.4), Table 5 (P.9) and Supplementary Table 1, the correct unit for adiponectin was μg/mL. In Table 1 (P.4), the correct value for the post treatment body weight in dapagliflozin was 76.2±14.8. In Table 6 (P.10), the correct value for the pre treatment sd LDL/LDL-C in decreased LDL-C group was 0.38±0.10.

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on cholesterol in aqueous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakritz, L.; Maerker, G.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous sodium stearate dispersions of cholesterol were irradiated at 0-2 degrees C with absorbed doses ranging from 2.5 to 50 kGy. The resulting mixture of cholesterol derivatives was isolated and examined for 7-ketocholesterol and cholesterol 5 alpha, 6 alpha-epoxide and 5 beta, 6 beta-epoxide content. Concentrations of all three compounds increased with dose, while the ratio of 7-ketocholesterol to total epoxides decreased with increasing dose. The ratio of 7-ketocholestrol to the epoxides was approximately 1 or below at all dose levels while the same ratio in autoxidations of cholesterol in dispersions was normally 6 or greater. The change in the keto/epoxide ratio may be a means for determining whether meat or other foods containing cholesterol have been subjected to ionizing radiation

  20. The Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and regulates cholesterol homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Michael A.; Pardee, Keith; Liu, Suya; King-Jones, Kirst; Lajoie, Gilles; Edwards, Aled; Krause, Henry M.; Thummel, Carl S.

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is required to maintain normal cellular function and avoid the deleterious effects of hypercholesterolemia. Here we show that the Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and is required for the coordinate transcriptional response of genes that are regulated by cholesterol and involved in cholesterol uptake, trafficking, and storage. DHR96 mutants die when grown on low levels of cholesterol and accumulate excess cholesterol when maintained on a high-choleste...

  1. Strategies for increasing house staff management of cholesterol with inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, B O; Becker, D M; Levine, D M; Belitsos, P C; Pearson, T A

    1990-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of two conceptually different chart audit-based approaches to modifying physicians' clinical practices to conform with quality-assurance standards. The objective was to increase intern utilization of cholesterol management opportunities in the inpatient setting. Using a clinical trial study design, 29 internal medicine interns were randomly assigned to four intervention groups identified by the intervention they received: control, reminder checklists (checklists), patient-specific feedback (feedback), or both interventions (combined). Over a nine-month period, intern management of high blood cholesterol levels in internal medicine inpatients (n = 459) was monitored by postdischarge chart audit. During both a baseline and subsequent intervention period, interns documented significantly more cholesterol management for inpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD) than without CAD. During baseline, 27.3%, 24.3%, 21.7%, 12.4%, 5.4%, and 2.7% of all inpatient charts had intern documentation concerning a low-fat hospital diet, cholesterol history, screening blood cholesterol level assessment, follow-up lipid profile, nutritionist consult, and preventive cardiology consult, respectively. The feedback intervention significantly increased overall intern-documented cholesterol management among inpatients with CAD. The checklists significantly decreased overall intern-documented cholesterol management. Feedback appears to be an effective approach to increasing intern cholesterol management in inpatients.

  2. Differential effect of walnut oil and safflower oil on the serum cholesterol level and lesion area in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masako; Kono, Misaki; Kawamoto, Daisuke; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2002-01-01

    Walnut oil (WO) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. We compared the effects of WO and high-linoleic safflower oil (HLSO) on the serum lipid level and atherosclerosis development in male and female apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. The WO diet resulted in a higher level of serum cholesterol than with HLSO. Female mice fed on the WO diet had a greater lesion area in the aortic root than did those on the HLSO diet. There was no diet-dependent difference in the level of cholesterol and its oxidation products in the abdominal and thoracic aorta. These results suggest that the unpleasant effects of the WO diet on apo E-deficient mice may be attributable to alpha-linolenic acid.

  3. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  4. A lipoprotein lipase mutation (Asn291Ser) is associated with reduced HDL cholesterol levels in premature atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymer, P.W.A.; Gagné, S E; Groenemeyer, B E; Zhang, H; Forsyth, I; Jansen, H; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.; Lie, K E; Kastelein, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDC) is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We now show in approximately 1 in 20 males with proven atherosclerosis that an Asn291Ser mutation in the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene is associated with

  5. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  6. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  7. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  8. A decrease in cyclin B1 levels leads to polyploidization in DNA damage-induced senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ikue; Nakayama, Yuji; Morinaga, Takao; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2010-05-04

    Adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic, has been used for the treatment of various types of tumours. Adriamycin induces at least two distinct types of growth repression, such as senescence and apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner. Cellular senescence is a condition in which cells are unable to proliferate further, and senescent cells frequently show polyploidy. Although abrogation of cell division is thought to correlate with polyploidization, the mechanisms underlying induction of polyploidization in senescent cells are largely unclear. We wished, therefore, to explore the role of cyclin B1 level in polyploidization of Adriamycin-induced senescent cells. A subcytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin induced polyploid cells having the features of senescence, such as flattened and enlarged cell shape and activated beta-galactosidase activity. In DNA damage-induced senescent cells, the levels of cyclin B1 were transiently increased and subsequently decreased. The decrease in cyclin B1 levels occurred in G2 cells during polyploidization upon treatment with a subcytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin. In contrast, neither polyploidy nor a decrease in cyclin B1 levels was induced by treatment with a cytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin. These results suggest that a decrease in cyclin B1 levels is induced by DNA damage, resulting in polyploidization in DNA damage-induced senescence.

  9. Worse Neurological State During Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with a Decrease in Serum Albumin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Kamieniak, Piotr; Daniluk, Beata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High serum albumin levels during ischemic stroke (IS) decrease the risk of a poor outcome. This study aimed to determine whether serum albumin levels within the first days after IS correlate with radiological and biochemical markers of brain tissue damage. Fifty-six IS patients were enrolled into the study. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Serum albumin levels and S100BB were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. The albumin decrease index (ADI) was calculated as the difference between serum albumin levels measured on days 1 and 10 of IS. All parameters were estimated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th days of IS, and the volume of ischemic focus was measured on the 10th day. Mean serum albumin levels were decreased during acute IS. There were correlations between the ADI and mean S100BB serum levels (r = 0.36, p albumin levels during the acute phase of IS corresponds to a worse neurological state as a result of a large ischemic focus with intense catabolic processes.

  10. Dieta vegetariana e níveis de colesterol e triglicérides Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Grigoletto De Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores de triglicérides (TG, colesterol total (CT, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL entre indivíduos vegetarianos e onívoros. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras sangüíneas de 76 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, que foram separados em quatro grupos de dieta: onívoro, ovolacto, lacto e vegetariano restrito (ou "vegan". Foram dosados: CT, LDL, HDL e TG. RESULTADOS: Para as taxas de CT, LDL e TG, observa-se diferença significante entre as amostras, sendo o maior valor nos onívoros, havendo decréscimo nos vegetarianos, de acordo com o grau de restrição de produtos de origem animal, sendo a menor taxa observada nos "vegans". A média e o desvio padrão do CT foram de 208,09 ± 49,09 mg/dl no grupo de onívoros, e 141,06 ± 30,56 mg/dl no de vegan (p OBJECTIVE: Compare levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 76 individuals - both males and females - separated in four different diet groups: omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and restricted vegetarians (or vegans. Dosing was done for: TC, LDL, HDL and TG. RESULTS: Significant difference was reported for TC, LDL and TG levels among the samples. Higher levels were reported by omnivores, with decreased levels for vegetarians as animal products were restricted, with lowest levels having been reported by vegans. Mean and standard deviation for TC were 208.09 ± 49.09 mg/dl in the group of omnivores, and 141.06 ± 30.56 mg/dl in the group of vegans (p < 0.001. LDL values for omnivores and vegans were respectively: 123.43 ± 42.67 mg/dl and 69.28 ± 29.53 mg/dl (p < 0.001. As for TG, those values were 155.68 ± 119.84 mg/dl and 81.67 ± 81.90 mg/dl (p < 0.01. As for HDL level no difference was reported between the samples, but HDL/TC ratio was significantly higher in

  11. Pitfalls in the detection of cholesterol in Huntington’s disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marullo, Manuela; Valenza, Marta; Leoni, Valerio; Caccia, Claudio; Scarlatti, Chiara; De Mario, Agnese; Zuccato, Chiara; Di Donato, Stefano; Carafoli, Ernesto; Cattaneo, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in brain cholesterol homeostasis have been reported in Huntington’s disease (HD), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion in the number of CAG repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. However, the results have been contradictory with respect to whether cholesterol levels increase or decrease in HD models. Biochemical and mass spectrometry methods show reduced levels of cholesterol precursors and cholesterol in HD cells and in the brains of several HD animal models. Abnormal brain cholesterol homeostasis was also inferred from studies in HD patients. In contrast, colorimetric and enzymatic methods indicate cholesterol accumulation in HD cells and tissues. Here we used several methods to investigate cholesterol levels in cultured cells in the presence or absence of mutant HTT protein. Results Colorimetric and enzymatic methods with low sensitivity gave variable results, whereas results from a sensitive analytical method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were more reliable. Sample preparation, high cell density and cell clonality also influenced the detection of intracellular cholesterol. Conclusions Detection of cholesterol in HD samples by colorimetric and enzymatic assays should be supplemented by detection using more sensitive analytical methods. Care must be taken to prepare the sample appropriately. By evaluating lathosterol levels using isotopic dilution mass spectrometry, we confirmed reduced cholesterol biosynthesis in knock-in cells expressing the polyQ mutation in a constitutive or inducible manner. *Correspondence should be addressed to Elena Cattaneo: elena.cattaneo@unimi.it PMID:23145355

  12. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  14. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors and screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults, United States, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklina, Elena V; Yoon, Paula W; Keenan, Nora L

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported low rates of screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults in the United States. Although recommendations for screening young adults without risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) differ, all guidelines recommend screening adults with CHD, CHD equivalents, or 1 or more CHD risk factors. This study examined national prevalence of CHD risk factors and compliance with the cholesterol screening guidelines among young adults. National estimates were obtained using results for 2,587 young adults (men aged 20 to 35 years; women aged 20 to 45 years) from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We defined high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as levels higher than the goal specific for each CHD risk category outlined in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. About 59% of young adults had CHD or CHD equivalents, or 1 or more of the following CHD risk factors: family history of early CHD, smoking, hypertension, or obesity. In our study, the overall screening rate in this population was less than 50%. Moreover, no significant difference in screening rates between young adults with no risk factors and their counterparts with 1 or more risk factors was found even after adjustment for sociodemographic and health care factors. Approximately 65% of young adults with CHD or CHD equivalents, 26% of young adults with 2 or more risk factors, 12% of young adults with 1 risk factor, and 7% with no risk factor had a high level of LDL-C. CHD risk factors are common in young adults but do not appear to alter screening rates. Improvement of risk assessment and management for cardiovascular disease among young adults is warranted.

  15. Acute Whole Body Vibration Decreases the Glucose Levels in Elderly Diabetic Women

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    Maíra Florentino Pessoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (TIIDM is characterized by high levels of blood glucose followed by excessive insulin release so that the target cells become less sensitive, developing insulin resistance and maintaining hyperglycemic levels. Physical activity is the strongest element to prevent and to manage the TIIDM, and the majority of patients do not remain in regularly active levels, because the premature fatigue in these patients decreases the adherence to the training. Contrastingly, the whole body vibration (WBV training may improve the glucose metabolism in diabetic patients, reducing the peripheral blood sugar, decreasing the physical discomfort and perceived exertion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of an acute WBV session as therapy to promote fasting decreases in insulin levels in peripheral blood in TIIDM when compared to healthy elderly. For this, fifteen healthy elderly women and fourteen diabetic elderly women, all sedentary, were allocated in diabetic or control groups, and we made an acute whole body session composed of 10 bouts lasting 2 minutes each one, separated by a 30-second rest period. The WBV was executed in a triaxial platform MY3 Power Plate® at 35 hertz and has been chosen a peak-to-peak displacement of 4 millimeters. After the protocol, both groups decreased the glycemic levels and increased lactate production in relation to the basal levels and when compared diabetic and control, where the most important results have been shown in diabetic women. This study revealed that WBV training in TIIDM has had significant beneficial effects on the control of glucose levels, still in an acute session. So that, the complete training probably will show better results about glycemic control and this finding could be especially important when prescribing exercise for elderly who are unable or unwilling to use traditional loads or who show poor exercise compliance.

  16. Aerobic Swim Training Restores Aortic Endothelial Function by Decreasing Superoxide Levels in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Camila P. Jordão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively. The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal’s body weight. After a 10-week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (10-10 to 10-4 M with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents. Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. RESULTS: Aerobic training significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced maximum vasodilation observed in the SHRtr group compared with the SHRsd group (85.9±4.3 vs. 71.6±5.2%. Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Moreover, after training, the blood pressure of the SHRtr group decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. CONCLUSIONS: In SHR, aerobic swim training decreased vascular superoxide generation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving

  17. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

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    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  18. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

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    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Allicin on Hypercholesterolemic ICR Mice

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    Yin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allicin was discussed as an active compound with regard to the beneficial effects of garlic in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering properties of allicin. In order to examine its effects on hypercholesterolemia in male ICR mice, this compound with doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight was given orally daily for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. Final contents of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and hepatic cholesterol storage were determined. Following a 12-week experimental period, the body weights of allicin-fed mice were less than those of control mice on a high-cholesterol diet by 38.24±7.94% (P<0.0001 with 5 mg/kg allicin, 39.28±5.03% (P<0.0001 with 10 mg/kg allicin, and 41.18±5.00% (P<0.0001 with 20 mg/kg allicin, respectively. A decrease in daily food consumption was also noted in most of the treated animals. Meanwhile, allicin showed a favorable effect in reducing blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and caused a significant decrease in lowering the hepatic cholesterol storage. Accordingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated a potential value of allicin as a pronounced cholesterol-lowering candidate, providing protection against the onset of atherosclerosis.

  20. Decreased Serum Levels of Ghrelin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Premenopausal Women With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Masoumeh; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2018-03-21

    We aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of ghrelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with MetS and its components in premenopausal women. 43 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Participants' body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, BDNF and ghrelin determined. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was also calculated. Participants in MetS group had higher waist-to-hip ratios, elevated SBP and DBP, and higher serum levels of TG, FBS and insulin when compared with the control group. Serum ghrelin and BDNF levels were significantly lower in participants with MetS than in the healthier control subjects. There was a strong, positive correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF levels. Both proteins negatively correlated with TG, FBS, HOMA-IR and positively with HDL-C. Furthermore, serum BDNF levels negatively associated with insulin levels. The findings indicate that variations occur in the circulating level of ghrelin and BDNF proteins in MetS patients. A strong correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF suggests that production, release or practice of these 2 proteins might be related mechanically.

  1. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved......A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P level of morning...... immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA). Binding of sCD18 to endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) was studied with confocal microscopy. Shedding of CD18 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with flow cytometry and TRIFMA. RESULTS: Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in Sp...

  2. Generic atorvastatin is as effective as the brand-name drug (LIPITOR®) in lowering cholesterol levels: a cross-sectional retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexander; Bewersdorf, Jan Philipp; Kofink, Daniel; Ismail, Dzafir; Abidin, Imran Zainal; Veriah, Ramesh Singh

    2017-07-17

    In a world of ever increasing health care costs, generic drugs represent a major opportunity to ensure access to essential medicines for people who otherwise would be unable to afford them. However, some clinicians and patients are still questioning the safety and effectiveness of generic formulations compared to the proprietary drugs necessitating further systematic research analyzing the generic drugs' efficacy. Our objective was to compare the lipid lowering effects of generic and branded atorvastatin. This cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre from 1 May 2013 until 30 May 2013. We analyzed the lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) of 629 patients before and at least 3 months after switching them from proprietary atorvastatin (Lipitor ® ) to generic atorvastatin (atorvastatin calcium from Ranbaxy Laboratories, Inc.). We also investigated if there was any difference in the effectiveness of both atorvastatin formulations in various ethnic groups. 266 patients were included in this study. When comparing the median values we found no statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p atorvastatin in lowering total cholesterol (4.60 mmol/l pre-transition vs. 4.50 mmol/l post-transition; p = 0.583), LDL-cholesterol (2.42 mmol/l vs. 2.41 mmol/l; p = 0.923) and triglycerides (1.50 mmol/l vs. 1.50 mmol/l; p = 0.513). While there was a statistically significant (p = 0.009) difference in HDL-cholesterol levels favouring proprietary atorvastatin, the extent of this change (1.26 mmol/l vs. 1.25 mmol/l) was deemed not to be clinically relevant. There was no statistically significant difference when analyzing the effects on various ethnic groups. Substituting proprietary atorvastatin for its generic formulation atorvastatin calcium does not result in a less effective management of hyperlipidemia. Our findings lend support to the

  3. Predictors of decreased physical activity level over time among adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sulan; Wang, Feng; Morrison, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) plays a key role in chronic disease prevention and health promotion. The impact of life-changing events on LTPA among adults is unknown. To examine the association between life-changing events and decreased LTPA levels. Eight cycles of Canadian National Population Health Survey data were used for this study. A total of 12,901 respondents aged ≥18 years in 1994-1995 completed biannual follow-ups until 2008-2009. The association between life-changing events and decreased LTPA in any 2-year period was assessed with adjustment of potential confounding factors. Data were analyzed in 2012. From 1994-1995 to 2008-2009, nine of ten people changed their LTPA levels. Within each 2-year period, individuals were more likely to decrease their LTPA levels if they married within the 2-year period (men); became or remained overweight/obese (women); remained a regular smoker (men); became or remained unhealthy (men and women); developed or continued to have body pain (women); and acquired social support or remained without support (men). Most people change their LTPA levels or patterns, which are significantly influenced by life-changing events. An improved understanding of factors that influence LTPA may help better target those at high risk. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Introducing inducible fluorescent split cholesterol oxidase to mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Konstantin G; Neuvonen, Maarit; Brock, Ivonne; Ikonen, Elina; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2017-05-26

    Cholesterol oxidase (COase) is a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the first step in the biodegradation of cholesterol. COase is an important biotechnological tool for clinical diagnostics and production of steroid drugs and insecticides. It is also used for tracking intracellular cholesterol; however, its utility is limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control of its activity. To overcome this we have developed a regulatable fragment complementation system for COase cloned from Chromobacterium sp. The enzyme was split into two moieties that were fused to FKBP (FK506-binding protein) and FRB (rapamycin-binding domain) pair and split GFP fragments. The addition of rapamycin reconstituted a fluorescent enzyme, termed split GFP-COase, the fluorescence level of which correlated with its oxidation activity. A rapid decrease of cellular cholesterol induced by intracellular expression of the split GFP-COase promoted the dissociation of a cholesterol biosensor D4H from the plasma membrane. The process was reversible as upon rapamycin removal, the split GFP-COase fluorescence was lost, and cellular cholesterol levels returned to normal. These data demonstrate that the split GFP-COase provides a novel tool to manipulate cholesterol in mammalian cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Intracellular cholesterol level regulates sensitivity of glioblastoma cells against temozolomide-induced cell death by modulation of caspase-8 activation via death receptor 5-accumulation and activation in the plasma membrane lipid raft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yutaro; Tomiyama, Arata; Sasaki, Nobuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Shirakihara, Takuya; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Kumagai, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Toyooka, Terushige; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Narita, Yoshitaka; Ichimura, Koichi; Sakai, Ryuichi; Namba, Hiroki; Mori, Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    Development of resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM) after continuous treatment with TMZ is one of the critical problems in clinical GBM therapy. Intracellular cholesterol regulates cancer cell biology, but whether intracellular cholesterol is involved in TMZ resistance of GBM cells remains unclear. The involvement of intracellular cholesterol in acquired resistance against TMZ in GBM cells was investigated. Intracellular cholesterol levels were measured in human U251 MG cells with acquired TMZ resistance (U251-R cells) and TMZ-sensitive control U251 MG cells (U251-Con cells), and found that the intracellular cholesterol level was significantly lower in U251-R cells than in U251-Con cells. In addition, treatment by intracellular cholesterol remover, methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD), or intracellular cholesterol inducer, soluble cholesterol (Chol), regulated TMZ-induced U251-Con cell death in line with changes in intracellular cholesterol level. Involvement of death receptor 5 (DR5), a death receptor localized in the plasma membrane, was evaluated. TMZ without or with MβCD and/or Chol caused accumulation of DR5 into the plasma membrane lipid raft and formed a complex with caspase-8, an extrinsic caspase cascade inducer, reflected in the induction of cell death. In addition, treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor or knockdown of DR5 dramatically suppressed U251-Con cell death induced by combination treatment with TMZ, MβCD, and Chol. Combined treatment of Chol with TMZ reversed the TMZ resistance of U251-R cells and another GBM cell model with acquired TMZ resistance, whereas clinical antihypercholesterolemia agents at physiological concentrations suppressed TMZ-induced cell death of U251-Con cells. These findings suggest that intracellular cholesterol level affects TMZ treatment of GBM mediated via a DR5-caspase-8 mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparison of the response of serum ceruloplasmin and cholesterol, and of tissue ascorbic acid, metallothionein, and nonprotein sulfhydryl in rats to the dietary level of cystine and cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B S; Yamazaki, M; Wan, Q; Kato, N

    1996-12-01

    The effects were compared of the addition of graded levels of L-cystine and of L-cysteine (0.3, 3, or 5%) to a 10% casein diet on several metabolic parameters in rats. The growth-promoting effect of cystine was equivalent to that of cysteine. Supplementation of these two amino acids elevated serum cholesterol, liver ascorbic acid, liver nonprotein sulfhydryl (SH) and kidney metallothionein, and reduced the activity of serum ceruloplasmin. The responses of serum cholesterol, liver nonprotein SH, and serum ceruloplasmin to cystine were greater than of those to cysteine. When the basal diet was supplemented with 0.3% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine supplementation was less than that by cysteine supplementation. However, when supplemented with 5% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine was greater than that by cysteine. There was no difference in the influence of cystine and cysteine on kidney metallothionein. This study demonstrates that dietary cystine and cysteine had the same influence on growth, but had a differential influence on such metabolic parameters as liver nonprotein SH, serum ceruloplasmin, serum cholesterol, and tissue ascorbic acid.

  8. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...... exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P testosterone levels below...... the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P

  9. Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampratap S. Kushwaha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were conducted to determine whether a synthetic truncated apoC-I peptide that inhibits CETP activity in baboons would raise plasma HDL cholesterol levels in nonhuman primates with low HDL levels. We used 2 cynomolgus monkeys and 3 baboons fed a cholesterol- and fat-enriched diet. In cynomolgus monkeys, we injected synthetic truncated apoC-I inhibitor peptide at a dose of 20 mg/kg and, in baboons, at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus monkeys, administration of the inhibitor peptide caused a rapid decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations returned to baseline levels in approximately 15 days. In baboons, administration of the synthetic inhibitor peptide caused a decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol (20%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by day 21, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations remained elevated for up to 26 days. ApoA-I concentrations increased, whereas apoE and triglyceride concentrations decreased. Subcutaneous and intravenous administrations of the inhibitor peptide had similar effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. There was no change in body weight, food consumption, or plasma IgG levels of any baboon during the study. These studies suggest that the truncated apoC-I peptide can be used to raise HDL in humans.

  10. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  11. Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Lagman

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb. Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-17 (IL-17 were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-2 (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, and interleukin-12 (IL-12, were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10, an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility

  12. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yumi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Dong; Naito, Hisao; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  14. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. OKN-007 decreases free radical levels in a preclinical F98 rat glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Smith, Nataliya; Atolagbe, Oluwatomisin; Ziegler, Jadith; Njoku, Charity; Lerner, Megan; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P; Meek, Bill; Plafker, Scott M; Saunders, Debra; Mamedova, Nadezda; Towner, Rheal A

    2015-10-01

    Free radicals are associated with glioma tumors. Here, we report on the ability of an anticancer nitrone compound, OKN-007 [Oklahoma Nitrone 007; a disulfonyl derivative of α-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN)] to decrease free radical levels in F98 rat gliomas using combined molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) and immunospin-trapping (IST) methodologies. Free radicals are trapped with the spin-trapping agent, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), to form DMPO macromolecule radical adducts, and then further tagged by immunospin trapping by an antibody against DMPO adducts. In this study, we combined mMRI with a biotin-Gd-DTPA-albumin-based contrast agent for signal detection with the specificity of an antibody for DMPO nitrone adducts (anti-DMPO probe), to detect in vivo free radicals in OKN-007-treated rat F98 gliomas. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease (P free radical levels detected with an anti-DMPO probe in treated animals compared to untreated rats. Immunoelectron microscopy was used with gold-labeled antibiotin to detect the anti-DMPO probe within the plasma membrane of F98 tumor cells from rats administered anti-DMPO in vivo. OKN-007 was also found to decrease nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 3-nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde in ex vivo F98 glioma tissues via immunohistochemistry, as well as decrease 3-nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde adducts in vitro in F98 cells via ELISA. The results indicate that OKN-007 effectively decreases free radicals associated with glioma tumor growth. Furthermore, this method can potentially be applied toward other types of cancers for the in vivo detection of macromolecular free radicals and the assessment of antioxidants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (cued recall. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of the HDL-C level to working memory and delayed cued recall were negligible in individuals with longer education, a higher cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  18. Early effects of dietary orotic acid upon liver lipid synthesis and bile cholesterol secretion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokmakjian, S.D.; Haines, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Dietary orotic acid is known to cause impaired fatty acid synthesis and increased cholesterol synthesis in rats. The authors found that the impaired fatty acid synthesis occurs during the first day of orotic acid feeding and, in studies with albumin-bound [1- 14 C]palmitic acid, an associated decrease in the rate of esterification of this fatty acid into triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester was observed. These changes may result from the known decreases in liver levels of adenine nucleotides or, as reported here, from decreased liver CoASH levels in orotic acid-fed rats. The increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis occurred during the second day of orotic acid feeding. It was detected by increased incorporation of [1,2- 14 C]acetate into cholesterol by liver slices and by a 7-fold increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity. At the same time the biliary output of cholesterol was increased 2-fold and studies using 3 H 2 O revealed that the output of newly synthesized cholesterol in bile was increased 5-fold. The content of cholesteryl ester in hepatic microsomes decreased during orotic acid feeding but free cholesterol was unchanged. The findings are interpreted to suggest that the increased bile cholesterol secretion caused by orotic acid is a result of impaired hepatic cholesterol esterification and that the increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity is a result of diminished negative feedback due to the depleted content of cholesteryl ester in the hepatic microsomes

  19. Heterozygous deficiency of endoglin decreases insulin and hepatic triglyceride levels during high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Beiroa

    Full Text Available Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  20. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in root-canal exudates during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamapun, Kassara; Handagoon, Sira; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Gutmann, James L; Pavasant, Prasit; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2017-10-01

    To determine the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels in root-canal exudates from teeth undergoing root-canal treatment. The root-canal exudates from six teeth with normal pulp and periradicular tissues that required intentional root canal treatment for prosthodontic reasons and from twelve teeth with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were sampled with paper points for bacterial culture and aspirated for the detection of proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 by gelatin zymography and the quantification of MMP-2 levels by ELISA. By gelatin zymography, both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 were detected in the first collection of root-canal exudates from teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP, but not from teeth with normal pulp, and their levels gradually decreased and disappeared at the last collection. Consistently, ELISA demonstrated a significant decrease in MMP-2 levels in the root-canal exudates of teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP following root canal procedures (papical lesions, similar to the clinical application of MMP-8 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of the additive containing Artichoke extract (APC on growth performance, blood cholesterol level, carcass characteristics and immune system of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farang Rouzmehr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of the additive containing Artichoke premix concentrated (APC on growth performance, serum cholesterol level, carcass characteristics and immune responses of broilers two separate trials were conducted. In the first trial, APC was added at three levels of 0, 100 and 200 gr/ton diet during the first 21 days of growing period. One hundred and fifty unsexed day old broiler chickens of Ross strain were randomly divided in three groups with 5 replicate of 10 chicks in each cage, by a completely randomized design. At the end of each week, the birds were weighed individually and feed conversion ratios calculated. In order to determine serum cholesterol level, at day 21 blood sample was taken from 15 chickens per treatment. At the end of the 42nd day, 5 birds from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered for investigation of carcass characteristics. In the second trial, the effects of APC at 150gr/ton feed were studied on growth parameters and immune function of broiler chickens in a commercial farm. The results showed that application of APC in a level of 200 gr/ton diet significantly increased body weight of chickens at the first (p

  2. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  3. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    internalization and degradation. The soluble form has been suggested as a biomarker of M2A-macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to investigate sCD206 plasma levels in early RA patients initiating anti-TNFα treatment. Plasma levels of sCD206 were measured by ELISA in samples from 155 early RA patients...... from baseline after 6 months. In the ADA group, however, levels remained lower than baseline throughout the treatment period. In conclusion, initially, plasma sCD206 in early RA patients decreased in accordance with disease activity and initiation of DMARD treatment. Treatment with anti-TNFα preserved......Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and infiltration by activated macrophages. TNFα is a central mediator in this process. The mannose receptor, CD206, is a scavenger receptor expressed by M2A-macrophages and dendritic cells. It is involved in collagen...

  4. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  5. Overexpression and deletion of phospholipid transfer protein reduce HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Takashi; Bi, Xin; Cipollari, Eleonora; Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lagor, William R.; Szapary, Hannah J.; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John S.; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may affect macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (mRCT) through its role in the metabolism of HDL. Ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity and in vivo mRCT were assessed in PLTP deletion and PLTP overexpression mice. PLTP deletion mice had reduced HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity, but unchanged in vivo mRCT. To directly compare the effects of PLTP overexpression and deletion on mRCT, human PLTP was overexpressed in the liver of wild-type animals using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, and control and PLTP deletion animals were injected with AAV-null. PLTP overexpression and deletion reduced plasma HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity. Both substantially decreased ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux, whereas ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux remained the same or increased, even though preβ HDL levels were lower. Neither PLTP overexpression nor deletion affected excretion of macrophage-derived radiocholesterol in the in vivo mRCT assay. The ex vivo and in vivo assays were modified to gauge the rate of cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma. PLTP activity did not affect this metric. Thus, deviations in PLTP activity from the wild-type level reduce HDL mass and ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity, but not the rate of macrophage cholesterol efflux to plasma or in vivo mRCT. PMID:28137768

  6. Decreased blood riboflavin levels are correlated with defective expression of RFT2 gene in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Maynur; Li, De-Sheng; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Kong, Bing; Du, Chen-Song; Wumar, Maimaitiaili; Mamtimin, Batur; Sheyhidin, Ilyar; Hasim, Ayshamgul

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between blood riboflavin levels and riboflavin transporter 2 (RFT2) gene expression in gastric carcinoma (GC) development. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect blood riboflavin levels in patients with GC. Real-time fluorogenic quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of RFT2 mRNA and protein in samples from 60 GC patients consisting of both tumor and normal tissue. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the RFT2 mRNA levels was detected in GC samples compared with those in the normal mucous membrane (0.398 ± 0.149 vs 1.479 ± 0.587; P = 0.040). Tumors exhibited low RFT2 protein expression (75%, 16.7%, 8.3% and 0% for no RFT2 staining, weak staining, medium staining and strong staining, respectively), which was significantly lower than that in the normal mucous membrane (10%, 16.7%, 26.7% and 46.7% for no RFT2 staining, weak staining, medium staining and strong staining, respectively; P riboflavin levels were reverse correlated with development of GC (1.2000 ± 0.97 569 ng/mL in high tumor stage patients vs 2.5980 ± 1.31 129 ng/mL in low tumor stage patients; P riboflavin levels with defective expression of RFT2 protein was found in GC patients (χ2 = 2.619; P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Defective expression of RFT2 is associated with the development of GC and this may represent a mechanism underlying the decreased plasma riboflavin levels in GC. PMID:22791947

  7. Cholesterol as a Causative Factor in Alzheimer Disease: A Debatable Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. Gibson; Li, Ling; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2014-01-01

    High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) levels. However, there are problems with the cholesterol-AD hypothesis. Cholesterol levels in serum/plasma and brain of AD patients do not support cholesterol as a causative factor in AD. Prospective studies on statins and AD have largely failed to show efficacy. Even the experimental data are open to interpretation given that it is well-established that modification of cholesterol levels has effects on multiple proteins, not only APP and Aβ. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to examine the above-mentioned issues and discuss the pros and cons of the cholesterol-AD hypothesis, and the involvement of other lipids in the mevalonate pathway, such as isoprenoids and oxysterols, in AD. PMID:24329875

  8. Decreased serum levels of sex steroids associated with osteoporosis in a group of Romanian male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Florina Ligia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With age, sex hormone deficiency leads to reduced bone mineral density (BMD in men. The aim of our research is to analyze the role of serum sex steroids in assessing BMD in the men included in this study. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 146 men aged 65-85 years old with osteopenia or osteoporosis (study group and 121 men with normal BMD (control group. Serum levels of total testosterone (Tt and free testosterone (Tf were measured by immunoassay, and estradiol (E2 levels were measured by the immunoenzymatic method. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Tf and E2 deficiency was significantly associated with low BMD (p=0.007. No association was found between Tt deficiency and reduced BMD. Tf levels (p<0.001 and E2 levels (p=0.003 were significantly lower in patients with reduced BMD compared to those with normal BMD. Significant more cases with low levels of Tf (p=0.015 and E2 (p<0.001 were found in patients with osteoporosis compared to those with osteopenia. Conclusions. Sex hormones deficiency in men was significantly correlated with the decrease of BMD. Determination of serum Tf and E2 levels is important in assessing the risk of osteoporosis in male subjects.

  9. Optimal intravenous infusion to decrease the haematocrit level in patient of DHF infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Saragih, R.; Wijaya, K. P.; Naiborhu, J.

    2014-02-01

    The optimal control of infusion model for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) infection is formulated here. The infusion model will be presented in form of haematocrit level. The input control aim to normalize the haematocrit level and is expressed as infusion volume on mL/day. The stability near the equilibrium points will be analyzed. Numerical simulation shows the dynamic of each infection compartments which gives a description of within-host dynamic of dengue virus. These results show particularly that infected compartments tend to be vanished in ±15days after the onset of the virus. In fact, without any control added, the haematocrit level will decrease but not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control. Control treatment for a fixed time using a control input can bring haematocrit level to normal range 42-47%. The optimal control in this paper is divided into three cases, i.e. fixed end point, constrained input, and tracking haematocrit state. Each case shows different infection condition in human body. However, all cases require that the haematocrit level to be in normal range in fixed final time.

  10. Serdemetan antagonizes the Mdm2-HIF1α axis leading to decreased levels of glycolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Lehman

    Full Text Available Serdemetan (JNJ-26854165, an antagonist to Mdm2, was anticipated to promote the activation of p53. While regulation of p53 by Mdm2 is important, Mdm2 also regulates numerous proteins involved in diverse cellular functions. We investigated if Serdemetan would alter the Mdm2-HIF1α axis and affect cell survival in human glioblastoma cells independently of p53. Treatment of cells with Serdemetan under hypoxia resulted in a decrease in HIF1α levels. HIF1α downstream targets, VEGF and the glycolytic enzymes (enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase1/2, and glucose transporter 1, were all decreased in response to Serdemetan. The involvement of Mdm2 in regulating gene expression of glycolytic enzymes raises the possibility of side effects associated with therapeutically targeting Mdm2.

  11. Decreased levels of sRAGE in follicular fluid from patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BiJun; Li, Jing; Yang, QingLing; Zhang, FuLi; Hao, MengMeng; Guo, YiHong

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels in follicular fluid and the number of oocytes retrieved and to evaluate the effect of sRAGE on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulosa cells in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. In part one, sRAGE and VEGF protein levels in follicular fluid samples from 39 patients with PCOS and 35 non-PCOS patients were measured by ELISA. In part two, ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from an additional 10 patients with PCOS and cultured. VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as pAKT levels, were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting after cultured cells were treated with different concentrations of sRAGE. Compared with the non-PCOS patients, patients with PCOS had lower sRAGE levels in follicular fluid. Multi-adjusted regression analysis showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose, more oocytes retrieved, and a better IVF outcome in the non-PCOS group. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher sRAGE levels predicted favorably IVF outcomes in the non-PCOS group. Multi-adjusted regression analysis also showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose in the PCOS group. Treating granulosa cells isolated from patients with PCOS with recombinant sRAGE decreased VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein expression and pAKT levels in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  12. Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment.

  13. Decreased levels of soluble Toll-like Receptor 2 in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tehrani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, reports have indicated a role for the membrane form of Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2 in asthma pathogenesis. In this study we examined soluble TLR2 levels in serum and sputum of asthmatic and healthy subjects. Methods: Serum and sputum samples were obtained from 33 asthmatic and 19 healthy subjects. The asthmatics were classified into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma. A sandwich ELISA was developed to measure soluble TLR2 (sTLR2 in serum and sputum. TLR2 mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR of all sputum samples. Results: The mean sTLR2 levels from serum and sputum of asthmatics were significantly lower than those from healthy subjects. Moreover, sTLR2 concentration decreased concomitantly with asthma severity. The differences observed, however, were not statistically significant. TLR2/GAPDH mRNA of sputum leukocytes was also significantly lower in asthmatics than in healthy subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrated for the first time thatsTLR2 levels are lower in serum and sputum samples from asthmatic than from healthy subjects, and this could be an indicator of TLR2 expression. We also found that sTLR2 concentration in serum decreased concomitantly with an increase of asthma severity clinical score.

  14. Experimental Hyperthyroidism Decreases Gene Expression and Serum Levels of Adipokines in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Azevedo Melo Luvizotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Main Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C—fed with commercial chow ad libitum—and obese (OB—fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T3/100 BW (OT. The T3 dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Results. T3 treatment was effective, increasing fT3 levels and decreasing fT4 and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T3 promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T3 modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T3 and adipokines in obesity.

  15. Experimental hyperthyroidism decreases gene expression and serum levels of adipokines in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)-fed with commercial chow ad libitum-and obese (OB)-fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T(3))/100 BW (OT). The T(3) dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. T(3) treatment was effective, increasing fT(3) levels and decreasing fT(4) and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T(3) promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Our results suggest that T(3) modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T(3) and adipokines in obesity.

  16. Whole-Body Cryotherapy Decreases the Levels of Inflammatory, Oxidative Stress, and Atherosclerosis Plaque Markers in Male Patients with Active-Phase Ankylosing Spondylitis in the Absence of Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS. Material and Methods. We investigated the effect of WBC with subsequent kinesiotherapy on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis plaque in male AS patients (WBC group. To assess the disease activity, the BASDAI and BASFI were also calculated. The results from the WBC group were compared with results from the kinesiotherapy (KT group. Results. The results showed that in the WBC group, the plasma hsCRP level decreased without change to the IL-6 level. The ICAM-1 level showed a decreasing tendency. The CER concentration, as well as the BASDAI and BASFI, decreased in both groups, but the index changes of disease activity were higher in the WBC than KT patients. Additionally, in the WBC group, we observed a decrease in oxidative stress markers, changes in the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters. In both groups, the total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, sCD40L, PAPP-A, and PLGF levels decreased, but the parameter changes were higher in the WBC group. Conclusion. WBC appears to be a useful method of atherosclerosis prevention in AS patients.

  17. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  18. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  19. Bakery products enriched with phytosterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol and maintain plasma beta-carotene concentrations in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, Joan; Rafecas, Magda; Brufau, Gemma; García-Lorda, Pilar; Megías, Isabel; Bulló, Mònica; Ruiz, Joan A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2003-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of phytosterols have not been evaluated in bakery products, and the addition of liposoluble antioxidants to the carrier has never been tested. We investigated the effects of consuming croissants and magdalenas (Spanish muffins) enriched with sterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on plasma lipid and fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in normocholesterolemic, habitual consumers of bakery products following their usual diet and lifestyle. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, the control (C) group (n = 29) received two pieces daily (standard croissant and muffin) and the sterol ester (SE) group (n = 28), the same products with sterol esters added (3.2 g/d) for 8 wk. Total and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the SE group by 0.24 mmol/L (P bakery products are excellent carriers for phytosterols, and their consumption is associated with a decrease in total and LDL-C concentrations, with no changes in alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. The ability of bakery products to include sufficient quantities of beta-carotene to compensate for a potential deficiency, and the fact that their efficacy was not associated with the time of day at which they were consumed, are interesting findings.

  20. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

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    Luciano K. Jornada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group. RESULTS: When evaluated immediately, 3h, or 24h after injection, ouabain in doses of 10-2 and 10-3 M does not alter BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus. However, when evaluated seven days after injection, ouabain in 10-2 and 10-3 M, showed a significant reduction in BDNF levels in both brain regions evaluated. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, we propose that the ouabain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala when assessed seven days after administration, supporting the Na/K ATPase hypothesis for bipolar illness.

  1. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

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    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  2. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor in an adolescent

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    Eun Mi Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.

  3. Decreased plasma neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder patients in mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Izabela G; Morato, Isabela B; Huguet, Rodrigo B; Rocha, Fabio L; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antônio L

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate two poorly explored neurotrophins (NT), NT-3 and NT-4/5, in bipolar disorder (BD). Forty patients with type I BD (18 in remission and 22 in mania) and 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and educational attainment were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate severity of symptoms in BD patients. Plasma levels of NT-3 and NT-4/5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BD patients in mania presented decreased NT-4/5 plasma levels in comparison with controls (p neurotrophin dysfunction is associated with mood states in patients with BD.

  4. Postsurgical Acute Phase Reaction is Associated with Decreased Levels of Circulating Myostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Gunningberg, Lena; Swenne, Christine Leo; Larsson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    Muscle strength is of importance for postsurgical rehabilitation. Myostatin is a growth factor that regulates the size of muscles and could thus influence muscle mass and function in the postsurgical period. The aim of the present study was to study the changes in myostatin levels during the postsurgical inflammatory period. Myostatin was analysed in serum samples from two elective surgery groups, orthopaedic surgery (n = 24) and coronary bypass patients (n = 21). The samples were collected prior to surgery and 4 and 30 days after surgery. In the orthopaedic group, the median myostatin levels decreased from 3582 ng/L prior to surgery to 774 ng/L at day 4 (p myostatin from 4212 ng/L to 2574 ng/L at day 4 (p myostatin concentrations both in the early and late postsurgical period. The lowest myostatin concentration time point coincided with the highest CRP concentration time point.

  5. Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene are associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and not with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Young Min; Moon, Min Kyong; Choi, Hye Hun; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2006-11-01

    Ghrelin is known to play a role in glucose metabolism and in beta-cell function. There are controversies regarding the role of ghrelin polymorphisms in diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes. The objective of this study was to examine polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene in a Korean cohort and investigate associations between them and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and its related phenotypes. The ghrelin gene was sequenced to identify polymorphisms in 24 DNA samples. Common variants were then genotyped in 760 type 2 diabetic patients and 641 nondiabetic subjects. Genetic associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were also analyzed. Nine polymorphisms were identified, and four common polymorphisms [g.-1500C>G, g.-1062G > C, g.-994C > T, g.+408C > A (Leu72Met)] were genotyped in a larger study. The genotype distributions of these four common polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes patients were similar to those of normal nondiabetic controls. However, these four common polymorphisms were variably associated with several diabetes-related phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. In particular, subjects harboring g.-1062C were associated with a lower serum HDL cholesterol level after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.0004 or 0.01 after Bonferroni correction for 24 tests). The aforementioned four common polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene were not found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. However, the common polymorphism g.-1062G > C in the promoter region of the ghrelin gene was found to be significantly associated with serum HDL cholesterol levels.

  6. Decreased serum pyridoxal levels in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and Mendelian randomization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Umehara, Hidehiro; Watanabe, Shin-ya; Nakataki, Masahito; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Ikeda, Masashi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Shimodera, Shinji; Tajima, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwata, Nakao; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    Background Alterations in one-carbon metabolism have been associated with schizophrenia, and vitamin B6 is one of the key components in this pathway. Methods We first conducted a case–control study of serum pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia in a large Japanese cohort (n = 1276). Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of association studies (n = 2125). Second, we investigated whether rs4654748, which was identified in a genome-wide association study as a vitamin B6-related single nucleotide polymorphism, was genetically implicated in patients with schizophrenia in the Japanese population (n = 10 689). Finally, we assessed the effect of serum pyridoxal levels on schizophrenia risk using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Results Serum pyridoxal levels were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia than in controls, not only in our cohort, but also in the pooled data set of the meta-analysis of association studies (standardized mean difference −0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.57 to −0.39, p = 9.8 × 10−24). We failed to find a significant association between rs4654748 and schizophrenia. Furthermore, an MR analysis failed to find a causal relationship between pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia risk (odds ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.65–1.51, p = 0.96). Limitations Food consumption and medications may have affected serum pyridoxal levels in our cross-sectional study. Sample size, number of instrumental variables and substantial heterogeneity among patients with schizophrenia are limitations of an MR analysis. Conclusion We found decreased serum pyridoxal levels in patients with schizophrenia in this observational study. However, we failed to obtain data supporting a causal relationship between pyridoxal levels and schizophrenia risk using the MR approach. PMID:29688875

  7. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

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    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  8. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

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    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  9. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  10. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  11. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice

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    NEIRE M. DE GOUVEIA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75% of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose.

  13. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  14. Levels of semenogelin in human spermatozoa decrease during capacitation: involvement of reactive oxygen species and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lamirande, E; Lamothe, G

    2010-07-01

    Semenogelin (Sg), the main protein of human semen coagulum, prevents sperm capacitation. The objective of this study was to examine the role of Sg and its mechanism of action. Sg blocked sperm capacitation triggered by various stimuli, via inhibition of superoxide anion (O(2)*-; luminescence assay) and nitric oxide (NO*; tested using diaminofluorescein) generation. Triton-soluble and -insoluble sperm fractions contained Sg and Sg peptides (immunoblotting), the level of which decreased with initiation of capacitation. This drop was prevented by superoxide dismutase and NO* synthase inhibitor and was reproduced by addition of O(2)*- and NO*. Zinc (Zn(2+)) blocked and a zinc chelator (TPEN) promoted the decline in Sg levels. There was a decreased labelling of Sg on the head in capacitating spermatozoa with the two fixation techniques tested (immunocytochemistry). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (O(2)*- and NO*) caused, these changes, and zinc prevented them. Spermatozoa quickly internalized Sg upon incubation and Sg was then rapidly degraded in a zinc-inhibitable manner. Sg blocked capacitation mainly via inhibition of ROS generation. Spermatozoa appeared permeable to Sg and processed Sg in a zinc-inhibitable fashion. ROS themselves could promote sperm disposal of Sg which maybe one of the mechanisms that allows initiation of capacitation.

  15. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  16. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (Pcholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  17. The potential influence of genetic variants in genes along bile acid and bile metabolic pathway on blood cholesterol levels in the population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Müller, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The liver is currently known to be the major organ to eliminate excess cholesterol from our body. It accomplishes this function in two ways: conversion of cholesterol molecules into bile acids (BAs) and secretion of unesterified cholesterol molecules into bile. BAs are synthesized in the

  18. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport in the second half of mouse pregnancy does not involve LDL receptor-related protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, M V; Baardman, M E; van Dijk, T H; Jurdzinski, A; Wisse, L J; Bloks, V W; Berger, R M F; DeRuiter, M C; Groen, A K; Plösch, T

    2017-08-01

    LDL receptor-related protein type 2 (LRP2) is highly expressed on both yolk sac and placenta. Mutations in the corresponding gene are associated with severe birth defects in humans, known as Donnai-Barrow syndrome. We here characterized the contribution of LRP2 and maternal plasma cholesterol availability to maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal cholesterol levels in utero in mice. Lrp2 +/- mice were mated heterozygously to yield fetuses of all three genotypes. Half of the dams received a 0.5% probucol-enriched diet during gestation to decrease maternal HDL cholesterol. At E13.5, the dams received an injection of D7-labelled cholesterol and were provided with 1- 13 C acetate-supplemented drinking water. At E16.5, fetal tissues were collected and maternal cholesterol transport and fetal synthesis quantified by isotope enrichments in fetal tissues by GC-MS. The Lrp2 genotype did not influence maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal cholesterol. However, lowering of maternal plasma cholesterol levels by probucol significantly reduced maternal-fetal cholesterol transport. In the fetal liver, this was associated with increased cholesterol synthesis rates. No indications were found for an interaction between the Lrp2 genotype and maternal probucol treatment. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and endogenous fetal cholesterol synthesis depend on maternal cholesterol concentrations but do not involve LRP2 in the second half of murine pregnancy. Our results suggest that the mouse fetus can compensate for decreased maternal cholesterol levels. It remains a relevant question how the delicate system of cholesterol transport and synthesis is regulated in the human fetus and placenta. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Down-regulated resistin level in consequence of decreased neutrophil counts in untreated Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Qi, Yicheng; Huang, Fengjiao; Chen, Xinxin; Zhou, Yulin; Ye, Lei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Shu

    2016-11-29

    Resistin, belongs to cysteine-rich secretory protein, is mainly produced by circulating leukocytes, such as neutrophils monocytes and macrophages in humans. To date, few but controversial studies have reported about resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, especially in Graves' disease (GD). We undertaked a controlled, prospective study to explore the serum resistin concentration in GD patients before and after -MMI treatment. In addition, we also investigated the main influencing factor on serum resistin level and discuessed the potential role of serum resistin plays in GD patients. 39 untreated GD (uGD) patients, including 8 males and 31 females, were enrolled in our investigation. All of these patients were prescribed with MMI treatment, in addition to 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric parameters and hormone assessment were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum resistin concentration in different stages of GD patients. Furthermore, neutrophil cell line NB4 with or without T3 treatment to detect the effect of thyroid hormones on resistin expression. The serum resistin level and neutrophil counts in untreated GD patients were significantly declined. And all of these parameters were recovered to normal after MMI treatment in ethyroid GD (eGD) and TRAb-negative conversion (nGD) patients. Resistin concentration exhibited a negative correlation with FT3 and FT4, but a positive correlation with absolute number of neutrophiles in uGD patients, whereas did not correlate with thyroid autoimmune antibodies and BMI. Neutrophile cell line, NB4, produced decreased expression of resistin when stimulated with T3. Our study showed a decrease of serum resistin level in GD patients and we suggested that the serum resistin might primarily secreted from circulating neutrophils and down-regulated by excessive thyroid hormones in GD patients.

  20. The ABCG5/8 Cholesterol Transporter and Myocardial Infarction Versus Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone...... disease in opposite directions. BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation. METHODS: A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI...... and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated. RESULTS: Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5...

  1. Frequency of significant three vessel coronary artery disease and left main stem disease in acute coronary syndrome patients having high LDL cholesterol level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, S.; Achakzai, A.S.; Zeb, J.; Zeb, R.; Adil, M.; Jan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the frequency of significant three-vessel coronary artery and left main stem disease in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome having high LDL cholesterol level. Methodology: This observational study was performed in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from June 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. All consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography admitted with acute coronary syndrome within past 30 days and having LDL cholesterol more than 130mg/dl were included in the study. Demographic data was noted. The data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 16. Results: A total number of 206 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 51.25+-8.4 years. Of them, 139(67.5%) were male and 67(32.5%) female. Hypertension was found in 87(42.2%) patients, diabetes was found in 71(34.5%) patients, 56(27.2%) were smokers, family history of CAD was present in 39(18.9%) patients. The incidence of significant three vessel coronary artery disease was 52(25.2%) and left main stem disease were present in 15(7.2%). Out of 67(32.4%) with severe triple vessel and Left main stem disease, males were 51(76.1%) and females were 16(23.9%). Patients with significant three vessel and left main stem disease were more frequently males and younger. Conclusion: Patients having acute coronary syndrome with High LDL levels are more frequently have significant three vessel and Left main stem disease.

  2. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  3. Cholesterol autoxidation in phospholipid membrane bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevanian, A.; McLeod, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of known cholesterol-phospholipid composition was monitored under conditions of autoxidation or as induced by a superoxide radical generating system, gamma-irradiation or cumene hydroperoxide. Formation of cholesterol oxidation products was indexed to the level of lipid peroxidation. The major cholesterol oxidation products identified were 7-keto-cholesterol, isomeric cholesterol 5,6-epoxides, isomeric 7-hydroperoxides and isomeric 3,7-cholestane diols. Other commonly encountered products included 3,5-cholestadiene-7-one and cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. Superoxide-dependent peroxidation required iron and produced a gradual increase in 7-keto-cholesterol and cholesterol epoxides. Cholesterol oxidation was greatest in liposomes containing high proportions of unsaturated phospholipid to cholesterol (4:1 molar ratio), intermediate with low phospholipid to cholesterol ratios (2:1) and least in liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. This relationship held regardless of the oxidizing conditions used. Cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation and/or more prolonged oxidations with other oxidizing systems yielded a variety of products where cholesterol-5 beta,6 beta-epoxide, 7-ketocholesterol and the 7-hydroperoxides were most consistently elevated. Oxyradical initiation of lipid peroxidation produced a pattern of cholesterol oxidation products distinguishable from the pattern derived by cumene hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation

  4. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyol ES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysio­logy of schizophrenic

  5. [The effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on decreasing the level of aggression in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Zeynep; Gökçakan, Dan Zafer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on the level aggression in adolescents. The study included 23 students from Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Vocational High School of Hotel Management and Tourism that had high aggression scores. Eleven of the participants (6 female, 5 male) constituted the experimental group and 12 (6 male, 6 female) were in the control group. The 34-item Aggression Scale was used to measure level of aggression. We utilized mixed pattern design including experiment-control, pre-test and post test and follow up. The experimental group participated in group-based psychodrama therapy once a week for 90 minutes, for 14 weeks in total. The Aggression Scale was administered to the experimental and control groups before and after treatment; it was additionally administered to the experimental group 16 weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and dependent samples t tests. Our analysis shows that group-based psychodrama had an effect on the experimental group in terms of total aggression, anger, hostility, and indirect aggression scores (F=65.109, F=20.175, F=18.593, F=40.987, respectively, Ppsychodrama therapy decreased the level of aggression in the experimental group. Current findings are discussed with reference to the literature. Recommendations for further research and for psychiatric counselors are provided.

  6. Decreased Daily Melatonin Levels in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa Robeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neuroendocrine system is known to influence immunity, but the precise interactions between different hormones and autoimmune disorders remain obscure. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the role of daily serum melatonin concentrations in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: One-hundred and eleven SLE female patients and 46 healthy women were included in the study. Daily serum melatonin levels were investigated in all participants. Results: SLE patients showed significantly lower daily melatonin levels in comparison to healthy women during the short photoperiod (17.75±7.13 pg/mL [16.05] vs. 21.63±6.60 pg/mL [20.10], p=0.012. Hormone concentrations were inversely related to the SLE activity index (SLEDAI (r= -0.268, p=0.004, but they did not correlate to any particular American College Rheumatology (ACR criterion (p>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Daily melatonin levels were decreased in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and correlated inversely to the activity of the autoimmune disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of the pineal and extrapineal melatonin secretion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as the interrelations between hormones and autoimmunity.

  7. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalanen, Laura; Prättälä, Ritva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2012-10-26

    Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992-2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key foods influencing serum cholesterol levels

  8. Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders have an atherogenic lipid profile that is characterised by low HDL-cholesterol level and small LDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, D N; Piers, L S; Iser, D M; Rowley, K G; Jenkins, A J; Best, J D; O'Dea, K

    2008-12-01

    To characterise lipid profiles for Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. Community-based, cross-sectional surveys in 1995-1997 including: 407 female and 322 male Australian Aboriginal people and 207 female and 186 male Torres Strait Islanders over 15 years old. A comparator of 78 female (44 with diabetes) and 148 male (73 with diabetes) non-indigenous participants recruited to clinical epidemiological studies was used. Lipids were determined by standard assays and LDL diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis. Diabetes prevalence was 14.8% and 22.6% among Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, respectively. LDL size (mean [95% CI (confidence interval)]) was smaller (P<0.05) in non-diabetic Aboriginal (26.02 [25.96-26.07] nm) and Torres Strait Islander women (26.01 [25.92-26.09] nm) than in non-diabetic non-indigenous women (26.29 [26.13-26.44] nm). LDL size correlated (P<0.0005) inversely with triglyceride, WHR, and fasting insulin and positively with HDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol (mean [95% CI] mmol/L) was lower (P<0.0005) in indigenous Australians than in non-indigenous subjects, independent of age, sex, diabetes, WHR, insulin, triglyceride, and LDL size: Aboriginal (non-diabetic women, 0.86 [0.84-0.88]; diabetic women, 0.76 [0.72-0.80]; non-diabetic men, 0.79 [0.76-0.81]; diabetic men, 0.76 [0.71-0.82]); Torres Strait Islander (non-diabetic women, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic women, 0.89 [0.83-0.96]; non-diabetic men, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic men, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]); non-indigenous (non-diabetic women, 1.49 [1.33-1.67]; diabetic women, 1.12 [1.03-1.21]; non-diabetic men, 1.18 [1.11-1.25]; diabetic men, 1.05 [0.98-1.12]). Indigenous Australians have a dyslipidaemia which includes small LDL and very low HDL-cholesterol levels. The dyslipidaemia was equally severe in both genders. Strategies aimed at increasing HDL-cholesterol and LDL size may reduce high CVD risk for indigenous populations.

  9. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, Raji; Wilson, Anand Babu; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha

    2018-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10–20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015). Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05). Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047), whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004). Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:29444162

  10. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Ramachandran Pillai

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression (PPD is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10-20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015. Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05. Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047, whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004. Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  11. Decreased placental and maternal serum TRAIL-R2 levels are associated with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ersoy, Ebru; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Uygur, Dilek; Yucel, Aykan; Ergin, Merve; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) is produced both by decidual and trophoblast cells during pregnancy and known to participate in apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine and to compare maternal serum and placental TRAIL-R2 levels in patients with placenta accreta, non-adherent placenta previa and in healthy pregnancies. We also aimed to analyze the association of placenta accreta with the occurrence of previous C-sections. A total of 82 pregnant women were enrolled in this case-control study (27 placenta accreta patients, 26 non-adherent placenta previa patients and 29 age-, and BMI-matched healthy, uncomplicated pregnant controls). TRAIL-R2 levels were studied in both maternal serum and placental tissue homogenates. Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate placenta accreta was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Both placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were significantly lower in placenta accreta group (median 34.82 pg/mg and 19.85 pg/mL, respectively) when compared with both non-adherent placenta previa (median 39.24 pg/mg and 25.99 pg/mL, respectively) and the control groups (median 41.62 pg/mg and 25.87 pg/mL, respectively) (p Placental TRAIL-R2 levels and previous cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta (OR: 0.934 95% CI 0.883-0.987, p = 0.016 and OR:7.725 95% CI: 2.717-21.965, p Placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were positively correlated. Decreased levels of placental TRAIL-R2 and previous history of cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta, suggesting a possible role of apoptosis in abnormal trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  13. Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Schottlaender

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases.Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37 as well as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 7, dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20, corticobasal degeneration (n = 15 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 18 patients were used as comparison groups. CoQ10 was measured in cerebellar and frontal cortex tissue by high performance liquid chromatography.We detected a statistically significant decrease (by 3-5% in the level of CoQ10 in the cerebellum of MSA cases (P = 0.001, specifically in OPCA (P = 0.001 and mixed cases (P = 0.005, when compared to controls as well as to other neurodegenerative diseases [dementia with Lewy bodies (P<0.001, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (P<0.001, corticobasal degeneration (P<0.001, and cerebellar ataxia (P = 0.001].Our results suggest that a perturbation in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of MSA but the mechanism behind this finding remains to be elucidated.

  14. Individual Reminiscence Therapy can Decrease Depression Level on Elderly at Social Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in oldest old. The psychosocial development of the elderly to enhance self-integration. Reminiscence therapy is one of psychosocial treatment for elderly using memory recall of one’s life event in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on depression among elderly in the social homes. Method: The study design was used Quasy-Eksperiment Pre-Post Test with Control Group. A total of 60 elderly people were recruited in this study and assigned into two groups,  31 participants in the intervention group and 29 participants in the control group. Independent variable was reminiscence therapy five sessions, which given to the intervention group. While, dependent variable was the level of depression on elderly. Data were collected by using GDS, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: After providing individual reminiscence therapy, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared to those in the control group was found (p=0.008. Discussion: The individual reminiscence therapy is useful to overcome depression among elderly. The nurse can know the personality of each elderly so as to improve the quality of nursing care for elderly Keywords: individual reminiscence therapy, depression, elderly

  15. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  16. Atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H.; Amarenco, P.; Hennerici, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial found that treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg per day reduced the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with a recent transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. We hypothesized...... this benefit would be greatest in the subgroup of patients with carotid stenosis. METHODS: The SPARCL trial randomized patients with TIA or stroke within 1 to 6 months without known coronary heart disease (CHD) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 190 mg/dL to treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg per...... artery stenosis, treatment with atorvastatin was associated with a 33% reduction in the risk of any stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47, 0.94; P=0.02), and a 43% reduction in risk of major coronary events (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.32, 1.00; P=0.05). Later carotid revascularization...

  17. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels.

  18. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  19. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. Tissue sterol composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) depends on the dietary cholesterol content and on the dietary phytosterol:cholesterol ratio, but not on the dietary phytosterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, Nini H; Rosenlund, Grethe; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Liland, Nina S

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how the dietary sterol composition, including cholesterol, phytosterol:cholesterol ratio and phytosterols, affect the absorption, biliary excretion, retention, tissue storage and distribution of cholesterol and individual phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). A feeding trial was conducted at two different temperatures (6 and 12°C), using nine different diets with varying contents of phytosterols, cholesterol and phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Cholesterol retention values were clearly dependent on dietary cholesterol, and showed that fish fed cholesterol levels phytosterol:cholesterol ratio, but not on the dietary phytosterol content in itself. Campesterol and brassicasterol appeared to be the phytosterols with the highest intestinal absorption in Atlantic salmon. There was a high biliary excretion of campesterol, but not of brassicasterol, which accumulated in tissues and particularly in adipose tissue, with 2-fold-higher retention at 12°C compared with 6°C. Campesterol had the second highest retention of the phytosterols in the fish, but with no difference between the two temperatures. Other phytosterols had very low retention. Although brassicasterol retention decreased with increasing dietary phytosterols, campesterol retention decreased with increasing dietary cholesterol, indicating differences in the uptake mechanisms for these two sterols.

  1. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-05-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  2. Hemodiafiltration Decreases Serum Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Severe Leptospirosis: A Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Aparecido Cleto

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a health problem worldwide. Its most severe form is a classic model of sepsis, provoking acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and acute kidney injury (AKI, with associated mortality that remains unacceptably high. We previously demonstrated that early initiation of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED followed by daily SLED significantly decreases mortality. However, the mode of clearance can also affect dialysis patient outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of SLED with traditional (diffusive clearance, via hemodialysis, and SLED with convective clearance, via hemodiafiltration (SLEDf, in patients with severe leptospirosis.In this prospective study, conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU from 2009 through 2012, we compared two groups-SLED (n = 19 and SLEDf (n = 20-evaluating demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as serum levels of interleukins, up to the third day after admission. All patients received dialysis early and daily thereafter.During the study period, 138 patients were admitted to our ICU with a diagnosis of leptospirosis; 39 (36 males/3 females met the criteria for ARDS and AKI. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and were comparable in terms of respiratory parameters. Mortality did not differ between the SLEDf and SLED groups. However, post-admission decreases in the serum levels of interleukin (IL-17, IL-7, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were significantly greater in the SLEDf group. Direct bilirubin and the arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio were significantly higher in the SLED group. We identified the following risk factors (sensitivities/specificities for mortality in severe leptospirosis: age ≥ 55 years (67%/91%; serum urea ≥ 204 mg/dl (100%/70%; creatinine ≥ 5.2 mg/dl (100%/58%; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score ≥ 39.5 (67%/88%; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score

  3. Eating patterns may mediate the association between marital status, body mass index, and blood cholesterol levels in apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Stafanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Marital status has been recognized as a significant health-influencing factor, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate whether eating habits mediate the relationship between marital status and levels of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA Study. During 2001-2002, we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) from the Attica area, Greece; the sampling was stratified by the age-gender distribution of the region. Participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and psychological assessment. Food consumption was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as never married, married, divorced and widowed. Discriminant analysis revealed that vegetable consumption, followed by red meat, potatoes, poultry, and soft drinks were the factors with the higher discriminating ability among the food groups studied. In particular, dietary patterns of never married participants were characterized by the consumption of potatoes and red meat, those of married participants by nuts, legumes and fish, those of divorced participants by fruits, cereals and soft drinks, whereas those of widowed participants by dairy, vegetables, sweets and poultry. In addition, never married and divorced participants reported eating fast-foods more frequently and drink less alcohol compared to married or widowed participants. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, physical activity, anxiety score and smoking habits), the reported marital status of the participants was associated only with body mass index and total serum cholesterol levels. When the analysis was repeated after taking into account the information on dietary habits by creating four "new" dietary-adjusted marital status groups, no significant association was revealed between marital status and body mass index and blood cholesterol levels. This finding

  4. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  5. Climate change affects low trophic level marine consumers: warming decreases copepod size and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzke, Jessica; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Concern about climate change has re-ignited interest in universal ecological responses to temperature variations: (1) biogeographical shifts, (2) phenology changes, and (3) size shifts. In this study we used copepods as model organisms to study size responses to temperature because of their central role in the pelagic food web and because of the ontogenetic length constancy between molts, which facilitates the definition of size of distinct developmental stages. In order to test the expected temperature-induced shifts towards smaller body size and lower abundances under warming conditions, a mesocosm experiment using plankton from the Baltic Sea at three temperature levels (ambient, ambient +4 °C, ambient -4 °C) was performed in summer 2010. Overall copepod and copepodit abundances, copepod size at all life stages, and adult copepod size in particular, showed significant temperature effects. As expected, zooplankton peak abundance was lower in warm than in ambient treatments. Copepod size-at-immature stage significantly increased in cold treatments, while adult size significantly decreased in warm treatments.

  6. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Wen, Yao-Ke; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2009-03-01

    Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII.

  7. Social isolation after stroke leads to depressive-like behavior and decreased BDNF levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Lena M; Doran, Sarah J; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Conti, Lisa H; Venna, Venugopal R; McCullough, Louise D

    2014-03-01

    Social isolation prior to stroke leads to poorer outcomes after an ischemic injury in both animal and human studies. However, the impact of social isolation following stroke, which may be more clinically relevant as a target for therapeutic intervention, has yet to be examined. In this study, we investigated both the sub-acute (2 weeks) and chronic (7 weeks) effects of social isolation on post-stroke functional and histological outcome. Worsened histological damage from ischemic injury and an increase in depressive-like behavior was observed in isolated mice as compared to pair-housed mice. Mice isolated immediately after stroke showed a decrease in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These changes, both histological and behavioral, suggest an overall negative effect of social isolation on stroke outcome, potentially contributing to post-stroke depression and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who have perceived isolation post-stroke to hopefully prevent this exacerbation of histological damage and subsequent depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Probucol selectively increases oxidation of atherogenic lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed mice and in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, S.T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    1999-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic and cholesterol-lowering drug probucol (0.5-1%) or quercetin (1%), a natural antioxidant, was given to cholesterol-fed (1.5%) mice for a period of 6 weeks and to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits for a period of 8 weeks to investigate the oxidative changes.......001) and cholesterol-fed mice (579.7 +/- 47.3 nmol/g vs. 408.1 +/- 85.8 nmol/g, P mice: P ... and thereby leads to a decrease in cholesterol levels....

  9. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism following a chronic ingestion of cesium-137 starting at fetal stage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, R.; Grandcolas, L.; Blanchardon, E.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.; Veyssiere, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released many radionuclides in the environment. Some are still contaminating the ground and thus the people through dietary intake. The long-term sanitary consequences of this disaster are still unclear and several biological systems remain to be investigated. Cholesterol metabolism is of particular interest, with regard to the link established between atherosclerosis and exposure to high-dose ionizing radiations. This study assesses the effect of cesium-137 on cholesterol metabolism in rats, after a chronic exposure since fetal life. To achieve this, rat dams were contaminated with cesium-137-supplemented water from two weeks before mating until the weaning of the pups. Thereafter, the weaned rats were given direct access to the contaminated drinking water until the age of 9 months. After the sacrifice, cholesterol metabolism was investigated in the liver at gene expression and protein level. The cholesterolemia was preserved, as well as the cholesterol concentration in the liver. At molecular level, the gene expressions of ACAT 2 (a cholesterol storage enzyme), of Apolipoprotein A-I and of RXR (a nuclear receptor involved in cholesterol metabolism) were significantly decreased. In addition, the enzymatic activity of CYP27A1, which catabolizes cholesterol, was increased. The results indicate that the rats seem to adapt to the cesium-137 contamination and display modifications of hepatic cholesterol metabolism only at molecular level and within physiological range. (author)

  10. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary pomegranate extract and inulin in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Zhang, Song; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that both polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) and the polysaccharide inulin, ameliorate metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet, but little is known about the specific mechanisms. This study evaluated the effect of PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets supplemented with PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination for 4 weeks. At the end of intervention, serum and hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride levels, hepatic gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism as well as fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion were determined. Dietary supplementation of the HF/HS diet with PomX and inulin decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol. Supplementation with PomX and inulin together resulted in lower hepatic and serum total cholesterol compared to individual treatments. Compared to HF/HS control, PomX increased gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp7b1, key regulators of bile acid synthesis pathways. Inulin decreased gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol de novo synthesis Srebf2 and Hmgcr and significantly increased fecal elimination of total bile acids and neutral sterols. Only PomX in combination with inulin reduced liver and lipid weight significantly compared to the HF/HS control group. PomX showed a trend to decrease liver triglyceride (TG) levels, while inulin or PomX-inulin combination had no effect on either serum or liver TG levels. Dietary PomX and inulin supplementation decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol by different mechanisms and the combination leading to a significant enhancement of the cholesterol-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MLN64 induces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Balboa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. Down-regulation of MLN64 in Niemann-Pick C1 deficient cells decreased mitochondrial cholesterol content, suggesting that MLN64 functions independently of NPC1. However, the role of MLN64 in the maintenance of endosomal cholesterol flow and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We have previously described that hepatic MLN64 overexpression increases liver cholesterol content and induces liver damage. Here, we studied the function of MLN64 in normal and NPC1-deficient cells and we evaluated whether MLN64 overexpressing cells exhibit alterations in mitochondrial function. We used recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer to overexpress MLN64 in mouse liver and hepatic cells; and RNA interference to down-regulate MLN64 in NPC1-deficient cells. In MLN64-overexpressing cells, we found increased mitochondrial cholesterol content and decreased glutathione (GSH levels and ATPase activity. Furthermore, we found decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrial superoxide levels in MLN64-overexpressing cells and in NPC1-deficient cells. Consequently, MLN64 expression was increased in NPC1-deficient cells and reduction of its expression restore mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that MLN64 overexpression induces an increase in mitochondrial cholesterol content and consequently a decrease in mitochondrial GSH content leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we demonstrate that MLN64 expression is increased in NPC cells and plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria.

  12. Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, A; Maciulewski, R; Siewko, K; Popławska-Kita, A; Lipińska, D; Kozłowska, G; Górska, M; Szelachowska, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n=45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA 1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q 1 =1.16, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q 1 =0.96, Q 3 =2.21]ng/mL; Pindex scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q 1 =1.66, Q 3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q 1 =185.49, Q 3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q 1 =1.12, Q 3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q 1 =62.73, Q 3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q 1 =1.02, Q 3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q 1 =74.20, Q 3 =111.47], respectively). Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of hypocholesterolemia on cholesterol synthesis in small intestine of diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feingold, K.R.; Moser, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Studies by our and other laboratories have demonstrated that cholesterol synthesis is increased in the small intestine of insulinopenic diabetic animals. In normal animals, many factors have been shown to regulate cholesterol synthesis in the small intestine, including changes in plasma cholesterol levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lowering plasma cholesterol levels on small intestine cholesterol synthesis in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (4-APP)-induced hypocholesterolemia (plasma cholesterol levels less than 20 mg/dl) resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in small intestine cholesterol synthesis, which was most marked in the distal small intestine, decreasing proximally. In the distal small intestine the incorporation of 3 H 2 O into cholesterol was 0.28 +/- 0.04 mumol.h-1.g-1 in diabetic rats versus 1.60 +/- 0.38 in diabetic rats administered 4-APP (P less than .01). This stimulation of cholesterol synthesis occurred in the upper villus, middle villus, and crypt cells isolated from the middle intestine of the 4-APP-treated diabetic animals. In agreement with these observations, functional hypocholesterolemia due to Triton WR-1339 administration also stimulated cholesterol synthesis 2.5-fold in the small intestine of normal and diabetic animals. In the distal small intestine, cholesterol synthesis was 0.43 +/- 0.10 mumol.h-1.g-1 in the diabetic rats versus 1.08 +/- 0.21 in diabetic rats treated with Triton WR-1339 (P less than .05). In both the 4-APP and Triton WR-1339 experiments, the response of the diabetic rats was similar to that observed in normal rats

  14. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  15. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  16. Viral MicroRNAs Repress the Cholesterol Pathway, and 25-Hydroxycholesterol Inhibits Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquiña, Anna K P; Kambach, Diane M; Sarker, Ontara; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M

    2017-07-11

    From various screens, we found that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) viral microRNAs (miRNAs) target several enzymes in the mevalonate/cholesterol pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR [a rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway]), and farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1 [a committed step in the cholesterol branch]) are repressed by multiple KSHV miRNAs. Transfection of viral miRNA mimics in primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) is sufficient to reduce intracellular cholesterol levels; however, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting only HMGCS1 did not reduce cholesterol levels. This suggests that multiple targets are needed to perturb this tightly regulated pathway. We also report here that cholesterol levels were decreased in de novo -infected HUVECs after 7 days. This reduction is at least partially due to viral miRNAs, since the mutant form of KSHV lacking 10 of the 12 miRNA genes had increased cholesterol compared to wild-type infections. We hypothesized that KSHV is downregulating cholesterol to suppress the antiviral response by a modified form of cholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). We found that the cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) gene, which is responsible for generating 25HC, had increased expression in de novo -infected HUVECs but was strongly suppressed in long-term latently infected cell lines. We found that 25HC inhibits KSHV infection when added exogenously prior to de novo infection. In conclusion, we found that multiple KSHV viral miRNAs target enzymes in the mevalonate pathway to modulate cholesterol in infected cells during latency. This repression of cholesterol levels could potentially be beneficial to viral infection by decreasing the levels of 25HC. IMPORTANCE A subset of viruses express unique microRNAs (miRNAs), which act like cellular miRNAs to generally repress host gene

  17. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jia; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng; Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period.

  18. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Methods Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. Results In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. Discussion High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period. PMID:25179125

  19. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Rizos, Alexandra; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Mulholland, Nicola; Robinson, Stephanie; Howell, Nicholas A; Harrison, Neil; Vivian, Gill; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2014-02-01

    Impulse control disorders are commonly associated with dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients with impulse control disorders demonstrate enhanced dopamine release to conditioned cues and a gambling task on [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and enhanced ventral striatal activity to reward on functional MRI. We compared PD patients with impulse control disorders and age-matched and gender-matched controls without impulse control disorders using [(123)I]FP-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density. The [(123)I]FP-CIT binding data in the striatum were compared between 15 PD patients with and 15 without impulse control disorders using independent t tests. Those with impulse control disorders showed significantly lower DAT binding in the right striatum with a trend in the left (right: F(1,24)=5.93, p=0.02; left: F(1,24)=3.75, p=0.07) compared to controls. Our findings suggest that greater dopaminergic striatal activity in PD patients with impulse control disorders may be partly related to decreased uptake and clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. Whether these findings are related to state or trait effects is not known. These findings dovetail with reports of lower DAT levels secondary to the effects of methamphetamine and alcohol. Although any regulation of DAT by antiparkinsonian medication appears to be modest, PD patients with impulse control disorders may be differentially sensitive to regulatory mechanisms of DAT expression by dopaminergic medications.

  20. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yanwei; Zhang Jingwen; Wu Jianlin; Zhou Yong; Li Mingwu; Lei Zhen; Shi Lifu

    2006-01-01

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  1. to HDL-cholesterol functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence concerning the effects of two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase – on the functions of HDL-cholesterol. It is well documented that disturbed circulating lipoproteins (a high total and high LDL-cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol bring about atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD which is recognised as the main cause of death all around the world. In consequence, numerous studies have focused on procedures which will improve the plasma lipoproteins profile by decreasing the total cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and increasing the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the anti-atherogenic role of HDL-C has been challenged in studies showing that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol does not offer protection against CVD. Moreover, it has been found that raising the circulating HDL-cholesterol fails to reduce atherosclerosis. The doubts concerning the protective role of HDL-C have been supported by in vitro studies which indicate that the HDL-C from patients with atherosclerosis does not have a protective action, but does stimulate inflammation and free radical synthesis. The above data suggests that HDL-C, commonly recognised as protective against atherosclerosis, in some circumstances becomes pro-atherogenic, and is thus dysfunctional. Our review focuses on two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO – which markedly affect the properties of HDL-C and contribute to its anti – or pro-atherogenic activity. Moreover, the effects of the diet and physical activity on PON1 and MPO are summarised with respect to the HDL-C functionality.

  2. Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Gigleux, Iris; Ramprasath, Vanu; de Souza, Russell; Ireland, Chris; Patel, Darshna; Srichaikul, Korbua; Abdulnour, Shahad; Bashyam, Balachandran; Collier, Cheryl; Hoshizaki, Sandy; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri

    2011-08-24

    Combining foods with recognized cholesterol-lowering properties (dietary portfolio) has proven highly effective in lowering serum cholesterol under metabolically controlled conditions. To assess the effect of a dietary portfolio administered at 2 levels of intensity on percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants following self-selected diets. A parallel-design study of 351 participants with hyperlipidemia from 4 participating academic centers across Canada (Quebec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver) randomized between June 25, 2007, and February 19, 2009, to 1 of 3 treatments lasting 6 months. Participants received dietary advice for 6 months on either a low-saturated fat therapeutic diet (control) or a dietary portfolio, for which counseling was delivered at different frequencies, that emphasized dietary incorporation of plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and nuts. Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months. Percentage change in serum LDL-C. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis of 345 participants, the overall attrition rate was not significantly different between treatments (18% for intensive dietary portfolio, 23% for routine dietary portfolio, and 26% for control; Fisher exact test, P = .33). The LDL-C reductions from an overall mean of 171 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 168-174 mg/dL) were -13.8% (95% CI, -17.2% to -10.3%; P portfolio; -13.1% (95% CI, -16.7% to -9.5%; P portfolio; and -3.0% (95% CI, -6.1% to 0.1%; P = .06) or -8 mg/dL (95% CI, -13 to -3 mg/dL; P = .002) for the control diet. Percentage LDL-C reductions for each dietary portfolio were significantly more than the control diet (P portfolio interventions did not differ significantly (P = .66). Among participants randomized to one of the dietary portfolio interventions, percentage reduction in LDL-C on the dietary portfolio was associated

  3. The influence of turmeric and curcumin on cholesterol concentration of eggs and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, K

    1976-05-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to study the hypocholesteremic effect of tumeric and its coloring principle namely curcumin both in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. Laying hens were used as the experimental animals and they were fed the experimental diets for a duration of 8 weeks. The results of the experiment showed that tumeric or various levels of curcumin had no adverse effect on egg production, egg weight and feed to egg ratio. Moreover tumeric or various levels of curcumin both in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol did not reduce the fat or cholesterol levels of plasma, liver or the egg yolk. An interesting finding from this experiment was that the egg yolk cholesterol levels of cholesterol fed groups sharply increased at the beginning of the experiment, and thereafter they gradually decreased and tended to approach the normal levels at the termination of the experiment. The possible reasons for variation in egg yolk cholesterol levels of cholesterol-fed groups with time is discussed.

  4. Novel association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children with high prevalence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Galindo-Gómez, Carlos; Juárez-Martínez, Liliana; Gómez, F Enrique; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Ávila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Ávila-Curiel, Abelardo

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder that includes a cluster of several risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene has been associated with low HDL-cholesterol in several studies, but its association with MetS in children remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the R230C variant with MetS and other metabolic traits in school-aged Mexican children. The study was performed in seven urban primary schools in the State of Mexico. Four hundred thirty-two Mexican school-age children 6-13 years old were recruited. MetS was identified using the International Diabetes Federation definition. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene was genotyped to seek associations with MetS and other metabolic traits. The prevalence of MetS was 29% in children aged 10-13 years. The R230C variant was not associated with MetS (OR = 1.65; p = 0.139). Furthermore, in the whole population, the R230C variant was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (β coefficient = -3.28, p <0.001). Interestingly, in the total population we found a novel association of this variant with high triglyceride levels (β coefficient = 14.34; p = 0.027). We found a new association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels. Our findings also replicate the association of this variant with low HDL-cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Cholesterol Removal Processing Using β-Cyclodextrin on Main Components of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Maskooki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of β-CD were mixed with different fat contents (1%, 2.5% and 3% of raw (unhomogenized and homogenized milk at two mixing temperatures of 8 and 20°C. The cholesterol residue, fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat (SNF, density, and ash content of milk were measured for each treatment. The results statistically analysed and showed that the cholesterol content of milk remarkably decreased as the β-CD was increased particularly in homogenized milk at 20°C. However, the reduction rate of cholesterol was decreased when extra β-CD was added due to its intermolecular reactions. The maximum cholesterol reduction was achieved at the level of 1% β-CD. The fat content, SNF, protein, lactose, and density content were decreased with increasing β-CD whereas it did not affect ash content.

  6. Statins usage and target achievement of LDL-C level in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease impacted by 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Qiong Wu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: No much change of clinical practice with regard to cholesterol management was found in Chinese patients with CAD, accompanied by very low achievement of LDL-C target, suggesting that there is a great room for the improvement of cholesterol control in Chinese patients with CAD.

  7. Free cholesterol and cholesterol esters in bovine oocytes: Implications in survival and membrane raft organization after cryopreservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes. Fluorometric measurements based on an enzyme-coupled reaction that detects both free cholesterol (membrane and cholesteryl esters (stored in lipid droplets, revealed that oocytes and cumulus cells present different levels of cholesterol depending on the seasonal period. Variations at membrane cholesterol level of oocytes were enough to account for the differences found in total cholesterol. Differences found in total cholesterol of cumulus cells were explained by the differences found in both the content of membrane cholesterol and of cholesterol esters. Cholesterol was incorporated into the oocyte plasma membrane as evidenced by comparative labeling of a fluorescent cholesterol. Oocytes and cumulus cells increased membrane cholesterol after incubation with MβCD/cholesterol and recovered their original level after cholesterol removal, regardless of the season. Finally, we evaluated the effect of vitrification on the putative raft molecule GM1. Cholesterol modulation also preserved membrane organization by maintaining ganglioside level at the plasma membrane. Results suggest a distinctive cholesterol metabolic status of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs among seasons and a dynamic organizational structure

  8. Educational level and decreases in leisure time physical activity: predictors from the longitudinal GLOBE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Droomers (Mariël); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: This study describes educational differences in decreases in leisure time physical activity among an adult, physically active population and additionally attempts to identify predictors of these differences from information on health status

  9. Undergraduate Use of Library Databases Decreases as Level of Study Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Miller

    2014-09-01

    had the lowest percentage of use, with 38% of enrolled students at each level accessing the library’s databases. The study also found that November was the peak of database search activity, accounting for 37% of database searches for the Fall 2009 semester. Database use varied by the schools or colleges in which students were enrolled, with the School of Nursing having the highest percentage of enrolled undergraduates using library databases (54%. The authors also report that the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts had the fourth highest proportion of users at 46%, representing 7,523 unique students, more than double the combined number of undergraduate users from all other programs. Since the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts accounts for more than 60% of the total undergraduate enrollment, the authors suggest that information literacy instruction targeted to these programs would have the greatest campus-wide impact. Conclusion – Although the library conducts a number of library instruction sessions with freshman students each Fall semester, the authors conclude that database use patterns suggest that the proportion of students who continue to use library databases decreases as level of study progresses. This finding does not support the study’s hypothesis that database use increases as students advance through their undergraduate studies.

  10. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris

    2015-01-01

    created by the Genome of the Netherlands Project and perform association testing with blood lipid levels. We report the discovery of five novel associations at four loci (P value -4), including a rare missense variant in ABCA6 (rs77542162, p.Cys1359Arg, frequency 0.034), which is predicted...

  11. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.M.; Karssen, L.C.; Deelen, J.; Isaacs, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Mbarek, H.; Kanterakis, A.; Trompet, S.; Postmus, I.; Verweij, N.; van Enckevort, D.; Huffman, J.E.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.F.; Bartz, T.M.; Manichaikul, A.; Joshi, P.K.; Peloso, G.M.; Deelen, P.; Dijk, F.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Milaneschi, Y.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Francioli, L.C.; Menelaou, A.; Pulit, S.L.; Rivadeneira, F.; Hofman, A.; Oostra, B.A.; Franco, O.H.; Mateo Leach, I.; Beekman, M.; de Craen, A.J.; Uh, H.W.; Trochet, H.; Hocking, L.J.; Porteous, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Packard, C.J.; Buckley, B.M.; Brody, J.A.; Bis, J.C.; Rotter, J.I.; Mychaleckyj, J.C.; Campbell, H.; Duan, Q.; Lange, L.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Hayward, C.; Polasek, O.; Vitart, V.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Rich, S.S.; Psaty, B.M.; Borecki, I.B.; Kearney, P.M.; Stott, D.J.; Cupples, L.A.; Jukema, J.W.; van der Harst, P.; Sijbrands, E.J.; Hottenga, J.J.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Swertz, M.A.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Bakker, P.I.W.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Wijmenga, C.; van Duijn, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (∼35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created

  12. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Neerincx, Pieter B.T.; Elbers, Clara C.; Francesco Palamara, Pier; Pe'er, Itsik; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; van Oven, Mannis; Vermaat, Martijn; Li, Mingkun; Laros, Jeroen F.J.; Stoneking, Mark; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Byelas, Heorhiy; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Dijkstra, Martijn; Amin, Najaf; Joeri van der Velde, K.; van Setten, Jessica; Kattenberg, Mathijs; van Schaik, Barbera D.C.; Bot, Jan; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Mei, Hailiang; Koval, Vyacheslav; Ye, Kai; Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo; Moed, Matthijs H.; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Sohail, Mashaal; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Marschall, Tobias; Schönhuth, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Platteel, Mathieu; Pitts, Steven J.; Potluri, Shobha; Cox, David R.; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yuanping; Chen, Ruoyan; Cao, Hongzhi; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; Wang, Jun; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; Jukema, J. Wouter; van der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Eline Slagboom, P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (~35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created by the Genome of the Netherlands Project and perform association testing with blood lipid levels. We report the discovery of five novel associations at four loci (P value <6.61 × 10−4), including a rare missense variant in ABCA6 (rs77542162, p.Cys1359Arg, frequency 0.034), which is predicted to be deleterious. The frequency of this ABCA6 variant is 3.65-fold increased in the Dutch and its effect (βLDL-C=0.135, βTC=0.140) is estimated to be very similar to those observed for single variants in well-known lipid genes, such as LDLR. PMID:25751400

  13. Carbon isotopic evidence for the associations of decreasing atmospheric CO2 level with the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Gu, Zhaoyan; Wang, Chengyuan; Hao, Qingzhen; Han, Jingtai; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Luo; Lu, Yanwu

    2012-03-01

    A perturbation of the global carbon cycle has often been used for interpreting the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction. However, the changes of atmospheric CO2 level (pCO2) during this interval are much debatable. To illustrate the carbon cycle during F-F transition, paired inorganic (δ13Ccarb) and organic (δ13Corg) carbon isotope analyses were carried out on two late Devonian carbonate sequences (Dongcun and Yangdi) from south China. The larger amplitude shift of δ13Corg compared to δ13Ccarb and its resultant Δ13C (Δ13C = δ13Ccarb - δ13Corg) decrease indicate decreased atmospheric CO2level around the F-F boundary. The onset ofpCO2 level decrease predates that of marine regressions, which coincide with the beginning of conodont extinctions, suggesting that temperature decrease induced by decreased greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO2might have contributed to the F-F mass extinction.

  14. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  15. Modulation of cholesterol transport by maternal hypercholesterolemia in human full-term placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhang

    Full Text Available The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19 and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19. Serum lipids and expression of genes related to cholesterol transportation were measured by western blot or real-time PCR. The results indicated that serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly increased, in pregnancies, but decreased in cord blood in hypercholesterolemic group compared to the matched control group. All the subjects were no-drinking, non-smoker, and gestational disease free. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors, including LDLR and VLDLR were significantly increased, while the protein expression of PCSK9 was significantly increased in hypercholesterolemic placenta. In conclusion, maternal hypercholesterolemia might decrease the transportation of cholesterol from mother to fetus because of the high levels of PCSK9 protein expression.

  16. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  18. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  19. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  20. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Methods Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Results Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels. PMID:18348715

  1. Educational level and decreases in leisure time physical activity: predictors from the longitudinal GLOBE study

    OpenAIRE

    Droomers, Mariël; Schrijvers, Carola; Mackenbach, Johan

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This study describes educational differences in decreases in leisure time physical activity among an adult, physically active population and additionally attempts to identify predictors of these differences from information on health status and individual and environmental factors.
DESIGN—Prospective population based study. Baseline measurement were carried out in 1991 and follow up in 1997.
SETTING—South eastern part of the Netherlands.
PARTICIPANTS—The study included 3793 su...

  2. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database.We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed.During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163. These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels.The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  4. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  5. Decrease in lower level density due to cooling of gas temperature by thermal dissociation of hydrogen in copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ikuo; Hayashi, Kazuo; Iseki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Setsuo; Noda, Etsuo; Morimiya, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    A gas temperature calculation is carried out in the copper vapor laser (CVL) with a beam diameter of 80 mm in the case of H 2 addition into the Ne buffer gas. The on-axis gas temperature decreases to 2800K with 1% concentration of H 2 , whereas the gas temperature is 3400K without H 2 . The on-axis lower level density decreases due to the cooling of the gas temperature. This decrease in the lower level density is thought to bring about a non annular beam profile in the case of H 2 addition. (author)

  6. Decreased Polycystin 2 Levels Result in Non-Renal Cardiac Dysfunction with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Duong, Sophie L; Nguyen, Lily; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for polycystin 2 (Pkd2) lead to polycystic kidney disease, however the main cause of mortality in humans is cardiac related. We previously showed that 5 month old Pkd2+/- mice have altered calcium-contractile activity in cardiomyocytes, but have preserved cardiac function. Here, we examined 1 and 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice to determine if decreased amounts of functional polycystin 2 leads to impaired cardiac function with aging. We observed changes in calcium handling proteins in 1 month old Pkd2+/- mice, and these changes were exacerbated in 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice. Anatomically, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice had thinner left ventricular walls, consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy, and the left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased. Intriguingly, in response to acute isoproterenol stimulation to examine β-adrenergic responses, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice exhibited a stronger contractile response, which also coincided with preserved localization of the β2 adrenergic receptor. Importantly, the Pkd2+/- mice did not have any renal impairment. We conclude that the cardiac-related impact of decreased polycystin 2 progresses over time towards cardiac dysfunction and altered adrenergic signaling. These results provide further evidence that polycystin 2 provides a critical function in the heart, independent of renal involvement.

  7. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...... levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg...

  8. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

    OpenAIRE

    Jornada, Luciano K.; Valvassori, Samira S.; Resende, Wilson R.; Moretti, Morgana; Ferreira, Camila L.; Fries, Gabriel R.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group). RESULTS: When evaluated immedi...

  9. The cholesterol space of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, F.

    1959-01-01

    The experiments consisted in feeding daily to rats the same mass of radioactive cholesterol, over variable time intervals. From the evolution of the specific radioactivity of cholesterol carbon-14 in the organs as a function of time, information relative to the transport of cholesterol in the organism may be obtained. 1) The cholesterol space, defined as the group of molecules capable of being transferred from the organs into the serum and vice versa, represents at the most 50 per cent of the total cholesterol of the adult rat. 2) The incessant interchange between the tissual and the serum cholesterol renews entirely or for the most part the cholesterol molecules contained in the following organs: spleen, heart, adipose tissue, suprarenal glands, lungs, bone marrow, liver, erythrocytes. For a second group of organs: skin, testicles, kidneys, colon, bones, muscles, only a fraction of their cholesterol is renewable by this process. No transfer can be detected at the level of the brain. 3) The relative speeds of the various means of appearance (absorption, synthesis) and disappearance (excretion, transformation) of the cholesterol from its space are such that a stationary isotopic state is established around the eighth day, when the animal absorbs 5 milligrams of radioactive cholesterol daily. (author) [fr

  10. Risk of stroke and cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Alfred; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    To perform a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, which tested the effect of treatment with atorvastatin in reducing stroke in subjects with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, to explore the effects of treatment...

  11. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  12. Clays as green catalysts in the cholesterol esterification: spectroscopic characterization and polymorphs identification by thermal analysis methods. An interdisciplinary laboratorial proposal for the undergraduate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Teresa M R.; Nunes, Rui M. D.; Pereira, Mariette M.; Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that enables the professor to introduce the problematic of sustainable development in pharmaceutical chemistry to undergraduate students is proposed, using a simple synthetic procedure. Cholesteryl acetate is prepared by the esterification of cholesterol using Montmorillonite K10 as heterogeneous catalyst. Cholesterol and cholesteryl acetate are characterized by spectroscopic ( 1 H RMN, 13 C RMN, FTIR) and thermal analysis techniques. The thermal methods are used to introduce the concepts of polymorphism and the nature of mesophases. (author)

  13. Characteristics of human hypo- and hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B; Beynen, A C

    1987-03-01

    The characteristics of people whose serum cholesterol level is unusually susceptible to consumption of cholesterol were investigated. Thirty-two volunteers from the general population of Wageningen, the Netherlands, each participated in three controlled dietary trials in 1982. A low-cholesterol diet was fed during the first half and a high-cholesterol diet during the second half of each trial, and the change (response) of serum cholesterol was measured. The responses in the three trials were averaged to give each subject's mean responsiveness. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites were measured in the second trial, and body cholesterol synthesis was calculated. Responsiveness showed a positive correlation with serum high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) cholesterol (r = 0.41, p less than 0.05) and with serum total cholesterol level on a high-cholesterol diet (r = 0.31, p = 0.09). A negative relation was found with habitual cholesterol consumption (r = -0.62, p less than 0.01), with body mass index (r = -0.50, p less than 0.01), and with the rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.40, p less than 0.05), but not with the reaction of endogenous cholesterol synthesis rate to an increased intake of cholesterol. No relation was found with age, sex, total caloric needs, or the ratio of primary to secondary fecal steroids. Upon multiple regression analysis, only habitual cholesterol intake and serum total and HDL2 cholesterol levels contributed significantly to the explanation of variance in responsiveness. Thus, a low habitual cholesterol intake, a high serum HDL2 cholesterol level, or a low body weight do not make one less susceptible to dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  14. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  15. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  17. Placental and cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in nondiabetic macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Hao; Sun, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2017-08-01

    To measure levels of placental brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and umbilical cord blood BDNF in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia and determine associations between these levels and macrosomia. This case-control study included 58 nondiabetic macrosomic and 59 normal birth weight mother-infant pairs. Data were collected from interviews and our hospital's database. BDNF gene expression was quantified in placental tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 117). Umbilical cord blood BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 90). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between BDNF levels and macrosomia. Placental BDNF gene expression (P = 0.026) and cord blood BDNF (P = 0.008) were lower in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia than in normal birth weight controls. Cord blood BDNF was significantly lower in vaginally delivered macrosomic neonates than vaginally delivered controls (P = 0.014), but cord BDNF did not differ between vaginal and cesarean section delivery modes in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with gestational age in control neonates (r = 0.496, P BDNF was positively associated with placental BDNF relative expression (r s  = 0.245, P = 0.02) in the total group. Higher cord blood BDNF levels were independently associated with protection against nondiabetic macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio 0.992; 95% confidence interval 0.986-0.998). Both placental BDNF gene expression and cord blood BDNF were downregulated in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia compared with normal birth weight neonates. Cord BDNF may partly derive from BDNF secreted by the placenta. Higher cord plasma BDNF levels protected against nondiabetic macrosomia.

  18. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma are associated with increased corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A; Zhang, Yong; Murphy, James R; Hauk, Pia J; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-05-01

    There is little knowledge about clinical variables associated with vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in asthmatic children. We sought to investigate disease variables associated with VitD insufficiency in patients with childhood asthma and interaction of VitD with corticosteroid-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. We analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in 100 asthmatic children to investigate relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and patients' characteristics. We determined VitD's effects on dexamethasone (DEX) induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL-10 in PBMCs. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level was 31 ng/mL. Forty-seven percent of subjects had VitD levels in the insufficient range (<30 ng/mL), whereas 17% were VitD deficient (<20 ng/mL). Log(10) IgE (P = .01, rho = -0.25) and the number of positive aeroallergen skin prick test responses (P = .02, rho = -0.23) showed a significant inverse correlation with VitD levels, whereas FEV(1) percent predicted (P = .004, rho = 0.34) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio (P = .01, rho = 0.30) showed a significant positive correlation with VitD levels. The use of inhaled steroids (P = .0475), use of oral steroids (P = .02), and total steroid dose (P = .001) all showed significant inverse correlations with VitD levels. The amount of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL10 mRNA induced by VitD plus DEX was significantly greater than that induced by DEX alone (P < .01). In an experimental model of steroid resistance in which DEX alone did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, addition of VitD to DEX resulted in significant dose-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Corticosteroid use and worsening airflow limitation are associated with lower VitD serum levels in asthmatic patients. VitD enhances glucocorticoid action in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and enhances the immunosuppressive function of DEX in vitro. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy

  19. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Jeanne; Pan, Meihui; Chin, Harvey F; Lund, Frederik W; Maxfield, Frederick R; Breslow, Jan L

    2012-12-01

    STARD4, a member of the evolutionarily conserved START gene family, has been implicated in the nonvesicular intracellular transport of cholesterol. However, the direction of transport and the membranes with which this protein interacts are not clear. We present studies of STARD4 function using small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels were increased and decreased, respectively. We also observed a decrease in NPC1 protein expression, suggesting the induction of compensatory pathways to maintain cholesterol balance. These data indicate a role for STARD4 in nonvesicular transport of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment to the endoplasmic reticulum and perhaps other intracellular compartments as well.

  20. Decreasing erucic acid level by RNAi-mediated silencing of fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To develop low level of erucic acid in rapeseeds by intron-spliced hairpin RNA, an inverted repeat unit of a partial BnFAE1.1 gene interrupted by a spliceable intron ... In conclusion, the expression of endogenous BnFAE1.1 was efficiently silenced by the designed RNAi silencer, causing a significant down-regulation in the ...

  1. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol