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Sample records for deciphering factors controlling

  1. Deciphering factors controlling groundwater arsenic spatial variability in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Yang, Q.; Zheng, C.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of geogenic arsenic in groundwater have been found in many countries to exceed 10 μg/L, the WHO's guideline value for drinking water. A common yet unexplained characteristic of groundwater arsenic spatial distribution is the extensive variability at various spatial scales. This study investigates factors influencing the spatial variability of groundwater arsenic in Bangladesh to improve the accuracy of models predicting arsenic exceedance rate spatially. A novel boosted regression tree method is used to establish a weak-learning ensemble model, which is compared to a linear model using a conventional stepwise logistic regression method. The boosted regression tree models offer the advantage of parametric interaction when big datasets are analyzed in comparison to the logistic regression. The point data set (n=3,538) of groundwater hydrochemistry with 19 parameters was obtained by the British Geological Survey in 2001. The spatial data sets of geological parameters (n=13) were from the Consortium for Spatial Information, Technical University of Denmark, University of East Anglia and the FAO, while the soil parameters (n=42) were from the Harmonized World Soil Database. The aforementioned parameters were regressed to categorical groundwater arsenic concentrations below or above three thresholds: 5 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 50 μg/L to identify respective controlling factors. Boosted regression tree method outperformed logistic regression methods in all three threshold levels in terms of accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, resulting in an improvement of spatial distribution map of probability of groundwater arsenic exceeding all three thresholds when compared to disjunctive-kriging interpolated spatial arsenic map using the same groundwater arsenic dataset. Boosted regression tree models also show that the most important controlling factors of groundwater arsenic distribution include groundwater iron content and well depth for all three

  2. Sequential Logic Model Deciphers Dynamic Transcriptional Control of Gene Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Zhen Xuan; Wong, Sum Thai; Arjunan, Satya Nanda Vel; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Giuliani, Alessandro; Tsuchiya, Masa

    2007-01-01

    Background Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. Methodology Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM) is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. Principal Findings SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. Conclusions/Significance The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet providing rich biological

  3. Sequential logic model deciphers dynamic transcriptional control of gene expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xuan Yeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. METHODOLOGY: Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet

  4. Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2005-03-01

    We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.

  5. SLIFER Decipher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breding, D.R.; Worthen, G.S.; Loukota, J.J.; Fogel, D.; Watterberg, J.P.

    1977-10-01

    The SLIFER Decipher (SD) is a digital instrument that records a time-varying frequency signal in the range from 700 kHz to 1500 kHz with an amplitude greater than 200 mV. This signal is referenced to an input fiducial marker. The primary purpose of this instrument is to reduce data recorded on magnetic tape from the SLIFER system used in underground nuclear tests. The SD records 512 samples after the fiducial signal, with a sample interval of 50 μs (for a total recording time of 25.55 ms). The measurement essentially uses a 20-cycle period-averaging counter technique

  6. Deciphering Possible Association of Risk Factors for Dental Caries in Pakistani Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Maqsood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a state of abnormal accumulation of fat in adipose tissues of the body to the level that one’s health is adversely compromised. Tripathi et al. state (according to WHO that obesity is now considered the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Caries is a multifactorial disease and one of the major oral health issues of the modern era affecting people around the globe. Rise in dental caries has been observed in developing countries as a result of factors including increased intake of carbohydrates. The present study aims for assessing the association of DMFT with BMI, age, and gender. This study was conducted in the dental OPD of the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from February 2016 till January 2017. A custom-made interview-based questionnaire was used to assess BMI, DMFT, and sociodemographics. The sample size was kept at 385. Age was reported as a strong predictor (R2 0.641 of DMFT followed by BMI and gender as the weakest predictors. Age and BMI had statistically significant association with DMFT scores, which shows that diet patterns may affect general health. High caloric intake over long periods affects BMI and also oral health.

  7. Deciphering the Translation Initiation Factor 5A Modification Pathway in Halophilic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Prunetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A is essential and highly conserved in Eukarya (eIF5A and Archaea (aIF5A. The activity of IF5A requires hypusine, a posttranslational modification synthesized in Eukarya from the polyamine precursor spermidine. Intracellular polyamine analyses revealed that agmatine and cadaverine were the main polyamines produced in Haloferax volcanii in minimal medium, raising the question of how hypusine is synthesized in this halophilic Archaea. Metabolic reconstruction led to a tentative picture of polyamine metabolism and aIF5A modification in Hfx. volcanii that was experimentally tested. Analysis of aIF5A from Hfx. volcanii by LC-MS/MS revealed it was exclusively deoxyhypusinylated. Genetic studies confirmed the role of the predicted arginine decarboxylase gene (HVO_1958 in agmatine synthesis. The agmatinase-like gene (HVO_2299 was found to be essential, consistent with a role in aIF5A modification predicted by physical clustering evidence. Recombinant deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS from S. cerevisiae was shown to transfer 4-aminobutyl moiety from spermidine to aIF5A from Hfx. volcanii in vitro. However, at least under conditions tested, this transfer was not observed with the Hfx. volcanii DHS. Furthermore, the growth of Hfx. volcanii was not inhibited by the classical DHS inhibitor GC7. We propose a model of deoxyhypusine synthesis in Hfx. volcanii that differs from the canonical eukaryotic pathway, paving the way for further studies.

  8. Deciphering the genetic control of gene expression following Mycobacterium leprae antigen stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manry, Jérémy; Nédélec, Yohann; Fava, Vinicius M; Cobat, Aurélie; Orlova, Marianna; Thuc, Nguyen Van; Thai, Vu Hong; Laval, Guillaume; Barreiro, Luis B; Schurr, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Leprosy is a human infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. A strong host genetic contribution to leprosy susceptibility is well established. However, the modulation of the transcriptional response to infection and the mechanism(s) of disease control are poorly understood. To address this gap in knowledge of leprosy pathogenicity, we conducted a genome-wide search for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) that are associated with transcript variation before and after stimulation with M. leprae sonicate in whole blood cells. We show that M. leprae antigen stimulation mainly triggered the upregulation of immune related genes and that a substantial proportion of the differential gene expression is genetically controlled. Indeed, using stringent criteria, we identified 318 genes displaying cis-eQTL at an FDR of 0.01, including 66 genes displaying response-eQTL (reQTL), i.e. cis-eQTL that showed significant evidence for interaction with the M. leprae stimulus. Such reQTL correspond to regulatory variations that affect the interaction between human whole blood cells and M. leprae sonicate and, thus, likely between the human host and M. leprae bacilli. We found that reQTL were significantly enriched among binding sites of transcription factors that are activated in response to infection, and that they were enriched among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with susceptibility to leprosy per se and Type-I Reaction, and seven of them have been targeted by recent positive selection. Our study suggested that natural selection shaped our genomic diversity to face pathogen exposure including M. leprae infection.

  9. Deciphering natural to anthropogenic control on sedimentation: the Late Holocene Magdala (Kinneret Lake, Israel) harbour hystory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Bertoni, D.; Ribolini, A.; Sammartino, I.; Zanchetta, G.

    2012-04-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach involving geologists, geomorphologists and archeologists, the late Holocene sedimentary succession buried beneath the ancient Magdala harbour area (Kinneret Lake, Israel) was studied, in order to highlight the strict relationships among harbour evolutive phases (e.g. foundation, siltation, abandonment), natural events (e.g. sea-level variations, climatic changes and earthquakes among the most important) and, obviously, archaeological history. Recent excavations performed within the "Magdala Project" have discovered a harbour structure with late Hellenistic-Roman mooring stones at altitudes of 208.100 m and 208.320 m bsl respectively, suggestive of a higher lake-level (about 212 m bsl) than previously hypothesized. Along the most representative sections of trenches, integrated sedimentological, micropalaeontological (benthic meiofauna and pollen) and geochemical analyses were carried out on sedimentary deposits underlying and overlying the harbour structures, to define the main depositional facies and evolution phases that took place during the last millennia. Spatial variability of coeval palaeoenvironments across the archaeological site allowed to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of the harbour complex, evidencing the occurrence of three main evolution phases, similar to those reported from several Mediterranean Sea harbour systems: 1) a pre-harbor foundation phase; 2) a sin-harbor activity phase and 3) an harbor-abandonment phase. The first phase corresponds to the development of a natural lacustrine sandy beach barren in archaeological remains and containing an ostracod fauna very similar to the one observed within the present-day lake basin at ca. 5 m water depth. The second phase was characterized by the formation of an early Hellenistic sheltered lacustrine basin, recording the first anthropogenic control exerted on coastal sedimentation by the construction of harbour structures ("anthropogenically forced sheltered basin

  10. Use of modern tomato breeding germplasm for deciphering the genetic control of agronomical traits by Genome Wide Association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchet, Guillaume; Grenier, Stéphane; Samson, Nicolas; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    A panel of 300 tomato accessions including breeding materials was built and characterized with >11,000 SNP. A population structure in six subgroups was identified. Strong heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium and recombination landscape among groups and chromosomes was shown. GWAS identified several associations for fruit weight, earliness and plant growth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a method of choice in quantitative trait dissection. First limited to highly polymorphic and outcrossing species, it is now applied in horticultural crops, notably in tomato. Until now GWAS in tomato has been performed on panels of heirloom and wild accessions. Using modern breeding materials would be of direct interest for breeding purpose. To implement GWAS on a large panel of 300 tomato accessions including 168 breeding lines, this study assessed the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium decay and revealed the population structure and performed GWA experiment. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses were based on molecular markers (>11,000 SNP) covering the whole genome. Six genetic subgroups were revealed and associated to traits of agronomical interest, such as fruit weight and disease resistance. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium highlighted the heterogeneity of its decay among genetic subgroups. Haplotype definition allowed a fine characterization of the groups and their recombination landscape revealing the patterns of admixture along the genome. Selection footprints showed results in congruence with introgressions. Taken together, all these elements refined our knowledge of the genetic material included in this panel and allowed the identification of several associations for fruit weight, plant growth and earliness, deciphering the genetic architecture of these complex traits and identifying several new loci useful for tomato breeding.

  11. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  12. Deciphering the role of the signal- and Sty1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the stress-responsive transcription factor Atf1 on gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat-Canela, Clàudia; Paulo, Esther; Sánchez-Mir, Laura; Carmona, Mercè; Ayté, José; Oliva, Baldo; Hidalgo, Elena

    2017-08-18

    Adaptation to stress triggers the most dramatic shift in gene expression in fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ), and this response is driven by signaling via the MAPK Sty1. Upon activation, Sty1 accumulates in the nucleus and stimulates expression of hundreds of genes via the nuclear transcription factor Atf1, including expression of atf1 itself. However, the role of stress-induced, Sty1-mediated Atf1 phosphorylation in transcriptional activation is unclear. To this end, we expressed Atf1 phosphorylation mutants from a constitutive promoter to uncouple Atf1 activity from endogenous, stress-activated Atf1 expression. We found that cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable Atf1 variant are sensitive to oxidative stress because of impaired transcription of a subset of stress genes whose expression is also controlled by another transcription factor, Pap1. Furthermore, cells expressing a phospho-mimicking Atf1 mutant display enhanced stress resistance, and although expression of the Pap1-dependent genes still relied on stress induction, another subset of stress-responsive genes was constitutively expressed in these cells. We also observed that, in cells expressing the phospho-mimicking Atf1 mutant, the presence of Sty1 was completely dispensable, with all stress defects of Sty1-deficient cells being suppressed by expression of the Atf1 mutant. We further demonstrated that Sty1-mediated Atf1 phosphorylation does not stimulate binding of Atf1 to DNA but, rather, establishes a platform of interactions with the basal transcriptional machinery to facilitate transcription initiation. In summary, our results provide evidence that Atf1 phosphorylation by the MAPK Sty1 is required for oxidative stress responses in fission yeast cells by promoting transcription initiation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Decipher

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Review of a new fiction work by Stel Pavlou whose starting point is the lifecycle of the sun and the implications for human civilization. The story invokes the use of the CERN accelerator to analyze a special type of crystal found in Antartica which may hold the key to the legend of the city of Atlantis (1/2 page).

  14. Deciphering free-radical code of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovyk, S.; Bazyka, D.; Loganovsky, K.; Bebeshko, V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Ionizing radiation is fundamental environmental factor for life origin and evolution. Free radicals, primordial 'sea' for life conceiving and existence, induced by cosmic and terrestrial background radiation, are evolutionally archetypal, ubiquitous, and omnipotent in physiological- pathophysiological dichotomy. Classical free-radical paradigm in radiation biology and medicine, focused in essence on oxidative damage, needs new conceptualization and generalization. Methods: Suggested novel insights into free radicals dual immanent nature and functions in organism systems are based on original concepts of radicals dynamic charge transfer (CT) - redox ambivalence (interactional nucleo-, electro-, and ambiphilicity spectrum); pertinent chemical reactivity and selectivity delocalization model; physiological functional ambivalence and complementarity, and dynamic free-radical homeostasis. Results: Subtle perturbations in radicals CT spatiotemporal homeodynamics, in responsive signaling / controlling networks, concomitant alterations in genes expression, transcription, and apoptosis, redox control of mitochondrial ET chain, telomere/telomerase balance, DNA CT, circadian clock, hemispheric biochemical dominance/accentuation, including alteration of nitric oxide-superoxide complementarity, membranes permeability, neurotransmission pattern, synaptic circuitry, etc under radiation exposure have more fundamental impact on organism systems (especially CNS and CVS) deterioration than simple radicals inflicted oxidative (nitrosative) damage of cellular constituents. Conclusions: This novel conceptualization of free-radical paradigm constitutes new dimension in deciphering molecular mechanisms of radiation effects on subtle borderline norm-pathology and continuity-discontinuity dichotomy in organisms systems disorders - CT(redox)omics, which involves investigation of CT, redox, and spin states of free radicals, DNA bases

  15. Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Learning. This project seeks to understand the brain mechanisms necessary for people to learn to perceive sounds. Neural circuits and learning. The research team will test people with and without musical training to evaluate their capacity to learn ...

  16. Factors controlling metal fuel lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of metal fuel elements is determined by a fuel burnup at which a statistically predicted number of fuel breaches would occur, the number of breaches determined by the amount of free fission gas which a particular reactor design can tolerate. The reliability is therefore measured using experimentally determined breach statistics, or by modelling fuel element behavior and those factors which contribute to cladding breach. The factors are fuel/cladding mechanical and chemical interactions, fission gas pressure, fuel phase transformations involving volume changes, and fission product effects on cladding integrity. Experimental data for EBR-II fuel elements has shown that the primary, and perhaps the only significant factor affecting metal fuel reliability, is the pressure-induced stresses caused by fission gas release. Other metal fuel/cladding systems may perform similarly

  17. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  18. Deciphering psoriasis. A bioinformatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Juan L; Andrades, Sergi; Arola, Lluís; Romeu, Antoni

    2018-02-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, inflammatory and hyperproliferative disease of the skin and joints. The cause of psoriasis is still unknown. The fundamental feature of the disease is the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and the recruitment of cells from the immune system in the region of the affected skin, which leads to deregulation of many well-known gene expressions. Based on data mining and bioinformatic scripting, here we show a new dimension of the effect of psoriasis at the genomic level. Using our own pipeline of scripts in Perl and MySql and based on the freely available NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database: DataSet Record GDS4602 (Series GSE13355), we explore the extent of the effect of psoriasis on gene expression in the affected tissue. We give greater insight into the effects of psoriasis on the up-regulation of some genes in the cell cycle (CCNB1, CCNA2, CCNE2, CDK1) or the dynamin system (GBPs, MXs, MFN1), as well as the down-regulation of typical antioxidant genes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutases, SOD1-3; and glutathione reductase, GSR). We also provide a complete list of the human genes and how they respond in a state of psoriasis. Our results show that psoriasis affects all chromosomes and many biological functions. If we further consider the stable and mitotically inheritable character of the psoriasis phenotype, and the influence of environmental factors, then it seems that psoriasis has an epigenetic origin. This fit well with the strong hereditary character of the disease as well as its complex genetic background. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  20. Deciphering Corporate Governance and Environmental Commitments among Southeast Asian Transnationals: Uptake of Sustainability Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Roda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting tropical forest sustainability among corporate players is a major challenge. Many tools have been developed, but without much success. Southeast Asia has become a laboratory of globalization processes, where the development and success of agribusiness transnationals raises questions about their commitment to environmental concerns. An abundance of literature discusses what determines the behavior of Asian corporations, with a particular emphasis on cultural factors. Our hypothesis is that financial factors, such as ownership structure, may also have a fundamental role. We analyzed the audited accounts of four major Asian agribusiness transnationals. Using network analysis, we deciphered how the 931 companies relate to each other and determine the behavior of the transnationals to which they belong. We compared various metrics with the environmental commitment of these transnationals. We found that ownership structures reflect differences in flexibility, control and transaction costs, but not in ethnicities. Capital and its control, ownership structure, and flexibility explain 97% of the environmental behavior. It means that existing market-based tools to promote environmental sustainability do not engage transnationals at the scale where most of their behavior is determined. For the first time, the inner mechanisms of corporate governance are unraveled in agricultural and forest sustainability. New implications such as the convergence of environmental sustainability with family business sustainability emerged.

  1. The race to decipher the top secrets of TOP mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyuhas, Oded; Kahan, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Cells encountering hostile growth conditions, like those residing in the middle of a newly developing solid tumor, conserve resources and energy by downregulating protein synthesis. One mechanism in this response is the translational repression of multiple mRNAs that encode components of the translational apparatus. This coordinated translational control is carried through a common cis-regulatory element, the 5' Terminal OligoPyrimidine motif (5'TOP), after which these mRNAs are referred to as TOP mRNAs. Subsequent to the initial structural and functional characterization of members of this family, the research of TOP mRNAs has progressed in three major directions: a) delineating the landscape of the family; b) establishing the pathways that transduce stress cues into selective translational repression; and c) attempting to decipher the most proximal trans-acting factor(s) and defining its mode of action--a repressor or activator. The present chapter critically reviews the development in these three avenues of research with a special emphasis on the two "top secrets" of the TOP mRNA family: the scope of its members and the identity of the proximal cellular regulator(s). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Deciphering interactions in moving animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gautrais

    Full Text Available Collective motion phenomena in large groups of social organisms have long fascinated the observer, especially in cases, such as bird flocks or fish schools, where large-scale highly coordinated actions emerge in the absence of obvious leaders. However, the mechanisms involved in this self-organized behavior are still poorly understood, because the individual-level interactions underlying them remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the power of a bottom-up methodology to build models for animal group motion from data gathered at the individual scale. Using video tracks of fish shoal in a tank, we show how a careful, incremental analysis at the local scale allows for the determination of the stimulus/response function governing an individual's moving decisions. We find in particular that both positional and orientational effects are present, act upon the fish turning speed, and depend on the swimming speed, yielding a novel schooling model whose parameters are all estimated from data. Our approach also leads to identify a density-dependent effect that results in a behavioral change for the largest groups considered. This suggests that, in confined environment, the behavioral state of fish and their reaction patterns change with group size. We debate the applicability, beyond the particular case studied here, of this novel framework for deciphering interactions in moving animal groups.

  3. Deciphering the landscape of host barriers to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Abel, Sören; Abel Zur Wiesch, Pia; Sasabe, Jumpei; Davis, Brigid M; Higgins, Darren E; Waldor, Matthew K

    2017-06-13

    Listeria monocytogenes is a common food-borne pathogen that can disseminate from the intestine and infect multiple organs. Here, we used sequence tag-based analysis of microbial populations (STAMP) to investigate L monocytogenes population dynamics during infection. We created a genetically barcoded library of murinized L monocytogenes and then used deep sequencing to track the pathogen's dissemination routes and quantify its founding population ( N b ) sizes in different organs. We found that the pathogen disseminates from the gastrointestinal tract to distal sites through multiple independent routes and that N b sizes vary greatly among tissues, indicative of diverse host barriers to infection. Unexpectedly, comparative analyses of sequence tags revealed that fecally excreted organisms are largely derived from the very small number of L. monocytogenes cells that colonize the gallbladder. Immune depletion studies suggest that distinct innate immune cells restrict the pathogen's capacity to establish replicative niches in the spleen and liver. Finally, studies in germ-free mice suggest that the microbiota plays a critical role in the development of the splenic, but not the hepatic, barriers that prevent L. monocytogenes from seeding these organs. Collectively, these observations illustrate the potency of the STAMP approach to decipher the impact of host factors on population dynamics of pathogens during infection.

  4. Safety factor profile control in a tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Prieur, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Control of the Safety Factor Profile in a Tokamak uses Lyapunov techniques to address a challenging problem for which even the simplest physically relevant models are represented by nonlinear, time-dependent, partial differential equations (PDEs). This is because of the  spatiotemporal dynamics of transport phenomena (magnetic flux, heat, densities, etc.) in the anisotropic plasma medium. Robustness considerations are ubiquitous in the analysis and control design since direct measurements on the magnetic flux are impossible (its estimation relies on virtual sensors) and large uncertainties remain in the coupling between the plasma particles and the radio-frequency waves (distributed inputs). The Brief begins with a presentation of the reference dynamical model and continues by developing a Lyapunov function for the discretized system (in a polytopic linear-parameter-varying formulation). The limitations of this finite-dimensional approach motivate new developments in the infinite-dimensional framework. The t...

  5. Deciphering fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons van den Kerkhof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks is especially challenging as the host minerals have been normally subjected to deformation, recrystallization and fluid-rock interaction so that primary inclusions, formed at the peak of metamorphism are rare. The larger part of the fluid inclusions found in metamorphic minerals is typically modified during uplift. These late processes may strongly disguise the characteristics of the “original” peak metamorphic fluid. A detailed microstructural analysis of the host minerals, notably quartz, is therefore indispensable for a proper interpretation of fluid inclusions. Cathodoluminescence (CL techniques combined with trace element analysis of quartz (EPMA, LA-ICPMS have shown to be very helpful in deciphering the rock-fluid evolution. Whereas high-grade metamorphic quartz may have relatively high contents of trace elements like Ti and Al, low-temperature re-equilibrated quartz typically shows reduced trace element concentrations. The resulting microstructures in CL can be basically distinguished in diffusion patterns (along microfractures and grain boundaries, and secondary quartz formed by dissolution-reprecipitation. Most of these textures are formed during retrograde fluid-controlled processes between ca. 220 and 500 °C, i.e. the range of semi-brittle deformation (greenschist-facies and can be correlated with the fluid inclusions. In this way modified and re-trapped fluids can be identified, even when there are no optical features observed under the microscope.

  6. Deciphering the Innate Lymphoid Cell Transcriptional Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Seillet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are enriched at mucosal surfaces, where they provide immune surveillance. All ILC subsets develop from a common progenitor that gives rise to pre-committed progenitors for each of the ILC lineages. Currently, the temporal control of gene expression that guides the emergence of these progenitors is poorly understood. We used global transcriptional mapping to analyze gene expression in different ILC progenitors. We identified PD-1 to be specifically expressed in PLZF+ ILCp and revealed that the timing and order of expression of the transcription factors NFIL3, ID2, and TCF-1 was critical. Importantly, induction of ILC lineage commitment required only transient expression of NFIL3 prior to ID2 and TCF-1 expression. These findings highlight the importance of the temporal program that permits commitment of progenitors to the ILC lineage, and they expand our understanding of the core transcriptional program by identifying potential regulators of ILC development.

  7. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  8. Penguin Proxies: Deciphering Millennial-Scale Antarctic Ecosystem Change using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, C.; McMahon, K.; Emslie, S. D.; Patterson, W. P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Polito, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid environmental change due to ongoing and historic anthropogenic impacts such as climate change and marine mammal harvesting. These disturbances may have cascading effects through the Antarctic food webs, resulting in profound shifts in the sources and cycling of organic matter supporting higher-trophic organisms, such as penguins. For example, bulk stable isotope analyses of modern and ancient preserved penguin tissues suggest variations in penguin feeding ecology throughout the Holocene with dramatic isotopic shifts in the last 200 years. However, it is not clear whether these isotopic shifts resulted from changes at the base of the food web, dietary shifts in penguins, or some combination of both factors. Newly developed compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSIA-AA) may provide a powerful new tool to tease apart these confounding variables. Stable nitrogen isotope values of trophic amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid) increase substantially with each trophic transfer in the food web, while source amino acid (e.g., phenylalanine) stable nitrogen isotope values remain relatively unchanged and reflect ecosystem baselines. As such, we can use this CSIA-AA approach to decipher between baseline and dietary shifts in penguins over time from modern and ancient eggshells of Pygoscelis penguins in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea regions of Antarctica. In order to accurately apply this CSIA-AA approach, we first characterized the trophic fractionation factors of individual amino acids between diet and penguin consumers in a long-term controlled penguin feeding experiment. We then applied these values to modern and ancient eggshells from the Antarctic Peninsula and Ross Sea to evaluate shifts in penguin trophic dynamics as a function of climate and anthropogenic interaction throughout much of the Holocene. This work develops a cutting edge new molecular geochemistry approach

  9. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  10. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  11. Genetic analyses for deciphering the status and role of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 1. Genetic analyses for deciphering the status and role of photoperiodic and maturity genes in major Indian soybean cultivars. SANJAY GUPTA VIRENDER SINGH BHATIA GIRIRAJ KUMAWAT DEVSHREE THAKUR GOURAV SINGH RACHANA TRIPATHI GYANESH ...

  12. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors...... about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure...... to pesticides among colon cancer controls. CONCLUSIONS: Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming....

  13. Factors influencing the profitability of optimizing control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broussaud, A.; Guyot, O.

    1999-01-01

    Optimizing control systems supplement conventional Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers. They continuously implement set points, which aim at maximizing the profitability of plant operation. They are becoming an integral part of modern mineral processing plants. This trend is justified by economic considerations, optimizing control being among the most cost-effective methods of improving metallurgical plant performance. The paper successively analyzes three sets of factors, which influence the profitability of optimizing control systems, and provides guidelines for analyzing the potential value of an optimizing control system at a given operation: external factors, such as economic factors and factors related to plant feed; features of the optimizing control system; and subsequent maintenance of the optimizing control system. It is shown that pay back times for optimization control projects are typically measured in days. The OCS software used by the authors for their applications is described briefly. (author)

  14. Preprocessing Algorithm for Deciphering Historical Inscriptions Using String Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand Lehel Toth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the improvements in the preprocessing part of the deciphering method (shortly preprocessing algorithm for historical inscriptions of unknown origin. Glyphs used in historical inscriptions changed through time; therefore, various versions of the same script may contain different glyphs for each grapheme. The purpose of the preprocessing algorithm is reducing the running time of the deciphering process by filtering out the less probable interpretations of the examined inscription. However, the first version of the preprocessing algorithm leads incorrect outcome or no result in the output in certain cases. Therefore, its improved version was developed to find the most similar words in the dictionary by relaying the search conditions more accurately, but still computationally effectively. Moreover, a sophisticated similarity metric used to determine the possible meaning of the unknown inscription is introduced. The results of the evaluations are also detailed.

  15. Factors controlling superelastic damping capacity of SMAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr; Pilch, Jan; Landa, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 5-6 (2009), 603-611 ISSN 1059-9495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloys * superelastic damping * thermomechanical testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2009

  16. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  17. Factors Affecting Sustainable Animal Trypanosomosis Control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub- humid savannah ... livestock farmers in planning and implementation. Across ... help to ensure a better management of livestock in tsetse fly infested areas with minimal loses in .... market and administered by them. This drug ... Table 2 shows the analysis of.

  18. What factors control dimerization of coniferyl alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl J. Houtman

    1999-01-01

    Data suggest that the dimerization of coniferyl alcohol is not under thermodynamic control. In this study, molecular dynamics calculations were used to estimate the effect of the solvent environment. In water, the coniferyl alcohol radicals were forced to associate by the formation of a solvent cage. In glycerol, the solvent cage effect appeared to be absent. These...

  19. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  20. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian; MacPherson, Cameron R; Essack, Magbubah; Kaur, Mandeep; Schaefer, Ulf; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  1. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  2. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  3. Control of Cellular Morphology by Mechanical Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoumine, Olivier

    1996-11-01

    This short review deals with the influence of mechanical factors on eucaryotic cell morphology and structure. We classify these factors into two types: i) external forces (e.g. gravitational forces or hemodynamic stresses), which when applied experimentally allow characterization of passive mechanical properties; and ii) internal forces, e.g. generated by molecular motors or polymerization processes. Perturbation of one or more of these forces induces significant changes in cell shape, cytoskeleton and pericellular matrix organization. We describe these phenomena in view of current models. Cette brève revue traite de l'influence des facteurs mécaniques sur la morphologie et la structure des cellules eucaryotes. Nous classifions ces facteurs en deux catégories : i) les forces externes (par exemple les forces de gravitation et les contraintes hèmodynamiques) qui, imposées in vitro, permettent de caractériser les propriétés mécaniques passives ; et ii) les forces internes, par exemple celles générées par les moteurs moléculaires ou les processus de polymérisation. La perturbation de l'une ou de l'autre de ces forces provoque des changements significatifs de la morphologie cellulaire ainsi que l'organisation du cytosquelette et de la matrice péricellulaire. Nous décrivons ces phénomènes en fonction de modèles existants.

  4. Deciphering the Functional Composition of Fusogenic Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolašinac, Rejhana; Kleusch, Christian; Braun, Tobias; Merkel, Rudolf; Csiszár, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are frequently used as carrier particles for nucleic acid delivery. The most popular formulation is the equimolar mixture of two components, a cationic lipid and a neutral phosphoethanolamine. Its uptake pathway has been described as endocytosis. The presence of an aromatic molecule as a third component strongly influences the cellular uptake process and results in complete membrane fusion instead of endocytosis. Here, we systematically varied all three components of this lipid mixture and determined how efficiently the resulting particles fused with the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells. Our results show that an aromatic molecule and a cationic lipid component with conical molecular shape are essential for efficient fusion induction. While a neutral lipid is not mandatory, it can be used to control fusion efficiency and, in the most extreme case, to revert the uptake mechanism back to endocytosis. PMID:29364187

  5. Deciphering chemotaxis pathways using cross species comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage Judith P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotaxis is the process by which motile bacteria sense their chemical environment and move towards more favourable conditions. Escherichia coli utilises a single sensory pathway, but little is known about signalling pathways in species with more complex systems. Results To investigate whether chemotaxis pathways in other bacteria follow the E. coli paradigm, we analysed 206 species encoding at least 1 homologue of each of the 5 core chemotaxis proteins (CheA, CheB, CheR, CheW and CheY. 61 species encode more than one of all of these 5 proteins, suggesting they have multiple chemotaxis pathways. Operon information is not available for most bacteria, so we developed a novel statistical approach to cluster che genes into putative operons. Using operon-based models, we reconstructed putative chemotaxis pathways for all 206 species. We show that cheA-cheW and cheR-cheB have strong preferences to occur in the same operon as two-gene blocks, which may reflect a functional requirement for co-transcription. However, other che genes, most notably cheY, are more dispersed on the genome. Comparison of our operons with shuffled equivalents demonstrates that specific patterns of genomic location may be a determining factor for the observed in vivo chemotaxis pathways. We then examined the chemotaxis pathways of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Here, the PpfA protein is known to be critical for correct partitioning of proteins in the cytoplasmically-localised pathway. We found ppfA in che operons of many species, suggesting that partitioning of cytoplasmic Che protein clusters is common. We also examined the apparently non-typical chemotaxis components, CheA3, CheA4 and CheY6. We found that though variants of CheA proteins are rare, the CheY6 variant may be a common type of CheY, with a significantly disordered C-terminal region which may be functionally significant. Conclusions We find that many bacterial species potentially have multiple

  6. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  7. Deciphering cancer heterogeneity: the biological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eRoessler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most lethal solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are considered incurable due to extensive heterogeneity in clinical presentation and tumor biology. Tumor heterogeneity may result from different cells of origin, patient ethnicity, etiology, underlying disease and diversity of genomic and epigenomic changes which drive tumor development. Cancer genomic heterogeneity thereby impedes treatment options and poses a significant challenge to cancer management. Studies of the HCC genome have revealed that although various genomic signatures identified in different HCC subgroups share a common prognosis, each carries unique molecular changes which are linked to different sets of cancer hallmarks whose misregulation has been proposed by Hanahan and Weinberg to be essential for tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that these specific sets of cancer hallmarks collectively occupy different tumor biological space representing the misregulation of different biological processes. In principle, a combination of different cancer hallmarks can result in new convergent molecular networks that are unique to each tumor subgroup and represent ideal druggable targets. Due to the ability of the tumor to adapt to external factors such as treatment or changes in the tumor microenvironment, the tumor biological space is elastic. Our ability to identify distinct groups of cancer patients with similar tumor biology who are most likely to respond to a specific therapy would have a significant impact on improving patient outcome. It is currently a challenge to identify a particular hallmark or a newly emerged convergent molecular network for a particular tumor. Thus, it is anticipated that the integration of multiple levels of data such as genomic mutations, somatic copy number aberration, gene expression, proteomics, and metabolomics, may help us grasp the tumor biological space occupied by each individual, leading to improved therapeutic intervention and outcome.

  8. Dealing With A Controllable Risk Factor Like Diet In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a silent killer in Nigeria and many parts of the world. Certain factors increase the risk of CVD. While there are controllable factors that contribute and predispose to the development of CVD like diet, exercise, tobacco use, high blood pressure and obesity, there are uncontrollable factors like ...

  9. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  10. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Davison, Brian H; Standaert, Robert F; Davis, Mark F; Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2014-01-09

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular weight lignin polymers and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di-, and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p-electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages (β-β or β-5) react poorly and tend to "cap" the polymer. In general, β-5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  11. Underlying Factors for Practicality of the Production Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, Emrah; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and communication technology, coordination and feedback, human factors and decision making, and measurement are the identified factors to be taken into account. Industrial interviews with three case companies, that are participating to the research program called The Norwegian Manufacturing Future (SFI NORMAN......This paper gives indications to important factors that must be considered for effectiveness of the production control systems under uncertainty. Five key factors have been identified by the literature study. Production schedule generation and execution approach under uncertainty, information...

  12. Reviews in modern astronomy, deciphering the universe through spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    von Berlepsch, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This 22nd volume in the series contains 15 invited reviews and highlight contributions from outstanding speakers presented during the 2009 annual meeting of the Astronomical Society on the subject of ""Deciphering the Universe through Spectroscopy"", held in Potsdam, Germany. Topics range from the measurements of magnetic fields on the surface of the sun via detailed measurements of abundances in stellar atmospheres to the kinematics of the universe at its largest scales. The result is a systematic overview of the latest astronomical and cosmological research.

  13. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  14. Factors influencing warfarin control in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole; Ching, Chi Keong; Teo, Siew Chong; Chen, Liping; Badrick, Tony; Davey, Andrew K; Crilly, Julia; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin is widely used for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Variations in warfarin control, as measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR), have been reported across different regions and ethnicities, particularly between Western and Asian countries. However, there is limited data on comparative factors influencing warfarin control in Caucasian and Asian patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine warfarin control and potential factors influencing this in patients with NVAF in Australia and Singapore. Retrospective data was collected for patients receiving warfarin for January to June 2014 in Australia and Singapore. TTR was calculated for individuals with mean patient TTR used for analysis. Possible influential factors on TTR were analysed including age, gender, concurrent co-morbidities, and concurrent medication. The mean TTR was significantly higher in Australia (82%) than Singapore (58%). At both sites, chronic kidney disease significantly lowered this TTR. Further factors influencing control were anaemia and ageWarfarin control was significantly higher in Australia compared to Singapore, however chronic kidney disease reduced control at both sites. The different levels of control in these two countries, together with patient factors further reducing control may impact on anticoagulant choice in these countries with better outcomes from warfarin in Australia compared to Singapore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance ratings and personality factors in radar controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether primary or second-order personality questionnaire factors were related to job performance ratings on the Employee Appraisal Record in a sample of 264 radar controllers. A Pearson correlation matrix wa...

  16. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.

  17. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazer, Shelley; Lynch, Michael; Needleman, Daniel

    2014-11-17

    The origin of the nucleus at the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition represents one of the most important events in the evolution of cellular organization. The nuclear envelope encircles the chromosomes in interphase and is a selectively permeable barrier between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm and an organizational scaffold for the nucleus. It remains intact in the 'closed' mitosis of some yeasts, but loses its integrity in the 'open' mitosis of mammals. Instances of both types of mitosis within two evolutionary clades indicate multiple evolutionary transitions between open and closed mitosis, although the underlying genetic changes that influenced these transitions remain unknown. A survey of the diversity of mitotic nuclei that fall between these extremes is the starting point from which to determine the physiologically relevant characteristics distinguishing open from closed mitosis and to understand how they evolved and why they are retained in present-day organisms. The field is now poised to begin addressing these issues by defining and documenting patterns of mitotic nuclear variation within and among species and mapping them onto a phylogenic tree. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis will complement cell biological and genetic approaches aimed at deciphering the fundamental organizational principles of the nucleus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  19. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  20. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...

  1. Simplifying the audit of risk factor recording and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Min; Cooney, Marie Therese; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To simplify the assessment of the recording and control of coronary heart disease risk factors in different countries and regions. DESIGN: The SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) is an international clinical audit. METHODS: Data on consecutive patients with established coronary heart disease...

  2. Spectral Barcoding of Quantum Dots: Deciphering Structural Motifs from the Excitonic Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlinar, V.; Zunger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) show in high-resolution single-dot spectra a multitude of sharp lines, resembling a barcode, due to various neutral and charged exciton complexes. Here we propose the 'spectral barcoding' method that deciphers structural motifs of dots by using such barcode as input to an artificial-intelligence learning system. Thus, we invert the common practice of deducing spectra from structure by deducing structure from spectra. This approach (i) lays the foundation for building a much needed structure-spectra understanding for large nanostructures and (ii) can guide future design of desired optical features of QDs by controlling during growth only those structural motifs that decide given optical features.

  3. Deciphering molecular circuits from genetic variation underlying transcriptional responsiveness to stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Viks, Irit; Chevrier, Nicolas; Wilentzik, Roni; Eisenhaure, Thomas; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Steuerman, Yael; Shalek, Alex K; Hacohen, Nir; Amit, Ido; Regev, Aviv

    2013-04-01

    Individual genetic variation affects gene responsiveness to stimuli, often by influencing complex molecular circuits. Here we combine genomic and intermediate-scale transcriptional profiling with computational methods to identify variants that affect the responsiveness of genes to stimuli (responsiveness quantitative trait loci or reQTLs) and to position these variants in molecular circuit diagrams. We apply this approach to study variation in transcriptional responsiveness to pathogen components in dendritic cells from recombinant inbred mouse strains. We identify reQTLs that correlate with particular stimuli and position them in known pathways. For example, in response to a virus-like stimulus, a trans-acting variant responds as an activator of the antiviral response; using RNA interference, we identify Rgs16 as the likely causal gene. Our approach charts an experimental and analytic path to decipher the mechanisms underlying genetic variation in circuits that control responses to stimuli.

  4. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  5. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  6. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I ampersand C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I ampersand C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I ampersand C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab

  7. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  8. Dietary pattern and lifestyle factors in asthma control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Noufal Poongadan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of asthma in adults varied from 0.96% to 11.03% while in children ranged from 2.3% to 11.9% in India. A number of factors including genetic predisposition, environment, and lifestyle factors including dietary habits influence the development and expression of asthma. The goal of asthma treatment is to achieve and maintain clinical control, which can be achieved in a majority of patients with pharmacologic intervention strategy. Objective: To assess the role of diet and lifestyle factors in asthma control in Indian population. Materials and Methods: Diagnosed asthma patients (aged 12-40 years were enrolled from the outpatient clinics. All patients were followed up and reassessed after 4 weeks with asthma control test (ACT and dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. The assessment of dietary pattern was performed by food frequency questionnaire (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations-Danish Physical Activity Questionnaire. The lifestyle factor included body mass index, smoking status, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption, duration of travel (h/week, mental stress (visual analog scale: 0-10, sports activity - h/day, television (TV watching/video games - h/day, duration of sleep - h/day. Results: Seventy-five asthma patients (43 males and 32 females were divided into three groups according to ACT, 18 (24% patients in poorly-controlled asthma, 35 (46.7% in well-controlled asthma, and 22 (29.3% patients with totally-controlled asthma. Increased consumption of vegetables and cereals in patients with total-controlled asthma while increased consumption of sugar, nonvegetarian, fast food, salted and fried snacks in patients with poorly-controlled asthma. Poorly-controlled asthma had the highest duration of watching TV and sleep and least duration of travel and sports, though the results failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The dietary and lifestyle factors too contribute to degree of control of asthma in India.

  9. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  10. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  11. Dynamics of Mycobacterium leprae transmission in environmental context: deciphering the role of environment as a potential reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turankar, Ravindra P; Lavania, Mallika; Singh, Mradula; Siva Sai, Krovvidi S R; Jadhav, Rupendra S

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy is a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Various modes of transmission have been suggested for this disease. Transmission and risk of the infection is perhaps related to presence of the infectious cases and is controlled by environmental factors. Evidence suggests that humidity may favor survival of M. leprae in the environment. Several reports show that non-human sources like 'naturally' infected armadillos or monkeys could act as reservoir for M. leprae. Inanimate objects or fomites like articles used by infectious patients may theoretically spread infection. However, it is only through detailed knowledge of the biodiversity and ecology that the importance of this mode of transmission can be fully assessed. Our study focuses here to decipher the role of environment in the transmission of the disease. Two hundred and seven soil samples were collected from a village in endemic area where active cases also resided at the time of sample collection. Slit skin smears were collected from 13 multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients and 12 household contacts of the patients suspected to be hidden cases. DNA and RNA of M. leprae were extracted and amplified using M. leprae specific primers. Seventy-one soil samples showed presence of M. leprae DNA whereas 16S rRNA could be detected in twenty-eight of these samples. Samples, both from the environment and the patients, exhibited the same genotype when tested by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. Genotype of M. leprae found in the soil and the patients residing in the same area could help in understanding the transmission link in leprosy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcription Factor Zbtb20 Controls Regional Specification of Mammalian Archicortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial expression of sets of transcription factors (TFs) along the mammalian cortex controls its subdivision into functional areas. Unlike neocortex, only few recent data suggest genetic mechanisms controlling the regionalization of the archicortex. TF Emx2 plays a crucial role in patterning...... later on becoming restricted exclusively to postmitotic neurons of hippocampus (Hi) proper, dentate gyrus (DG), and two transitory zones, subiculum (S) and retrosplenial cortex (Rsp). Analysis of Zbtb20-/- mice revealed altered cortical patterning at the border between neocortex and archicortex...

  13. Active Power Factor Correction Using a Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KAYIŞLI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a sliding mode controller is designed for active shaping of the input current in the boost converter. Robustness of the designed controller is tested with variable output voltage references, different loads and network voltage variations. For the simulations, MATLAB/Simulink programme is used. From simulation results, the same phase was provided between input current and input voltage and nearly unity power factor was obtained.

  14. On frequency-weighted coprime factorization based controller reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras

    2003-01-01

    We consider the efficient solution of a class of coprime factorization based controller approximation problems by using frequency-weighted balancing related model reduction approaches. It is shown that for some special stability enforcing frequency-weights, the computation of the frequency-weighted controllability and observability grammians can be done by solving reduced order Lyapunov equations. The new approach can be used in conjunction with accuracy enhancing square-root and balancing-fr...

  15. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  16. Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...

  17. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  18. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  19. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  20. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  1. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Vilma Costa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. PMID:28832758

  2. Risk Factors for Anemia in Pregnancy: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Pundkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of the study was to find the risk factors leading to Anemia in pregnancy. The main objective was to study the various sociodemographic factors leading to anemia. And to assess the knowledge about anemia among study participants. Material and methods: The present Case control study was carried out at Primary Health Centre, to determine the risk factors leading to anemia in pregnancy. A total of 308 pregnant females were registered. Among them two groups were made, group I cases and group II controls. Each group had 50 cases each. Laboratory test were done and females having hemoglobin less than 11mg/dl were considered anemic. Anemic females were considered cases and females having Hb >11mg/dl were considered controls. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The overall mean haemoglobin (Hb was 11.55g/dL in controls, whereas it was seen that among the cases it was 9.58g/dL.It would seem that diet, family size, education, social class, gravida and parity are associated with anemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: After adjusting for all the possible covariates there seems to be significant association between Hb levels and age group, education level, family size, diet, gravida and parity.

  3. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarybel Miranda Mellado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Por las implicaciones sociales de la mortalidad y morbilidad materna es importante determinar los factores de necesidad que influyen en el uso adecuado del control prenatal en gestantes de Sincelejo. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio analítico de corte transversal, que incluyó 730 gestantes, seleccionadas mediante muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados, de las comunas de la ciudad. La información fue recolectada por medio de una encuesta sociodemográfica, una ficha de uso de control prenatal y un Cuestionario para evaluar los factores de necesidad  propuestos por el Modelo de Promoción de la Salud de Nola Pender. Las gestantes fueron contactadas en sus domicilios y diligenciaron los instrumentos. Los datos fueron analizados aplicando estadística descriptiva e inferencial para determinar las asociaciones entre variables. Resultados: El 97,7% (713 de las gestantes asistía al control prenatal, con una mediana de 4 controles prenatales. Un 2,3% (17 no lo habían iniciado al momento de la encuesta y 24,4% (178 hizo uso inadecuado. El 80,7% (589 de las gestantes califican su estado de salud como bueno o muy bueno, 94,8% (692 percibieron beneficios del control prenatal. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la percepción de beneficios y el uso adecuado de control prenatal [OR=5,5 (IC 95%: 2,8 - 10,8]. Discusión y Conclusiones: La percepción que las mujeres tienen sobre los buenos resultados que reporta la asistencia al control prenatal, es el principal factor que puede explicar la adherencia al control y el cumplimiento regular de las consultas. Cómo citar este artículo: Miranda C, Castillo IY. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal. Rev Cuid. 2016; 7(2: 1345-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v7i2.340

  4. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  5. Archaeological sites along the Gujarat coast: Proxies to decipher the past shoreline

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh

    on northwestern Saurashtra coast presents a classical case of shoreline shift in recent past. The paper discusses the archaeological evidences to decipher the past shoreline of the Saurashtra region...

  6. Human factors in aviation: Terminal control area boundary conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monan, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air conflicts in the vicinity of Terminal Control Area (TCA) boundaries were studied to obtain a better understanding of the causal dynamics of these events with particular focus on human factor issues. The study dataset consisted of 381 Instrument Flight Rules/Visual Flight Rules (IFR/VFR) traffic conflicts in airspace layers above TCA ceiling and below TCA floors; 213 reports of incursions in TCA terminal airspace by VFR aircraft, of which 123 resulted in conflicts; and an additional set of reports describing problems with Air Traffic Control (ATC) services in and around TCAs. Results and conclusions are detailed.

  7. Deciphering the Astrocyte Reaction in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz G. Perez-Nievas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive astrocytes were identified as a component of senile amyloid plaques in the cortex of Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients several decades ago. However, their role in AD pathophysiology has remained elusive ever since, in part owing to the extrapolation of the literature from primary astrocyte cultures and acute brain injury models to a chronic neurodegenerative scenario. Recent accumulating evidence supports the idea that reactive astrocytes in AD acquire neurotoxic properties, likely due to both a gain of toxic function and a loss of their neurotrophic effects. However, the diversity and complexity of this glial cell is only beginning to be unveiled, anticipating that astrocyte reaction might be heterogeneous as well. Herein we review the evidence from mouse models of AD and human neuropathological studies and attempt to decipher the main conundrums that astrocytes pose to our understanding of AD development and progression. We discuss the morphological features that characterize astrocyte reaction in the AD brain, the consequences of astrocyte reaction for both astrocyte biology and AD pathological hallmarks, and the molecular pathways that have been implicated in this reaction.

  8. The human factors specialist in nuclear control centre design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.; Beattie, J.D.

    The main focus at Ontario Hydro for man-machine interface design is in the design of control centres. Because the control of a nuclear generating unit is highly centralized there is an increasing need for effective information display and control layout. Control panel design innovations such as the use of CRT displays and the extended use of computerized control in the Darlington station have made it possible for Ontario Hydro to continue to have one first operator for each generating unit. The human factors specialist involved in control panel design must deal with people who know much more about the specific systems being controlled, and must become a generalist in all these systems as well. Designers have to use conceptual techniques such as task analysis, systems design, panel mock-ups, anthropometric data, and personal judgement based on experience as they design panels. They must find a balance between becoming locked into existing technology and methods, slavishly following the latest technological trends, and forgetting that real people will be using what they design

  9. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  10. New factors controlling the balance between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-02-01

    The majority of conditions associated with bone loss, including aging, are accompanied by increased marrow adiposity possibly due to shifting of the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (MSC). In order to study the relationship between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis in bone marrow, we have characterized cellular models of multipotent MSC as well as pre-osteoblastic and pre-adipocytic cell populations. Using these models, we identified two secreted factors in the bone marrow microenviroment: secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP-1) and delta-like1 (preadipocyte factor 1) (Dlk1/Pref-1). Both exert regulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis. Our studies suggest a model for lineage fate determination of MSC that is regulated through secreted factors in the bone marrow microenvironment that mediate a cross-talk between lineage committed cell populations in addition to controlling differentiation choices of multipotent MSC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  12. Wind tunnel testing to predict control room atmospheric dispersion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmquist, L.J.; Harden, P.A.; Muraida, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent concerns at Palisades about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing the control room has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode. The current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 1.2 x 10 -2 m 3 /s (25 ft 3 /min) unfiltered in-leakage into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered as a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. A second approach to this problem was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (x/Q's) through a wind tunnel test using a scale model of Palisades. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic x/Q's for control room habitability than previously employed methods. Palisades selected the wind tunnel study option based on its ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the study could increase the allowable unfiltered in-leakage

  13. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  14. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  15. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  16. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk.

  17. Deciphering neuronal population codes for acute thermal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Phuong Sieu Tong, Ai; Manders, Toby R.; Wang, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Current pain research mostly focuses on molecular and synaptic changes at the spinal and peripheral levels. However, a complete understanding of pain mechanisms requires the physiological study of the neocortex. Our goal is to apply a neural decoding approach to read out the onset of acute thermal pain signals, which can be used for brain-machine interface. Approach. We used micro wire arrays to record ensemble neuronal activities from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in freely behaving rats. We further investigated neural codes for acute thermal pain at both single-cell and population levels. To detect the onset of acute thermal pain signals, we developed a novel latent state-space framework to decipher the sorted or unsorted S1 and ACC ensemble spike activities, which reveal information about the onset of pain signals. Main results. The state space analysis allows us to uncover a latent state process that drives the observed ensemble spike activity, and to further detect the ‘neuronal threshold’ for acute thermal pain on a single-trial basis. Our method achieved good detection performance in sensitivity and specificity. In addition, our results suggested that an optimal strategy for detecting the onset of acute thermal pain signals may be based on combined evidence from S1 and ACC population codes. Significance. Our study is the first to detect the onset of acute pain signals based on neuronal ensemble spike activity. It is important from a mechanistic viewpoint as it relates to the significance of S1 and ACC activities in the regulation of the acute pain onset.

  18. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  19. Whole genome sequence to decipher the resistome of Shewanella algae, a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for pneumonia, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Teresa; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    We characterize and decipher the resistome and the virulence factors of Shewanella algae MARS 14, a multidrug-resistant clinical strain using the whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy. The bacteria were isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage of a hospitalized patient in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France who developed pneumonia after plunging into the Mediterranean Sea. The genome size of S. algae MARS 14 was 5,005,710 bp with 52.8% guanine cytosine content. The resistome includes members of class C and D beta-lactamases and numerous multidrug-efflux pumps. We also found the presence of several hemolysins genes, a complete flagellum system gene cluster and genes responsible for biofilm formation. Moreover, we reported for the first time in a clinical strain of Shewanella spp. the presence of a bacteriocin (marinocin). The WGS analysis of this pathogen provides insight into its virulence factors and resistance to antibiotics.

  20. Comparison of atherogenic risk factors among poorly controlled and well-controlled adolescent phenylketonuria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Mehmet; Çakar, Sevim; Kuyum, Pınar; Makay, Balahan; Arslan, Nur

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies investigating the known risk factors of atherosclerosis in phenylketonuria patients have shown conflicting results. The primary aim of our study was to investigate the serum atherogenic markers in adolescent classical phenylketonuria patients and compare these parameters with healthy peers. The secondary aim was to compare these atherogenic markers in well-controlled and poorly controlled patients. A total of 59 patients (median age: 12.6 years, range: 11-17 years) and 44 healthy controls (median age: 12.0 years, range: 11-15 years) were enrolled in our study. Phenylketonuria patients were divided into two groups: well-controlled (serum phenylalanine levels below 360 µmol/L; 24 patients) and poorly controlled patients (serum phenylalanine levels higher than 360 µmol/L). The mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of well-controlled patients (1.0±0.2 mmol/L) were significantly lower compared with poorly controlled patients and controls (1.1±0.2 mmol/L, p=0.011 and 1.4±0.2 mmol/L, pphenylketonuria patients. In particular, these changes were more prominent in well-controlled patients. We conclude that phenylketonuria patients might be at risk for atherosclerosis, and therefore screening for atherosclerotic risk factors should be included in the phenylketonuria therapy and follow-up in addition to other parameters.

  1. Quality control in the development of coagulation factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, T J

    1987-01-01

    Limitation of process change is a major factor contributing to assurance of quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing. This is particularly true in the manufacture of coagulation factor concentrates, for which presumptive testing for poorly defined product characteristics is an integral feature of finished product quality control. The development of new or modified preparations requires that this comfortable position be abandoned, and that the effect on finished product characteristics of changes to individual process steps (and components) be assessed. The degree of confidence in the safety and efficacy of the new product will be determined by, amongst other things, the complexity of the process alteration and the extent to which the results of finished product tests can be considered predictive. The introduction of a heat-treatment step for inactivation of potential viral contaminants in coagulation factor concentrates presents a significant challenge in both respects, quite independent of any consideration of assessment of the effectiveness of the viral inactivation step. These interactions are illustrated by some of the problems encountered with terminal dry heat-treatment (72 h. at 80 degrees C) of factor VIII and prothrombin complex concentrates manufactured by the Blood Products Laboratory.

  2. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  3. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  4. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  5. Physical factors controlling the ductility of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Central South University, China; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Zhang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify key physical factor controlling the deformation and fracture behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), we compiled and analyzed the elastic moduli and compressive ductility for BMGs. In addition, new modulus data were generated in the critical ranges in order to facilitate the analysis. We have found that the intrinsic ductility of BMGs can be correlated with the bulk-to-shear modulus ratio B/G according to Pugh's [Philos. Mag. 45, 823 (1954) ] rule. In some individual BMG systems, for example, Fe based, the relationship seems to be very clear. The physical meaning of this correlation is discussed in terms of atomic bonding and connectivity.

  6. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  7. Factors Controlling Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetics: An Integrated Analysis and Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Hunter, A.C.; Andresen, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    of interrelated core and interfacial physicochemical and biological factors. Pertinent to realizing therapeutic goals, definitive maps that establish the interdependency of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface characteristics in relation to interfacial forces, biodistribution, controlled drug release, excretion......Intravenously injected nanoparticulate drug carriers provide a wide range of unique opportunities for site-specific targeting of therapeutic agents to many areas within the vasculature and beyond. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these carriers are controlled by a complex array...... are already on the market and many are in late-phase clinical trials. With concomitant advances in extensive computational knowledge of the genomics and epigenomics of interindividual variations in drug responses, the boundaries toward development of personalized nanomedicines can be pushed further....

  8. Understanding disease control: influence of epidemiological and economic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Oleś

    Full Text Available We present a model of disease transmission on a regular and small world network and compare different control options. Comparison is based on a total cost of epidemic, including cost of palliative treatment of ill individuals and preventive cost aimed at vaccination or culling of susceptible individuals. Disease is characterized by pre-symptomatic phase, which makes detection and control difficult. Three general strategies emerge: global preventive treatment, local treatment within a neighborhood of certain size and only palliative treatment with no prevention. While the choice between the strategies depends on a relative cost of palliative and preventive treatment, the details of the local strategy and, in particular, the size of the optimal treatment neighborhood depend on the epidemiological factors. The required extent of prevention is proportional to the size of the infection neighborhood, but depends on time till detection and time till treatment in a non-nonlinear (power law. The optimal size of control neighborhood is also highly sensitive to the relative cost, particularly for inefficient detection and control application. These results have important consequences for design of prevention strategies aiming at emerging diseases for which parameters are not nessecerly known in advance.

  9. Reading Hidden Messages Through Deciphered Manual Alphabets on Classic Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Joseph Anthony, Jr.

    1998-10-01

    Decipherment is the tool used to uncover several types of hand signs that played vital roles in the creation of hidden messages in classic artwork. A 3,100 B.C. bas-relief of The 'Kaph' Telescope, formerly named The Narmer Palette, and Michaelangelo Buonarrotte's Battle of Cascina of 1506 were two key works of art that show certain similarities even though separated by 4,500 years. It is evident that Renaissance humanists provided artists with certain knowledge of the ancients. Results of incorporating a number of minor works of art showed that the competence of ancient Egyptians, Cretans and Australian Aboriginals, to name a few, as astronomers, was underestimated. Some deciphered Indus seals attested to a global understanding of the universe, with Gemini and the star of Thuban at the center of their attention. Certain forms of secrecy had to be undertaken for various reasons throughout the millennia. Three examples are: (1) In Italy, to keep controversial and truthful teachings discreet and hidden, artists embedded them in artwork long before the plight of Galileo Galilei and his discoveries. (2) Among Jewish Kabbalists, a well-known design was obscured in The Arnolfini Wedding painting for fear it would be lost due to persecution. (3) Michaelangelo Buonarrotte indicated several meanings through the hands of The Statue of Moses. They were overlooked by several societies, including the gesticulating culture of Italy, because they oppressed the value of signed languages. Spatial decipherment may testify to a need for the restoration of a spatial writing system for expanded linguistic accessibility. A 21st century model community for sign language residents and employees will benefit visual learners, particularly visual artists and non-phonetic decipherers, to better uncover, understand and perhaps use ancient hand forms to restore ancient knowledge. Moreover, the National Association of Teaching English (NATE) has recently endorsed the addition of two skills

  10. Hormonal and dietary factors in acne vulgaris versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Thomas Jonathan; Bazergy, Carl

    2018-01-01

    Background : Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disorder with not as yet fully understood pathogenesis. In this controlled study, we assessed acne vulgaris patients for several possible pathogenic factors such as vitamin D deficiency, vegan diet, increased body mass index (BMI) and positive anti-transglutaminase antibody. Methods : We screened 10 years of records at a family medicine clinic for patients diagnosed with acne vulgaris. In eligible subjects, we collected data regarding 25-hydroxylvitamin D levels, BMI, dietary preference and serum IgA tissue transglutaminase levels. Controls were age- (+/- 12 months) and sex-matched patients seen during the study period without a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Results : 453 patients were given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris during the study period. Compared with controls, we found significant associations between vitamin D deficiency (4.0U/mL) and a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Conclusions : Our study adds important information to the current body of literature in pursuit of elucidating the pathogenesis of this complex multifactorial disease.

  11. Ets transcription factor GABP controls T cell homeostasis and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chong T; Osmanbeyoglu, Hatice U; Do, Mytrang H; Bivona, Michael R; Toure, Ahmed; Kang, Davina; Xie, Yuchen; Leslie, Christina S; Li, Ming O

    2017-10-20

    Peripheral T cells are maintained in the absence of vigorous stimuli, and respond to antigenic stimulation by initiating cell cycle progression and functional differentiation. Here we show that depletion of the Ets family transcription factor GA-binding protein (GABP) in T cells impairs T-cell homeostasis. In addition, GABP is critically required for antigen-stimulated T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptome and genome-wide GABP-binding site analyses identify GABP direct targets encoding proteins involved in cellular redox balance and DNA replication, including the Mcm replicative helicases. These findings show that GABP has a nonredundant role in the control of T-cell homeostasis and immunity.

  12. Angiogenic and angiostatic factors in the molecular control of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, J H W; Hirth, A; Kurowska-Stolarska, M; Gay, R E; Gay, S; Distler, O

    2003-09-01

    The vascular system that ensures an adequate blood flow is required to provide the cells with sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. Two different mechanisms of the formation of new vessels can be distinguished: vasculogenesis, the formation of the first primitive vascular plexus de novo and angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from preexisting ones. Both processes are regulated by a delicate balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Physiologically, angiostatic mediators outweigh the angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis does not occur. Under certain conditions such as tumor formation or wound healing, the positive regulators of angiogenesis predominate and the endothelium becomes activated. Angiogenesis is initiated by vasodilatation and an increased permeability. After destabilization of the vessel wall, endothelial cells proliferate, migrate and form a tube, which is finally stabilized by pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines and proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules strictly control this multi-step process. The properties and interactions of angiogenic molecules such as VEGFs, FGFs, angiopoietins, PDGF, angiogenin, angiotropin, HGF, CXC chemokines with ELR motif, PECAM-1, integrins and VE-cadherin as well as angiostatic key players such as angiostatin, endostatin, thrombospondin, CXC chemokines without ELR motif, PEDF are discussed in this review with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis.

  13. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod; Lucyshyn, Doris; Jaeger, Katja E.; Aló s, Enriqueta; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Wigge, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Krüppel-like factors: Three fingers in control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamynathan Shivalingappa K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Krüppel-like factors (KLFs, members of the zinc-finger family of transcription factors capable of binding GC-rich sequences, have emerged as critical regulators of important functions all over the body. They are characterised by a highly conserved C-terminal DNA-binding motif containing three C2H2 zinc-finger domains, with variable N-terminal regulatory domains. Currently, there are 17 KLFs annotated in the human genome. In spite of their structural similarity to one another, the genes encoding different KLFs are scattered all over the genome. By virtue of their ability to activate and/or repress the expression of a large number of genes, KLFs regulate a diverse array of developmental events and cellular processes, such as erythropoiesis, cardiac remodelling, adipogenesis, maintenance of stem cells, epithelial barrier formation, control of cell proliferation and neoplasia, flow-mediated endothelial gene expression, skeletal and smooth muscle development, gluconeogenesis, monocyte activation, intestinal and conjunctival goblet cell development, retinal neuronal regeneration and neonatal lung development. Characteristic features, nomenclature, evolution and functional diversities of the human KLFs are reviewed here.

  16. Krüppel-like factors: three fingers in control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs), members of the zinc-finger family of transcription factors capable of binding GC-rich sequences, have emerged as critical regulators of important functions all over the body. They are characterised by a highly conserved C-terminal DNA-binding motif containing three C2H2 zinc-finger domains, with variable N-terminal regulatory domains. Currently, there are 17 KLFs annotated in the human genome. In spite of their structural similarity to one another, the genes encoding different KLFs are scattered all over the genome. By virtue of their ability to activate and/or repress the expression of a large number of genes, KLFs regulate a diverse array of developmental events and cellular processes, such as erythropoiesis, cardiac remodelling, adipogenesis, maintenance of stem cells, epithelial barrier formation, control of cell proliferation and neoplasia, flow-mediated endothelial gene expression, skeletal and smooth muscle development, gluconeogenesis, monocyte activation, intestinal and conjunctival goblet cell development, retinal neuronal regeneration and neonatal lung development. Characteristic features, nomenclature, evolution and functional diversities of the human KLFs are reviewed here.

  17. Environmental sensing by mature B cells is controlled by the transcription factors PU.1 and SpiB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Simon N; Tellier, Julie; Liao, Yang; Trezise, Stephanie; Light, Amanda; O'Donnell, Kristy; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Shi, Wei; Tarlinton, David M; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-11-10

    Humoral immunity requires B cells to respond to multiple stimuli, including antigen, membrane and soluble ligands, and microbial products. Ets family transcription factors regulate many aspects of haematopoiesis, although their functions in humoral immunity are difficult to decipher as a result of redundancy between the family members. Here we show that mice lacking both PU.1 and SpiB in mature B cells do not generate germinal centers and high-affinity antibody after protein immunization. PU.1 and SpiB double-deficient B cells have a survival defect after engagement of CD40 or Toll-like receptors (TLR), despite paradoxically enhanced plasma cell differentiation. PU.1 and SpiB regulate the expression of many components of the B cell receptor signaling pathway and the receptors for CD40L, BAFF and TLR ligands. Thus, PU.1 and SpiB enable B cells to appropriately respond to environmental cues.

  18. Factors controlling nanoparticle pharmacokinetics: an integrated analysis and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, S M; Hunter, A C; Andresen, T L

    2012-01-01

    Intravenously injected nanoparticulate drug carriers provide a wide range of unique opportunities for site-specific targeting of therapeutic agents to many areas within the vasculature and beyond. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these carriers are controlled by a complex array of interrelated core and interfacial physicochemical and biological factors. Pertinent to realizing therapeutic goals, definitive maps that establish the interdependency of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface characteristics in relation to interfacial forces, biodistribution, controlled drug release, excretion, and adverse effects must be outlined. These concepts are critically evaluated and an integrated perspective is provided on the basis of the recent application of nanoscience approaches to nanocarrier design and engineering. The future of this exciting field is bright; some regulatory-approved products are already on the market and many are in late-phase clinical trials. With concomitant advances in extensive computational knowledge of the genomics and epigenomics of interindividual variations in drug responses, the boundaries toward development of personalized nanomedicines can be pushed further.

  19. Power factor improvement in three-phase networks with unbalanced inductive loads using the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Cunţan, C. D.; Rob, R. O. S.; Popa, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of a power factor with capacitors banks, without series coils, used for improving power factor for a three-phase and single-phase inductive loads. In the experimental measurements, to improve the power factor, the Roederstein ESTAmat RPR power factor controller can command up to twelve capacitors banks, while experimenting using only six capacitors banks. Six delta capacitors banks with approximately equal reactive powers were used for experimentation. The experimental measurements were carried out with a three-phase power quality analyser which worked in three cases: a case without a controller with all capacitors banks permanently parallel connected with network, and two other cases with power factor controller (one with setting power factor at 0.92 and the other one at 1). When performing experiments with the power factor controller, a current transformer was used to measure the current on one phase (at a more charged or less loaded phase).

  20. Wide-field time-resolved luminescence imaging and spectroscopy to decipher obliterated documents in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mototsugu; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Akao, Yoshinori; Higashikawa, Yoshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    We applied a wide-field time-resolved luminescence (TRL) method with a pulsed laser and a gated intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) for deciphering obliterated documents for use in forensic science. The TRL method can nondestructively measure the dynamics of luminescence, including fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes, which prove to be useful parameters for image detection. First, we measured the TRL spectra of four brands of black porous-tip pen inks on paper to estimate their luminescence lifetimes. Next, we acquired the TRL images of 12 obliterated documents at various delay times and gate times of the ICCD. The obliterated contents were revealed in the TRL images because of the difference in the luminescence lifetimes of the inks. This method requires no pretreatment, is nondestructive, and has the advantage of wide-field imaging, which makes it is easy to control the gate timing. This demonstration proves that TRL imaging and spectroscopy are powerful tools for forensic document examination.

  1. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Fluxes in Groundwater in Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L.; Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Predictions of effects of land use changes on water quality require identification of the relative importance of geochemical and hydrologic factors. To understand the factors controlling the transport of nitrogen in groundwater, vertical fluxes of water and solutes were estimated for 13 aquifers in agricultural areas located in California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin. The aquifers are overlain by unsaturated zones with thicknesses ranging from 2.5 to 100 m. Precipitation ranges from 19 to 132 cm/yr and irrigation ranges from 0 to 120 cm/yr. Main crop types include corn, soybeans, forage, wheat, and cotton. A 1-dimensional mathematical model was developed to estimate vertical N transport in response to N inputs on the land surface from chemical fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition. Simulated vertical profiles of O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, Cl- and atmospheric age tracers were matched to observations by adjusting parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, N leaching ratio (defined as leaching fraction of N reaching water table of N input at land surface), Cl- leaching ratio, O2 reduction rate and denitrification rate. Results indicated that vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table were affected by both geochemical and physical factors. High vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table are associated with high N input at the land surface. Values of Cl- leaching ratios were less than 1 (0.42 to 1) likely as a result of runoff and exported harvested crops. N leaching ratios were lower (0.1 to 0.6), consistent with additional N losses such as denitrification and volatilization. The sites with high leaching ratios for both N and Cl tended to be those with high recharge rates and low ET loss, defined as the fraction of applied water lost to ET. Modeled zero-order denitrification rates in the saturated zone varied within an order of magnitude with a maximum rate of 1.6 mg

  2. Deciphering the acylation pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Reinés

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria may modify their surface to evade the host innate immune response. Yersinia enterocolitica modulates its lipopolysaccharide (LPS lipid A structure, and the key regulatory signal is temperature. At 21°C, lipid A is hexa-acylated and may be modified with aminoarabinose or palmitate. At 37°C, Y. enterocolitica expresses a tetra-acylated lipid A consistent with the 3'-O-deacylation of the molecule. In this work, by combining genetic and mass spectrometric analysis, we establish that Y. enterocolitica encodes a lipid A deacylase, LpxR, responsible for the lipid A structure observed at 37°C. Western blot analyses indicate that LpxR exhibits latency at 21°C, deacylation of lipid A is not observed despite the expression of LpxR in the membrane. Aminoarabinose-modified lipid A is involved in the latency. 3-D modelling, docking and site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that LpxR D31 reduces the active site cavity volume so that aminoarabinose containing Kdo(2-lipid A cannot be accommodated and, therefore, not deacylated. Our data revealed that the expression of lpxR is negatively controlled by RovA and PhoPQ which are necessary for the lipid A modification with aminoarabinose. Next, we investigated the role of lipid A structural plasticity conferred by LpxR on the expression/function of Y. enterocolitica virulence factors. We present evidence that motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells were reduced in the lpxR mutant grown at 21°C. Mechanistically, our data revealed that the expressions of flhDC and rovA, regulators controlling the flagellar regulon and invasin respectively, were down-regulated in the mutant. In contrast, the levels of the virulence plasmid (pYV-encoded virulence factors Yops and YadA were not affected in the lpxR mutant. Finally, we establish that the low inflammatory response associated to Y. enterocolitica infections is the sum of the anti-inflammatory action exerted by pYV-encoded YopP and the

  3. Deciphering the acylation pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinés, Mar; Llobet, Enrique; Dahlström, Käthe M; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Llompart, Catalina M; Torrecabota, Nuria; Salminen, Tiina A; Bengoechea, José A

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may modify their surface to evade the host innate immune response. Yersinia enterocolitica modulates its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lipid A structure, and the key regulatory signal is temperature. At 21°C, lipid A is hexa-acylated and may be modified with aminoarabinose or palmitate. At 37°C, Y. enterocolitica expresses a tetra-acylated lipid A consistent with the 3'-O-deacylation of the molecule. In this work, by combining genetic and mass spectrometric analysis, we establish that Y. enterocolitica encodes a lipid A deacylase, LpxR, responsible for the lipid A structure observed at 37°C. Western blot analyses indicate that LpxR exhibits latency at 21°C, deacylation of lipid A is not observed despite the expression of LpxR in the membrane. Aminoarabinose-modified lipid A is involved in the latency. 3-D modelling, docking and site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that LpxR D31 reduces the active site cavity volume so that aminoarabinose containing Kdo(2)-lipid A cannot be accommodated and, therefore, not deacylated. Our data revealed that the expression of lpxR is negatively controlled by RovA and PhoPQ which are necessary for the lipid A modification with aminoarabinose. Next, we investigated the role of lipid A structural plasticity conferred by LpxR on the expression/function of Y. enterocolitica virulence factors. We present evidence that motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells were reduced in the lpxR mutant grown at 21°C. Mechanistically, our data revealed that the expressions of flhDC and rovA, regulators controlling the flagellar regulon and invasin respectively, were down-regulated in the mutant. In contrast, the levels of the virulence plasmid (pYV)-encoded virulence factors Yops and YadA were not affected in the lpxR mutant. Finally, we establish that the low inflammatory response associated to Y. enterocolitica infections is the sum of the anti-inflammatory action exerted by pYV-encoded YopP and the reduced activation of

  4. Design of automatic power factor control system | Yanev | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintenance of the proper power factor is a very important matter for the industry and for the economy of any country. A study of the power factor values for a number of industrial plants in Botswana shows that they operate at power-factors lower than the optimal values. If a plant power factor is different from its optimal value, ...

  5. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-09-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  6. The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  7. Control of trichome branching by Chromatin Assembly Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Lars

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin dynamics and stability are both required to control normal development of multicellular organisms. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is a histone chaperone that facilitates chromatin formation and the maintenance of specific chromatin states. In plants and animals CAF-1 is essential for normal development, but it is poorly understood which developmental pathways require CAF-1 function. Results Mutations in all three CAF-1 subunits affect Arabidopsis trichome morphology and lack of CAF-1 function results in formation of trichomes with supernumerary branches. This phenotype can be partially alleviated by external sucrose. In contrast, other aspects of the CAF-1 mutant phenotype, such as defective meristem function and organ formation, are aggravated by external sucrose. Double mutant analyses revealed epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and stichel, but non-epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and glabra3 and kaktus. In addition, mutations in CAF-1 could partly suppress the strong overbranching and polyploidization phenotype of kaktus mutants. Conclusion CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome development together with STICHEL in an endoreduplication-independent pathway. This function of CAF-1 can be partially substituted by application of exogenous sucrose. Finally, CAF-1 is also needed for the high degree of endoreduplication in kaktus mutants and thus for the realization of kaktus' extreme overbranching phenotype.

  8. Factors controlling crystallization of miserite glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Fenik K; Moorehead, Robert; van Noort, Richard; Pollington, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a range of variables affecting the synthesis of a miserite glass-ceramic (GC). Miserite glass was synthesized by the melt quench technique. The crystallization kinetics of the glass were determined using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The glasses were ground with dry ball-milling and then sieved to different particle sizes prior to sintering. These particle sizes were submitted to heat treatment regimes in a high temperature furnace to form the GC. The crystal phases of the GC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the microstructure of the cerammed glass. XRD analysis confirmed that the predominant crystalline phase of the GC was miserite along with a minor crystalline phase of cristobalite only when the particle size is <20 μm and the heat treatment at 1000°C was carried out for 4h and slowly cooled at the furnace rate. For larger particle sizes and faster cooling rates, a pseudowollastonite crystalline phase was produced. Short sintering times produced either a pseudowollastonite or xonotolite crystalline phase. The current study has shown that particle size and heat treatment schedules are major factors in controlling the synthesis of miserite GC. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.R.; Lang, N.L.; Cheung, K.H.M.; Spanoudaki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the principal method of stabilising biosolids from urban wastewater treatment in the UK, and it also has application for the treatment of other types of biowaste. Increasing awareness of the potential risks to human and animal health from environmental sources of pathogens has focused attention on the efficacy of waste treatment processes at destroying pathogenic microorganisms in biowastes recycled to agricultural land. The degree of disinfection achieved by a particular anaerobic digester is influenced by a variety of interacting operational variables and conditions, which can often deviate from the ideal. Experimental investigations demonstrate that Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are not damaged by mesophilic temperatures, whereas rapid inactivation occurs by thermophilic digestion. A hydraulic, biokinetic and thermodynamic model of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion showed that a 2 log 10 reduction in E. coli (the minimum removal required for agricultural use of conventionally treated biosolids) is likely to challenge most conventional mesophilic digesters, unless strict maintenance and management practices are adopted to minimise dead zones and by-pass flow. Efficient mixing and organic matter stabilisation are the main factors controlling the rate of inactivation under mesophilic conditions and not a direct effect of temperature per se on pathogenic organisms

  10. 76 FR 35130 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... the Control Room Management/Human Factors regulations in order to realize the safety benefits sooner... FR 5536). By this amendment to the Control Room Management/Human Factors (CRM) rule, an operator must...

  11. Deciphering the genomic architecture of the stickleback brain with a novel multilocus gene-mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zitong; Guo, Baocheng; Yang, Jing; Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Balázs, Gergely; Shikano, Takahito; Calboli, Federico C F; Merilä, Juha

    2017-03-01

    Quantitative traits important to organismal function and fitness, such as brain size, are presumably controlled by many small-effect loci. Deciphering the genetic architecture of such traits with traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping methods is challenging. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of brain size (and the size of five different brain parts) in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) with the aid of novel multilocus QTL-mapping approaches based on a de-biased LASSO method. Apart from having more statistical power to detect QTL and reduced rate of false positives than conventional QTL-mapping approaches, the developed methods can handle large marker panels and provide estimates of genomic heritability. Single-locus analyses of an F 2 interpopulation cross with 239 individuals and 15 198, fully informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) uncovered 79 QTL associated with variation in stickleback brain size traits. Many of these loci were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other, and consequently, a multilocus mapping of individual SNPs, accounting for LD structure in the data, recovered only four significant QTL. However, a multilocus mapping of SNPs grouped by linkage group (LG) identified 14 LGs (1-6 depending on the trait) that influence variation in brain traits. For instance, 17.6% of the variation in relative brain size was explainable by cumulative effects of SNPs distributed over six LGs, whereas 42% of the variation was accounted for by all 21 LGs. Hence, the results suggest that variation in stickleback brain traits is influenced by many small-effect loci. Apart from suggesting moderately heritable (h 2  ≈ 0.15-0.42) multifactorial genetic architecture of brain traits, the results highlight the challenges in identifying the loci contributing to variation in quantitative traits. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that the novel QTL-mapping approach developed here has distinctive advantages

  12. Comprehensive proteome profiling in Aedes albopictus to decipher Wolbachia-arbovirus interference phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucereau, Yoann; Valiente Moro, Claire; Dieryckx, Cindy; Dupuy, Jean-William; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Girard, Vincent; Potier, Patrick; Mavingui, Patrick

    2017-08-18

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of arboviruses that cause severe diseases in humans such as Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika fevers. The vector competence of Ae. albopictus varies depending on the mosquito population involved and the virus transmitted. Wolbachia infection status in believed to be among key elements that determine viral transmission efficiency. Little is known about the cellular functions mobilized in Ae. albopictus during co-infection by Wolbachia and a given arbovirus. To decipher this tripartite interaction at the molecular level, we performed a proteome analysis in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells mono-infected by Wolbachia wAlbB strain or Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and bi-infected. We first confirmed significant inhibition of CHIKV by Wolbachia. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by nano liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 600 unique differentially expressed proteins mostly related to glycolysis, translation and protein metabolism. Wolbachia infection had greater impact on cellular functions than CHIKV infection, inducing either up or down-regulation of proteins associated with metabolic processes such as glycolysis and ATP metabolism, or structural glycoproteins and capsid proteins in the case of bi-infection with CHIKV. CHIKV infection inhibited expression of proteins linked with the processes of transcription, translation, lipid storage and miRNA pathways. The results of our proteome profiling have provided new insights into the molecular pathways involved in tripartite Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction and may help defining targets for the better implementation of Wolbachia-based strategies for disease transmission control.

  13. Deciphering defective amelogenesis using in vitro culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinawati, Dian Yosi; Miyoshi, Keiko; Tanimura, Ayako; Horiguchi, Taigo; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2018-04-01

    The conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture system is frequently used to analyze the gene expression with or without extracellular signals. However, the cells derived from primary culture and cell lines frequently deviate the gene expression profile compared to the corresponding in vivo samples, which sometimes misleads the actual gene regulation in vivo. To overcome this gap, we developed the comparative 2D and 3D in vitro culture systems and applied them to the genetic study of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) as a model. Recently, we found specificity protein 6 (Sp6) mutation in an autosomal-recessive AI rat that was previously named AMI. We constructed 3D structure of ARE-B30 cells (AMI-derived rat dental epithelial cells) or G5 (control wild type cells) combined with RPC-C2A cells (rat pulp cell line) separated by the collagen membrane, while in 2D structure, ARE-B30 or G5 was cultured with or without the collagen membrane. Comparative analysis of amelogenesis-related gene expression in ARE-B30 and G5 using our 2D and 3D in vitro systems revealed distinct expression profiles, showing the causative outcomes. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and follistatin were reciprocally expressed in G5, but not in ARE-B30 cells. All-or-none expression of amelotin, kallikrein-related peptidase 4, and nerve growth factor receptor was observed in both cell types. In conclusion, our in vitro culture systems detected the phenotypical differences in the expression of the stage-specific amelogenesis-related genes. Parallel analysis with 2D and 3D culture systems may provide a platform to understand the molecular basis for defective amelogenesis caused by Sp6 mutation. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human factors measurement for future air traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan-Fox, Janice; Sankey, Michael J; Canty, James M

    2009-10-01

    This article provides a critical review of research pertaining to the measurement of human factors (HF) issues in current and future air traffic control (ATC). Growing worldwide air traffic demands call for a radical departure from current ATC systems. Future systems will have a fundamental impact on the roles and responsibilities of ATC officers (ATCOs). Valid and reliable methods of assessing HF issues associated with these changes, such as a potential increase (or decrease) in workload, are of utmost importance for advancing theory and for designing systems, procedures, and training. We outline major aviation changes and how these relate to five key HF issues in ATC. Measures are outlined, compared, and evaluated and are followed by guidelines for assessing these issues in the ATC domain. Recommendations for future research are presented. A review of the literature suggests that situational awareness and workload have been widely researched and assessed using a variety of measures, but researchers have neglected the areas of trust, stress, and boredom. We make recommendations for use of particular measures and the construction of new measures. It is predicted that, given the changing role of ATCOs and profound future airspace requirements and configurations, issues of stress, trust, and boredom will become more significant. Researchers should develop and/or refine existing measures of all five key HF issues to assess their impact on ATCO performance. Furthermore, these issues should be considered in a holistic manner. The current article provides an evaluation of research and measures used in HF research on ATC that will aid research and ATC measurement.

  15. What factors control the size of an eruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-04-01

    pressure so as to drive out magma for a much longer time during an eruption than is otherwise possible. As a consequence a much higher proportion of the magma in the chamber is driven or squeezed out during an eruption associated with caldera or graben subsidence than is possible during an ordinary poroelastic chamber behaviour. It follows that the volume of eruptive materials may approach the total volume of the chamber resulting in a large eruption. Here a large eruption is thus the consequence—not the cause—of the subsidence of the caldera/graben block. Thus, once the factors controlling large-scale subsidence of a caldera/graben block are established during a particular unrest/rifting episode, primarily using geodetic and seismic data, the probability of a large eruption can be assessed and used for reliable forecasting. Gudmundsson, A., 2015. Collapse-driven large eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 304, 1-10. Gudmundsson, A., 2016. The mechanics of large volcanic eruptions. Earth-Science Reviews, 163, 72-93.

  16. Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-12

    Jul 12, 2011 ... Therapeutic goals used to define risk or poor control were values adopted by expert groups such as ... medical wards in urban healthcare centers showed that .... *Status of control was based on the mean observed value.

  17. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-01-01

    Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to sta...

  18. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rakesh; Biedenharn, Kelly R; Fedor, Jennifer M; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposu...

  19. CubeSat Form Factor Thermal Control Louvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allison L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Thermal control louvers for CubeSats or small spacecraft may include a plurality of springs attached to a back panel of the thermal control louvers. The thermal control louvers may also include a front panel, which includes at least two end panels interlocked with one or more middle panels. The front panel may secure the springs, shafts, and flaps to the back panel.

  20. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  1. Factors controlling the initiation of Snowball Earth events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic glaciations tropical continents were covered by active glaciers that extended down to sea level. To explain these glaciers, the Snowball Earth hypothesis assumes that oceans were completely sea-ice covered during these glaciation, but there is an ongoing debate whether or not some regions of the tropical oceans remained open. In this talk, I will describe past and ongoing climate modelling activities with the comprehensive coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM that identify and compare factors that control the initiation of Snowball Earth events. I first show that shifting the continents from their present-day location to their Marinoan (635 My BP) low-latitude location increases the planetary albedo, cools the climate, and thereby allows Snowball Earth initiation at higher levels of total solar irradiance and atmospheric CO2. I then present simulations with successively lowered bare sea-ice albedo, disabled sea-ice dynamics, and switched-off ocean heat transport. These simulations show that both lowering the bare sea-ice albedo and disabling sea-ice dynamics increase the critical sea-ice cover in ECHAM5/MPI-OM, but sea-ice dynamics due to strong equatorward sea-ice transport have a much larger influence on the critical CO2. Disabling sea-ice transport allows a state with sea-ice margin at 10 deg latitude by virtue of the Jormungand mechanism. The accumulation of snow on land, in combination with tropical land temperatures below or close to freezing, suggests that tropical land glaciers could easily form in such a state. However, in contrast to aquaplanet simulations without ocean heat transport, there is no sign of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. Ocean heat transport is not responsible for the lack of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. By relating the above findings to previous studies, I will outline promising future avenues of research on the initiation of Snowball Earth events. In particular, an

  2. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  3. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Biedenharn, Kelly R; Fedor, Jennifer M; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-07-16

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposures, and others can have substantial effects on fertility; lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and alcohol and caffeine consumption can negatively influence fertility while others such as preventative care may be beneficial. The present literature review encompasses multiple lifestyle factors and places infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males and females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest and amount of research in this field have made it evident that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility.

  4. Factors controlling floc settling velocity along a longitudinal estuarine transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A.J.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 147 km longitudinal transect of flocculated cohesive sediment properties in San Francisco Bay (SFB) was conducted on June 17th, 2008. Our aim was to determine the factors that control floc settling velocity along the longitudinal axis of the estuary. The INSSEV-LF video system was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a distance of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 μm to 639 μm and settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm·s− 1 and 15.8 mm·s− 1 during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2–0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. The individual D–Ws–floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both muddy cohesive sediment and mixed sediments flocs. Mass-weighted population mean settling velocity (Wsmass) ranged from 0.5 mm·s− 1 to 10 mm·s− 1. The macrofloc and microfloc (demarcation at 160 μm) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Wsmean). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solid concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60–100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. The transect took eleven hours to complete and was not fully synoptic. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal variability. The best single predictor of settling velocity was water velocity 39 min prior to sampling, not suspended-sediment concentration or salinity. Resuspension and settling lags are likely responsible for the lagged response of settling velocity to water velocity. The distribution of

  5. Environmental exogenous factors and facial dermatitis: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Contact factors play an important role in facial dermatitis. Aggravation by sunlight exposure, ingestion of spicy food, or alcohol are more reported in facial dermatitis compared with nonfacial dermatitis.

  6. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHTER A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  7. Control of erythropoiesis by erythropoietin and stem cell factor: a novel role for Bruton's tyrosine kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Lindern, Marieke; Schmidt, Uwe; Beug, Hartmut

    2004-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) and stem cell factor (SCF) are essential factors in the control of survival, expansion and differentiation of erythroid progenitors. Upon activation, their receptors, the EpoR and c-Kit, initiate multiple signalling pathways that control many cellular processes. To control

  8. Genetic analyses for deciphering the status and role of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    found to encode legume-specific transcription factor that has a putative nuclear ... Presently, India is the fifth largest soybean producing country after US, Brazil, ..... ably the reason for Bragg (MG VII), Lee (MG VI), Clark. 63 (MG IV), improved ...

  9. CubeSat Form Factor Thermal Control Louvers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As small spacecraft become a part of NASA’s repertoire of missions, one reoccurring theme is an increased need for thermal control as power budgets increase and...

  10. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. ... The adherence to asthma treatment was rated using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A ..... in an outpatient setting.

  11. Flight to the future : human factors in air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The nation's air traffic control system is responsible for managing a complex : mixture of air traffic from commercial, general, corporate, and military : aviation. Despite a strong safety record, the system does suffer occasional : serious disruptio...

  12. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  13. Use of fission track for deciphering the dissolution mechanism of silicates glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.; Brousse, C.

    1985-09-01

    Polished sections of silicate glasses containing latent or pre-etched fission tracks have been subjected to corrosion in deionized water or NaCl brines at 20, 50 and 100 0 C. The evolution of glass surface helps deciphering among reported dissolution models. We show that ion-exchange is dominant in simple glasses while in complex ones, dissolution involves several steps including an in-situ transformation of the pristine material and a reprecipitation of dissolved species

  14. Factors influencing the control strategy of hybrid drive of urban public transport buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, Dalibor; Mruzek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of each drives is dependent on many factors. Hybrid drives and specially the drives of urban public transport may be affected by other factors given by transport infrastructure or operational conditions. These factors condition the suitable configuration of the individual elements of hybrid drive and the establishment of good control strategy of such drive. The study of influencing factors of the control strategy is the aim of this paper. (full text)

  15. Control of cellulose biosynthesis by overexpression of a transcription factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyung-Hwan; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Won-Chan; Kim; , Joo-Yeol

    2017-05-16

    The invention relates to the over-expression of a transcription factor selected from the group consisting of MYB46, HAM1, HAM2, MYB112, WRKY11, ERF6, and any combination thereof in a plant, which can modulate and thereby modulating the cellulose content of the plant.

  16. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  17. Molecular Factors Controlling Photosynthetic Light Harvesting by Carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Frank, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2010), s. 1125-1134 ISSN 0001-4842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * energy transfer * photosynthesis * light-harvesting Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 21.840, year: 2010

  18. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly ...

  19. Risk factors for measles among adults in Tianjin, China: Who should be controls in a case-control study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Abram L; Boulton, Matthew L; Gillespie, Brenda W; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Yaxing; Carlson, Bradley F; Luo, Xiaoyan; Montgomery, JoLynn P; Wang, Xiexiu

    2017-01-01

    Control groups in previous case-control studies of vaccine-preventable diseases have included people immune to disease. This study examines risk factors for measles acquisition among adults 20 to 49 years of age in Tianjin, China, and compares findings using measles IgG antibody-negative controls to all controls, both IgG-negative and IgG-positive. Measles cases were sampled from a disease registry, and controls were enrolled from community registries in Tianjin, China, 2011-2015. Through a best subsets selection procedure, we compared which variables were selected at different model sizes when using IgG-negative controls or all controls. We entered risk factors for measles in two separate logistic regression models: one with measles IgG-negative controls and the other with all controls. The study included 384 measles cases and 1,596 community controls (194 IgG-negative). Visiting a hospital was an important risk factor. For specialty hospitals, the odds ratio (OR) was 4.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28, 16.03) using IgG-negative controls, and OR = 5.27 (95% CI: 2.73, 10.18) using all controls. Variables, such as age or length of time in Tianjin, were differentially selected depending on the control group. Individuals living in Tianjin ≤3 years had 2.87 (95% CI: 1.46, 5.66) times greater odds of measles case status compared to all controls, but this relationship was not apparent for IgG-negative controls. We recommend that case-control studies examining risk factors for infectious diseases, particularly in the context of transmission dynamics, consider antibody-negative controls as the gold standard.

  20. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: What electronic medical records tell us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Catalán-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the Catalan population attended at primary care centers. About two thirds of individuals with hypertension or DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low.

  1. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher resist...

  2. Hypertension control and other cardiovascular risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their age, sex weight, height, blood pressure, fasting capillary blood glucose, lipid and renal profiles, hypertension and diabetes therapy were ascertained. Results: Hypertension prevalence was 54.7%. Treatment and control rates of hypertension were 81.7% and 34% respectively. Hypertensive patients were older, more ...

  3. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose a different form of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health problems from birth ...

  4. Control of Risk Factors For Nephropathy Among Nigerian Outpatients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    54.7%) had diabetes between 1 and 5 years, and 95% were on antidiabetic drugs, most commonly both a ... (3.1%) had the combination of good glycaemic control, good blood pressure ... and the average of the three readings was used as an.

  5. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  6. Correlation analysis of the physiological factors controlling fundamental voice frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J E

    1978-01-01

    A technique has been developed to obtain a quantitative measure of correlation between electromyographic (EMG) activity of various laryngeal muscles, subglottal air pressure, and the fundamental frequency of vibration of the vocal folds (Fo). Data were collected and analyzed on one subject, a native speaker of American English. The results show that an analysis of this type can provide a useful measure of correlation between the physiological and acoustical events in speech and, furthermore, can yield detailed insights into the organization and nature of the speech production process. In particular, based on these results, a model is suggested of Fo control involving laryngeal state functions that seems to agree with present knowledge of laryngeal control and experimental evidence.

  7. Engineering human factors into the Westinghouse advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    By coupling the work of the Riso Laboratory in Denmark on human behaviour with new digital computation and display technology, Westinghouse has developed a totally new control room design. This design features a separate, co-ordinated work station to support the systems management role in decision making, as well as robust alarm and display systems. This coupling of the functional and physical data presentation is now being implemented in test facilities. (author)

  8. Deciphering the Developmental Dynamics of the Mouse Liver Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedha S Gunewardena

    Full Text Available During development, liver undergoes a rapid transition from a hematopoietic organ to a major organ for drug metabolism and nutrient homeostasis. However, little is known on a transcriptome level of the genes and RNA-splicing variants that are differentially regulated with age, and which up-stream regulators orchestrate age-specific biological functions in liver. We used RNA-Seq to interrogate the developmental dynamics of the liver transcriptome in mice at 12 ages from late embryonic stage (2-days before birth to maturity (60-days after birth. Among 21,889 unique NCBI RefSeq-annotated genes, 9,641 were significantly expressed in at least one age, 7,289 were differently regulated with age, and 859 had multiple (> = 2 RNA splicing-variants. Factor analysis showed that the dynamics of hepatic genes fall into six distinct groups based on their temporal expression. The average expression of cytokines, ion channels, kinases, phosphatases, transcription regulators and translation regulators decreased with age, whereas the average expression of peptidases, enzymes and transmembrane receptors increased with age. The average expression of growth factors peak between Day-3 and Day-10, and decrease thereafter. We identified critical biological functions, upstream regulators, and putative transcription modules that seem to govern age-specific gene expression. We also observed differential ontogenic expression of known splicing variants of certain genes, and 1,455 novel splicing isoform candidates. In conclusion, the hepatic ontogeny of the transcriptome ontogeny has unveiled critical networks and up-stream regulators that orchestrate age-specific biological functions in liver, and suggest that age contributes to the complexity of the alternative splicing landscape of the hepatic transcriptome.

  9. Factors Controlling the Pharmacokinetics, Biodistribution and Intratumoral Penetration of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernsting, Mark J.; Murakami, Mami; Roy, Aniruddha; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle drug delivery to the tumor is impacted by multiple factors: nanoparticles must evade clearance by renal filtration and the reticuloendothelial system, extravasate through the enlarged endothelial gaps in tumors, penetrate through dense stroma in the tumor microenvironment to reach the tumor cells, remain in the tumor tissue for a prolonged period of time, and finally release the active agent to induce pharmacological effect. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as size, shape, surface charge, surface chemistry (PEGylation, ligand conjugation) and composition affect the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, intratumoral penetration and tumor bioavailability. On the other hand, tumor biology (blood flow, perfusion, permeability, interstitial fluid pressure and stroma content) and patient characteristics (age, gender, tumor type, tumor location, body composition and prior treatments) also have impact on drug delivery by nanoparticles. It is now believed that both nanoparticles and the tumor microenvironment have to be optimized or adjusted for optimal delivery. This review provides a comprehensive summary of how these nanoparticle and biological factors impact nanoparticle delivery to tumors, with discussion on how the tumor microenvironment can be adjusted and how patients can be stratified by imaging methods to receive the maximal benefit of nanomedicine. Perspectives and future directions are also provided. PMID:24075927

  10. Factors Controlling Methane in Arctic Lakes of Southwest Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northington, Robert M; Saros, Jasmine E

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed 15 lakes during the growing season of 2014 in Arctic lakes of southwest Greenland to determine which factors influence methane concentrations in these systems. Methane averaged 2.5 μmol L-1 in lakes, but varied a great deal across the landscape with lakes on older landscapes farther from the ice sheet margin having some of the highest values of methane reported in lakes in the northern hemisphere (125 μmol L-1). The most important factors influencing methane in Greenland lakes included ionic composition (SO4, Na, Cl) and chlorophyll a in the water column. DOC concentrations were also related to methane, but the short length of the study likely underestimated the influence and timing of DOC on methane concentrations in the region. Atmospheric methane concentrations are increasing globally, with freshwater ecosystems in northern latitudes continuing to serve as potentially large sources in the future. Much less is known about how freshwater lakes in Greenland fit in the global methane budget compared to other, more well-studied areas of the Arctic, hence our work provides essential data for a more complete view of this rapidly changing region.

  11. Idiopathic epistaxis and meteorological factors: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelavic, B; Majstorovic, Z; Kordić, M; Leventić, M; Grgić, M V; Baudoin, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the occurrence of idiopathic epistaxis and daily values of air pressure, temperature, and humidity. We also investigated whether biometeorological forecasts should be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis. We analyzed consecutive idiopathic epistaxis events over a 3-year period. Patients were included if they had been in the municipality of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina at least 24 hours before the epistaxis occurrence. The monthly variation in epistaxis events was determined. Epistaxis days (Days "0", 0 = day with epistaxis occurrence) and selected nonepistaxis days (Days "-1", -1 = each first single day without epistaxis prior to Day 0) were compared according to daily values of mean, minimum, and maximum temperature; diurnal temperature range; minimum and maximum atmospheric pressure; diurnal pressure range; and mean relative humidity. The greatest and smallest percentage of epistaxis events occurred in the months of March and August, respectively. There were no significant differences between Days 0 and Days -1 with respect to the examined meteorological factors. In this region with a Mediterranean climate, we found a seasonal variation with an incidence peak during the spring transition months, but we did not identify any meteorological trigger factors for epistaxis. Thus, there is no need for biometeorological forecasts to be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis.

  12. Factores de riesgo para carcinoma basocelular: Estudio de casos-controles en Córdoba Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma: Case-control study in Cordoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ruiz Lascano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma basocelular es una enfermedad compleja. Su etiología es todavía poco clara y a pesar de su frecuencia hay pocos datos sobre factores de riesgo. Nosotros evaluamos factores de riesgo potenciales para carcinoma basocelular en una población de Córdoba (Argentina. Este estudio de casos y controles incluyó a 88 casos nuevos de carcinoma basocelular, y 88 controles pareados por sexo y edad. Los siguientes factores de riesgo fueron significativos en el análisis multivariado: fototipos I, II y III, exposición solar recreativa alta después de los 20 años de edad, exposición solar alta en vacaciones en la playa y la presencia de queratosis actínicas.Basal cell carcinoma is undoubtedly a complex disease. Its etiology is still unclear and despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on its risk factors. We assessed potential risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a population from Córdoba (Argentina. This case-control study involved 88 newly diagnosed cases and 88 controls, matched by age and sex. The following risk factors were significant in the multivariate analysis: skin type I-II-III, high recreational sun exposure after 20 years of age, high sun exposure for beach holidays and actinic keratosis.

  13. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  14. Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations: Final Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of the Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations project was to develop procedures that could be used by liquid pipeline operators to assess and manage the human factors risks in their control rooms that may adv...

  15. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was

  16. Scaffolds for Controlled Release of Cartilage Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morille, Marie; Venier-Julienne, Marie-Claire; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cell-based therapies using adult stem cells have attracted considerable interest in regenerative medicine. A tissue-engineered construct for cartilage repair should provide a support for the cell and allow sustained in situ delivery of bioactive factors capable of inducing cell differentiation into chondrocytes. Pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs), made of biodegradable and biocompatible poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA), are a unique system which combines these properties in an adaptable and simple microdevice. This device relies on nanoprecipitation of proteins encapsulated in polymeric microspheres with a solid in oil in water emulsion-solvent evaporation process, and their subsequent coating with extracellular matrix protein molecules. Here, we describe their preparation process, and some of their characterization methods for an application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  17. Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPARγ in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thiazolidinedione (TZD therapy in type II diabetic patients has proven useful in the lowering of blood glucose levels. However, recent investigations have shown that there may be potential health concerns associated, including the risk of developing bladder cancer as well as complications in the cardiovasculature. TZDs are ligands for the nuclear receptor PPARγ, and activation causes lipid uptake and insulin sensitization, both of which are critical processes for diabetic patients whose bodies are unable to utilize insulin effectively. Several studies have shown that PPARγ/TZDs decrease IGF-1 levels and, thus, reduce cancer growth in carcinomas such as the pancreas, colon, liver, and prostate. However, other studies have shed light on the potential of the receptor as a biomarker for uroepithelial carcinomas, particularly due to its stimulatory effect on migration of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, PPARγ may provide the tumor-promoting microenvironment by de novo synthesis of nutrients that are needed for bladder cancer development. In this review, we closely examine the TZD class of drugs and their effects on PPARγ in patient studies along with additional molecular factors that are positive modulators, such as protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, which may have considerable implications for bladder cancer therapy.

  18. Embryology meets molecular biology: Deciphering the apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin

    2017-09-15

    More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb. Dr. Saunders continued to lead the limb field for the next fifty years, not just through his own work, but also by inspiring the next generation of researchers through his infectious love of science. Together, he and those who followed ushered in the discovery of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the AER molecule. The seamless marriage of embryology and molecular biology that led to the decoding of the AER serves as a shining example of how discoveries are made for the rest of the developmental biology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deciphering Diversity Indices for a Better Understanding of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Ra; Shin, Jiwon; Guevarra, Robin; Lee, Jun Hyung; Kim, Doo Wan; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard

    2017-12-28

    The past decades have been a golden era during which great tasks were accomplished in the field of microbiology, including food microbiology. In the past, culture-dependent methods have been the primary choice to investigate bacterial diversity. However, using cultureindependent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes has greatly facilitated studies exploring the microbial compositions and dynamics associated with health and diseases. These culture-independent DNA-based studies generate large-scale data sets that describe the microbial composition of a certain niche. Consequently, understanding microbial diversity becomes of greater importance when investigating the composition, function, and dynamics of the microbiota associated with health and diseases. Even though there is no general agreement on which diversity index is the best to use, diversity indices have been used to compare the diversity among samples and between treatments with controls. Tools such as the Shannon- Weaver index and Simpson index can be used to describe population diversity in samples. The purpose of this review is to explain the principles of diversity indices, such as Shannon- Weaver and Simpson, to aid general microbiologists in better understanding bacterial communities. In this review, important questions concerning microbial diversity are addressed. Information from this review should facilitate evidence-based strategies to explore microbial communities.

  20. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  1. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  2. Factors controlling the regional distribution of vanadium in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although the ingestion of vanadium (V) in drinking water may have possible adverse health effects, there have been relatively few studies of V in groundwater. Given the importance of groundwater as a source of drinking water in many areas of the world, this study examines the potential sources and geochemical processes that control the distribution of V in groundwater on a regional scale. Potential sources of V to groundwater include dissolution of V rich rocks, and waste streams from industrial processes. Geochemical processes such as adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical transformations control V concentrations in groundwater. Based on thermodynamic data and laboratory studies, V concentrations are expected to be highest in samples collected from oxic and alkaline groundwater. However, the extent to which thermodynamic data and laboratory results apply to the actual distribution of V in groundwater is not well understood. More than 8400 groundwater samples collected in California were used in this study. Of these samples, high (> or = 50 μg/L) and moderate (25 to 49 μg/L) V concentrations were most frequently detected in regions where both source rock and favorable geochemical conditions occurred. The distribution of V concentrations in groundwater samples suggests that significant sources of V are mafic and andesitic rock. Anthropogenic activities do not appear to be a significant contributor of V to groundwater in this study. High V concentrations in groundwater samples analyzed in this study were almost always associated with oxic and alkaline groundwater conditions, which is consistent with predictions based on thermodynamic data.

  3. Deciphering the factors associated with the colonization of rice plants by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidyarani, Ngangom; Prasanna, Radha; Chawla, Gautam; Babu, Santosh; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    Cyanobacteria-rice plant interactions were analyzed using a hydroponics experiment. The activity of plant defense and pathogenesis-related enzymes, scanning electron microscopy, growth, nitrogen fixation (measured as ARA), and DNA fingerprinting assays proved useful in illustrating the nature of associations of cyanobacteria with rice plants. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of short filaments and coiled masses of filaments of cyanobacteria near the epidermis and cortex of roots and shoot tissues. Among the six cyanobacterial strains employed, Calothrix sp. (RPC1), Anabaena laxa (RPAN8), and Anabaena azollae (C16) were the best performing strains, in terms of colonization in roots and stem. These strains also enhanced nitrogen fixation and stimulated the activity of plant defense/cell wall-degrading enzymes. A significantly high correlation was also recorded between the elicited plant enzymes, growth, and ARA. DNA fingerprinting using highly iterated palindromic sequences (HIP-TG) further helped in proving the establishment of inoculated organisms in the roots/shoots of rice plants. This study illustrated that the colonization of cyanobacteria in the plant tissues is facilitated by increased elicitation of plant enzymes, leading to improved plant growth, nutrient mobilization, and enhanced plant fitness. Such strains can be promising candidates for developing "cyanobacteria colonized-nitrogen-fixing rice plants" in the future. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  5. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri; Rania Mohammed Abudraz; Sayed G. Rizvi; Yahya M. Al-Farsi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factor...

  6. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wenlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING MATERIAL STOCK CONTROL PRACTICE ON SELECTED CONSTRUCTION SITES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adafin, Johnson Kayode; Ayodele, Elijah Olusegun; Daramola, Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the stock control methods utilized by construction firms on construction sites with a view to assessing the factors affecting material stock control practice by construction firms as well as determining the impact of factors affecting material stock control on building project performance. Data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered on a number of construction professionals and technicians in some randomly selected building constructio...

  8. Factors controlling black carbon distribution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; Li, Yinrui; He, Cenlin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, including BC concentration in snow (BCsnow, ng g-1) and surface air (BCair, ng m-3), as well as emissions, dry deposition, and wet scavenging using the global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. We find that the model underestimates BCsnow in the Arctic by 40 % on average (median = 11.8 ng g-1). Natural gas flaring substantially increases total BC emissions in the Arctic (by ˜ 70 %). The flaring emissions lead to up to 49 % increases (0.1-8.5 ng g-1) in Arctic BCsnow, dramatically improving model comparison with observations (50 % reduction in discrepancy) near flaring source regions (the western side of the extreme north of Russia). Ample observations suggest that BC dry deposition velocities over snow and ice in current CTMs (0.03 cm s-1 in the GEOS-Chem) are too small. We apply the resistance-in-series method to compute a dry deposition velocity (vd) that varies with local meteorological and surface conditions. The resulting velocity is significantly larger and varies by a factor of 8 in the Arctic (0.03-0.24 cm s-1), which increases the fraction of dry to total BC deposition (16 to 25 %) yet leaves the total BC deposition and BCsnow in the Arctic unchanged. This is largely explained by the offsetting higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. Additionally, we account for the effect of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process in mixed-phase clouds, which releases BC particles from condensed phases (water drops and ice crystals) back to the interstitial air and thereby substantially reduces the scavenging efficiency of clouds for BC (by 43-76 % in the Arctic). The resulting BCsnow is up to 80 % higher, BC loading is considerably larger (from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2), and BC lifetime is markedly prolonged (from 9 to 16 days) in the Arctic. Overall, flaring emissions increase BCair in the Arctic (by ˜ 20 ng m-3), the updated vd more than halves BCair (by ˜ 20 ng m-3

  9. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    , such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion: Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more......Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m...

  10. Factors controlling the engraftment of transplanted dog bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwyk, W.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Hogeweg, B.; Zurcher, C.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1982-01-01

    The LD50 of total body irradiation (TBI) for the bone marrow (BM) syndrome and the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrme was determined in dogs as 3.7 Gy, and 8.5 Gy respectively. Five Gy TBI was adequate conditioning for BM cells of littermate donors identical for the major histocompatibility comples (MHC). The maximum tolerated TBI (about 7.5 Gy) caused more side effects than 5.0 Gy TBI and was insufficient for engraftment of realistic numbers of BM cells of MHC mismatched donors. In autologous and MHC matched transplants, the rateof hemopoietic recovery correlated with the number of BM cells given. Approximtely 2 x 10 7 autologous and 1 x 10 8 MHC identical BM cells.kg -1 were needed for radiation protection. Platelet recovery was significantly more rapid in allogeneic combinations in comparison to autologous transplants. Low numbers of autologous cryopreserved bone marrow cells were as effective as fresh bone marrow cells in rescuing animals after lethal TBI. Other factors that influence BM cell engraftment were confirmed (prior sensitization of the recipient, donor selection) or identified (purification of BM cells on density gradient and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of the recipient). Consistent engraftment of gradient separated, MHC identical, BM cells was found after conditioning with two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI, separated by 72 h. One MHC haplotype mismatched marrow did engraft after two TBI fractions of 6.0 Gy. Engraftment no longer occurred with gradient purified bone marrow cells from this type of donor. Late effects of TBI were early greying in all animals, and secondary uterine inertia in female dogs after 7.5 GY TBI. Fertility in males or females was not changed by radiation. An increase of pancreas fibrosis was noted in dogs receiving fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI. (author)

  11. Deciphering Selectivity in Organic Reactions: A Multifaceted Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, David; Clot, Eric; Eisenstein, Odile; Nova, Ainara; Perrin, Lionel

    2016-05-17

    Computational chemistry has made a sustained contribution to the understanding of chemical reactions. In earlier times, half a century ago, the goal was to distinguish allowed from forbidden reactions (e.g., Woodward-Hoffmann rules), that is, reactions with low or high to very high activation barriers. A great achievement of computational chemistry was also to contribute to the determination of structures with the bonus of proposing a rationalization (e.g., anomeric effect, isolobal analogy, Gillespie valence shell pair electron repulsion rules and counter examples, Wade-Mingos rules for molecular clusters). With the development of new methods and the constant increase in computing power, computational chemists move to more challenging problems, close to the daily concerns of the experimental chemists, in determining the factors that make a reaction both efficient and selective: a key issue in organic synthesis. For this purpose, experimental chemists use advanced synthetic and analytical techniques to which computational chemists added other ways of determining reaction pathways. The transition states and intermediates contributing to the transformation of reactants into the desired and undesired products can now be determined, including their geometries, energies, charges, spin densities, spectroscopy properties, etc. Such studies remain challenging due to the large number of chemical species commonly present in the reactive media whose role may have to be determined. Calculating chemical systems as they are in the experiment is not always possible, bringing its own share of complexity through the large number of atoms and the associated large number of conformers to consider. Modeling the chemical species with smaller systems is an alternative that historically led to artifacts. Another important topic is the choice of the computational method. While DFT is widely used, the vast diversity of functionals available is both an opportunity and a challenge. Though

  12. Factors controlling stable isotope composition of European precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Sonntag, C.; Muennich, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial variations of stable isotope ratios in present day European precipitation are simulated with a simple multibox model of the mean west-east horizontal transport of the atmospheric water vapour across the European continent. Isotope fractionation during the formation of precipitation leads to an increasing depletion of heavy isotopes in the residual air moisture as it moves towards the centre of the continent. This isotopic depletion is partly compensated, particularly in summer, by evapotranspiration, which is assumed to transfer soil water into the atmosphere without isotope fractionation. The model estimates are based on horizontal water vapour flux data, varying seasonally between 88 and 130 kg m -1 s -1 for the Atlantic coast region, and on the monthly precipitation, evapotranspiration and surface air temperature data available for various locations in Europe. Both continental and seasonal temperature effects observed in the stable isotope composition of European precipitation are fairly well reproduced by the model. The calculations show that the isotopic composition of local precipitation is primarily controlled by regional scale processes, i.e. by the water vapour transport patterns into the continent, and by the average precipitation-evapotranspiration history of the air masses precipitating at a given place. Local parameters such as the surface and/or cloud base temperature or the amount of precipitation modify the isotope ratios only slightly. Implications of the model predictions for the interpretation of stable isotope ratios in earlier periods as they are preserved in ice cores and in groundwater are also discussed. (Auth.)

  13. ERAD-dependent control of the Wnt secretory factor Evi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Kathrin; Urban, Manuela; Fenech, Emma; Voloshanenko, Oksana; Kranz, Dominique; Lari, Federica; Christianson, John C; Boutros, Michael

    2018-02-15

    Active regulation of protein abundance is an essential strategy to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Within the Wnt signaling cascade, regulated degradation of β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the outcome of canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we found that abundance of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi (Wls/GPR177), which is required for Wnt protein secretion, is also regulated by the UPS through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In the absence of Wnt ligands, Evi is ubiquitinated and targeted for ERAD in a VCP-dependent manner. Ubiquitination of Evi involves the E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2J2 and the E3-ligase CGRRF1. Furthermore, we show that a triaging complex of Porcn and VCP determines whether Evi enters the secretory or the ERAD pathway. In this way, ERAD-dependent control of Evi availability impacts the scale of Wnt protein secretion by adjusting the amount of Evi to meet the requirement of Wnt protein export. As Wnt and Evi protein levels are often dysregulated in cancer, targeting regulatory ERAD components might be a useful approach for therapeutic interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. Dual RNA regulatory control of a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabelskaya, Svetlana; Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2014-04-01

    In pathogens, the accurate programming of virulence gene expression is essential for infection. It is achieved by sophisticated arrays of regulatory proteins and ribonucleic acids (sRNAs), but in many cases their contributions and connections are not yet known. Based on genetic, biochemical and structural evidence, we report that the expression pattern of a Staphylococcus aureus host immune evasion protein is enabled by the collaborative actions of RNAIII and small pathogenicity island RNA D (SprD). Their combined expression profiles during bacterial growth permit early and transient synthesis of Sbi to avoid host immune responses. Together, these two sRNAs use antisense mechanisms to monitor Sbi expression at the translational level. Deletion analysis combined with structural analysis of RNAIII in complex with its novel messenger RNA (mRNA) target indicate that three distant RNAIII domains interact with distinct sites of the sbi mRNA and that two locations are deep in the sbi coding region. Through distinct domains, RNAIII lowers production of two proteins required for avoiding innate host immunity, staphylococcal protein A and Sbi. Toeprints and in vivo mutational analysis reveal a novel regulatory module within RNAIII essential for attenuation of Sbi translation. The sophisticated translational control of mRNA by two differentially expressed sRNAs ensures supervision of host immune escape by a major pathogen.

  15. Research on Open-Closed-Loop Iterative Learning Control with Variable Forgetting Factor of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an iterative learning control algorithm (ILC that is developed using a variable forgetting factor to control a mobile robot. The proposed algorithm can be categorized as an open-closed-loop iterative learning control, which produces control instructions by using both previous and current data. However, introducing a variable forgetting factor can weaken the former control output and its variance in the control law while strengthening the robustness of the iterative learning control. If it is applied to the mobile robot, this will reduce position errors in robot trajectory tracking control effectively. In this work, we show that the proposed algorithm guarantees tracking error bound convergence to a small neighborhood of the origin under the condition of state disturbances, output measurement noises, and fluctuation of system dynamics. By using simulation, we demonstrate that the controller is effective in realizing the prefect tracking.

  16. Tales of two self-control scales: Relations with Five-Factor and HEXACO traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; van Gelder, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the Five-Factor and HEXACO personality correlates of two common self-control constructs - Tangney self-control and Grasmick self-control - and their relations with delinquency. In both a student and a community sample, conscientiousness (mainly the prudence facet) was the most

  17. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... 192 and 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2007-27954] RIN 2137-AE64 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human... Control Room Management/Human Factors rule at 49 CFR 192.631 and 195.446. The NPRM proposes to expedite... rule and to engage in open discussions with the agency at PHMSA's Control Room Management...

  18. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  19. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  20. Yardang geometries in the Qaidam Basin and their controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengqing; Chen, Ninghua; Kapp, Paul; Chen, Jianyu; Xiao, Ancheng; Zhao, Yanhui

    2017-12-01

    The hyperarid Qaidam Basin features extensive fields of yardangs (covering an area of 40,000km2) sculpted in tectonically folded sedimentary rocks. We extracted the geometries of 16,749 yardangs, such as length-to-width ratio (L/W), spatial density, and spacing, from multi-source remote sensing data provided by Google Earth™. We classified the yardangs into four types based on their L/W: short-axis (1-2), whale-back (2-6), hogsback (6-10) and long-ridge (10 - 210). We interpreted the yardang geometries in the context of their geologic setting (bedding orientation, location along anticline crests or syncline troughs, and lithologic heterogeneity). Our results show that the yardang geometries in the Qaidam Basin are mainly controlled by the structural geology and rheology of the sedimentary rocks (e.g., strike and dip of bedding, the presence or absence of interbedded soft and hard beds, and structural position with folds), the angle between geomorphically-effective wind directions and the strike of bedding, and the relative cumulative wind shear force where two geomorphically-effective wind directions are present. Our analysis revealed the following: 1) nearly 69% of the yardangs with long-ridge and hogsback geometries are distributed in syncline areas whereas 73% of the yardangs with short-axis geometries are distributed in anticline areas; 2) the L/W ratio of yardangs exposed along the windward limbs of anticlines is lower than that of yardangs exposed along the leeward limbs; and 3) in the westernmost parts of the basin, yardangs are locally sculpted into mounds by two geomorphically-effective wind directions.

  1. Crack propagation in disordered materials: how to decipher fracture surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponson, L.

    For a half-century, engineers know how to describe and predict the propagation of a crack in a model elastic homogeneous medium. The case of real materials is much more complex. Indeed, we do not know how to relate their lifetime or their resistance to their microstructure. To achieve such a prediction, understanding the role of the microstructural disorder on the behavior of a crack is determinant. Fracture surfaces represent a promising field of investigation to address this question. From the study of various disordered materials, we propose a statistical description of their roughness and determine to which extent their properties are dependent of the material. We show that fracture surfaces display an anisotropic scale invariant geometry characterized by two universal exponents. Glass ceramics is then studied because its microstructure can be tuned in a controlled manner. Their fracture surfaces display the same general anisotropic properties but with surprisingly low exponents independent of the detail of the ceramics microstructure. This suggests the existence of a second universality class in failure problems. Using finally theoretical tools from out-of-equilibrium statistical physics and fracture mechanics, we relate the statistical properties of fracture surfaces with the mechanisms occurring at the microscopic scale during the failure of a material. In particular, we show that the first class of fracture surfaces results from a failure involving damage processes while the second one results from a perfectly brittle failure. Propagation de fissures dans les matériaux désordonnés : comment déchiffrer les surfaces de rupture. Depuis près d'un demi-siècle, les ingénieurs savent décrire et prévoir la propagation d'une fissure dans un milieu élastique homogène modèle. Le cas des matériaux réels est beaucoup plus complexe. En effet, on ne sait pas relier leur durée de vie ou leur résistance à leur microstructure. Passage obligé avant de telles

  2. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control of Secreted Factors for Blood Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Julia; Wang, Weijia; Zandstra, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Clinical use of umbilical cord blood has typically been limited by the need to expand hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) ex vivo. This expansion is challenging due to the accumulation of secreted signaling factors in the culture that have a negative regulatory effect on HSPC output. Strategies for global regulation of these factors through dilution have been developed, but do not accommodate the dynamic nature or inherent variability of hematopoietic cell culture. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the impact of feedback control on in vitro hematopoiesis, and used it to design a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. This algorithm was implemented with a fed-batch bioreactor to regulate the concentrations of secreted factors. Controlling the concentration of a key target factor, TGF-β1, through dilution limited the negative effect it had on HSPCs, and allowed global control of other similarly-produced inhibitory endogenous factors. The PID control algorithm effectively maintained the target soluble factor at the target concentration. We show that feedback controlled dilution is predicted to be a more cost effective dilution strategy compared to other open-loop strategies, and can enhance HSPC expansion in short term culture. This study demonstrates the utility of secreted factor process control strategies to optimize stem cell culture systems, and motivates the development of multi-analyte protein sensors to automate the manufacturing of cell therapies.

  3. Deciphering the clinical effect of drugs through large-scale data integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Sonny Kim

    . This work demonstrates the power of a strategy that uses clinical data mining in association with chemical biology in order to reduce the search space and aid identification of novel drug actions. The second article described in chapter 3 outlines a high confidence side-effect-drug interaction dataset. We...... demonstrates the importance of using high-confidence drug-side-effect data in deciphering the effect of small molecules in humans. In summary, this thesis presents computational systems chemical biology approaches that can help identify clinical effects of small molecules through large-scale data integration...

  4. Discussion on verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hualong; Liu Yanzi; Jia Ming; Huang Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent or reduce human error and ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, control device should be verified from the perspective of human factors engineering (HFE). The domestic and international human factors engineering guidelines about nuclear power plant controller were considered, the verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller were discussed and the application examples were provided for reference in this paper. The results show that the appropriate verification criterion and method should be selected to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the conclusion. (authors)

  5. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  6. Deciphering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author aims at giving some explanations about the various terms regarding energy which are present in our everyday life, in speeches, in papers and magazines, on the air, in our energy bills, for instance: energy poverty, price of a barrel of oil, resources and proved reserves, intermittency and energy storage, fossil and renewable energies, and so on. In a first part, the author addresses issues ranging from the development needs of a society to the energy assessment of a country, i.e.: nature and quantity of needs in services provided by energy, analysis of the required quantity of energy products needed to satisfy these needs, stages between primary resources and service delivery, description of the French consumption of available final energy products (per product and per economic sector). In the second part, he addresses energy supply, energy sectors and environmental issues, thus focusing on the front end of the energy system, i.e. ways of production from primary energy resources to final energy products: main physical characteristics and description of the different fissile, fossil and renewable energies, description of the main sectors of production of final energy products (fuels, electricity, heat) with a specific attention to electricity. In this part, local, regional and global environmental issues related to the exploitation of these energy sectors are discussed: sources of atmospheric pollution related to energy, relationship between energy and global warming, role of the different greenhouse gases emitted by these sectors, and quantitative analysis of these emissions. The third part addresses the economy of energy systems. The author proposes a cost assessment method which can be used for the production analysis as well as the economic analysis of a specific energy product. He also described external costs and profits, and methods to take those hidden costs and profits into account. Other economic tools are discussed and compared which can be used to define and assess energy policies. The last part (Prospective and energy transition) recalls the evolution of concepts and concerns which have been at the origin of world and national energy prospective scenarios for the last thirty years and resulted in the emergence of the notion of energy transition with its different interpretations by the different actors of the energy sector

  7. Visual control as a key factor in a production process of a company from automotive branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical basis for one type of control in enterprises – visual control. It presents the meaning of visual control in the Toyota Production System and BOST researches as a tool of measure, among other things, the importance of visual control in production companies. The level of importance of visual control usage as one of the production process elements in the analysed company was indicated. The usage of visual control is a main factor in a production process of the analyzed company, the factor which provides continuous help to employees to check whether the process differs from the standard. The characteristic progression of production process elements was indicated and the SW factor (the use of visual control took the third place, PE factor (interruption of production when it detects a problem of quality turned out to be the most important one, while the least important was the EU factor (granting power of attorney down. The main tools for this evaluation: an innovative BOST survey - Toyota's management principles in questions, in particular, the Pareto-Lorenz diagram, radar graph and series of importance as graphical interpretation tools, were used to present the importance of each factor in relation to individual assessments.

  8. Integrated application of human factors to a power plant control room information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, H.C. Jr.; Gutierrez, R.

    1988-01-01

    The human factors plan was developed as a methodology to apply human factors from the conceptual design of the EPIC system to the functional verification conducted at the plant. An integral part of the Human Factors Plan was the Functional Verification Plan. Developed in parallel, this second plan and its resultant programs verified functional appropriateness of the SPDS display, NSSS displays, EOP displays, man-machine interfaces (MMI), and workstation designs. The functional verification process was performed at the hardware/software developer's factory and at the JAFNPP, following installation of the EPIC system. Because the EPIC system replaces existing control room equipment, it is important that human factors be applied in a systematic manner consistent with other control room displays and controls. To ensure that this goal was met, a human factors plan was developed

  9. Modeling and Control of DC/DC Boost Converter using K-Factor Control for MPPT of Solar PV System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangari, Adithya; Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the design of a controller for the DC/DC boost converter using K factor control, which is based on modified PI control method, for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of solar PV system. A mathematical model for boost converter based on small signal averaging approach...... is presented. Design of the passive elements of the boost converter as per the system specifications is also illustrated. The performance of the proposed K factor control method is verified with the simulations for MPPT on solar PV system at different atmospheric conditions. A new circuit based model for solar...... PV array, which includes the effect of solar insolation and temperature on PV array output, for the application in power system transient simulations, is also presented. The performance of the PV array model is verified with simulations at different atmospheric conditions. A 160W PV module from BP...

  10. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... following correcting amendments: PART 192--TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM...

  11. Human-factors engineering-control-room design review: Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Draft audit report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.R.; Preston-Smith, J.; Savage, J.W.; Rousseau, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Shoreham control room was performed at the site on March 30 through April 3, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The presented sections are numbered to conform to the guidelines of the draft version of NUREG-0700. They summarize the teams's observations of the control room design and layout, and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment

  12. Evaluation on the Effect of Load Follow Controller's Weighting Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Keuk Jong; Lee, Jae Gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    there are several important physical effects that limit the possibilities of power variations in NPPs. Some major effects are moderator and xenon effect. Moderator effect is relation with moderator density change and xenon effect is relation with the concentration change of Xe-135 which could affect axial power shape. These effects are more significant with large magnitudes of power variations and they are considered as major disturbances at the aspect of control method. Due to the above physical effects, it is necessary to carefully change nuclear power considering power distribution change in the core. So, when nuclear plants are required to operate on load variation mode, we could control not only reactor power but also power distribution. Generally, power distribution is controlled by reactor operators who have enough experience, whereas reactor power is automatically controlled by automatic controllers. So, it is necessary to design an automatic controller that controls both reactor power and power distribution for frequent load following operation. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD (KHNP) has been developing automatic load follow controller as a part of Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) development. The developing controller is composed of three algorithms which could control reactor power and axial power shape. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of the controller’s weighting factors. So, in this paper, we identify the meaning of the weighting factors and the controlled output weighting factors are selected among them. In this study, the effect of output weighting factors is analyzed. According to the simulation results, it is recommended that the weighting factor of power be between 200 and 400 and that of ASI be between 200 and 600. In the near future, based on the study, optimization of power and ASI weighting factors will be performed at the same time.

  13. Deciphering the role of DC subsets in MCMV infection to better understand immune protection against viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eDALOD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV recapitulates many physiopathological characteristics of human CMV infection and enables studying the interactions between a virus and its natural host. Dendritic cells (DC are mononuclear phagocytes linking innate and adaptive immunity which are both necessary for MCMV control. DC are critical for the induction of cellular immunity because they are uniquely efficient for the activation of naïve T cells during their first encounter with a pathogen. DC are equipped with a variety of innate immune recognition receptors (I2R2 allowing them to detect pathogens or infections and to engulf molecules, microorganisms or cellular debris. The combinatorial engagement of I2R2 during infections controls DC maturation and shapes their response in terms of cytokine production, activation of natural killer (NK cells and functional polarization of T cells. Several DC subsets exist which express different arrays of I2R2 and are specialized in distinct functions. The study of MCMV infection helped deciphering the physiological roles of DC subsets and their molecular regulation. It allowed the identification and first in vivo studies of mouse plasmacytoid DC which produce high level of interferons-α/β early after infection. Despite its ability to infect DC and dampen their functions, MCMV induces very robust, efficient and long-lasting CD8 T cell responses. Their priming may rely on the unique ability of uninfected XCR1+ DC to cross-present engulfed viral antigens and thus to counter MCMV interference with antigen presentation. A balance appears to have been reached during co-evolution, allowing controlled replication of the virus for horizontal spread without pathological consequences for the immunocompetent host. We will discuss the role of the interplay between the virus and DC in setting this balance, and how advancing this knowledge further could help develop better vaccines against other intracellular

  14. Case-controlled Study on Risk Factors for the Development of Constipation in Hospitalized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Tetsuya; Nagai, Keiko; Ooe, Nobuharu; Nakashima, Mihoko N.; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Nakashima, Mikiro

    2011-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem in hospitalized patients; however, the relative risks of its development with various factors have not been clarified. To clarify the risk factors associated with constipation, we performed a case-controlled study of 165 hospitalized patients who were not laxative users on admission. They were divided into case (n=35) and control (n=130) groups according to laxative administration during hospitalization. Comparison of the patient backgrounds in the two groups ...

  15. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  16. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.; Collier, S.

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics

  17. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    % for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control...... motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles...

  18. Different types of inks having certain medicolegal importance: Deciphering the faded and physically erased handwriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abd-ElAziz Abd-ElZaher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disappearing ink is a type of ink which could be used to forge documents as it will fade away without any trace within 40–65 h. Erasable ink is another type of ink easily removed by certain rubbers incorporated in each pen. Both types of inks were applied separately on different types of papers (checks, standard white foolscap, and plain white A4 paper. For vanishing ink, it was observed visually in the first 6 h and then every 6 h. It was found that the vanishing ink disappeared completely within 2 h on checks, 36 h on standard white foolscap paper, and 40 h on plain white A4 paper. For erasable ink, the written strokes were manipulated manually using the incorporated eraser. Deciphering the faded writing failed by the conventional methods, but oblique light can reveal the indentation marks. The faded writing became visible when treated with weak alkaline (NaOH solutions. Erasable ink was deciphered with the aid of infra-red radiation combined with VSC-6000 as clear white traces against red fluorescence. It was concluded that the use of a weak (NaOH solution is an effective method for revealing the faded writing, and the infra-red illumination is also effective.

  19. The place of human-factors in the work of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkow, B.

    1982-01-01

    The AECB do not effectively regulate human factors in nuclear power plants since they have no staff trained to do so. Two new positions are recommended and their activities are outlined. Special problems are identified in the certification of personnel, management information control, and in accommodating human factors to AECB style

  20. Dynamic increase and decrease of photonic crystal nanocavity Q factors for optical pulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upham, Jeremy; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2008-12-22

    We introduce recent advances in dynamic control over the Q factor of a photonic crystal nanocavity system. By carefully timing a rapid increase of the Q factor from 3800 to 22,000, we succeed in capturing a 4ps signal pulse within the nanocavity with a photon lifetime of 18ps. By performing an additional transition of the Q factor within the photon lifetime, the held light is once again ejected from of the system on demand.

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals a latent cognitive structure common to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretlen, David J; Peña, Javier; Aretouli, Eleni; Orue, Izaskun; Cascella, Nicola G; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Ojeda, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    We sought to determine whether a single hypothesized latent factor structure would characterize cognitive functioning in three distinct groups. We assessed 576 adults (340 community controls, 126 adults with bipolar disorder, and 110 adults with schizophrenia) using 15 measures derived from nine cognitive tests. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the fit of a hypothesized six-factor model. The hypothesized factors included attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, visual memory, ideational fluency, and executive functioning. The six-factor model provided an excellent fit for all three groups [for community controls, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) schizophrenia, RMSEA = 0.06 and CFI = 0.98]. Alternate models that combined fluency with processing speed or verbal and visual memory reduced the goodness of fit. Multi-group CFA results supported factor invariance across the three groups. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a single six-factor structure of cognitive functioning among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and community controls. While the three groups clearly differ in level of performance, they share a common underlying architecture of information processing abilities. These cognitive factors could provide useful targets for clinical trials of treatments that aim to enhance information processing in persons with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  3. The design and operation of the THORP central control room: a human factors perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Julie.

    1996-01-01

    The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield Site is now operational. This paper describes the Central Control Room (CCR), focusing on the control system components. Throughout the design, commissioning and operation of THORP, human factors played an important part. (author)

  4. Risk factors for idiopathic orbital inflammation: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Ward R.; van Gils, Carla H.; Paridaens, Dion; Mourits, Maarten P.; Kalmann, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors involved in the development of idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI). Methods Case-control study of 69 adults who had had a first episode of IOI and 296 adult controls with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) selected from three orbital centres in The

  5. The role of nutrition as risk factor for polyneuropathy : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Nora A.; Notermans, Nicolette C.; de Vries, Jeanne H.M.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Vrancken, Alexander F.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this case–control study is to investigate the role of nutrition as risk factor for polyneuropathy. Three hundred eighteen patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy and 636 matched controls completed a validated food frequency questionnaire that covered nutrient intake and

  6. A case-control study of risk factors for male infertility in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between selected potential socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors and infertility in Nigeria males. Methods: The study consisted of cases and controls. The cases were 150 males with proven male infertility, while the controls were 150 fertile males with ...

  7. Maternal sleep deprivation, sedentary lifestyle and cooking smoke: Risk factors for miscarriage: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Yasindu; Abeysena, Chrishantha

    2010-08-01

    To determine risk factors for miscarriage. A case control study was carried out at the gynaecological wards and antenatal clinics of the De Soysa Maternity Hospital in Sri Lanka. A case was defined as that of mothers with a confirmed diagnosis of partial or full expulsion of the fetus during the first 28 weeks of gestation. Controls comprised ante-natal clinic attendees whose period of gestation was sedentary lifestyle, exposure to cooking smoke and physical trauma during pregnancy were risk factors for miscarriage. Most of the risk factors are therefore modifiable.

  8. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale in Iranian infertile people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufizadeh, Saman; Omani Samani, Reza; Amini, Payam; Navid, Behnaz

    2016-09-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale among Iranian infertile patients. In all, 312 infertile patients completed the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the original three-factor model of Levenson's Locus of Control Scale was adequate ( χ 2 / df = 2.139; goodness-of-fit index = 0.88; root mean square error of approximation = 0.061; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.076). The Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from 0.56 to 0.67. The Levenson's Locus of Control Scale subscales significantly correlated with anxiety and depression, showing an acceptable convergent validity. In conclusion, the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale has adequate reliability and validity and can be used to measure locus of control orientation in Iranian infertile patients.

  9. Factors associated with glycemic control in people with diabetes at the Family Health Strategy in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fonseca Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying factors associated with glycemic control in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHOD Associations between glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A lower or equal to 7% presented by people with DM and variables related to sociodemographic conditions, lifestyle, characteristics of diabetes, treatment and follow-up of patients by health services were investigated by multiple regression. RESULTS More than 65% of the participants presented inadequate glycemic control, especially those with lower age, longer illness duration, more annual contacts with FHS and complex therapeutic regimen. People with DM without referrals to specialists presented greater glycemic control. Associations with education level and obesity did not remain significant in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION The evolution of diabetes hinders adequate control, however, attention to younger people with DM and referrals to specialists are factors that can improve glycemic control.

  10. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Granda, T.; Baker, C.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig

  11. Survey of control-room design practices with respect to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary speciality concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. This emphasis has been applied to most military and space systems in the past 30 y. A review of five nuclear power-plant control rooms, reported in the November-December 1977 issue of Nuclear Safety, revealed that human factors principles of design have generally not been incorporated in present-generation control rooms. This article summarizes the findings of a survey of 20 control-board designers from a mix of nuclear steam-supply system and architect-engineering firms. The interviews with these designers probed design methods currently used in developing control rooms. From these data it was concluded that there is currently no consistent, formal, uniform concern for the human factors aspects of control-room design on the part of the design organizations, the utilities, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Although all the parties involved are concerned with human factors issues, this responsibility is not focused, and human factors yardsticks, or design standards, specific to power plants have not been evolved and applied in the development and verification of control-room designs from the standpoint of the man-machine interface

  12. Applying human factors to the design of control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Goncalves, Gabriel de L.; Souza, Tamara D.M.F.; Falcao, Mariana A.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors is a body of scientific factors about human characteristics, covering biomedical, psychological and psychosocial considerations, including principles and applications in the personnel selection areas, training, job performance aid tools and human performance evaluation. Control Centre is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the same site. Digital control room includes an arrangement of systems, equipment such as computers and communication terminals and workstations at which control and monitoring functions are conducted by operators. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The objective of this paper is to present a specific approach for the conceptual and basic design of the control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards, guidelines and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team, an initial sketch 3D of the control centre and workstation are being developed. (author)

  13. Applying human factors to the design of control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Goncalves, Gabriel de L., E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tamara D.M.F.; Falcao, Mariana A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Desenho Industrial

    2013-07-01

    Human factors is a body of scientific factors about human characteristics, covering biomedical, psychological and psychosocial considerations, including principles and applications in the personnel selection areas, training, job performance aid tools and human performance evaluation. Control Centre is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the same site. Digital control room includes an arrangement of systems, equipment such as computers and communication terminals and workstations at which control and monitoring functions are conducted by operators. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The objective of this paper is to present a specific approach for the conceptual and basic design of the control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards, guidelines and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team, an initial sketch 3D of the control centre and workstation are being developed. (author)

  14. The significance of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer after controlling for clinicopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sanghee; Na, Younghyun; Joung, Sung Yup; Lee, Sun Il; Oh, Sang Cheul; Min, Byung Wook

    2018-03-01

    The colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with microsatellite instability (MSI) have distinct clinicopathological characteristics consisting of factors predicting positive and negative outcomes, such as a high lymph node harvest and poor differentiation. In this study, we measured the value of MSI as a prognostic factor after controlling for these discrepant factors. A total of 603 patients who underwent curative surgery for stages I to III colorectal cancer were enrolled. The patients were divided into microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable/microsatellite instability low (MSS/MSI-L) groups. Propensity score matching was used to match clinicopathological factors between the 2 groups. MSI-H patients had a high lymph node harvest (median: 31.0 vs 23.0, P controlling for pathological characteristics, MSI-H could be a potent prognostic factor regarding patient survival.

  15. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  16. Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unplanned Deliveries at Home: A Community-Based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catak, Binali; Oner, Can

    2015-01-01

    Unplanned home deliveries can vary with social and cultural factors. The aim of this study was to define the risk factors of unplanned home births. This case control study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey. The study group was composed of 229 women who had unplanned home delivery. Six factors (presence of health insurance, duration of living in Istanbul, educational status of the woman, the number of individuals living in the household, the age of the woman at the time of current delivery, and the status of having received care prior to delivery) were determined as independent risk factors for unplanned deliveries at home.

  17. Research on cognitive reliability model for main control room considering human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianjun; Zhang Li; Wang Yiqun; Zhang Kun; Peng Yuyuan; Zhou Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Facing the shortcomings of the traditional cognitive factors and cognitive model, this paper presents a Bayesian networks cognitive reliability model by taking the main control room as a reference background and human factors as the key points. The model mainly analyzes the cognitive reliability affected by the human factors, and for the cognitive node and influence factors corresponding to cognitive node, a series of methods and function formulas to compute the node cognitive reliability is proposed. The model and corresponding methods can be applied to the evaluation of cognitive process for the nuclear power plant operators and have a certain significance for the prevention of safety accidents in nuclear power plants. (authors)

  18. Deciphering potential mechanisms of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD)-mediated control of Pratylenchus penetrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratylenchus penetrans is a component of the apple replant disease (ARD) causal pathogen complex. The potential role for biological mechanisms contributing to ASD-mediated suppression of P. penetrans was examined in greenhouse study using orchard soil with a history of ARD. Populations of P. penetra...

  19. Factors Associated with Long-Term Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Badedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study assessed factors associated with glycemic control among Saudi patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study, which included a random sample of 288 patients with T2DM proportional to the diabetes population of each primary health care center in Jazan city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results. More than two-thirds (74% of patients had poor glycemic control. Lack of education, polypharmacy, and duration of diabetes ≥ 7 years were significantly associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Moreover, patients who were smoker or divorced were significantly more likely to have higher HbA1c. The patients who did not comply with diet or take their medications as prescribed had poor glycemic control. The study found lower HbA1c levels among patients who received family support or had close relationship with their physicians. Similarly, knowledgeable patients towards diabetes or those with greater confidence in ability to manage self-care behaviors had a lower HbA1c. In contrast, risk factors such as depression or stress were significantly correlated with poorer glycemic control. Conclusion. The majority of T2DM patients had poor glycemic control. The study identified several factors associated with glycemic control. Effective and tailored interventions are needed to mitigate exposure to these risk factors. This would improve glycemic control and reduce the risks inherent to diabetes complications.

  20. Factors Associated with Long-Term Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badedi, Mohammed; Solan, Yahiya; Darraj, Hussain; Sabai, Abdullah; Mahfouz, Mohamed; Alamodi, Saleh; Alsabaani, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study assessed factors associated with glycemic control among Saudi patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study, which included a random sample of 288 patients with T2DM proportional to the diabetes population of each primary health care center in Jazan city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results. More than two-thirds (74%) of patients had poor glycemic control. Lack of education, polypharmacy, and duration of diabetes ≥ 7 years were significantly associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Moreover, patients who were smoker or divorced were significantly more likely to have higher HbA1c. The patients who did not comply with diet or take their medications as prescribed had poor glycemic control. The study found lower HbA1c levels among patients who received family support or had close relationship with their physicians. Similarly, knowledgeable patients towards diabetes or those with greater confidence in ability to manage self-care behaviors had a lower HbA1c. In contrast, risk factors such as depression or stress were significantly correlated with poorer glycemic control. Conclusion. The majority of T2DM patients had poor glycemic control. The study identified several factors associated with glycemic control. Effective and tailored interventions are needed to mitigate exposure to these risk factors. This would improve glycemic control and reduce the risks inherent to diabetes complications.

  1. Human factors engineering applied to Control Centre Design of a research nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Larissa P. de; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: larissapfarias@ymail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DENN/SEESC/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab, de Usabilidade e Confiabilidade Humana; Monteiro, Beany G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Desenho Industrial

    2017-07-01

    The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program is an essential aspect for the design of nuclear installations. The overall aim of the HFE program is the improvement of the operational reliability and safety of plant operation. The HFE program main purpose is to ensure that human factor practices are incorporated into the plant design, emphasizing man-machine interface issues and design improvement of the nuclear reactor Control Centre. The Control Centre of nuclear reactor is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations, which are functionally connected and located on the reactor site. The objective of this paper is to present a design approach for the Control Centre of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotopes and for nuclear research, including human factor issues. The design approach is based on participatory design principles, using human factor standards, ergonomic guidelines, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team during all design phases. Using the information gathered, an initial sketch 3D of the Control Centre was developed. (author)

  2. Human factors engineering applied to Control Centre Design of a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Larissa P. de; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Monteiro, Beany G.

    2017-01-01

    The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program is an essential aspect for the design of nuclear installations. The overall aim of the HFE program is the improvement of the operational reliability and safety of plant operation. The HFE program main purpose is to ensure that human factor practices are incorporated into the plant design, emphasizing man-machine interface issues and design improvement of the nuclear reactor Control Centre. The Control Centre of nuclear reactor is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations, which are functionally connected and located on the reactor site. The objective of this paper is to present a design approach for the Control Centre of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotopes and for nuclear research, including human factor issues. The design approach is based on participatory design principles, using human factor standards, ergonomic guidelines, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team during all design phases. Using the information gathered, an initial sketch 3D of the Control Centre was developed. (author)

  3. Human factors inspection of current control room panel in Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.; O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2002-01-01

    Within the process of renewal of Exploitation Permit of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant, UNION FENOSA GENERACIO, S. A. (UFG) has carried out an analysis and evaluation project regarding human factors implications of current control room panel arrangement. The project has been developed in two phases. In the first phase, leaded by EPRI and carried out by experts from SAIC, an independent review from a double viewpoint of human reliability and human factors was developed. In the second phase, a multidisciplinary team (composed by human factors, risk analysis, operation, engineering, training and instrumentation and controls experts) has developed a study on human factors implications of current panel arrangement, following the methodology pointed out in NUREG-0711. The project has been developed under the direction of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), organisation that has authored the aforementioned methodology, with the participation of UFG and SOLUZIONA Ingenieria. For the development of the second study the following steps were taken: Firstly, the potential effects of panel arrangement on crew performance were identified its real evidence was analysed and the goals for the improvement of control room operation were established; following NUREG-0711. After this, several design alternatives that addressed these goals were identified and were analysed along three dimensions: human factors, risk analysis and economic costs. Finally the results of these evaluations were combined using a multi-attribute decision method to arrive at a recommended alternative as he best proposal to incorporate human factors criteria and good practices in the design of control room panels. (Author)

  4. Estratificación epidemiológica en el control de los factores de riesgo de la tuberculosis Epidemiological stratification to control the risk factors of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Nieves Moreno Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal, con el objetivo de implementar la estratificación epidemiológica en el control de los factores de riesgo de la tuberculosis, provincia Pinar del Río, 2008-2010. El universo de estudio lo constituyó, los habitantes de la provincia en cada uno de los años estudiados. Se revisó el registro de dispensarización y las encuestas epidemiológicas; de ellos se obtuvieron los factores de riesgo: alcoholismo, hábito de fumar, diabetes mellitus, ancianos solos, desnutrición, inmunodeprimidos y casos viviendo con VIH/Sida. Para el procesamiento de la información se trabajó con Microsoft Excel y MapInfo Professional. Se utilizó la metodología estratificación epidemiológica de riesgo hasta nivel municipal; los estratos para los factores de riesgo como para la enfermedad, se clasificaron en: muy alto, alto, mediano y bajo riesgo. Para determinar la significación de cambios se utilizó la prueba Mc Nemar. Los resultados mostraron que en el 2009, el 50% de los municipios que en la estratificación del 2008 estaban en el estrato de muy alto y alto riesgo, el 85,7% cambiaran de estratos, lo que indica un mejor control de los factores de riesgo. El proceso de estratificación en el 2010, no logró cambios favorables en los municipios con mayor riesgo en el 2008, estando el 65% clasificado en estratos de muy alto y alto riesgo, pues el plan de acción previsto, no fue ejecutado con efectividad y seriedad por los jefes de programa, debido a inestabilidad y ausencia de los mismos en los municipios de mayor riesgo.A descriptive, longitudinal study aimed at implementing epidemiological stratification to control the risk factors of tuberculosis in Pinar del Rio province was carried out form 2008 to 2010. The target group was comprised of the inhabitants of the province for each of the years under study. Records and epidemiological survey were revised; taking into account the risk factors of alcoholism

  5. Continuous infusion of recombinant activated factor VII for bleeding control after lobectomy in a patient with inherited factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Naoko; Isaka, Mitsuhiro; Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Takamiya, Osamu; Ohde, Yasuhisa

    2016-03-01

    Inherited factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare recessive inherited coagulation disorder with limited available information, especially in patients undergoing major thoracic surgery. In addition, an optimal management strategy for the disease has not been defined. We herein report a case involving a 61-year-old man with asymptomatic FVII deficiency who underwent a right middle and lower lobectomy to treat lung cancer. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first to describe the use of recombinant activated FVII continuous infusion for bleeding control after a major thoracic surgery in a patient with inherited FVII deficiency.

  6. ART Or AGR: Deciphering Which Reserve Program is Best Suited for Today’s Total Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ART OR AGR: DECIPHERING WHICH RESERVE PROGRAM IS BEST SUITED FOR TODAY’S TOTAL FORCE STRUCTURE...4 ART Program...time workforce, which are the ART and AGR programs, by comparing each and highlighting the differences, advantages and disadvantages they present to

  7. Deciphering the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of the extinct cave bear in the Paleolithic painted cave of Chauvet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, Céline; Caudy, Nicolas; De Dieuleveult, Maud; Fosse, Philippe; Philippe, Michel; Maksud, Frédéric; Beraud-Colomb, Éliane; Bouzaid, Eric; Kefi, Rym; Laugier, Christelle; Rousseau, Bernard; Casane, Didier; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Retrieving a large amount of genetic information from extinct species was demonstrated feasible, but complete mitochondrial genome sequences have only been deciphered for the moa, a bird that became extinct a few hundred years ago, and for Pleistocene species, such as the woolly mammoth and the

  8. A possible methodological approach to setting up control level of radiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatajkin, E.V.; Abramov, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical formalization of the concept of control levels (CL) which enables one to obtain CL numerical values of controllable parameters required for rapid control purposes is described. The initial data for the assessment of environmental radioactivity are the controllable parameter values that is practical characteristic of controllable radiation factor showing technically measurable or calculation value. The controllable parameters can be divided into two classes depending on the degree of radiation effect on a man: possessing additivity properties (dosimetric class) and non-possessing (radiation class, which comprises the results of control of medium alteration dynamics, equipment operation safety, completeness of protection measures performance). The CL calculation formulas with account for requirements of radiation safety standards (RSS-76) are presented

  9. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given

  10. RF control at transient beamloading for high-duty-factor linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernogubovsky, M.A.; Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    An effective RF control with the transient beamloading is the major issue in the operation of the high-duty-factor linacs to suppress the undesirable beam loss. The RF control method is considered to obtain the control principle and the state equation, under the analysis of electrodynamical properties of the excitation in the resonator of the linac due to the transient beamloading. The concept of the directional selective coupling is applied for the RF system to define the main characteristics and to optimize the RF control parameters. (author)

  11. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Grant, W. Stewart; Manzano, Carmen; Cotano, Unai; Conklin, Darrell; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2016-01-01

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  12. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  13. Cost-effectiveness of the Decipher Genomic Classifier to Guide Individualized Decisions for Early Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jennifer M; Trifiletti, Daniel M; Sturz, Vanessa N; Dicker, Adam P; Buerki, Christine; Davicioni, Elai; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Jenkins, Robert B; Den, Robert B; Showalter, Timothy N

    2017-06-01

    Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of early adjuvant versus salvage radiation therapy after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Estimates of prostate cancer progression from the Decipher genomic classifier (GC) could guide informed decision-making and improve the outcomes for patients. We developed a Markov model to compare the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with GC-based treatment decisions regarding adjuvant therapy after prostatectomy with those of 2 control strategies: usual care (determined from patterns of care studies) and the alternative of 100% adjuvant radiation therapy. Using the bootstrapping method of sampling with replacement, the cases of 10,000 patients were simulated during a 10-year time horizon, with each subject having individual estimates for cancer progression (according to GC findings) and noncancer mortality (according to age). GC-based care was more effective and less costly than 100% adjuvant radiation therapy and resulted in cost savings up to an assay cost of $11,402. Compared with usual care, GC-based care resulted in more QALYs. Assuming a $4000 assay cost, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $90,833 per QALY, assuming a 7% usage rate of adjuvant radiation therapy. GC-based care was also associated with a 16% reduction in the percentage of patients with distant metastasis at 5 years compared with usual care. The Decipher GC could be a cost-effective approach for genomics-driven cancer treatment decisions after prostatectomy, with improvements in estimated clinical outcomes compared with usual care. The individualized decision analytic framework applied in the present study offers a flexible approach to estimate the potential utility of genomic assays for personalized cancer medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Gauthier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB and Gibberella ear rot (GER, two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum.

  15. DECIPHERING THE FINEST IMPRINT OF GLACIAL EROSION: OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF STRIAE PATTERNS ON BEDROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of different mathematical and statistical geometrical methods applied to characterise the orientation distribution of striae on bedrock for deciphering the finest imprint of glacial erosion. The involved methods include automatic image analysis techniques of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, and the experimental investigations by means of Saltikov's directed secants analysis (rose of intersection densities, applied to digital and analogue images of the striae pattern, respectively. In addition, the experimental data were compared with the modelling results made on the basis of Underwood's concept of linear systems in a plane. The experimental and modelling approaches in the framework of stereology yield consistent results. These results reveal that stereological methods allow a reliable and efficient delineation of different families of glacial striae from a complex record imprinted in bedrock.

  16. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Léa; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Chéreau, Sylvain; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Gibberella ear rot (GER), two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum. PMID:26492237

  17. Four Versions of the Christus by the Massys: Deciphering the Meaning of the Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Jara Vera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Flemish painters Quentin Massys and his son Jan Massys appear to be the authors of four works with a very similar motif, the bust of Jesus Christ. These canvasses can be found in different locations today: the Prado Museum in Madrid (Spain, the RKD Netherlands Institute for Art History of The Hague (Netherlands, the Kunstmuseum Winterthur (Switzerland, and another one in a private collection. Written on the edge of the robe around the neck, these canvasses display a series of Hebrew or pseudo-Hebrew letters. We offer the complete solution deciphered, until today incomplete, for three of them, with a very similar letter sequence. Finally, we resolve completely one of the canvasses, which, until today, had no known solution.

  18. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  19. Deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Towards a New Strategy for Navigation in Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Duque-Domingo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel strategy to decipher fragments of Egyptian cartouches identifying the hieroglyphs of which they are composed. A cartouche is a drawing, usually inside an oval, that encloses a group of hieroglyphs representing the name of a monarch. Aiming to identify these drawings, the proposed method is based on several techniques frequently used in computer vision and consists of three main stages: first, a picture of the cartouche is taken as input and its contour is localized. In the second stage, each hieroglyph is individually extracted and identified. Finally, the cartouche is interpreted: the sequence of the hieroglyphs is established according to a previously generated benchmark. This sequence corresponds to the name of the king. Although this method was initially conceived to deal with both high and low relief writing in stone, it can be also applied to painted hieroglyphs. This approach is not affected by variable lighting conditions, or the intensity and the completeness of the objects. This proposal has been tested on images obtained from the Abydos King List and other Egyptian monuments and archaeological excavations. The promising results give new possibilities to recognize hieroglyphs, opening a new way to decipher longer texts and inscriptions, being particularly useful in museums and Egyptian environments. Additionally, devices used for acquiring visual information from cartouches (i.e., smartphones, can be part of a navigation system for museums where users are located in indoor environments by means of the combination of WiFi Positioning Systems (WPS and depth cameras, as unveiled at the end of the document.

  20. Deciphering Late-Pleistocence landscape evolution: linking proxies by combining pedo-stratigraphy and luminescence dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sebastian; Meszner, Sascha; Faust, Dominik; Fuchs, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Interpreting former landscape evolution asks for understanding the processes that sculpt such landforms by means of deciphering complex systems. For reconstructing terrestrial Quaternary environments based on loess archives this might be considered, at least, as a three step process: (1) Identifying valuable records in appropriate morphological positions in a previously defined research area, (2) analysing the profiles by field work and laboratory methods and finally (3) linking the previously considered pseudo-isolated systems to set up a comprehensive picture. Especially the first and the last step might bring some pitfalls, as it is tempting to specify single records as pseudo-isolated, closed systems. They might be, with regard to their preservation in their specific morphological position, but in fact they are part of a complex, open system. Between 2008 and 2013, Late-Pleistocene loess archives in Saxony have been intensively investigated by field and laboratory methods. Linking pedo- and luminescence dating based chronostratigraphies, a composite profile for the entire Saxonian Loess Region has been established. With this, at least, two-fold approach we tried to avoid misinterpretations that might appear when focussing on one standard profile in an open morphological system. Our contribution focuses on this multi-proxy approach to decipher the Late-Pleistocene landscape evolution in the Saxonian Loess Region. Highlighting the challenges and advantages of combining different methods, we believe that (1) this multi-proxy approach is without alternative, (2) the combination of different profiles may simplify the more complex reality, but it may be a useful generalisation to understand and reveal the stratigraphical significance of the landscape evolution in this region.

  1. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  2. Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians living with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C I; Ofoegbu, E N

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. National and international guidelines on management of diabetes therefore emphasize control to goals of blood glucose, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and obesity so as to minimize the development of complications and enhance the patients' quality of life. To evaluate the status of control to goals of cardiometabolic risk factors among the diabetic patients attending the Diabetes clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. A survey of 233 type 2 diabetic patients recruited from the Diabetes clinic of our hospital was carried out. Standard procedures as described in the WHO STEP instrument were used to determine the waist circumference, weight, height, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles were also assessed. Therapeutic goals used to define risk or poor control were values adopted by expert groups such as American diabetes association (ADA), National cholesterol education program (NCEP), American association of clinical endocrinologist (AACE) and International diabetes federation (IDF). There were 98 males and 135 females with mean (SD) duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) of 6.7 (6.3) years. Suboptimal glycemic, blood pressure control and dyslipidemia were observed in 65.7%, 51.9%, 97.1% of the subjects respectively while 60.1% of the subjects were found to be overweight/obese. Comparing the mean indices of risk factors with the recommended therapeutic goals, status of control was optimal for HDL-cholesterol, waist circumference and triglycerides. All the other risk factors were suboptimal. Control to goals of cardiovascular risk factors is poor among the patients. There is the need to identify and tackle the possible contributing factors so as to reduce the morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  3. Factors Related to the Glycemic Control in Lithuanian Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Salem

    2017-01-01

    1) Adolescent female patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have better glycemic control and higher levels of diabetes distress than male patients. 2) Parents of adolescents using insulin pumps experience higher diabetes distress than parents of adolescents using multiple daily injections. 3) No differences in diabetes-related factors, emotional state, diabetes-related distress (in adolescent patients and in their primary care-givers) and social factors in groups of adolescent patients ...

  4. Application of fuzzy synthetic assessment to assess human factors design level on reactor control panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xuecheng

    1999-01-01

    Reactor control panel design level on human factors must be considered by designer. The author evaluated the human factor design level of arrangement and combinations including the switch buttons, meter dials and indication lamps on Minjiang Reactor and High-Flux Engineer Test Reactor (HFETR) critical device by application of fuzzy synthetic assessment method in mathematics. From the assessment results, the advantages and shortcomings are fount, and some modification suggestions have also been proposed

  5. Potential Effect of Opium Consumption on Controlling Diabetes and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnair...

  6. Controlling factors of uranium mineralization and prospect prediction in Qimantage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunling; Zhu Pengfei; Cai Yuqi; Zhang Wenming; Zhao Yong'an; Song Jiye; Zhang Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of regional geology in Qimantage area, the condition for uranium mineralization is summarized in regional geology setting, volcanic, granite and faults. This study shows that this area has favorable prospect for uranium mineralization. The metallogenic model is built up according to the controlling factors over uranium mineralization. Under this model, six potential areas are predicted in MRAS software with mineralization factors of synthetically geological information method. (authors)

  7. An Overview of the Application of Human Factors Guidance to Control Room Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yondola, Paul R.; Karlewicz, George T.

    2002-01-01

    A new power plant design has the goal of making major improvements in cost and ease of operation over previous designs. Improvements in the way information is organized and presented to control room operators based on established Human Factors Engineering (HFE) criteria is key to achieving these goals. An overview of the process and methods being employed in an ongoing design effort will be discussed, including the ways in which current Human Factors guidance is being applied in a unique operating environment

  8. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  9. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression: a risk factor refined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, A; Henderson, A S; Andrews, G

    1993-02-01

    It has been well established that individuals with a history of depression report their parents as being less caring and more overprotective of them than do controls. 'Affectionless control' in childhood has thus been proposed as a risk factor for depression. Evidence is presented from a logistic regression analysis of data from a volunteer community sample that lack of care rather than over-protection is the primary risk factor. No evidence for an interaction effect of low care and over-protection was found.

  10. Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengzhuo

    1998-01-01

    Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPP) is in a forward position of science and technology, which began at American TMI severe accident and had been implemented in China. The importance and the significance of the safety review are expounded, the requirements of its scope and profundity are explained in detail. In addition, the situation of the technical document system for nuclear safety regulation on human factors engineering and control rooms of NPP in China is introduced briefly, on which the safety review is based

  11. The role of hormones and growth factors in the cellular proliferation control in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is done about fibroblast proliferation, its control by classic hormones and hormonal growth factors, showing their main implications and the stage of this research at present. The control exerted on fibronlast proliferation by hormonal growth factors and classic hormones is demonstrated. The existence of basic mechanisms valid for all types of cells is suggested. Experiences are carried out with the aim of finding growth mutants useful in the elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms involved in growth regulation. Radiactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  12. 3D microwave cavity with magnetic flux control and enhanced quality factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshitnyk, Yarema [The University of Queensland, School of Mathematics and Physics, St Lucia (Australia); Jerger, Markus [The University of Queensland, ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, 4072 (Australia); Fedorov, Arkady [The University of Queensland, School of Mathematics and Physics, St Lucia (Australia); The University of Queensland, ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, 4072 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) microwave cavities have been extensively used for coupling and interacting with superconducting quantum bits (qubits), providing a versatile platform for quantum control experiments and for realizing hybrid quantum systems. While having high quality factors (>10{sup 6}) superconducting cavities do not permit magnetic field control of qubits. In contrast, cavities made of normal metals are transparent to magnetic fields, but experience lower quality factors (∝10{sup 4}). We have created a hybrid cavity which is primarily composed of aluminium but also contains a small copper insert reaching the internal quality factor of ≅10{sup 5}, an order of magnitude improvement over all previously tested normal metal cavities. In order to demonstrate precise magnetic control, we performed spectroscopy of three superconducting qubits, where individual control of each qubit's frequency was exerted with small external wire coils. An improvement in quality factor and magnetic field control makes this 3D hybrid cavity an attractive new element for circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of Human Error Types and Performance Shaping Factors in the Next Generation Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Y. C.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, J. H.

    2008-04-01

    Main control room of nuclear power plants has been computerized and digitalized in new and modernized plants, as information and digital technologies make great progresses and become mature. Survey on human factors engineering issues in advanced MCRs: Model-based approach, Literature survey-based approach. Analysis of human error types and performance shaping factors is analysis of three human errors. The results of project can be used for task analysis, evaluation of human error probabilities, and analysis of performance shaping factors in the HRA analysis

  14. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Vladimir; Šipetić Sandra; Vlajinac Hristina; Stošić-Divjak Svetlana; Ješić Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. ...

  15. Determinants of risk factor control in subjects with coronary heart disease : a report from the EUROASPIRE III investigators.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-04-18

    The EUROASPIRE audits of risk factor control have indicated that, even in those with established coronary heart disease, risk factor control remains poor. We therefore analysed the EUROASPRE III data set to establish the factors associated with success or failure in risk factor control in order to inform future risk factor management strategies. University education, attendance at a specialist cardiology clinic, and participation in a cardiac rehabilitation programme were associated with improved risk factor control. Risk factor control was poorer in women, those with diabetes, and those undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery as opposed to medical therapy or percutaneous coronary intervention. Increasing age, depression, and anxiety were not associated with poorer risk factor control.

  16. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist-guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  17. Factors associated with glycemic control among diabetic adult out-patients in Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiseha, Temesgen; Alemayehu, Ermiyas; Kassahun, Wongelawit; Adamu, Aderaw; Gebreweld, Angesom

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the status of glycemic control and identify factors associated with poor glycemic control among diabetic out-patients. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 384 (126 type 1 and 258 type 2) diabetic adults attending a hospital in Northeast Ethiopia from January 1 to April 30, 2017. Of the total participants, 70.8% had poor status of glycemic control (defined as mean fasting blood glucose level above 130 mg/dl). In the multivariate analysis, rural residence (AOR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.37-4.96), low educational level (AOR = 7.10, 95% CI 2.94-17.17) and longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.18-4.08) were significantly associated with increased odds of poor glycemic control. Moreover, merchants (AOR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.16-9.96) were significantly more likely to have poor glycemic control compared to government employee. Diabetic patients receiving oral anti-diabetics (AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 2.10-12.52) or insulin (AOR = 3.26, 95% CI 1.26-8.48) were more likely to be poorly controlled. These results highlight the needed for appropriate management of patients focusing on associated factors identified for poor glycemic control to maintain good glycemic control and improve adverse outcomes of the disease in this study setting.

  18. Factors associated with overestimation of asthma control: A cross-sectional study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereznicki, Bonnie J; Chapman, Millicent P; Bereznicki, Luke R E

    2017-05-01

    To investigate actual and perceived disease control in Australians with asthma, and identify factors associated with overestimation of asthma control. This was a cross-sectional study of Australian adults with asthma, who were recruited via Facebook to complete an online survey. The survey included basic demographic questions, and validated tools assessing asthma knowledge, medication adherence, medicine beliefs, illness perception and asthma control. Items that measured symptoms and frequency of reliever medication use were compared to respondents' self-rating of their own asthma control. Predictors of overestimation of asthma control were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Of 2971 survey responses, 1950 (65.6%) were complete and eligible for inclusion. Overestimation of control was apparent in 45.9% of respondents. Factors independently associated with overestimation of asthma control included education level (OR = 0.755, 95% CI: 0.612-0.931, P = 0.009), asthma knowledge (OR = 0.942, 95% CI: 0.892-0.994, P = 0.029), total asthma control, (OR = 0.842, 95% CI: 0.818-0.867, P addictive (OR = 1.144, 95% CI: 1.017-1.287, P = 0.025), and increased feelings of control over asthma (OR = 1.261, 95% CI: 1.191-1.335), P < 0.001). Overestimation of asthma control remains a significant issue in Australians with asthma. The study highlights the importance of encouraging patients to express their feelings about asthma control and beliefs about medicines, and to be more forthcoming with their asthma symptoms. This would help to reveal any discrepancies between perceived and actual asthma control.

  19. Factors Leading to the Loss of Natural Elite Control of HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, María; Tarancón-Diez, Laura; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Gómez, Josep; Prado, Julia G; Casado, Concepción; Dominguez-Molina, Beatriz; Olivares, Isabel; Coiras, Maite; León, Agathe; Rodriguez, Carmen; Benito, Jose Miguel; Rallón, Norma; Plana, Montserrat; Martinez-Madrid, Onofre; Dapena, Marta; Iribarren, Jose Antonio; Del Romero, Jorge; García, Felipe; Alcamí, José; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles; Vidal, Francisco; Leal, Manuel; Lopez-Galindez, Cecilio; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel

    2017-12-06

    HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) maintain undetectable viral load (VL) in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. However, these subjects have heterogeneous clinical outcomes including a proportion loosing HIV-1 control over time. In this work we compared, in a longitudinal design, transient EC, analyzed before and after the loss of virological control, versus persistent EC. The aim was to identify factors leading to the loss of natural virological control of HIV-1-infection with a longitudinal retrospective study design. Gag-specific T-cell response was assessed by in vitro intracellular poly-cytokine production quantified by flow cytometry. Viral diversity and sequence-dating were performed in proviral DNA by PCR amplification at limiting dilution in env and gag genes. The expression profile of 70 serum cytokines and chemokines was assessed by multiplex immunoassays. We identified transient EC as subjects with low Gag-specific T-cell polyfunctionality, high viral diversity and high proinflammatory cytokines levels before the loss of control. Gag-specific T-cell polyfunctionality was inversely associated with viral diversity in transient controllers before the loss of control (r=-0.8; p =0.02). RANTES was a potential biomarker of transient control. This study identified, virological and immunological factors including inflammatory biomarkers associated with two different phenotypes within EC. These results may allow a more accurate definition of EC, which could help in a better clinical management of these individuals and in the development of future curative approaches. IMPORTANCE There is a rare group of HIV-infected patients who have the extraordinary capacity to maintain undetectable viral load levels in the absence of antiretroviral treatment, the so called HIV-1 elite controllers (EC). However, there is a proportion within these subjects that eventually loses this capability. In this work we found differences in virological and immune factors including soluble

  20. Therapeutic interventions and success in risk factor control for secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sabin, Jose; Quintana, Manuel; Hernandez-Presa, Miguel Angel; Alvarez, Carlos; Chaves, Jose; Ribo, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the success rates in achieving preventive therapeutic goals in patients who experienced an ischemic stroke (IS) and compare them with those achieved in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This was an observational multicenter case-control study (3 patients with IS and one control subject with CAD) performed in 1444 primary health centers in Spain. Preventive therapeutic objectives according to American Heart Association guidelines were predefined. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, and success/failure in achievement of objectives were recorded and compared between patients with IS and CAD. A total of 5458 patients were included, 4098 (75.1%) had IS and 1360 (24.9%) had CAD. Although more than 90% of patients with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia were under specific drug regimens, only about 25% achieved the recommended therapeutic objective for each risk factor. Success rate was especially low among patients with IS compared with CAD: hypertension (23.8% v 27.2%; P = .028); dyslipidemia (13.6% v 20.3%; P risk factors under control, compared with 5.6% of those with CAD (P = .006). For all patients, multivariate logistic regression model showed that independent predictors of full risk factor control were: presence of CAD as compared with IS (odds ratio [OR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-3.29; P = .001), older age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.04; P = .028), and having less than 3 risk factors (OR 16.98; 95% CI 9.02-31.97; P risk factor control.

  1. Determination of power peak factor using control rods, ex-core detectors and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rose Mary Gomes do Prado

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a methodology based on the artificial neural network technique to predict in real time the power peak factor in a form that can be implemented in reactor protection systems. The neural network inputs were those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial and quadrant power differences obtained from measured ex-core detector signals, and the position of control rods. The response of ex core detector signals was measured in experiments especially performed in the IPEN/MB-01 zero-power reactor. Several reactor states with different power density distribution were obtained by positioning the control rods in different configurations. The power distribution and its peak factor were calculated for each of these reactor states using the Citation code. The obtained results show that the power peak factor correlates well with the control rod position and the quadrant power difference, and with a lesser degree with the axial power differences. The data presented an inherent organisation and could be classified into different classes of power peak factor behaviour as a function of position of control rods, axial power difference and quadrant power difference. The RBF networks were able to identify classes and interpolate the power peak factor values. The relative error for the power peak factor estimation ranged from 0.19 % to 0.67 %, less than the one that was obtained performing a power density distribution map with in-core detectors. It was observed that the positions of control rods bear the detailed and localised information about the power density distribution, and that the axial and the quadrant power difference describe its global variations in the axial and radial directions. The results showed that the RBF and MLP networks produced similar results, and that a neural network correlation can be implemented in power reactor protection systems. (author)

  2. [Asthma control status in children and related factors in 29 cities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the status of asthma control in the city and severity of asthma in children and to identify related factors. This study was conducted in one children's hospital or tertiary hospital in each of the 29 provinces except Xinjiang and Xizang Autonomous Regions. Totally, 2960 parents with asthmatic children ages 0 to 14 years, and all had been diagnosed with asthma at least 3 months ago and the course was more than 12 months, who visited those hospitals were selected for the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire survey, and separated into the controlled asthma group and uncontrolled asthma group according to children's asthma conditions in the past 12 months. Multivariate analysis was carried out based on the answers to 28 tested factors; 2485 of 2960 questionnaires from 29 provinces were valid. Of the 2485 valid questionnaires, 66.0% asthmatic children had asthma attacks in the past 12 months, 26.8% asthmatic children had visited the emergency department, 16.2% asthmatic children had been hospitalized. The total cost was significantly higher in the uncontrolled group than in contro group (χ² = 23.14, P asthma control, knowledge of "3 or more times recurrent wheezing suggesting asthma", knowledge of "cough lasting for more than 4 weeks suggesting asthma", knowledge of "cough improved with bronchodilators suggesting asthma", knowledge of "awareness of using short-acting β₂ agonist for acute attack", avoiding contact with plush toys, adhere to use nasal steroid, inhaled corticosteroids/composite preparation, age of children and course of asthma in children are protective factors that affect asthma control and severity of asthma in children. Food allergies, eczema and family history of asthma are risk factors. Asthma in many children was poorly controlled. Factors that affect asthma control and severity include parents' knowledge about asthma, exposure to adverse environment, the compliance with medication and regular visits for asthma

  3. New interpretation of the dominant ore-controlling factor of the uranium ore field No. 322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Yang Chongqiu

    1996-01-01

    The NE-trending fault structures in ore field NO. 322 are characterized by compress-shearing, left-Lateral left-slipping, having an obvious control over the Localisation of the ore field No. 322, and are the dominant ore-controlling factor of the ore field NO.322. Resulting from the sinistral displacement of the NE-trending fault, there is a pull-apart basin in the Feng Zhou area. The formation and evolution of the NE-trending fault zone and the Feng Zhou basin control the formation of uranium deposits of ore field No. 322

  4. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  5. The effects of non-controllable factors in efficiency evaluation of Turkish Coal Enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasap, Y.; Konuk, A.; Gasimov, R.N.; Kilic, A.M.

    2007-12-15

    In this study, which aims to examine the effects of non-controllable factors as well as input parameters on the efficiency performances of Turkish Coal Mine Enterprises, eight enterprises within Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE) were examined. In order to keep the study as up-to-date as possible, data from the latest year (2005) was examined. For each enterprise, the outputs consisted of the amount of the production sold and the total income gained in the corresponding year; the controllable inputs consisted of investment expenditure, overburden stripping and number of staff; and non-controllable inputs consisted of total reserve and low heat values. In order to measure the effects of non-controllable inputs on enterprise efficiency, three-stage modified data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was employed. In the first stage, information concerning the efficiency of the enterprises was gained by using only the controllable inputs and outputs. In the second stage, the effects of non-controllable inputs on controllable inputs in inefficient enterprises were examined. Lastly in the third stage, the new efficiency values were calculated by means of DEA where controllable inputs and outputs modified according to non-controllable inputs were used. Considering the non-controllable inputs as a result of the analyses conducted with three-stage DEA model, it was determined that the average efficiency value of Turkish Coal Enterprises increased from 87.5% to 92.3%.

  6. A case-control study evaluating relative risk factors for decompression sickness: a research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoko; Yagishita, Kazuyosi; Togawa, Seiichiro; Okazaki, Fumihiro; Shibayama, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the pathogenesis of decompression sickness (DCS) in divers have been described in many studies. However, relative importance of these factors has not been reported. In this case-control study, we compared the diving profiles of divers experiencing DCS with those of a control group. The DCS group comprised 35 recreational scuba divers who were diagnosed by physicians as having DCS. The control group consisted of 324 apparently healthy recreational divers. All divers conducted their dives from 2009 to 2011. The questionnaire consisted of 33 items about an individual's diving profile, physical condition and activities before, during and just after the dive. To simplify dive parameters, the dive site was limited to Izu Osezaki. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression were used for the analysis. Odds ratios revealed several items as dive and health factors associated with DCS. The major items were as follows: shortness of breath after heavy exercise during the dive (OR = 12.12), dehydration (OR = 10.63), and maximum dive depth > 30 msw (OR = 7.18). Results of logistic regression were similar to those by odds ratio analysis. We assessed the relative weights of the surveyed dive and health factors associated with DCS. Because results of several factors conflict with previous studies, future studies are needed.

  7. CONTROLLING FACTORS OF POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ABOVE GRASSLAND IN HUMID AND ARID AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Yanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is an importance process in water balance studies controlled by a number of meteorological factors such as temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, vapor pressure gradient, relative humidity and biological factors such as vegetation type, canopy height and plant density that varied in time-scale and in spatial scale. Of all those variables, determining the most controlling factors of evapotranspiration in humid and arid area is of interest of this paper. Two sites representing humid and arid area i.e. Fermi Prairie site in Illinois and Audubon Research Ranch in Arizona respectively were investigated in this study.  The flux data employed in this study was acquired from Ameriflux Netwotk. Penmann-Monteith formula is employed in to estimate evapotranspiration rate in both sites. The result shows that the PET is in dependence on the considered meteorological factor such as shortwave radiation, vapor pressure, air temperature, wind speed, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. It is also can be inferred from the analysis that PET is also strongly controlled by vegetation factors represented as stomatal resistance. Keywords: Potential evapotranspiration, Penmann-Monteith, humid, arid.

  8. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. CONCLUSIONS: In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  9. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-11-25

    Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  10. Medical risk factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown. This study utilized a population-based case-control design using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan to assess the medical conditions associated with cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: 5,157 incident cases of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed during 2004 to 2008 and 20,628 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls were identified from the NHIRD. Medical risk factors were ascertained from the NHIRD for each individual. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between cholangiocarcinoma and each medical risk factor. RESULTS: The results showed that factors associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma included cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and peptic ulcer. In addition, sex and age differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association between cholangiocarcinoma and several less established risk factors, including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and peptic ulcer (proxy for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori. Future studies should focus on finding additional environmental and genetic causes of cholangiocarcinoma.

  11. Factors associated with suicide: Case-control study in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Giancarlo; Innamorati, Marco; Baldessarini, Ross J; De Leo, Diego; de Giovannelli, Francesca; Pycha, Roger; Conca, Andreas; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    As suicide is related to many factors in addition to psychiatric illness, broad and comprehensive risk-assessment for risk of suicide is required. This study aimed to differentiate nondiagnostic risk factors among suicides versus comparable psychiatric patients without suicidal behavior. We carried out a pilot, case-control comparison of 131 cases of suicide in South Tyrol matched for age and sex with 131 psychiatric controls, using psychological autopsy methods to evaluate differences in clinically assessed demographic, social, and clinical factors, using bivariate conditional Odds Risk comparisons followed by conditional regression modeling controlled for ethnicity. Based on multivariable conditional regression modeling, suicides were significantly more likely to have experienced risk factors, ranking as: [a] family history of suicide or attempt≥[b] recent interpersonal stressors≥[c] childhood traumatic events≥[d] lack of recent clinician contacts≥[e] previous suicide attempt≥[f] non-Italian ethnicity, but did not differ in education, marital status, living situation, or employment, nor by psychiatric or substance-abuse diagnoses. Both recent and early factors were associated with suicide, including lack of recent clinical care, non-Italian cultural subgroup-membership, familial suicidal behavior, and recent interpersonal distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for chronic periodontitis in Sri Lankan adults: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2017-09-07

    To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.

  13. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Ssengooba, Willy; Muwonge, Catherine; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Kyaligonza, Stephen; Kasozi, Samuel; Mugabe, Frank; Boeree, Martin; Joloba, Moses; Okwera, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the other TB risk

  14. Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jaime; Thabut, Dominique; Albillos, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal...

  15. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  16. Designing simulation experiments with controllable and uncontrollable factors for applications in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Kulahci, Murat; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for designing computer experiments that was inspired by the split-plot designs that are often used in physical experimentation.The methodology has been developed for a simulation model of a surgical unit in a Danish hospital.We classify the factors as controllable and...

  17. Shared control of gene expression in bacteria by transcription factors and global physiology of the cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berthoumieux, S.; Jong, H. de; Baptist, G.; Pinel, C.; Ranquet, C.; Ropers, D.; Geiselmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the joint effect of (i) the global physiological state of the cell, in particular the activity of the gene expression machinery, and (ii) DNA-binding transcription factors and other specific regulators. We present a model-based approach to distinguish between these

  18. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  19. Longitudinal Factor Structure of General Self-Concept and Locus of Control among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Su, Ihui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal factor structure of general self-concept and locus of control among high school students over a 4-year period, with data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Measurement invariance was tested over time and across gender and ethnic groups; second-order piecewise latent growth models were…

  20. Analysis on ore-controlling factors of Zhajistan uranium deposit, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Zhongming

    2000-01-01

    The geologic-structural background where the Zhajistan uranium deposit is located, and sedimentary features of the basin, as well as ore-controlling factors such as the uranium source, the reductant, hydrogeologic conditions and development features of interlayer oxidation zone in Zhajistan, are analysed. Then the author proposes the most favourable sedimentary cycle for uranium metallogenesis and the most favourable prospecting areas

  1. R Factor-Controlled Restriction and Modification of Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Restriction Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Robert; Roulland-Dussoix, Daisy; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1972-01-01

    Restriction mutants of two different R factor-controlled host specificities (RI and RII) were isolated. All of the restriction mutants examined had a normal modification phenotype. No complementation was observed between the RI and RII host specificities. It is concluded that for each host specificity no protein subunit is shared by the restriction endonuclease and modification methylase. PMID:4565538

  2. Risk factors for neural tube defects in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Case-controlled study on risk factors for the development of constipation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Tetsuya; Nagai, Keiko; Ooe, Nobuharu; Nakashima, Mihoko N; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Nakashima, Mikiro

    2011-03-01

    Constipation is a common problem in hospitalized patients; however, the relative risks of its development with various factors have not been clarified. To clarify the risk factors associated with constipation, we performed a case-controlled study of 165 hospitalized patients who were not laxative users on admission. They were divided into case (n=35) and control (n=130) groups according to laxative administration during hospitalization. Comparison of the patient backgrounds in the two groups revealed significant differences in the activities of daily living, length of fasting, rest level on admission, cerebrovascular disease, and administration of hypnotics. Multiple logistic regression analysis using these five factors as autonomous variables showed that administration of hypnotics (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-7.06; p=0.031) was significantly related to laxative use. Therefore, the administration of hypnotics may be the principal cause of constipation development in hospitalized patients and they should be used with caution.

  4. [A case-control study on the risk factors of esophageal cancer in Linzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Lian, S; Sun, X; Zhang, Z; Dai, D; Li, B; Cheng, L; Wei, J; Duan, W

    2000-12-01

    To explore the characteristics of prevalence and influencing factors on the genesis of esophageal cancer. A population-based 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted in Linzhou. A total number of 352 pairs of cases and controls matched on sex, age and neighborhoods. Data was analysed by SAS software to calculate the odds ratio of and to evaluate the relative risks. It was found that lower socio-economic status, environmental pollution around the residential areas, lampblack in room, lower body mass index (BMI), more pickled food intake, cigarette smoking, alcoholic drinking, vigor mental-trauma and depression were risk factors of esophageal cancer. It also showed that the subjects having had history of upper digestive tract operation, dysplasia of esophagus and family history of carcinoma markedly increased the risks of developing esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer seemed to be resulted from the combination of genetic and environmental factor, hence called for of medical surveillance and comprehensive prevention.

  5. Risk factors in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Smith, C; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I

    2013-02-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition, but relatively little is known about its aetiology and associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for lateral epicondylitis in the community. Our dataset included 4998 patients with lateral epicondylitis who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice. The median age at diagnosis was 49 (interquartile range 42-56) years . Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with lateral epicondylitis were rotator cuff pathology (OR 4.95), De Quervain's disease (OR 2.48), carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 1.50), oral corticosteroid therapy (OR 1.68), and previous smoking history (OR 1.20). Diabetes mellitus, current smoking, trigger finger, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol intake, and obesity were not found to be associated with lateral epicondylitis.

  6. Risk factors for choledocholithiasis in a south Indian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Alexander Palapatti; Sivarajan, Ramya Ramakrishnan; Srinivas, Melpakkam; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2013-11-01

    To identify risk factors for common bile duct (CBD) stones in a south Indian population. Demographic characteristics and diet details were obtained from patients with isolated CBD stones (Gp I) and those with combined CBD and gallstones (Gp II) and age- and sex-matched controls. The risk factors were compared between the two groups. The demographic characteristics were similar between the two groups and matched controls. The significant risk factors for Gp I were infrequent consumption of green vegetable (odds ratio (OR), 2.3; p 3 times per week) of spices (OR, 2.8; p oil (p oil intake (251 + 105 vs. 292 + 89 mL; p CBD stones in both groups were associated with reduced intake of sugar and green vegetables. Our findings need to be validated in larger studies.

  7. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  8. [Analysis of population survey for determining the factors associated with the control diabetes mellitus in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso Claudio; Elnecavé-Olaiz, Alejandro; Huerta-Uribe, Nidia; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Determine the influence of nutritional counseling, exercise, access to social healthcare and drugs, and the quality of medical care on the control of diabetics. The information and blood samples were obtained in 2005. Glycemic control was defined as good if HbA1c was ≤7.0%, poor from 7.01%-9.50% and very poor if HbA1c >9.5%. Binary logistic regression models were used to determine the association of these factors with HbA1c>9.5%. Thirty percent of the patients with a medical diagnosis of diabetes had adequate metabolic control. Nutritional guidance was associated with an increase in the degree of control. A majority of diabetics have poor or very poor glycemic control. Strengthening the quality of and access to medical care for these patients is urgently needed.

  9. [Cardiovascular risk factor control in a population with longstanding diabetes attending endocrinology departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi-Diaz, Cristina; Miralles-García, José M; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Pérez, María; Masramon, Xavier; De Pablos-Velasco, Pedro

    2010-12-01

    To determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending Endocrinology and Nutrition Departments in Spain. An epidemiological, cross-sectional, multicenter and observational study involving 41 Departments of Endocrinology and Nutrition in Spain. Each department selected patients with DM with over 10 years of evolution, which were treated in outpatient settings. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical data, including medication, were collected for each participant. 1159 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. 52% of the participants were patients with type 2 DM. The mean duration of DM was 19.6 years. A proportion of 37%, 44%, 27.6% and 25.5% had good control of their blood pressure (BP), low density cholesterol (LDLc), lipids and glucose, respectively, and only 4.3% did well in all factors evaluated. The percentage of poorly controlled BP was four times higher in type 2 than in type 1 DM. Obesity, low cultural level and aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with poorer control. The degree of control of CVRF in diabetic patients with long disease duration is insufficient. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Closed-loop control with a coupling factor using an AO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Y-S; Baik, S-H; Park, S-K; Hong, S-K; Lim, C; Kim, C-J

    2008-01-01

    To stabilize a closed-loop control for a wavefront correction of a distorted laser beam, the instrumentation of an adaptive optics system and the closed-loop wavefront correction algorithms were investigated. We proposed a new control algorithm using a coupling factor from the zonal and the modal ideas. Compensating for an arbitrary wavefront distortion of a laser beam in the real-time, the wavefront correction speed was 5 Hz using the proposed methods of a zonal control with a coupling factor. Although the correction speed is slower in the new algorithm, the correction accuracy is more stable. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is appropriate for the wavefront correction of a low frequency fluctuation

  11. Lyapunov-based distributed control of the safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Witrant, Emmanuel; Prieur, Christophe; Brémond, Sylvain; Nouailletas, Rémy; Artaud, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    A real-time model-based controller is developed for the tracking of the distributed safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma. Using relevant physical models and simplifying assumptions, theoretical stability and robustness guarantees were obtained using a Lyapunov function. This approach considers the couplings between the poloidal flux diffusion equation, the time-varying temperature profiles and an independent total plasma current control. The actuator chosen for the safety-factor profile tracking is the lower hybrid current drive, although the results presented can be easily extended to any non-inductive current source. The performance and robustness of the proposed control law is evaluated with a physics-oriented simulation code on Tore Supra experimental test cases. (paper)

  12. Enhancing the NCSU PULSTAR reactor control room with human factors considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, B.L.; Pupons, D.E.; Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The North Carolina PULSTAR research reactor was constructed to support teaching, training, and research. The training provided is not limited to academic students but encompasses plant operators, managers, engineers, designers, and supporting organizations in the nuclear industry. Our facility is under-going design changes to maximize teaching effectiveness and continued safe operation by providing current technology in the control room. The opportunity for the enhancements is a result of the generosity of neighboring utilities and the US Department of Energy instrumentation upgrade funds. Our objective, to provide a control room environment that conforms to selected industry practices, required human factors input. A human factors course, offered jointly between the industrial engineering and the psychology departments, included the PULSTAR control room enhancement as a case study

  13. Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, K M; Seto, M C; Sariaslan, A; Lichtenstein, P; Fazel, S; Långström, N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.

  14. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 activity controls 4-hydroxynonenal metabolism and activity in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Ciamporcero, Eric; Medana, Claudio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Dal Bello, Federica; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Toaldo, Cristina; Minelli, Rosalba; Uchida, Koji; Dianzani, Mario Umberto; Pili, Roberto; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2011-10-15

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is an end product of lipoperoxidation with antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in various tumors. Here we report a greater sensitivity to HNE in PC3 and LNCaP cells compared to DU145 cells. In contrast to PC3 and LNCaP cells, HNE-treated DU145 cells showed a smaller reduction in growth and did not undergo apoptosis. In DU145 cells, HNE did not induce ROS production and DNA damage and generated a lower amount of HNE-protein adducts. DU145 cells had a greater GSH and GST A4 content and GSH/GST-mediated HNE detoxification. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a regulator of the antioxidant response. Nrf2 protein content and nuclear accumulation were higher in DU145 cells compared to PC3 and LNCaP cells, whereas the expression of KEAP1, the main negative regulator of Nrf2 activity, was lower. Inhibition of Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in GST A4 expression and GS-HNE formation, indicating that Nrf2 controls HNE metabolism. In addition, Nrf2 knockdown sensitized DU145 cells to HNE-mediated antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that increased Nrf2 activity resulted in a reduction in HNE sensitivity in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential mechanism of resistance to pro-oxidant therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Women's perceived internal control of future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Azam; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh

    2013-03-01

    With regards to the importance of women's beliefs in improving pregnancy outcomes, this study was performed to determine the perceived internal control on future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors in women who participated in pre-marital counseling. In a cross-sectional study, women's perceived internal control was investigated. The study population comprised the women in reproductive age of whom 400 were selected by random sampling. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of demographic, pre-conceptional care, and internal control questions. Two categories of favorite and not favorite levels of internal control were defined based on the total score. The validity of the questionnaire was determined via content validity method by use of experts' opinion and its reliability was evaluated through the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.76. Data were analyzed through frequency tables, correlation coefficient, and Chi-square test at the confidence level of 0.95. Two hundred sixty-five (65%) women had a good perceived internal control and it was significantly associated with the age, educational level, and hearing about pre-conceptional care. The internal control score also showed a positive and significant correlation with both age and the subject knowledge about folic acid (r = 0.19 and r = 0.15, respectively). The majority of women had a favorite perceived internal control. Since age and educational level were the affecting factors on the perceived internal control of women, promoting the level of internal control in young women and those with low education in pre-marital counseling classes seems necessary.

  16. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A HUMAN FACTORS META MODEL FOR U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several years, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored human factors research and development (R&D) and human factors engineering (HFE) activities through its Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to modernize the main control rooms (MCR) of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with numerous commercial nuclear utilities, has conducted some of this R&D to enable the life extension of NPPs (i.e., provide the technical basis for the long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of U.S. NPPs). From these activities performed to date, a human factors meta model for U.S. NPP control room modernization can now be formulated. This paper discusses this emergent HFE meta model for NPP control room modernization, with the goal of providing an integrated high level roadmap and guidance on how to perform human factors R&D and HFE for those in the U.S. nuclear industry that are engaging in the process of upgrading their MCRs.

  18. Factors associated with persistent poorly controlled diabetes mellitus: clues to improving management in patients with resistant poor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Matthew J; Holleman, Rob; Klamerus, Mandi L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Edelman, David; Heisler, Michele

    2014-12-01

    Patients with persistent poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (PPDM), defined as an uninterrupted hemoglobin A1c >8.0% for ≥1 year despite standard care, are at high risk for complications. Additional research to define patient factors associated with PPDM could suggest barriers to improvement in this group and inform the development of targeted strategies to address these patients' resistant diabetes. We analyzed patients with type 2 diabetes from a multi-site randomized trial. We characterized patients with PPDM relative to other patients using detailed survey data and multivariable modeling. Of 963 patients, 118 (12%) had PPDM, 265 (28%) were intermittently poorly controlled, and 580 (60%) were well-controlled. Patients with PPDM had younger age, earlier diabetes diagnosis, insulin use, higher antihypertensive burden, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower statin use relative to well-controlled patients. Among patients with objective adherence data (Veterans Affairs patients), a larger oral diabetes medication refill gap was associated with PPDM. Strategies are needed to target-specific barriers to improvement among patients whose diabetes is resistant to standard diabetes care. Our data suggest that strategies for targeting PPDM should accommodate younger patients' lifestyles, include medication management for insulin titration and comorbid disease conditions, and address barriers to self-management adherence. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Homocysteine status and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A-M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative, cutaneous disorder with the potential to lower levels of folate. This may result in raised levels of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to compare levels of red-cell folate (RCF) and homocysteine in patients with psoriasis and in healthy controls. Levels of homocysteine were also examined in the context of other major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In total, 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 controls had their RCF, homo-cysteine and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had a trend towards lower levels of RCF. Significantly raised levels of homocysteine were found in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P = 0.007). There was no correlation between homocysteine levels, RCF levels or disease activity as measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (P < 0.004) and higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. This may contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with psoriasis.

  20. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  1. Risk and protective factors for spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Kimber, Kamille; Sauder, Cara; Houtz, Daniel R; Doman, Darrin; Smith, Marshall E

    2011-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and often disabling voice disorder of unknown pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify possible endogenous and exogenous risk and protective factors uniquely associated with SD. Prospective, exploratory, case-control investigation. One hundred fifty patients with SD and 150 medical controls (MCs) were interviewed regarding their personal and family histories, environmental exposures, illnesses, injuries, voice use patterns, and general health using a previously vetted and validated epidemiologic questionnaire. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression analyses (α<0.15) identified several factors that significantly increased the likelihood of having SD. These factors included (1) a personal history of mumps, blepharospasm, tremor, intense occupational and avocational voice use, and a family history of voice disorders; (2) an immediate family history of meningitis, tremor, tics, cancer, and compulsive behaviors; and (3) an extended family history of tremor and cancer. SD is likely multifactorial in etiology, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Viral infections/exposures, along with intense voice use, may trigger the onset of SD in genetically predisposed individuals. Future studies should examine the interaction among genetic and environmental factors to determine the pathogenesis of SD. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maia

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A controlled trial was performed with the purpose of investigating which factors could be considered of significant risk for the development of basal cell carcinoma. A total of 259 cases of basal cell carcinoma diagnosed from July 1991 to July 1992 were compared with 518 controls matched for age and sex. All subjects in both groups were white. Protocol data were submitted to statistical analysis by the chi-square test and by multiple conditional logistic regression analysis and the following conclusions were reached: 1 light skin color (types I and II of the Fitzpatrick classification, odds ratio of 2.8; outdoor work under constant sunlight, odds ratio of 5.0; the presence of actinic lesions due to exposure to the sun, odds ratio of 4.9, are risk factors perse. 2 Type III skin in the Fitzpatrick classification only represents a risk factor when the patient reports a history of intense sunburns, but not in the absence of such a history. 3 Sunburns per se do not represent a risk factor althorig the point made in item 2 of these conclusions is valid. 4 Other suspected risk factors whose significance was not confirmed by multiple conditioned logistic regression analysis were: residence in rural areas, light eyes and blond hair color, extent of the awareness of the "sun x skin cancer" relationship, familial occurrence of skin cancer, excessive exposure to the sun, and freckles appearing in childhood.

  3. Efficiency and hardware comparison of analog control-based and digital control-based 70 W two-stage power factor corrector and DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling...... is described. Results show that digital control can compete with the analog one in efficiency, PFC and THD....

  4. Control of the tokamak safety factor profile with time-varying constraints using MPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; De Baar, M.R.; Geelen, P.J.M.; Steinbuch, M.; Van Dongen, J.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.

    2015-01-01

    A controller is designed for the tokamak safety factor profile that takes real-time-varying operational and physics limits into account. This so-called model predictive controller (MPC) employs a prediction model in order to compute optimal control inputs that satisfy the given limits. The use of linearized models around a reference trajectory results in a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved online. The performance of the controller is analysed in a set of ITER L-mode scenarios simulated with the non-linear plasma transport code RAPTOR. It is shown that the controller can reduce the tracking error due to an overestimation or underestimation of the modelled transport, while making a trade-off between residual error and amount of controller action. It is also shown that the controller can account for a sudden decrease in the available actuator power, while providing warnings ahead of time about expected violations of operational and physics limits. This controller can be extended and implemented in existing tokamaks in the near future. (paper)

  5. Clusters Regarding Key Factors Affecting Changes in Accounting, Finance, Administration and Management Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gabriela Blidisel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, important changes have occurred in public governance, which has evolved in this time from hierarchical bureaucracy to participatory governance, where the role of citizens in public decision-making process is more direct. There were performed reforms in finance, management administration and finances of public sector. Starting from the factors that influenced during the history the accounting, finances, administration and management control, we want to test the factors that affect the changes of these elements in Romanian environment.

  6. A community study of factors related to poorly controlled asthma among Brazilian urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Magalhães Simões

    Full Text Available Asthma constitutes a serious public health problem in many regions of the world, including the city of Salvador, State of Bahia-Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyse the factors associated with poor asthma control.Two definitions were used for asthma: 1 wheezing in the last 12 months; 2 wheezing in the last 12 months plus other asthma symptoms or asthma diagnosis ever. The definition of poorly controlled asthma was: at least one reported hospitalisation due to asthma and/or high frequency of symptoms, in the last year. Children with poorly controlled asthma (N = 187/374 were compared with wheezing children with controlled asthma regarding age, gender, atopy, parental asthma, rhinitis, eczema, exposure to second hand tobacco smoke, presence of moulds, pets and pests in the house, helminth infections and body mass index. Crude and logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. There was a higher proportion of poorly controlled asthma among children with eczema (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.02; 2.37. The strength of the association was greater among children with eczema and rhinitis (42.6%, 53.4% and 57.7%, respectively, in children who had no rhinitis nor eczema, had only one of those, and had both (p = 0.02 for trend test. The presence of mould in the houses was inversely associated with poorly controlled asthma (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.34; 0.87.Our results indicate an association between eczema and poor asthma control in this environment, but emphasize the role of various other individual and environmental factors as determinants of poor control.

  7. Quality of Vitamin K Antagonist Anticoagulation in Spain: Prevalence of Poor Control and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita Sánchez, Manuel; Bertomeu Martínez, Vicente; Cequier Fillat, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    To study the prevalence of poorly controlled vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation in Spain in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and to identify associated factors. We studied 1056 consecutive patients seen at 120 cardiology clinics in Spain between November 2013 and March 2014. We analyzed the international normalized ratio from the 6 months prior to the patient's visit, calculating the prevalence of poorly controlled anticoagulation, defined as < 65% time in therapeutic range using the Rosendaal method. Mean age was 73.6 years (standard deviation, 9.8 years); women accounted for 42% of patients. The prevalence of poorly controlled anticoagulation was 47.3%. Mean time in therapeutic range was 63.8% (25.9%). The following factors were independently associated with poorly controlled anticoagulation: kidney disease (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.18; P = .018), routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.79; P = .004), antiplatelet therapy (odds ratio = 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.12; P < .0001) and absence of angiotensin receptor blockers (odds ratio = 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79; P = .011). There is a high prevalence of poorly controlled vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation in Spain. Factors associated with poor control are kidney disease, routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet use, and absence of angiotensin receptor blockers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A human factors experiment on the event-paced control tasks issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Ki Young; Park, Jong Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    KEPRI(Korea Electric Power Research Institute) requires human factors validation tests according to the progress of the KNGR MMI design. This report describes the experimental results of an human factors validation issue, Event-Paced Control Tasks issue. The Event-Paced Control Task issue is to test that the designed MMI shall support operators in performing control tasks in pace with the plant dynamics. Task completion time and successful execution are defined as performance measures on the issue. Through an experiment on the issue with 3 scenarios and 5 subjects, we report that the variation of task completion time between subjects has a narrow band for each scenarios, however two among the total 15 experimental runs result in the failure that subject does not reach to the predefined operational goal. Incorrect operational strategy, insufficient training, and MMI design discrepancies are inferred as the causes of the failures. However these experimental results don't indicate the close of the Event-Paced Control Tasks issue. The validation test results under the experimental environment composed of the partial MMI representations, an unstable simulator, and insufficient subject training, are significant in the limited conditions. Thus, for the purpose of the complete issue close, the validation test on the Event-Paced Control Tasks issue should be repeatedly carried out in pace with the performance improvement of the experimental environment. 13 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  9. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Fazel Zinat Motlagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS. Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style.

  10. Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV Flapping Motion Control Using an Immune Network with Different Immune Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Neural-Immunology/Memory Network to address the problem of motion control for flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs. This network is inspired by the human memory system as well as the immune system, and it is effective in attenuating the system errors and other lumped system uncertainties. In contrast to most existing Neural Networks, the convergence of this proposed Neural-Immunology/Memory Network can be theoretically proven. Both analyses and simulations that are based on different immune factors show that the proposed control method is effective in dealing with external disturbances, system nonlinearities, uncertainties and parameter variations.

  11. Factors controlling bacteria and protists in selected Mazurian eutrophic lakes (North-Eastern Poland) during spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The bottom-up (food resources) and top-down (grazing pressure) controls, with other environmental parameters (water temperature, pH) are the main factors regulating the abundance and structure of microbial communities in aquatic ecosystems. It is still not definitively decided which of the two control mechanisms is more important. The significance of bottom-up versus top-down controls may alter with lake productivity and season. In oligo- and/or mesotrophic environments, the bottom-up control is mostly important in regulating bacterial abundances, while in eutrophic systems, the top-down control may be more significant. Results The abundance of bacteria, heterotrophic (HNF) and autotrophic (ANF) nanoflagellates and ciliates, as well as bacterial production (BP) and metabolically active cells of bacteria (CTC, NuCC, EST) were studied in eutrophic lakes (Mazurian Lake District, Poland) during spring. The studied lakes were characterized by high nanoflagellate (mean 17.36 ± 8.57 × 103 cells ml-1) and ciliate abundances (mean 59.9 ± 22.4 ind. ml-1) that were higher in the euphotic zone than in the bottom waters, with relatively low bacterial densities (4.76 ± 2.08 × 106 cells ml-1) that were lower in the euphotic zone compared to the profundal zone. Oligotrichida (Rimostrombidium spp.), Prostomatida (Urotricha spp.) and Scuticociliatida (Histiobalantium bodamicum) dominated in the euphotic zone, whereas oligotrichs Tintinnidium sp. and prostomatids Urotricha spp. were most numerous in the bottom waters. Among the staining methods used to examine bacterial cellular metabolic activity, the lowest percentage of active cells was recorded with the CTC (1.5–15.4%) and EST (2.7–14.2%) assay in contrast to the NuCC (28.8–97.3%) method. Conclusions In the euphotic zone, the bottom-up factors (TP and DOC concentrations) played a more important role than top-down control (grazing by protists) in regulating bacterial numbers and activity

  12. Deciphering of ADP-induced, phosphotyrosine-dependent signaling networks in human platelets by Src-homology 2 region (SH2)-profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigel, Hardy; Geiger, Jörg; Beck, Florian; Buhs, Sophia; Gerull, Helwe; Walter, Ulrich; Sickmann, Albert; Nollau, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in signal transduction controlling many important biological processes. In platelets, the activity of several signaling proteins is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation ensuring proper platelet activation and aggregation essential for regulation of the delicate balance between bleeding and hemostasis. Here, we applied Src-homology 2 region (SH2)-profiling for deciphering of the phosphotyrosine state of human platelets activated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Applying a panel of 31 SH2-domains, rapid and complex regulation of the phosphotyrosine state of platelets was observed after ADP stimulation. Specific inhibition of platelet P2Y receptors by synthetic drugs revealed a major role for the P2Y1 receptor in tyrosine phosphorylation. Concomitant activation of protein kinase A (PKA) abolished ADP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Given the fact that PKA activity is negatively regulated by the P2Y12 receptor, our data provide evidence for a novel link of synergistic control of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation by both P2Y receptors. By SH2 domain pull down and MS/MS analysis, we identified distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in cell adhesion molecules, intracellular adapter proteins and phosphatases suggesting a major, functional role of tyrosine phosphorylation of theses candidate proteins in ADP-dependent signaling in human platelets. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of neurotrophic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)

  14. Burning mouth syndrome and associated factors: A case-control retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; de Luca-Monasterios, Fiorella; Schemel-Suárez, Mayra; Rodríguez de Rivera-Campillo, María E; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro M; López-López, José

    2017-02-23

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) can be defined as burning pain or dysesthesia on the tongue and/or other sites of the oral mucosa without a causative identifiable lesion. The discomfort is usually of daily recurrence, with a higher incidence among people aged 50 to 60 years, affecting mostly the female sex and diminishing their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between several pathogenic factors and burning mouth syndrome. 736 medical records of patients diagnosed of burning mouth syndrome and 132 medical records for the control group were studied retrospectively. The study time span was from January 1990 to December 2014. The protocol included: sex, age, type of oral discomfort and location, among other factors. Analysis of the association between pathogenic factors and BMS diagnosis revealed that only 3 factors showed a statistically significant association: triggers (P=.003), parafunctional habits (P=.006), and oral hygiene (P=.012). There were neither statistically significant differences in BMS incidence between sex groups (P=.408) nor association of BMS with the pathogenic factors of substance abuse (P=.915), systemic pathology (P=.685), and dietary habits (P=.904). Parafunctional habits like bruxism and abnormal movements of tongue and lips can explain the BMS main symptomatology. Psychological aspects and systemic factors should be always considered. As a multifactorial disorder, the treatment of BMS should be executed in a holistic way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Activin- and Nodal-related factors control antero-posterior patterning of the zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisse, B; Wright, C V; Thisse, C

    2000-01-27

    Definition of cell fates along the dorso-ventral axis depends on an antagonistic relationship between ventralizing transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members, the bone morphogenetic proteins and factors secreted from the dorsal organizer, such as Noggin and Chordin. The extracellular binding of the last group to the bone morphogenetic proteins prevents them from activating their receptors, and the relative ventralizer:antagonist ratio is thought to specify different dorso-ventral cell fates. Here, by taking advantage of a non-genetic interference method using a specific competitive inhibitor, the Lefty-related gene product Antivin, we provide evidence that cell fate along the antero-posterior axis of the zebrafish embryo is controlled by the morphogenetic activity of another transforming growth factor-beta superfamily subgroup--the Activin and Nodal-related factors. Increasing antivin doses progressively deleted posterior fates within the ectoderm, eventually resulting in the removal of all fates except forebrain and eyes. In contrast, overexpression of activin or nodal-related factors converted ectoderm that was fated to be forebrain into more posterior ectodermal or mesendodermal fates. We propose that modulation of intercellular signalling by Antivin/Activin and Nodal-related factors provides a mechanism for the graded establishment of cell fates along the antero-posterior axis of the zebrafish embryo.

  16. Neuropsychological functioning in older people with type 2 diabetes: the effect of controlling for confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulou, K G; Hampson, S E; Morrish, N J

    2002-04-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was examined in a group of 33 older (mean age 62.40 +/- 9.62 years) people with Type 2 diabetes (Group 1) and 33 non-diabetic participants matched with Group 1 on age, sex, premorbid intelligence and presence of hypertension and cardio/cerebrovascular conditions (Group 2). Data statistically corrected for confounding factors obtained from the diabetic group were compared with the matched control group. The results suggested small cognitive deficits in diabetic people's verbal memory and mental flexibility (Logical Memory A and SS7). No differences were seen between the two samples in simple and complex visuomotor attention, sustained complex visual attention, attention efficiency, mental double tracking, implicit memory, and self-reported memory problems. These findings indicate minimal cognitive impairment in relatively uncomplicated Type 2 diabetes and demonstrate the importance of control and matching for confounding factors.

  17. Diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum sensing in pathogenic bacteria and its exploitation for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, J M

    2017-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signals of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids of differing chain length and branching pattern. DSF signalling has been described in diverse bacteria to include plant and human pathogens where it acts to regulate functions such as biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and the production of virulence factors. DSF family signals can also participate in interspecies signalling with other bacteria and interkingdom signalling such as with the yeast Candida albicans. Interference with DSF signalling may afford new opportunities for the control of bacterial disease. Such strategies will depend in part on detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of signal synthesis, perception and turnover. Here, I review both recent progress in understanding DSF signalling at the molecular level and prospects for translating this knowledge into approaches for disease control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Factors affecting management accounting and control systems. A critical review of empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dyczkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of management accounting & control systems and factors which may affect the design of such systems has become crucial due to emerging changes both in the external and internal business environment. Therefore it is necessary to conduct comprehensive, long-term basic research in order to prove previously formulated hypotheses in new conditions and fulfil the research gap. Based on critical review of empirical studies published in prestigious scientific journals this paper aims at validating the assumed hypotheses and at generalising research findings on impacts of various determinants on man-agement accounting & control systems. The predominant contingent factors include: type of strategy implemented, national culture, perceived environment uncertainty and integrated information system.

  19. Glycolysis in contracting rat skeletal muscle is controlled by factors related to energy state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Macdonald, Will A; Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The control of glycolysis in contracting muscle is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine whether activation of glycolysis is mediated by factors related to the energy state or by a direct effect of Ca2+ on the regulating enzymes. Extensor digitorum longus muscles from...... and 58% of those in Con respectively. Glycolytic rate in BTS was only 51% of that in Con but the relative contribution of ATP derived from PCr (phosphocreatine) and glycolysis and the relation between muscle contents of PCr and Lac (lactate) were not different. Prolonged cyanide incubation of quiescent...... contribution of energy delivered from PCr and glycolysis during both conditions suggests that the glycolytic rate is controlled by factors related to energy state....

  20. Predictive factors for renal failure and a control and treatment algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Paula Cerqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the renal function of patients in an intensive care unit, to identify the predisposing factors for the development of renal failure, and to develop an algorithm to help in the control of the disease.METHOD: exploratory, descriptive, prospective study with a quantitative approach.RESULTS: a total of 30 patients (75.0% were diagnosed with kidney failure and the main factors associated with this disease were: advanced age, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lung diseases, and antibiotic use. Of these, 23 patients (76.6% showed a reduction in creatinine clearance in the first 24 hours of hospitalization.CONCLUSION: a decline in renal function was observed in a significant number of subjects, therefore, an algorithm was developed with the aim of helping in the control of renal failure in a practical and functional way.

  1. Determination of the factors that control migration and entry of radon into basements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Gadd, M.S.; Ward, D.C.; Barry, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' Elevated concentrations of radon gas indoors are the result or a complicated combination of factors. This report describes results from a facility designed to test and verify theories of radon migration into underground structures. The buildings resemble miniature basements using conventional construction methods, hut eliminate other confounding factors introduced by the activities of occupants. Sensors accumulate data on soil properties such as temperature, moisture, pressure differentials, and permeability, as well as outdoor meteorological conditions and indoor environment. Results indicate that indoor radon concentrations do not correlate with changes in the adjacent soil gas concentration or the rate that radon enters the structure. When no attempt is made to control the indoor environment, periods of highest indoor concentration occur when the rate of entry is low. Methods to identify the driving mechanisms and implication for mitigation and control will he described. (author)

  2. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POOR GLYCEMIC CONTROL AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Adi Pamungkas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus becomes the public health problem in the wide world. Reasons for poor glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes are complex. Objective: To determine factors contributed to poor glycemic control among Indonesian patients with Type 2 Diabetes Methods: This was a cross sectional regression study. There were 70 respondents selected using purposive sampling. Pre-structured questionnaires were used to measure socio demographic, clinical characteristics, self-care management behaviors, medication adherence, barriers to adherence, and family support. Data were analyzed using chi-square and binary logistic regression. Results: Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥7% or FBG ≥200 mg/dl. Findings of this study reported that 83% patients had or FBG ≥200 mg/dl, which confirmed as poor glycemic control. Logistic regression showed that increasing duration of diabetes (> 5 years, non-adherence to dietary behaviors recommendation through selecting healthy diet, arranging a meal plan, recognizing the amount calorie needs, managing dietary behaviors challenges, medication adherence, and family support were significantly influence poor glycemic control with increased odds ratio scores. Conclusion: The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was raised. Increasing duration of diabetes, non- adherence to medication and dietary behaviors management, and lack of family support were associated with poor glycemic control. Thus, integration of diabetes self-management program with social support is needed to deal with patients’ need to achieve the great benefits in diabetes care.

  3. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case-control study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990-2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. A matched case-control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0-7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service intervention associated with neonatal deaths in normal and low

  4. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case–control study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawi Abdullah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990–2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. Design: A matched case–control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Results: Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0–7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. Conclusion: The study identified a number of factors amenable to

  5. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  6. Risk Factors of Rheumatic Heart Disease in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Karim, Md. Nazmul; Chowdhury, Kamrun Nahar; Chowdhury, Shahabul Huda; Rahman, Md. Ridwanur

    2013-01-01

    Not all cases of rheumatic fever (RF) end up as rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The fact raises the possibility of existence of a subgroup with characteristics that prevent RF patients from developing the RHD. The present study aimed at exploring the risk factors among patients with RHD. The study assessed the risk of RHD among people both with and without RF. In total, 103 consecutive RHD patients were recruited as cases who reported to the National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of 309 controls, 103 were RF patients selected from the same centre, and the remaining 206 controls were selected from Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, who got admitted for other non-cardiac ailments. RHD was confirmed by auscultation and colour Doppler echocardiography. RF was diagnosed based on the modified Jones criteria. An unadjusted odds ratio was generated for each variable, with 95% confidence interval (CI), and only significant factors were considered candidate for multivariate analysis. Three separate binary logistic regression models were generated to assess the risk factors of RF, risk factors of RHD compared to non-rheumatic control patients, and risk factors of RHD compared to control with RF. RF and RHD shared almost a similar set of risk factors in the population. In general, age over 19 years was found to be protective of RF; however, age of the majority (62.1%) of the RHD cases was over 19 years. Women [odds ratio (OR)=2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3], urban resident (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.2–8.4), dwellers in brick-built house (OR=3.6, 95% CI 1.6-8.1), having >2 siblings (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5- 6.3), offspring of working mothers (OR=7.6, 95% CI 2.0-24.2), illiterate mother (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8), and those who did not brush after taking meals (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.3) were more likely to develop RF. However, more than 5 members in a family showed a reduced risk of RF. RHD shared almost a similar set of factors in general. More than

  7. Deciphering spreading mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical evidence and potential molecular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, Pierre-François; Kabashi, Edor; Desnuelle, Claude

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to refer to recent arguments supporting the existence of specific propagation mechanisms associated with spreading of neuron injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Misfolded ALS-linked protein accumulation can induce aggregation of their native equivalent isoforms through a mechanism analogous to the infectious prion proteins initiation and its propagation. Although ALS is clinically heterogeneous, a shared characteristic is the focal onset and the progressive extension to all body regions. Being viewed until now as just summation of the increased number of affected neurons, dispersion is now rather considered as the result of a seeded self-propagating process. A sequential regional spreading pattern is supported by the distribution of TDP-43 aggregates in ALS autopsy cases. Electrophysiology and advanced neuroimaging methods also recently provided some evidence for propagation of lesions both in the brain and spinal cord, more longitudinal studies being still needed. Lesions are supposed to spread cell-to-cell regionally or through connected neuronal pathway. At the molecular level, the prion-like spreading is an emerging mechanism hypothesis, but other machineries such as those that are in charge of dealing with misfolded proteins and secretion of deleterious peptides may be involved in the propagation of neuron loss. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying spreading of ALS symptoms is of crucial importance to better understand this neurodegenerative disease, build new and appropriate animal models and to define novel therapeutic targets.

  8. Deciphering the Mechanism of Action of Wrightia tinctoria for Psoriasis Based on Systems Pharmacology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarrajan, Sudharsana; Lulu, Sajitha; Arumugam, Mohanapriya

    2017-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the skin. The disease manifests itself with red or silvery scaly plaques distributing over the lower back, scalp, and extensor aspects of limbs. Several medications are available for the treatment of psoriasis; however, high rates of remission and side-effects still persist as a major concern. Siddha, one of the traditional systems of Indian medicine offers cure to many dermatological conditions, including psoriasis. The oil prepared from the leaves of Wrightia tinctoria is prescribed by many healers for the treatment of psoriasis. This work aims to decipher the mechanism of action of the W. tinctoria in curing psoriasis and its associated comorbidities. The work integrates various pharmacology approaches such as drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability predictions, and network pharmacology approaches to understand the roles of various bioactive components of the herb. This work identified 67 compounds of W. tinctoria interacting with 238 protein targets. The compounds were found to act through synergistic mechanism in reviving the disrupted process in the diseased state. The results of this work not only shed light on the pharmacological action of the herb but also validate the usage of safe herbal drugs.

  9. Rating the raters in a mixed model: An approach to deciphering the rater reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junfeng; Wang, Yougui

    2013-05-01

    Rating the raters has attracted extensive attention in recent years. Ratings are quite complex in that the subjective assessment and a number of criteria are involved in a rating system. Whenever the human judgment is a part of ratings, the inconsistency of ratings is the source of variance in scores, and it is therefore quite natural for people to verify the trustworthiness of ratings. Accordingly, estimation of the rater reliability will be of great interest and an appealing issue. To facilitate the evaluation of the rater reliability in a rating system, we propose a mixed model where the scores of the ratees offered by a rater are described with the fixed effects determined by the ability of the ratees and the random effects produced by the disagreement of the raters. In such a mixed model, for the rater random effects, we derive its posterior distribution for the prediction of random effects. To quantitatively make a decision in revealing the unreliable raters, the predictive influence function (PIF) serves as a criterion which compares the posterior distributions of random effects between the full data and rater-deleted data sets. The benchmark for this criterion is also discussed. This proposed methodology of deciphering the rater reliability is investigated in the multiple simulated and two real data sets.

  10. Deciphering the Dynamic Interaction Profile of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein by NMR Exchange Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaforge, Elise; Kragelj, Jaka; Tengo, Laura; Palencia, Andrés; Milles, Sigrid; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Salvi, Nicola; Blackledge, Martin; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing

    2018-01-24

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) display a large number of interaction modes including folding-upon-binding, binding without major structural transitions, or binding through highly dynamic, so-called fuzzy, complexes. The vast majority of experimental information about IDP binding modes have been inferred from crystal structures of proteins in complex with short peptides of IDPs. However, crystal structures provide a mainly static view of the complexes and do not give information about the conformational dynamics experienced by the IDP in the bound state. Knowledge of the dynamics of IDP complexes is of fundamental importance to understand how IDPs engage in highly specific interactions without concomitantly high binding affinity. Here, we combine rotating-frame R 1ρ , Carr-Purcell-Meiboom Gill relaxation dispersion as well as chemical exchange saturation transfer to decipher the dynamic interaction profile of an IDP in complex with its partner. We apply the approach to the dynamic signaling complex formed between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38α and the intrinsically disordered regulatory domain of the MAPK kinase MKK4. Our study demonstrates that MKK4 employs a subtle combination of interaction modes in order to bind to p38α, leading to a complex displaying significantly different dynamics across the bound regions.

  11. Deciphering a unique biotin scavenging pathway with redundant genes in the probiotic bacterium Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Qingjing; Fisher, Derek J; Cai, Mingzhu; Chakravartty, Vandana; Ye, Huiyan; Li, Ping; Solbiati, Jose O; Feng, Youjun

    2016-05-10

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) is widespread in the three domains of the life. The paradigm BPL is the Escherichia coli BirA protein, which also functions as a repressor for the biotin biosynthesis pathway. Here we report that Lactococcus lactis possesses two different orthologues of birA (birA1_LL and birA2_LL). Unlike the scenario in E. coli, L. lactis appears to be auxotrophic for biotin in that it lacks a full biotin biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it retains two biotin transporter-encoding genes (bioY1_LL and bioY2_LL), suggesting the use of a scavenging strategy to obtain biotin from the environment. The in vivo function of the two L. lactis birA genes was judged by their abilities to complement the conditional lethal E. coli birA mutant. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectroscopy assays demonstrated that these two recombinant BirA proteins catalyze the biotinylation reaction of the acceptor biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), through the expected biotinoyl-AMP intermediate. Gel shift assays were used to characterize bioY1_LL and BirA1_LL. We also determined the ability to uptake (3)H-biotin by L. lactis. Taken together, our results deciphered a unique biotin scavenging pathway with redundant genes present in the probiotic bacterium L. lactis.

  12. Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD: a new programme for phenotyping embryonic lethal mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Mohun

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to test gene function in the mouse by the systematic knockout of each gene are creating many lines in which embryonic development is compromised. These homozygous lethal mutants represent a potential treasure trove for the biomedical community. Developmental biologists could exploit them in their studies of tissue differentiation and organogenesis; for clinical researchers they offer a powerful resource for investigating the origins of developmental diseases that affect newborns. Here, we outline a new programme of research in the UK aiming to kick-start research with embryonic lethal mouse lines. The ‘Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders’ (DMDD programme has the ambitious goal of identifying all embryonic lethal knockout lines made in the UK over the next 5 years, and will use a combination of comprehensive imaging and transcriptomics to identify abnormalities in embryo structure and development. All data will be made freely available, enabling individual researchers to identify lines relevant to their research. The DMDD programme will coordinate its work with similar international efforts through the umbrella of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium [see accompanying Special Article (Adams et al., 2013] and, together, these programmes will provide a novel database for embryonic development, linking gene identity with molecular profiles and morphology phenotypes.

  13. Multi-factor controls on terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanised areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Lockaby, G.; Chappelka, A.

    2013-11-01

    As urban land cover and populations continue rapidly increasing across the globe, much concern has been raised that urbanization may significantly alter terrestrial carbon dynamics that affects atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. Urbanization involves complex changes in land structure and multiple environmental factors. Relative contribution of these and their interactive effects need be quantified to better understand urbanization effects on regional C dynamics as well as assess the effectiveness of C sequestration policies focusing on urban green space development. In this study, we analyzed the factors that may control the urbanization effect on ecosystem C dynamics, and proposed a numeric experimental scheme, i.e. scenarios design, to conduct factorial analysis on the effects of different factors. Then as a case study, a dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM) was applied to quantify the urbanization effect on the C dynamics of the Southern US (SUS) from 1945-2007, and to analyze the relative contributions from each environmental factor and their interactive effects. We found the effect of urban land conversion dominated the C dynamics in the SUS, resulting in about 0.37 Pg C lost from 1945-2007. However, urban ecosystem management and urban-induced environmental changes enhanced C sequestration by 0.12 Pg and 0.03 Pg, respectively. Their C sequestration effects, which amounted to 40% of the magnitude of land conversion effect, partially compensated for the C loss during urbanization. Numeric experiments and factorial analyses indicated complex interactive effects among different factors and between various land covers and environmental controls, findings need to be further confirmed by field studies. The proposed numeric experimental scheme provides a quantitative approach for understanding the complex mechanisms controlling C dynamics, and defining best development practices in urbanised areas.

  14. A matched case-control study of risk factors for neonatal tetanus in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Syed

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have identified various risk factors for neonatal tetanus (NNT in rural areas of Pakistan. The present matched case control study was conducted to further evaluate these risk factors in an urban setting. Aim: The study was carried out to identify risk factors for NNT in Karachi. Materials and Methods: Patients of NNT (n = 125 diagnosed from January 1998 to February 2001 were recruited through a surveillance system of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Two neighbourhood controls (n = 250 were matched for each case for gender and date of birth of the case. Statistical Analysis: Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of factors associated with NNT. Results: The final multivariable model identified subsequent application of substances on the umbilical cord (adjusted matched odds ratio [adj. mOR] = 5.1 [2.7-9.7], home delivery (adj. mOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1- 3.1 and illiterate mother (adj. mOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0- 2.0 as risk factors for NNT after adjusting for other variables in the model. Population attributable risk per cent (PAR % for subsequent cord application was 69% and PAR % for home delivery was 31%. Conclusion: Health planners, while formulating control strategies through immunization programmes should also take into account the impact of post-delivery practices, such as 'subsequent cord application' along with pre-delivery practices. Health awareness regarding appropriate post-delivery practices should be promoted and counselling of pregnant women for giving preference to health care setting for delivery is also crucial.

  15. Risk factors for inguinal hernia in women: a case-control study. The Coala Trial Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, M S; van der Graaf, Y; Zwart, R C; Geurts, I; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1997-11-01

    Potential risk factors for inguinal hernia in women were investigated and the relative importance of these factors was quantified. In women, symptomatic but nonpalpable hernias often remain undiagnosed. However, knowledge on this subject only concerns hernia and operation characteristics, which have been obtained by review of case series. Virtually nothing is known about risk factors for inguinal hernia. The authors performed a hospital-based case-control study of 89 female patients with an incident inguinal hernia and 176 age-matched female controls. Activity since birth with two validated questionnaires was measured and smoking habits, medical and operation history, Quetelet index (kg/m2), and history of pregnancies and deliveries were recorded. Response for cases was 81% and for controls 73%. Total physical activity was not associated with inguinal hernia (univariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.1), but high present sports activities was associated with less inguinal hernia (multivariate OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Obesity (Quetelet index > 30) was also protective for inguinal hernia (OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.04-1.0). Independent risk factors were positive family history (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.9-9.7) and obstipation (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.7). In particular, smoking, appendectomy, other abdominal operations, and multiple deliveries were not associated with inguinal hernia in females. The protective effect of present sports activity may be explained by optimizing the resistance of the abdominal musculature protecting the relatively small inguinal weak spot in the female. The individual predisposition for inguinal hernia may be quantified by these risk factors, and, with this in mind, the authors advise that further evaluation might be needed for the patient with unexplained inguinal pain.

  16. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Richard A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in Africa is on the rise, even in low-HIV prevalence settings. Few studies have attempted to identify possible reasons for this. We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients. Methods We conducted a case control study at the Medical Research Council Outpatients' clinic in The Gambia. Pulmonary TB cases were at least 15 years old, controls were age and sex matched clinic attendees. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results 100 sputum smear positive TB cases and 200 clinic controls were recruited. HIV prevalence was 6.1% in cases and 3.3% in controls. Multivariable assessment of host factors showed that risk of TB was increased among the Jola ethnic group and smokers, and decreased in those in a professional occupation. Assessment of environmental factors showed an increased risk with household crowding, history of household exposure to a known TB case, and absence of a ceiling in the house. In a combined multivariable host-environment model, the risk of TB increased with crowding, exposure to a known TB case, as well as amongst the Jola ethnic group. Conclusion In The Gambia, household crowding and past household exposure to a known TB case are the standout risk factors for TB disease. Further research is needed to identify why risk of TB seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  17. Account for uncertainties of control measurements in the assessment of design margin factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementiev, V. G.; Sidorenko, V. D.; Shishkov, L. K.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility of accounting for uncertainties of control measurements in estimation of design margin factors. The feasibility is also taken into consideration proceeding from the fact how much the processed measured data were corrected by a priori calculated data of measurable parameters. The possibility and feasibility of such data correction is demonstrated by the authors with the help of Bayes theorem famous in mathematical statistics. (Authors)

  18. Flight deck human factors issues for National Airspace System (NAS) en route controller pilot data link communications (CPDLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Fundamental differences exist between transmissions of Air Traffic Control clearances over voice and those transmitted via Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). This paper provides flight deck human factors issues that apply to processin...

  19. Strategies for Controlled Delivery of Growth Factors and Cells for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tiffany N.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2012-01-01

    The controlled delivery of growth factors and cells within biomaterial carriers can enhance and accelerate functional bone formation. The carrier system can be designed with preprogrammed release kinetics to deliver bioactive molecules in a localized, spatiotemporal manner most similar to the natural wound healing process. The carrier can also act as an extracellular matrix-mimicking substrate for promoting osteoprogenitor cellular infiltration and proliferation for integrative tissue repair. This review discusses the role of various regenerative factors involved in bone healing and their appropriate combinations with different delivery systems for augmenting bone regeneration. The general requirements of protein, cell and gene therapy are described, with elaboration on how the selection of materials, configurations and processing affects growth factor and cell delivery and regenerative efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo applications for bone tissue engineering. PMID:22342771

  20. The effects of contingency factors on management control systems: an empirical study at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Paaso, Ilkka

    Contingency theory and management control systems research offer avenues for investigating how contextual factors in organizations affect performance. This quantitative case study investigates how the context of CERN internal services influences the performance consciousness of functional service managers. A literature review recognized four contingency factors relevant for performance consciousness: interdependence, scope, standardization and variation. Data from these factors was measured empirically using a cross-sectional electronic survey and supplemented by data gathered from CERN internal documentation. A quantitative analysis of the data was performed using structural equation modelling. The main findings were congruent with existing literature indicating that a.) high interdependence between work units is associated with decreased variation, increased standardization and increased performance consciousness. b.) high scope is related to increased variation and decreased standardization. Overall, a bet...

  1. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  2. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  3. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  4. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4H Is under Transcriptional Control of p65/NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Rossi, Annalisa; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Pisano, Antonio; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pontoriero, Marilena; Scala, Iris; Scialdone, Annarita; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis is mainly regulated at the initiation step, allowing the fast, reversible and spatial control of gene expression. Initiation of protein synthesis requires at least 13 translation initiation factors to assemble the 80S ribosomal initiation complex. Loss of translation control may result in cell malignant transformation. Here, we asked whether translational initiation factors could be regulated by NF-κB transcription factor, a major regulator of genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, and inflammatory response. We show that the p65 subunit of NF-κB activates the transcription of eIF4H gene, which is the regulatory subunit of eIF4A, the most relevant RNA helicase in translation initiation. The p65-dependent transcriptional activation of eIF4H increased the eIF4H protein content augmenting the rate of global protein synthesis. In this context, our results provide novel insights into protein synthesis regulation in response to NF-κB activation signalling, suggesting a transcription-translation coupled mechanism of control. PMID:23776612

  5. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  6. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaduri, Maha M.; Abudraz, Rania Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51%) was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%). Conclusion Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further p rospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results. PMID:25337307

  7. A case-control study on risk factors of breast cancer in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Cui, Shu-De; Tian, Fu-Guo; Fan, Zhi-Min; Geng, Cui-Zhi; Cao, Xu-Chen; Yang, Zhen-Lin; Wang, Xiang; Liang, Hong; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-Chuan; Duan, Xue-Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Guo-Lou; Wang, Qi-Tang; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-Hai; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-Guang; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Yu, Li-Xiang; Xiang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Fei; Li, Liang; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Qin-Ye; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Gao, De-Zong; Li, Yu-Yang; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-Miao; Wang, Yong-Jiu; Zhou, Wen-Zhong; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2017-11-14

    This study aimed to investigate risk factors associated with breast cancer among Han Chinese women in northern and eastern China. A matched case-control study involving 1489 patients with breast cancer and 1489 controls was conducted across 21 hospitals in 11 provinces in China, from April 2012 to April 2013. We developed a structured questionnaire to record information from face-to-face interviews with participants. Student's t-tests, Pearson's chi-square tests, and univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables with significant differences between the case and control groups. Ten variables were identified (P ratio, menopause, family history of breast cancer, present life satisfaction, sleep satisfaction, milk products, behavior prevention scores, and awareness of breast cancer. We identified a comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer, among which several manageable factors may contribute to breast cancer prevention. Further prospective studies concerning psychological interventions, sleep regulation, health guidance, and physical exercise are required. A screening model for high-risk populations should be put on the agenda.

  8. Use of a twin dataset to identify AMD-related visual patterns controlled by genetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Russell, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    The mapping of genotype to the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in a near future. In this study, we focused on the first step to discover this mapping: we identified visual patterns related to AMD which seem to be controlled by genetic factors, without explicitly relating them to the genes. For this purpose, we used a dataset of eye fundus photographs from 74 twin pairs, either monozygotic twins, who have the same genotype, or dizygotic twins, whose genes responsible for AMD are less likely to be identical. If we are able to differentiate monozygotic twins from dizygotic twins, based on a given visual pattern, then this pattern is likely to be controlled by genetic factors. The main visible consequence of AMD is the apparition of drusen between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. We developed two automated drusen detectors based on the wavelet transform: a shape-based detector for hard drusen, and a texture- and color- based detector for soft drusen. Forty visual features were evaluated at the location of the automatically detected drusen. These features characterize the texture, the shape, the color, the spatial distribution, or the amount of drusen. A distance measure between twin pairs was defined for each visual feature; a smaller distance should be measured between monozygotic twins for visual features controlled by genetic factors. The predictions of several visual features (75.7% accuracy) are comparable or better than the predictions of human experts.

  9. Malaria Risk Factors in Kaligesing, Purworejo District, Central Java Province, Indonesia: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyaningrum, Pratiwi; Sulistyawati, Sulistyawati

    2018-05-01

    Malaria remains a public health concern worldwide, including Indonesia. Purworejo is a district in which endemic of malaria, they have re-setup to entering malaria elimination in 2021. Accordingly, actions must be taken to accelerate and guaranty that the goal will reach based on an understanding of the risk factors for malaria. Thus, we analysed malaria risk factors based on human and housing conditions in Kaligesing, Purworejo, Indonesia. A case-control study was carried out in Kaligesing subdistrict, Purworejo, Indonesia in July to August 2017. A structured questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data from 96 participants, who consisted of 48 controls and 48 cases. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed. Bivariate analysis found that education level, the presence of a cattle cage within 100 m of the house, not sleeping under a bednet the previous night, and not closing the doors and windows from 6 p.m. to 5 a.m. were significantly ( p ≤0.25) associated with malaria. Of these factors, only not sleeping under a bednet the previous night and not closing the doors and windows from 6 p.m. to 5 a.m. were significantly associated with malaria. The findings of this study demonstrate that potential risk factor for Malaria should be paid of attention all the time, particularly for an area which is targeting Malaria elimination.

  10. Associated factors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Ayyoub; Amiri, Shahrokh; Sadegfard, Majid; Abdi, Salman; Amini, Saeedeh

    2012-09-01

    The current study attempted to investigate factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children without co-morbidities. In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children who attended the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran were compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and secondary schools. Clinical interviews based on DSM-IV-TR using K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Participants were matched for age. We used chi-square and binary logistic regression for data analysis. Among the associated factors with ADHD were gender and maternal employment. Boys (OR 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34 - 0.86) and those children with working mothers (OR 0.16: 95% confidence interval: 0.06 - 0.86) suffered more from ADHD. The birth season, family size, birth order, and parental kinship were not among risk factors for ADHD. The results of the study show that maternal employment and male gender are among the associated risk factors for ADHD.

  11. A multi-scale model of hepcidin promoter regulation reveals factors controlling systemic iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Casanovas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic iron homeostasis involves a negative feedback circuit in which the expression level of the peptide hormone hepcidin depends on and controls the iron blood levels. Hepcidin expression is regulated by the BMP6/SMAD and IL6/STAT signaling cascades. Deregulation of either pathway causes iron-related diseases such as hemochromatosis or anemia of inflammation. We quantitatively analyzed how BMP6 and IL6 control hepcidin expression. Transcription factor (TF phosphorylation and reporter gene expression were measured under co-stimulation conditions, and the promoter was perturbed by mutagenesis. Using mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed potential mechanisms of cooperative and competitive promoter regulation by the transcription factors, and experimentally validated the model predictions. Our results reveal that hepcidin cross-regulation primarily occurs by combinatorial transcription factor binding to the promoter, whereas signaling crosstalk is insignificant. We find that the presence of two BMP-responsive elements enhances the steepness of the promoter response towards the iron-sensing BMP signaling axis, which promotes iron homeostasis in vivo. IL6 co-stimulation reduces the promoter sensitivity towards the BMP signal, because the SMAD and STAT transcription factors compete for recruiting RNA polymerase to the transcription start site. This may explain why inflammatory signals disturb iron homeostasis in anemia of inflammation. Taken together, our results reveal why the iron homeostasis circuit is sensitive to perturbations implicated in disease.

  12. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ravel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. Methods This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Results Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water, whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly ‘protective’ factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant, suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. Conclusions This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  13. Factors controlling the geochemical evolution of fumarolic encrustations, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodosky, L.G.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1993-01-01

    Factor and canonical correlation analysis of geochemical data from eight fossil fumaroles suggest that six major factors controlled the formation and evolution of fumarolic encrustations on the 1912 ash-flow sheet in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS). The six-factor solution model explains a large proportion (low of 74% for Ni to high of 99% for Si) of the individual element data variance. Although the primary fumarolic deposits have been degraded by secondary alteration reactions and up to 75 years of weathering, the relict encrustations still preserve a signature of vapor-phase element transport. This vapor-phase transport probably occurred as halide or oxyhalide species and was significant for As, Sb and Br. At least three, and possibly four, varied temperature leaching events affected the fumarolic deposits. High-temperature gases/liquids heavily altered the ejecta glass and mineral phases adjacent to the fumarolic conduit. As the fumaroles cooled. Fe-rich acidic condensate leached the ejecta and primary fumarolic deposits and resulted in the subsequent precipitation of Fe-hydroxides and/or Fe-oxides. Low- to ambient-temperature leaching and hydration reactions generated abundant hydrated amorphous phases. Up to 87% of the individual element data variance is apparently controlled by the chemistry of the ejecta on which the relict encrustations are found. This matrix chemistry factor illustrates that the primary fumarolic minerals surrounding the active VTTS vents observed by earlier workers have been effectively removed by the dissolution reactions. Element enrichment factors calculated for the VTTS relict encrustations support the statistical factor interpretations. On the average, the relict encrustations are enriched, relative to visibly unaltered matrix protolith, in As, Br, Cr, Sb, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and LOI (an indirect measure of sample H2O content). ?? 1993.

  14. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors and testicular cancer: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, Gabe S; Chang, Shine; Strom, Sara S; Sweeney, Anne M; Annegers, J Fred; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2007-01-01

    Some evidence exists to support the hypothesis that elevated levels of circulating maternal estrogens during early pregnancy may increase risk of testicular germ cell cancer. However, the results from studies evaluating maternal factors have been mixed. We evaluated maternal factors, particularly those associated with excess estrogen levels, as risk factors for testicular cancer. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas of 144 testicular cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 1996 and 86 friend controls matched to cases on age, race, and state of residence. Risk factor data about the mother, the son, and the pregnancy were obtained from the mothers by telephone interviews and from the sons by self-administered questionnaires. Extreme nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.9]. Adjustment for potential confounders slightly lowered this risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.9-3.8). Risks were modestly increased for other factors that are proxy measures for maternal estrogens, including preterm delivery (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.4-12.9), birth weight 4000 g (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.9-3.2), albeit nonsignificantly so. Our finding that severe nausea was associated with increased testicular cancer risk adds evidence to support the in utero estrogen exposure hypothesis because nausea early in pregnancy is related to rising levels of circulating estrogens. For other factors, which are less direct measures of maternal estrogens, the modest associations found indicate a suggestive pattern in support of the excess estrogen hypothesis.

  15. Perinatal serotonergic activity: A decisive factor in the control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabeli Lins PINHEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The serotoninergic system controls key events related to proper nervous system development. The neurotransmitter serotonin and the serotonin transporter are critical for this control. Availability of these components is minutely regulated during the development period, and the environment may affect their action on the nervous system. Environmental factors such as undernutrition and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may increase the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft and change its anorectic action. The physiological responses promoted by serotonin on intake control decrease when requested by acute stimuli or stress, demonstrating that animals or individuals develop adaptations in response to the environmental insults they experience during the development period. Diseases, such as anxiety and obesity, appear to be associated with the body’s response to stress or stimulus, and require greater serotonergic system action. These findings demonstrate the importance of the level of serotonin in the perinatal period to the development of molecular and morphological aspects of food intake control, and its decisive role in understanding the possible environmental factors that cause diseases in adulthood.

  16. A case-control study of the risk factors for obstetric fistula in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Wall, L; Belay, Shewaye; Haregot, Tesfahun; Dukes, Jonathan; Berhan, Eyoel; Abreha, Melaku

    2017-12-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that there were no differences between patients with obstetric fistula and parous controls without fistula. A unmatched case-control study was carried out comparing 75 women with a history of obstetric fistula with 150 parous controls with no history of fistula. Height and weight were measured for each participant, along with basic socio-demographic and obstetric information. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between the groups were analyzed using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate, and Chi-squared or Fisher's exact test, along with backward stepwise logistic regression analyses to detect predictors of obstetric fistula. Associations with a p value divorce/separation, and lived in more impoverished circumstances than controls. Fistula patients had worse reproductive histories, with greater numbers of stillbirths/abortions and higher rates of assisted vaginal delivery and cesarean section. The final logistic regression model found four significant risk factors for developing an obstetric fistula: age at marriage (OR 1.23), history of assisted vaginal delivery (OR 3.44), lack of adequate antenatal care (OR 4.43), and a labor lasting longer than 1 day (OR 14.84). Our data indicate that obstetric fistula results from the lack of access to effective obstetrical services when labor is prolonged. Rural poverty and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure are probably important co-factors in inhibiting access to needed care.

  17. The association between biochemical control and cardiovascular risk factors in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, John D; Broder, Michael S; Cherepanov, Dasha; Chang, Eunice; Mamelak, Adam; Said, Qayyim; Neary, Maureen P; Bonert, Vivien

    2017-03-09

    The study aim was to estimate the proportion of acromegaly patients with various comorbidities and to determine if biochemical control was associated with reduced proportion of cardiovascular risk factors. Data were from a single-center acromegaly registry. Study patients were followed for ≥12 months after initial treatment. Study period was from first to last insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone tests. Of 121 patients, 55% were female. Mean age at diagnosis was 42.4 (SD: 15.0). Mean study period was 8.8 (SD: 7.2) years. Macroadenomas were observed in 93 of 106 patients (87.7%), and microadenomas in 13 (12.3%). Initial treatment was surgery in 104 patients (86%), pharmacotherapy in 16 (13.2%), and radiation therapy in 1 (0.8%). Of 120 patients, 79 (65.8%) achieved control during the study period. New onset comorbidities (reported 6 months after study start) were uncommon (acromegaly compared to their controlled counterparts in this single-center registry. About a third of the patients remained uncontrolled after a mean of >8 years of treatment, demonstrating the difficulty of achieving control in some patients.

  18. Microcapsule Technology for Controlled Growth Factor Release in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, Giovanna; Ciardulli, Maria C; Maffulli, Nicola

    2018-06-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have relied on engineered 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide architectural templates that can mimic the native cell environment. Among the several technologies proposed for the fabrication of 3D scaffold, that can be attractive for stem cell cultivation and differentiation, moulding or bioplotting of hydrogels allow the stratification of layers loaded with cells and with specific additives to obtain a predefined microstructural organization. Particularly with bioplotting technology, living cells, named bio-ink, and additives, such as biopolymer microdevices/nanodevices for the controlled delivery of growth factors or biosignals, can be organized spatially into a predesigned 3D pattern by automated fabrication with computer-aided digital files. The technologies for biopolymer microcarrier/nanocarrier fabrication can be strategic to provide a controlled spatiotemporal delivery of specific biosignals within a microenvironment that can better or faster address the stem cells loaded within it. In this review, some examples of growth factor-controlled delivery by biopolymer microdevices/nanodevices embedded within 3D hydrogel scaffolds will be described, to achieve a bioengineered 3D interactive microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. Conventional and recently proposed technologies for biopolymer microcapsule fabrication for controlled delivery over several days will also be illustrated and critically discussed.

  19. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  20. Transcription factor YY1 can control AID-mediated mutagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprazna, Kristina; Basu, Arindam; Tom, Nikola; Jha, Vibha; Hodawadekar, Suchita; Radova, Lenka; Malcikova, Jitka; Tichy, Boris; Pospisilova, Sarka; Atchison, Michael L

    2018-02-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deminase (AID) is crucial for controlling the immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). AID initiates these processes by deamination of cytosine, ultimately resulting in mutations or double strand DNA breaks needed for SHM and CSR. Levels of AID control mutation rates, and off-target non-Ig gene mutations can contribute to lymphomagenesis. Therefore, factors that control AID levels in the nucleus can regulate SHM and CSR, and may contribute to disease. We previously showed that transcription factor YY1 can regulate the level of AID in the nucleus and Ig CSR. Therefore, we hypothesized that conditional knock-out of YY1 would lead to reduction in AID localization at the Ig locus, and reduced AID-mediated mutations. Using mice that overexpress AID (IgκAID yy1 f/f ) or that express normal AID levels (yy1 f/f ), we found that conditional knock-out of YY1 results in reduced AID nuclear levels, reduced localization of AID to the Sμ switch region, and reduced AID-mediated mutations. We find that the mechanism of YY1 control of AID nuclear accumulation is likely due to YY1-AID physical interaction which blocks AID ubiquitination. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  2. Economic and Social Factors in Designing Disease Control Strategies for Epidemics on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczkowski, A.; Dybiec, B.; Gilligan, C. A.

    2006-11-01

    Models for control of epidemics on local, global and small-world networks are considered, with only partial information accessible about the status of individuals and their connections. The main goal of an effective control measure is to stop the epidemic at a lowest possible cost, including treatment and cost necessary to track the disease spread. We show that delay in detection of infectious individuals and presence of long-range links are the most important factors determining the cost. However, the details of long-range links are usually the least-known element of the social interactions due to their occasional character and potentially short life-span. We show that under some conditions on the probability of disease spread, it is advisable to attempt to track those links, even if this involves additional costs. Thus, collecting some additional knowledge about the network structure might be beneficial to ensure a successful and cost-effective control.

  3. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    with a first stroke within 72 h of hospital presentation in whom CT or MRI is performed. Proxy respondents are used for cases unable to communicate. Etiological and topographical stroke subtype is documented for all cases. Controls are hospital- and community-based, matched for gender, ethnicity and age (+/-5...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine......-income countries is inadequate, where a very large burden of stroke occurs. Accordingly, a similar epidemiological study is required for stroke, to inform effective population-based strategies to reduce the risk of stroke. Methods: INTERSTROKE is an international, multicenter case-control study. Cases are patients...

  4. Evaluation of human factors in interface design in main control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.-L.; Liang, S.-F.M.; Liu, T.-Y.Y.; Yang, Y.-J.; Chen, P.-Y.; Chuang, C.-F.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of human factors in a new nuclear power plant was conducted prior to the beginning of any business operations. After the task analysis and observation of training, two stages of interviews were carried out with the operators in the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (NPP4). The main concerns identified were problems resulting from the operating interface of the display and controls in the main control room, usability of procedures, and the layout of the main control room. The latent human errors and suggestions were listed, and the top three problems were analyzed. The operators indicated that the alarm design issues and the critical problem of the operating mode with the VDU were worth further study in order to provide suggestions for a new interface design for future power plants.

  5. The ETS-5 transcription factor regulates activity states in Caenorhabditis elegans by controlling satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juozaityte, Vaida; Pladevall-Morera, David; Podolska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Animal behavior is shaped through interplay among genes, the environment, and previous experience. As in mammals, satiety signals induce quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans Here we report that the C. elegans transcription factor ETS-5, an ortholog of mammalian FEV/Pet1, controls satiety......-induced quiescence. Nutritional status has a major influence on C. elegans behavior. When foraging, food availability controls behavioral state switching between active (roaming) and sedentary (dwelling) states; however, when provided with high-quality food, C. elegans become sated and enter quiescence. We show......-regulated behavioral state switching. Taken together, our results identify a neuronal mechanism for controlling intestinal fat stores and organismal behavioral states in C. elegans, and establish a paradigm for the elucidation of obesity-relevant mechanisms....

  6. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: what electronic medical records tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Ramos, Arantxa; Verdú, Jose M; Grau, María; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; del Val García, José L; Consola, Alicia; Comin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence, control, and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Cross-sectional analysis of all individuals attended in the Catalan primary care centers between 2006 and 2009. History of cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, DM2, lipid profile, glycemia and blood pressure data were extracted from electronic medical records. Age-standardized prevalence and levels of management and control were estimated. Individuals aged 35-74 years using primary care databases. A total of 2,174,515 individuals were included (mean age 52 years [SD 11], 47% men). Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor (39% in women, 41% in men) followed by hypercholesterolemia (38% and 40%) and DM2 (12% and 16%), respectively. Diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were most often prescribed for hypertension control (women treated). Hypercholesterolemia was controlled (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol women with no history of cardiovascular disease, despite lipid-lowering treatment, primarily (90%) with statins. The percentage of women and men with DM2 and with glycated hemoglobin DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. What Factors Are Associated with Autonomous and Controlled Motivation for Hearing Help-Seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jason; Hickson, Louise; Lind, Christopher

    Hearing impairment is prevalent in older adults. Motivation is important in people's choice to seek help for their hearing and whether to adopt or not adopt hearing aids. To investigate associations between sociodemographic and audiometric characteristics and autonomous and controlled motivation among a sample of hearing help-seekers. A quantitative approach was taken for this cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 253 adult first-time hearing help-seekers were recruited to the study. Participants provided sociodemographic information and completed questionnaires adapted from self-determination theory that measured autonomous motivation (motivation that originates from within the self and is aligned with personal values and beliefs) and controlled motivation (motivation that stems from external pressures such as rewards or punishment, or conflicted inner feelings such as guilt or shame). Participants with higher autonomous motivation scores were younger, wanted hearing aids more, and reported greater hearing difficulty in everyday life than those with lower scores. Participants with higher controlled motivation scores were more often referred to the service by others and wanted hearing aids more than those with lower controlled motivation scores. Controlled motivation scores were not associated with perceptions of hearing difficulty in everyday life. Relationships among motivation and sociodemographic factors highlight the importance of characterizing autonomous and controlled motivation in first-time hearing help-seekers. Attention to personal characteristics in order to understand motivational processes involved in rehabilitation decisions such as hearing aid adoption may aid in consultations. American Academy of Audiology

  8. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  9. TALE factors use two distinct functional modes to control an essential zebrafish gene expression program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladam, Franck; Stanney, William; Donaldson, Ian J; Yildiz, Ozge; Bobola, Nicoletta; Sagerström, Charles G

    2018-06-18

    TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN. At segmentation stages, GRN-associated TALE occupancy expands to include HEXA motifs near PBX:HOX sites. Hence, TALE factors control a key GRN, but utilize distinct DNA motifs and protein partners at different stages - a strategy that may also explain their oncogenic potential and may be employed by other broadly expressed TFs. © 2018, Ladam et al.

  10. [Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a case control study in Temuco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philco L, Patricia; Serón S, Pamela; Muñoz N, Sergio; Navia B, Pilar; Lanas Z, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming an important public health problem in affluent societies. To identify factors associated to metabolic syndrome in a Southern Chilean city. Using a case control design, 200 participants, aged 35 to 70 years with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP_ATPIII) and 200 subjects with less than three criteria, were studied. Both groups were compared in terms of ethnic background, educational level, family history of diabetes and coronary artery disease, menopausal status, smoking, stress and depression, physical activity, changes in body mass index in the last five years and diet. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among males and among overweight individuals, having a Mapuche origin was a risk factor with odds ratios (OR) of 7.2; 88 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years, among women and among overweight individuals, a family history of diabetes was a risk factor with OR of 17.7; 3.2 and 3.9 respectively. Among subjects aged more than 54 years and among women a change in body mass index of more than three points was a risk factor with OR of 12.5 and 7.4, respectively. Depression also was a risk factor among subjects aged more than 54 years (OR 3.3). Regular consumption of wine was a protective factor among participants of more than 54 years, with an OR of 0.17. The risk factors for metabolic syndrome detected in this group of participants, were having a Mapuche origin, a family history of diabetes mellitus and depression. Wine consumption was associated with a lower risk.

  11. Impact analysis of critical success factors on the benefits from statistical process control implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rodrigues Soriano

    Full Text Available Abstract The Statistical Process Control - SPC is a set of statistical techniques focused on process control, monitoring and analyzing variation causes in the quality characteristics and/or in the parameters used to control and process improvements. Implementing SPC in organizations is a complex task. The reasons for its failure are related to organizational or social factors such as lack of top management commitment and little understanding about its potential benefits. Other aspects concern technical factors such as lack of training on and understanding about the statistical techniques. The main aim of the present article is to understand the interrelations between conditioning factors associated with top management commitment (Support, SPC Training and Application, as well as to understand the relationships between these factors and the benefits associated with the implementation of the program. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was used in the analysis since the main goal is to establish the causal relations. A cross-section survey was used as research method to collect information of samples from Brazilian auto-parts companies, which were selected according to guides from the auto-parts industry associations. A total of 170 companies were contacted by e-mail and by phone in order to be invited to participate in the survey. However, just 93 industries agreed on participating, and only 43 answered the questionnaire. The results showed that the senior management support considerably affects the way companies develop their training programs. In turn, these trainings affect the way companies apply the techniques. Thus, it will reflect on the benefits gotten from implementing the program. It was observed that the managerial and technical aspects are closely connected to each other and that they are represented by the ratio between top management and training support. The technical aspects observed through SPC

  12. Inhibitory control as a factor of adaptive functioning of children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the adaptive behaviour is one of the defining parameters of intellectual disability, determining of the influence of inhibitory control on adaptive functioning in children with mild intellectual disability was defined as a basic aim of this research. The sample covered 95 children with mild intellectual disability (MID, of both genders, from 10 to 14 years of age. By analysis of the data of schools' pedagogical-psychological departments, data on age and intellectual abilities of participants were collected. Inhibitory control was estimated by Go no Go task, consisted of Conflict Response and Response Delay sets. Adaptive skills data were gained on the basis of a standardized interview with special education teachers, by applying of AAMR Scale of adaptive functioning. On the basis of factor analysis, Scale scores were grouped in five factors: Personal independence, Social Independence, Personal and Social Responsibility, Social Adaptability and Personal Adaptability. Significance of relations among the observed variables was established by Pearson's correlation coefficient, by partial correlation coefficient and multifactorial variance analysis. Based on the analysis of results a statistically significant relationship between errors in the execution of tasks that belong to the set of conflict motor responses and adaptive functioning (p≤0.000 was established. The relationship between errors that belong to the set of the response delay, and adaptive functioning is not statistically significant (p=0.324. Inhibition of the interference response is a significant factor of practical (partial η2=0.227, conceptual (partial η2=0.341 and social (partial η2=0.131 adaptive skills, while the response delay is significantly associated with the conceptual skills (p=0.029 only. Inhibitory control did not prove itself a significant factor in behaviour problems of externalizing and internalized type.

  13. Hypertension in Northern Angola: prevalence, associated factors, awareness, treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, João E; Sebastião, Yuri V; Langa, António J; Nery, Susana V

    2013-01-31

    Seventy-five million people are estimated to be hypertensive in sub-Saharan Africa. This translates in high morbidity and mortality, as hypertension is now considered to be the number one single risk factor for death worldwide. Accurate data from countries lacking national disease surveillance is needed to guide future evidence-driven health policies. The authors aimed to estimate the prevalence, awareness, management and control of hypertension and associated factors in an adult population of Angola. A community-based survey of 1,464 adults, following the World Health Organization's Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance, was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment and control in Dande, Northern Angola. Using a demographic surveillance system database, a representative sample of subjects, stratified by sex and age (18-40 and 41-64 years old), was selected. Prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or hypertensive therapy) was of 23% (95% CI: 21% to 25.2%). A follow-up consultation confirmed the hypertensive status in 82% of the subjects who had a second measurement on average 23 days after the first. Amongst hypertensive individuals, 21.6% (95% CI: 17.0% to 26.9%) were aware of their status. Only 13.9% (95% CI: 5.9% to 29.1%) of the subjects aware of their condition were under pharmacological treatment, of which approximately one-third were controlled. Older age, lower level of education, higher body mass index and abdominal obesity were found to be significantly (pAngola. There is an urgent need for strategies to improve prevention, diagnosis and access to adequate treatment in this country, where a massive economic growth and consequent potential impact on lifestyle risk factors could lead to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  14. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  15. Environmental and occupational risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvan, Irene; Lees, Peter S J; Cunningham, Christopher R; Rai, Shesh N; Cambon, Alexander C; Standaert, David G; Marras, Connie; Juncos, Jorge; Riley, David; Reich, Stephen; Hall, Deborah; Kluger, Benzi; Bordelon, Yvette; Shprecher, David R

    2016-05-01

    The cause of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is largely unknown. Based on evidence for impaired mitochondrial activity in PSP, we hypothesized that the disease may be related to exposure to environmental toxins, some of which are mitochondrial inhibitors. This multicenter case-control study included 284 incident PSP cases of 350 cases and 284 age-, sex-, and race-matched controls primarily from the same geographical areas. All subjects were administered standardized interviews to obtain data on demographics, residential history, and lifetime occupational history. An industrial hygienist and a toxicologist unaware of case status assessed occupational histories to estimate past exposure to metals, pesticides, organic solvents, and other chemicals. Cases and controls were similar on demographic factors. In unadjusted analyses, PSP was associated with lower education, lower income, more smoking pack-years, more years of drinking well water, more years living on a farm, more years living 1 mile from an agricultural region, more transportation jobs, and more jobs with exposure to metals in general. However, in adjusted models, only more years of drinking well water was significantly associated with PSP. There was an inverse association with having a college degree. We did not find evidence for a specific causative chemical exposure; higher number of years of drinking well water is a risk factor for PSP. This result remained significant after adjusting for income, smoking, education and occupational exposures. This is the first case-control study to demonstrate PSP is associated with environmental factors. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. A case–control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. Methods: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. Results: There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14–2.89, working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6–17.9, swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8–4.8, and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2–8.5, with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83% cases and 240 (80% controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05. Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1–8 while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1–8 (P < 0.002. Conclusions: Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.

  17. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandeel Amr M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

  18. Neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm babies: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. J.; Hope, P. L.; Johnson, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy among very preterm babies and in particular the associations independent of the coexistence of antenatal and intrapartum factors. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Oxford health region. SUBJECTS: Singleton babies born between 1984 and 1990 at less than 32 weeks' gestation who survived to discharge from hospital: 59 with cerebral palsy and 234 randomly selected controls without cerebral palsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neonatal factors expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Factors associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy after adjustment for gestational age and the presence of previously identified antenatal and intrapartum risk factors were patent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.5), hypotension (2.3; 1.3 to 4.7), blood transfusion (4.8; 2.5 to 9.3), prolonged ventilation (4.8; 2.5 to 9.0), pneumothorax (3.5; 1.6 to 7.6), sepsis (3.6; 1.8 to 7.4), hyponatraemia (7.9; 2.1 to 29.6) and total parenteral nutrition (5.5; 2.8 to 10.5). Seizures were associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy (10.0; 4.1 to 24.7), as were parenchymal damage (32; 12.4 to 84.4) and appreciable ventricular dilatation (5.4; 3.0 to 9.8) detected by cerebral ultrasound. CONCLUSION: A reduction in the rate of cerebral palsy in very preterm babies requires an integrated approach to management throughout the antenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods. PMID:9040385

  19. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  20. The Control Room Upgrade in Oskarshamn 2 Modernization Project Lesson Learned from Ongoing Human Factor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Gunnarsson; Magnus, Eliasson

    2011-01-01

    Due to recent changes in Swedish commercial nuclear safety system requirements, OKG decided to make the changes required by the new safety requirements, apply for a 30-year license extension, and to concurrently make changes for a major power uprate; this project is called the Plant Life Extension project (PLEX). It was decided, in addition to several plant modifications, to re build the old control room to a new modern screen-based control room located in the same space as the old one, and with the same number of operators. This paper explains the approach taken when modernizing the control room as a part of the Oskarshamn 2 Modernization project PLEX, the results, and the lessons learned from this ongoing work. The combination of changes results in a modernization project that is expected to increase output power by approximately 50 MWe through increased efficiency and to result in an increase in thermal power from 1800 MWt to 2300 MWt (28%) and electrical power from 620 MWe to 840 MWe due to the power uprate. The license to operate OKG2 expires in 2012 The PLEX project is one of the most ambitious nuclear power plant modernization projects ever implemented, world-wide. The application of human factors engineering (HFE) and control room and HSI design is a complex challenge. The original main control room from 1975 in Oskarshamn 2, was quite compact and provided a fairly good overview of the process. New requirements for enhanced safety and other design changes in the process systems and instrumentation led to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room. Since the control room was quite limited in space, the control room grew larger, and the new equipment was installed farther away from the operator workplaces into an adjacent control room. This was even the case for the new safety systems. These systems were functioning well separately as such, but in some cases their interfaces were inconsistent, leading to increased

  1. Modifiable lifestyle factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kye-Yeung; Hwang, Hwan-Sik; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2017-12-01

    The prevention, education, and treatment of osteoporosis are all recognized as important components in men as well as women. This study revealed that the lifestyle factors associated with male osteoporosis included being underweight and being a current smoker. Being overweight or obese and having a regular exercise habit were negatively associated with male osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in Korea and worldwide. Although osteoporosis is less prevalent in males than in females, the fracture-related mortality rate is higher in males than in females. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of modifiable lifestyle factors in males with osteoporosis. A case-control study was performed in men who visited a single university hospital for a medical check-up between August 2003 and July 2016. Patients were classified in the case group according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Osteoporosis Criteria. The control group was created by matching patients according to age and check-up date. Lifestyle factors were evaluated by a self-assessment questionnaire. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between lifestyle factors and male osteoporosis with age stratification at 50 years. A total of 1304 subjects were included in this analysis, 326 of whom were in the case group and 978 of whom were in the control group. Within their age group, subjects with osteoporosis were more often underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-4.98) or more often current smokers (2.22, 1.50-3.28) than control subjects. The subjects who were overweight (0.45, 0.32-0.64), obese (0.19, 0.13-0.27), had an irregular exercise habit (0.64, 0.43-0.94), or had a regular exercise habit (0.40, 0.28-0.57) were more likely to have normal bone status. Alcohol drinking habit had no significant association with male osteoporosis. Several modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with male

  2. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

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    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  3. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in coastal region of india: A case-control study

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    Vinay Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies have shown that people of Indian origin have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD compared with most other ethnic groups. This increased risk has been attributed to multiple risk factors related to lifestyle. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 cases and 100 age and sex-matched controls were taken into this prospective case-control study from Intensive Coronary Care Unit. Prevalence of the following risk factors for myocardial infarction: Age, sex, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, and lipid profile were studied. Patient data were extracted from the medical records department and by interview. Results: The most important predictor of acute myocardial infarction (AMI was high low-density lipoprotein (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.124, confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-11.73, P = 0.008 history of hypertension and of overt diabetes mellitus were also independent risk factors (OR: 2, CI: 1.4-3 and OR: 2.29, CI: 1.5-3.5, respectively. Low high-density lipoprotein was found to have no significant association with AMI. Heavy drinkers were found to have a high-risk (OR: 68, while moderate drinkers were found to have protection (OR: 1. Conclusion: Smoking and heavy drinking cessation, treatment of hypertension and reduction in blood glucose, correction of abnormal lipid profile either through use of statins or by dietary modification may be important in preventing IHD in Asian Indians.

  5. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

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    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  6. Occupational Class Groups as a Risk Factor for Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Case-Control Study

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    Mashallah Aghilinejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer has a high mortality rate in both developing and developed countries. 11%–15% of cancers are attributable to occupational risk factors. Objective: To determine if specific occupational classes, based on the International Standard for Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08, are risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI cancer. Methods: In this case-control study, 834 cancer patients were interviewed by a single physician. Cases included patients with GI cancer. Age-matched controls were selected from non- GI cancer patients. Each year of working, up until 5 years before the diagnosis, was questioned and categorized by the ISCO classification. Results: 243 GI cancer cases and 243 non-GI cancer patients (486 in total were studied. Working in ISCO class 8 (plant and machine operators, and assemblers was significantly associated with higher risk of GI cancer (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.52. Working in ISCO class 6 (skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and 9 (elementary occupations were also associated with higher incidence of GI cancers. Conclusion: Working in ISCO classes of 8, 6, and 9, which are usually associated with low socio-economic status, can be considered a risk factor for GI cancers.

  7. Q-factor control of multilayer micromembrane using PZT composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čekas, Elingas; Janušas, Giedrius; Palevicius, Arvydas; Janušas, Tomas; Ciganas, Justas

    2018-02-01

    Cantilever and membrane based sensors, which are capable of providing accurate detection of target analytes have been always an important research topic of medical diagnostics, food testing, and environmental monitoring fields. Here, the mechanical detection is achieved by micro- and nano-scale cantilevers for stress sensing and mass sensing, or micro- and nano-scale plates or membranes. High sensitivity is a major issue for the active element and it could be achieved via increased Q-factor. The ability to control the Q factor expands the range of application of the device and allows to achieve more accurate results. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical and electrical properties, as well as, the ability to control the Q factor of the membrane with PZT nanocomposite. This multilayered membrane was formatted using the n-type silicon substrate by implementing the Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD), photolithography by using photomask with defined dimensions, deep etching, and e-beam evaporation techniques. Dynamic and electrical characteristics of the membrane were numerically investigated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The use of the multilayered membrane can range from simple monitoring of particles concentration in a closed environment to inspecting glucose levels in human fluids (blood, tears, sweat, etc.).

  8. Hypertension, risk factors and coronary artery stenosis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Zahra; Zibaeenejad, Mohammadjavad; Fararouei, Mohammad

    2018-04-25

    Although hypertension is introduced as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), our knowledge about the nature of the association is hindered. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent associations of several factors including serologic, anthropometric and coronary artery stenosis (CAS) with blood pressure. This is a case-control study on 163 hypertensive patients (SBP > 140 mmHg or DBP > 80 mmHg) and 227 healthy participants. All participants underwent angiography due to classic symptoms of CVDs. Controlling for other study variables, significant associations between CAS (OR yes/no = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.18-3.34 P = 0.006), BMI (kg/m 2 ) (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03-1.14, P = 0.002) and age (year) (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 1.005-1.05, p = 0.01) with hypertension were found. However, according to the results of the stratified analysis, no such associations were found among those with significant CAS. BMI and age were the only significant predictors of hypertension among participants with no CAS. Abdominal obesity was not remained in the final model regardless of the presence or absence of stenosis. As expected, stenosis itself was significantly associated with hypertension. This study suggested that BMI and age are the most powerful predictors of hypertension among those without CAS. As the result, it can be concluded that CAS alters the association between several factors and hypertension.

  9. A New V2G Control Strategy for Load Factor Improvement Using Smoothing Technique

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    CHANHOM, P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G control strategy for improving the load factor in the power network. To operate the proposed strategy, the available storage capacity of the PEVs’ batteries is considered as a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging and discharging an amount of power corresponding to the V2G power command. Due to the remarkable advantages of the technique so-called simple moving average, it is selected for applying in the proposed V2G control strategy. In this research, for investigating the load factor improvement, the essential data including the daily-load profiles with 7-day and 14-day periods are used for the 3 studied cases. These 3 studied cases present the power network with variation of the PEVs locations for describing the PEVs usage and charging or discharging behavior. The performance of the proposed strategy is simulated and verified by the MATPOWER software. The simulation results show that the load factors of the 3 studied cases are improved. Moreover, the encouragement of energy arbitrage for the PEVs owners is also discussed in this paper.

  10. Potential effect of opium consumption on controlling diabetes and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevalence of high SBP were significantly higher in opium user group (P opium user group (P opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent.

  11. Embryonic maturation of epidermal Merkel cells is controlled by a redundant transcription factor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigoto, Carolina N; Bardot, Evan S; Valdes, Victor J; Santoriello, Francis J; Ezhkova, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are located in touch-sensitive areas of the mammalian skin and are involved in recognition of the texture and shape of objects. Merkel cells are essential for these tactile discriminations, as they generate action potentials in response to touch stimuli and induce the firing of innervating afferent nerves. It has been shown that Merkel cells originate from epidermal stem cells, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of their development are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed Merkel cell differentiation during development and found that it is a temporally regulated maturation process characterized by a sequential activation of Merkel cell-specific genes. We uncovered key transcription factors controlling this process and showed that the transcription factor Atoh1 is required for initial Merkel cell specification. The subsequent maturation steps of Merkel cell differentiation are controlled by cooperative function of the transcription factors Sox2 and Isl1, which physically interact and work to sustain Atoh1 expression. These findings reveal the presence of a robust transcriptional network required to produce functional Merkel cells that are required for tactile discrimination. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Diabetes Mellitus, a New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case–Control Study

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    Leila Asadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar vertebral disk degeneration, and the correlation of diabetes with these diseases. Study Design This is a cross-sectional study. Methods This case–control study was performed during 2012–2014 with 110 patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and 110 patients with lumbar disk herniation, who were diagnosed using clinical and radiological evidences. Additionally, 110 participants who were referred to the clinic and did not show clinical signs of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine entered the study as a control group. Demographic data and medical histories of the patients were collected using checklists. Results A total of 50 patients (15.2% were diagnosed with diabetes, which comprised 32 (29.1% in the stenosis group, 7 (6.4% in the lumbar disk herniation group, and 11 (10% in the control group. The prevalence of diabetes in women with spinal stenosis and women with lumbar disk herniation was 35.9% and 10.3%, respectively, whereas prevalence of diabetes in women was 10.9% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant in the spinal stenosis group in comparison with the controls ( P < 0.0001. Conversely, no significant difference was found in men. Conclusions There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  13. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

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    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  14. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  15. Termination factor Rho: From the control of pervasive transcription to cell fate determination in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Pierre; Repoila, Francis; Bardowski, Jacek; Aymerich, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA species originating from pervasive transcription are regulators of various cellular processes, from the expression of individual genes to the control of cellular development and oncogenesis. In prokaryotes, the function of pervasive transcription and its output on cell physiology is still unknown. Most bacteria possess termination factor Rho, which represses pervasive, mostly antisense, transcription. Here, we investigate the biological significance of Rho-controlled transcription in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Rho inactivation strongly affected gene expression in B. subtilis, as assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of a rho–null mutant during exponential growth in rich medium. Subsequent physiological analyses demonstrated that a considerable part of Rho-controlled transcription is connected to balanced regulation of three mutually exclusive differentiation programs: cell motility, biofilm formation, and sporulation. In the absence of Rho, several up-regulated sense and antisense transcripts affect key structural and regulatory elements of these differentiation programs, thereby suppressing motility and biofilm formation and stimulating sporulation. We dissected how Rho is involved in the activity of the cell fate decision-making network, centered on the master regulator Spo0A. We also revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Spo0A activation through Rho-dependent intragenic transcription termination of the protein kinase kinB gene. Altogether, our findings indicate that distinct Rho-controlled transcripts are functional and constitute a previously unknown built-in module for the control of cell differentiation in B. subtilis. In a broader context, our results highlight the recruitment of the termination factor Rho, for which the conserved biological role is probably to repress pervasive transcription, in highly integrated, bacterium-specific, regulatory networks. PMID:28723971

  16. Asthma medication adherence: the role of God and other health locus of control factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedani, Brian K; Peterson, Edward L; Wells, Karen E; Rand, Cynthia S; Williams, L Keoki

    2013-02-01

    Medication adherence is an important determinant of disease outcomes, yet medication use on average tends to be low among patients with chronic conditions, including asthma. Although several predictors of non-adherence have been assessed, more research is needed on patients' beliefs about God and how these relate to medication use. To examine the relationship between perceptions about "God's" role in health and other locus of control factors with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence among asthma patients. Participants were from a clinical trial to improve ICS adherence and were 5-56 years old, had a diagnosis of asthma, and were receiving ICS medication. Baseline adherence was estimated from electronic prescription and pharmacy fill records. Patients were considered to be adherent if ICS use was ≥80% of prescribed. A baseline survey with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale was used to assess five sources (God, doctors, other people, chance, and internal). Medication adherence was low (36%). Patients' who had a stronger belief that God determined asthma control were less likely to be adherent (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.96). This relationship was stronger among African American (OR 0.68, 95% CI0.47-0.99) compared to white patients (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.04), and among adults (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.96) compared to children (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.58-1.22). Patients' belief in God's control of health appears to be a factor in asthma controller use, and therefore should be considered in physician-patient discussions concerning course of treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00459368. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary gland carcinomas: prognostic factors for local control and distant metastasis, the role of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhaard, C.H.J.; Lubsen, H.; Tweel, I. van der; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Eijkenboom, W.M.H.; Marres, H.A.M.; Tjho-Heslinga, R.E.; Jong, J.M.A. de; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in which head and neck groups of all University hospitals and the two cancer institutes are represented, initiated a retrospective study concerning salivary gland carcinomas. A majority of Dutch patients with head and neck carcinomas are treated in the participating centres, and the follow-up is precise. Prognostic factors for local control and survival were studied, with special interest in the role of treatment and the role of histologic type. Methods and materials: Results were obtained of 568 patients with a mean follow-up time of 5 years. The parotid gland was involved in 59%, the submandibular gland in 14%, oral cavity in 24% and 3% was located elsewhere. Mean age was 59 years (range 8-100 yr), 48% was female. T-stage was T 1 in 27%, T 2 in 44%, T 3 in 19% and T 4 in 11%. Positive necknodes were seen in 15%, 3% was initially M 1 . Histologic type was acinic cell carcinoma in 12%, mucoepidermoid ca. in 16%, adenoid cystic ca. in 26%, adenoca. in 24%, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma in 8%, squamous cell ca. in 6% and undifferentiated ca. in 7%. Resection margins were radical in 37%, close in 20% and irradical in 40% (3% unknown). Surgery was the primary treatment in 501 patients, combined with postoperative radiotherapy (50-70 Gy, mean dose 62 Gy) in 389 patients. Radiotherapy was the primary treatment in 40 patients (18 M 1 , 30% N+), 20 patients were not treated and 7 patients were treated otherwise. For statistical analysis the Cox PH regression analysis was used (SPSS-PC+). Results: Actuarial local control after 8 years was 80% for surgery alone and 92% for the combined modality (in which more advanced cases prevaled). Independent factors for local control in the surgery±radiotherapy group were: I:T-stage (T 3 vs T 1-2 : RR 3.7; T 4 vs T 1-2 : RR 11.7), II: anatomic site (oral cavity vs parotid and submandibular gland: RR 0.2) and III: treatment modality (surgery alone vs surgery

  18. Expression of the Arabidopsis Sigma Factor SIG5 Is Photoreceptor and Photosynthesis Controlled

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    Marina Mellenthin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two collections of Arabidopsis GAL4 enhancer trap lines were screened for light-intensity dependent reporter gene activation. Line N9313 was isolated for its strong light-intensity regulation. The T-DNA element trapped distant enhancers of the SIG5 promoter, which drives expression of a sigma factor involved in regulation of chloroplast genes for photosystem II core proteins. The T-DNA insertion 715 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site splits the promoter in a distal and proximal part. Both parts are sensitive to blue and red light and depend on photosynthetic electron transport activity between photosystem II and the plastoquinone pool. The mainblue-light sensitivity is localized within a 196-bp sequence (–887 to –691 bp in the proximal promoter region It is preferentially CRY1 and PHYB controlled. Type-I and type-II phytochromes mediate red-light sensitivity via various promoter elements spread over the proximal and distal upstream region. This work characterizes SIG5 as an anterograde control factor of chloroplast gene expression, which is controlled by chloroplast signals in a retrograde manner.

  19. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

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    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  20. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

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    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  1. Interaction between bacterial outer membrane proteins and periplasmic quality control factors: a kinetic partitioning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Ge, Xi; Lv, Zhixin; Zhi, Zeyong; Chang, Zengyi; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2011-09-15

    The OMPs (outer membrane proteins) of Gram-negative bacteria have to be translocated through the periplasmic space before reaching their final destination. The aqueous environment of the periplasmic space and high permeability of the outer membrane engender such a translocation process inevitably challenging. In Escherichia coli, although SurA, Skp and DegP have been identified to function in translocating OMPs across the periplasm, their precise roles and their relationship remain to be elucidated. In the present paper, by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and single-molecule detection, we have studied the interaction between the OMP OmpC and these periplasmic quality control factors. The results of the present study reveal that the binding rate of OmpC to SurA or Skp is much faster than that to DegP, which may lead to sequential interaction between OMPs and different quality control factors. Such a kinetic partitioning mechanism for the chaperone-substrate interaction may be essential for the quality control of the biogenesis of OMPs.

  2. Risk and Protective Factors for Difficulty Controlling Violent Behavior in National Guard and Reserve Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Miranda; Rathod, Sujit D; Cohen, Gregory; Sampson, Laura; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert; Fullerton, Carol; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Violent behavior is an important problem for military service members and veterans. A representative cohort of U.S. Reserve and National Guard personnel ( N = 1,293) were interviewed to assess self-reported problems controlling violent behavior, deployment traumas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and social support. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors. Problems controlling violent behavior were uncommon among male (3.3%) and female (1.7%) service members. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) showed associations between violent behavior and deployment traumas (aPR = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.34, 2.08]), PTSD (aPR = 9.95, 95% CI = [5.09, 19.48]), and PTSD symptom severity (aPR for each additional PTSD symptom = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.06, 1.09]). Social support was associated with lower prevalence of violent behavior (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = [0.52, 0.76]). The association between violent behavior and alcohol abuse was not statistically significant (aPR = 1.94, 95% CI = [0.92, 4.09]). Results were consistent when the population was restricted to personnel who had deployed to a war zone. Problems controlling violent behavior were less common in this cohort than has been documented in other studies. Associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors are consistent with prior research.

  3. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

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    Sai Yi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.62 (1.02–2.58. Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years (OR=0.65, high consumption of spinach/squash (OR=0.62 and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR=0.75, and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR=0.78. Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  4. Case-control study on risk factors for acute hepatitis E in Germany, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mirko; Askar, Mona; Stark, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    BackgroundNotified cases of hepatitis E have increased 40-fold in the past 10 years in Germany. Food safety is a major concern as hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA has been detected in ready-to-eat retail-level food products. The objective of this case-control study was to assess risk factors for autochthonous symptomatic hepatitis E and explore reasons for delays in diagnosis. Methods: Demographic, clinical and exposure data from notified hepatitis E cases and individually matched population controls were collected in semi-standardised telephone interviews. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate matched odds ratios (mOR) and population attributable fractions (PAF). Results: In total, 270 cases and 1,159 controls were included (mean age 53 years, 61% men in both groups). Associated with disease were: consumption of undercooked pork liver, pork, wild boar meat, frankfurters, liver sausage and raw vegetables; contact with waste water (occupational) and various host factors (mORs between 1.9 and 34.1, p value E in men and women. Diagnosis was preceded by more invasive procedures in 29.2% of patients, suggesting that hepatitis E was not immediately considered as a common differential diagnosis. Conclusions: Our study suggests that there are indeed sex-specific differences in disease development and lends important epidemiological evidence to specific ready-to-eat pork products as a major source for autochthonous hepatitis E. A review of existing consumer recommendations and production methods may be indicated.

  5. Nanomechanical control of optical field and quality factor in photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, Michele; Midolo, Leonardo; Zobenica, Žarko; Petruzzella, Maurangelo; van Otten, Frank W. M.; Fiore, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Actively controlling the properties of localized optical modes is crucial for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. While several methods to tune the optical frequency have been demonstrated, the possibility of controlling the shape of the modes has scarcely been investigated. Yet an active manipulation of the mode pattern would allow direct control of the mode volume and the quality factor and therefore of the radiative processes. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a nano-optoelectromechanical device in which a mechanical displacement affects the spatial pattern of the electromagnetic field. The device is based on a double-membrane photonic crystal waveguide which, upon bending, creates a spatial modulation of the effective refractive index, resulting in an effective potential well or antiwell for the optical modes. The change in the field pattern drastically affects the optical losses: large modulations of the quality factors and dissipative coupling rates larger than 1 GHz/nm are predicted by calculations and confirmed by experiments. This concept opens new avenues in solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics in which the field, instead of the frequency, is coupled to the mechanical motion.

  6. Factors associated with poor Hemoglobin A1c control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Salam; Jarab, Anan S; Alefishat, Eman A; Mayyas, Fadia; Khdour, Maher; Pinto, Sharrel

    2018-05-10

    Background The limited implementation of clinical pharmacy service programs and the lack of studies identifying barriers to achieve blood glucose control have all attributed to the increased proportion of type 2 diabetes patients who have poor glycemic control in Jordan. Objective To explore factors associated with higher HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Method Variables including socio-demographics, disease and treatment factors were collected from171 patients with type2 diabetes at an outpatient diabetes clinic in Amman. Validated questionnaires were used to assess medication adherence, self-care activities, diabetes knowledge and health-related quality of life in addition to data collected from medical records. After the single-predictor analysis, stepwise linear regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted hemoglobin A1c. Results Medication adherence was inversely associated with HbA1c values (β = -0.275; t = 2.666; P diabetes duration (β = 0.092; t = 1.339; P diabetes and those with multiple comorbid diseases should be strongly considered in future diabetes management programs implemented to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

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    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  8. Risk factors for small airway obstruction among Chinese island residents: a case-control study.

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    Yu-sheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for small airway obstruction (SAO among Chinese island residents to establish means to prevent and treat SAO. METHODS: From October 17, 2011 to November 1, 2011, a total of 2,873 residents aged >20 years who lived on the Huangqi Peninsula of Fujian were recruited by random cluster sampling. They were asked to complete a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD questionnaire and underwent physical examinations and lung function evaluations. SAO was defined as a forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity, Vmax50%, of less than 70% of predicted. Risk factors for SAO were assessed from among demographic and anthropometric variables, blood chemistry results, and questionnaire response items. RESULTS: A total of 216 (7.52% Chinese island residents were identified as having SAO (95 males; 121 females. Their survey and test results were compared with 432 age and sex-matched healthy controls (192 males; 240 females for SAO risk factors. Among numerous factors investigated, only diabetes mellitus (p = 0.039, smoking index (SI, p600, second hand smoke (p = 0.002, and lack of regular exercise (p<0.001 were significant risk factors for SAO. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for SAO among Chinese island residents appeared to be similar to those among people who live in high-density urban environments and impoverished rural areas. Public health policies and medical practices directed toward improving respiratory health for island residents should be comparable to those used for urban and rural dwellers.

  9. Factores de capacidad en el uso de control prenatal adecuado en gestantes de Sincelejo (Colombia

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    Clarybel Miranda Mellado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores de capacidad relacionados con el uso adecuado de control prenatal en gestantes de Sincelejo (Colombia en 2014. Materiales y métodos: Estudio analítico de corte transversal, con una muestra de 730 gestantes, seleccionadas mediante muestreo por conglomerados. La información fue reco - lectada por medio de Encuesta Sociodemográfica y de Caracterización familiar, Escala de Apgar Familiar y Escala de Satisfacción con los Servicios Sanitarios. Para la tabulación de datos se usó Microsoft Excel V-2010, SPSSS V-17, y para el análisis, las pruebas OR y Análisis Multivariado. Resultados: El 97,7 % de las gestantes asiste al control prenatal. Sobre las razones de asistencia, 83,9 % (598 dijo que lo hacía para detectar alteraciones y 14,6 % (104 por recomendación de alguien; las 17 gestantes que no asistían al control citaron como razo - nes: porque deben hacer mucho trámite (47,1 %(8, por haber perdido la cita (23,5 %(4, porque creen no necesitar el control porque habían tenido hijos sin problemas (23,5 %(4, y porque creen que es muy temprano para iniciar el control (5,9 %(1. Acerca del uso de control prenatal se encontró que el 75,6 % (552 hace uso adecuado de este servicio. Conclusiones: Al hacer un análisis estadístico mediante razones de momios ( OR , para hallar asociación con los factores de capacidad, se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el uso adecuado de control prenatal y dos variables de capacidad: la afiliación a un régimen de salud y la satisfacción con los servicios de control prenatal.

  10. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

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    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2

  11. Risk factors for periodontal diseases among Yemeni type II diabetic patients. A case-control study.

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    Anas Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontal diseases are one of diabetes mellitus complications. The present study aims to compare the periodontal status of type II diabetic patients to a control group and assess the role of risk factors in both groups. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted of 270 individuals (132 type II diabetics and 138 non-diabetics. Full mouth periodontal examination including plaque index, gingival bleeding, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss (CAL, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and the number of missing teeth. The case group was subdivided according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c status (poorly controlled HbA1c >8 and well controlled HbA1c≤8 Likewise, the duration of diabetes mellitus as short or long duration (DM≤10 or >10. The diabetic group was also subdivided according to smoking and Khat chewing habits. Result: The severity of periodontal disease among type II diabetic patients were significantly higher compared to the control group regarding the plaque index 2.6 (1.6-4.3, bleeding on probing 3.5 (2.3-13.0, gingival recession 2.0 (1.2-3.4, furcation involvement 4.0 (2.3-6.7, clinical attachment loss 5.7 (3.1-10.5, tooth mobility 2.0 (1.2-3.4, and number of missing teeth 4.4 (2.3-8.5. In addition, poorly controlled type II DM and long duration had higher CAL and number of missing teeth than well-controlled DM and short duration. No significant differences were found between smokers/nonsmokers and Khat chewers/non-chewers among the diabetic group. Conclusion: Type II diabetic patients have severe periodontal destruction and tooth loss compared to non-diabetic people and there were no differences within the diabetic group in regards to smoking and Khat chewing habits.

  12. Recent and ancient recharge deciphered by multi-dating tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Cook, Peter; Mccallum, Jimes; Purtchert, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Determining groundwater residence time from environmental tracer concentrations obtained from open bores or long screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents variety of ages. Information on the distribution of groundwater age is commonly obtained by measuring more than one tracer. We examined the use of the multi-tracer technique representing different time frames (39Ar, 85Kr, 14C, 3H, CFC 11- CFC-12 CFC-113, SF6 and Cl,) to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long screened bores in a regional aquifer in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. We then applied a technique that assumes limited details of the form of the age distribution. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water - the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. Using our method, we were able to identify distinct age components in the groundwater. The results suggest the presence of four distinct age groups; zero and 20 years, 50 to 100 years, 100 to 600 years and approximately 1000 years old. These relatively high recharge events were consistent with local recharge sources (50-100 years) and confirmed by palaeo-climate record obtained from lake sediments. We found that although the ages of these components were well constrained, the relative proportions of each component was highly sensitive to errors of environmental tracer data. Our results show that the method we implemented can identify distinct age groups in groundwater samples without prior knowledge of the age distribution. The presence of distinct recharge times gives insight into groundwater flow conditions over long periods of time.

  13. Perspectives on deciphering mechanisms underlying plant heat stress response and thermotolerance

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    Kamila Lucia Bokszczanin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food safety and in many cases the negative effects are already apparent. The current challenge of basic and applied plant science is to decipher the molecular mechanisms of heat stress response and thermotolerance in detail and use this information to identify genotypes that will withstand unfavorable environmental conditions. Nowadays X-omics approaches complement the findings of previous targeted studies and highlight the complexity of heat stress response mechanisms giving information for so far unrecognized genes, proteins and metabolites as potential key players of thermotolerance. Even more, roles of epigenetic mechanisms and the involvement of small RNAs in thermotolerance are currently emerging and thus open new directions of yet unexplored areas of plant heat stress response. In parallel it is emerging that although the whole plant is vulnerable to heat, specific organs are particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. This has redirected research from the vegetative to generative tissues. The sexual reproduction phase is considered as the most sensitive to heat and specifically pollen exhibits the highest sensitivity and frequently an elevation of the temperature just a few degrees above the optimum during pollen development can have detrimental effects for crop production. Compared to our knowledge on heat stress response of vegetative tissues, the information on pollen is still scarce. Nowadays, several techniques for high-throughput X-omics approaches provide major tools to explore the principles of pollen heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms in specific genotypes. The collection of such information will provide an excellent support for improvement of breeding programs to facilitate the development of tolerant cultivars. The review aims at describing the current knowledge of thermotolerance mechanisms and the technical advances which will foster new insights into

  14. Invoking adaptation to decipher the genetic legacy of past climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Napier, Joseph D; Petit, Rémy J; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2018-05-05

    Persistence of natural populations during periods of climate change is likely to depend on migration (range shifts) or adaptation. These responses were traditionally considered discrete processes and conceptually divided into the realms of ecology and evolution. In a milestone paper, Davis and Shaw (2001) argued that the interplay of adaptation and migration was central to biotic responses to Quaternary climate, but since then there has been no synthesis of efforts made to set up this research program. Here we review some of the salient findings from molecular genetic studies assessing ecological and evolutionary responses to Quaternary climate change. These studies have revolutionized our understanding of population processes associated with past species migration. However, knowledge remains limited about the role of natural selection for local adaptation of populations to Quaternary environmental fluctuations and associated range shifts, and for the footprints this might have left on extant populations. Next-generation sequencing technologies, high-resolution paleoclimate analyses, and advances in population genetic theory offer an unprecedented opportunity to test hypotheses about adaptation through time. Recent population genomics studies have greatly improved our understanding of the role of contemporary adaptation to local environments in shaping spatial patterns of genetic diversity across modern-day landscapes. Advances in this burgeoning field provide important conceptual and methodological bases to decipher the historical role of natural selection and assess adaptation to past environmental variation. We suggest that a process called "temporal conditional neutrality" has taken place: some alleles favored in glacial environments become selectively neutral in modern-day conditions, whereas some alleles that had been neutral during glacial periods become under selection in modern environments. Building on this view, we present a new integrative framework for

  15. Risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Leonilda Giani; Menezes, Fernando Gatti de; Gonçalves, Priscila; Toniolo, Alexandra do Rosário; Silva, Claudia Vallone; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Santos, Camila Marques Dos; Castagna, Helena Maria Fernandes; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Corrêa, Luci

    2017-01-01

    To describe the microbiological characteristics and to assess the risk factors for mortality of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a case-control study of intensive care patients. This case-control study was conducted over a 6-year period in a 40-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care, private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Case patients were identified using the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee database. For the analysis of risk factors, matched control subjects were selected from the same institution at a 1:8.8 ratio, between January 2006 and December 2011. A total of 40 episodes of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis were evaluated in 40 patients in the intensive care unit, and 354 intensive care patients who did not experience tracheobronchitis were included as the Control Group. During the 6-year study period, a total of 42 organisms were identified (polymicrobial infections were 5%) and 88.2% of all the microorganisms identified were Gram-negative. Using a logistic regression model, we found the following independent risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis patients: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation I score (odds ratio 1.18 per unit of score; 95%CI: 1.05-1.38; p=0.01), and duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.09 per day of mechanical ventilation; 95%CI: 1.03-1.17; p=0.004). Our study provided insight into the risk factors for mortality and microbiological characteristics of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. Descrever as características microbiológicas e avaliar os fatores de risco para mortalidade na traqueobronquite associada à ventilação mecânica em um estudo caso-controle de pacientes de terapia intensiva. Estudo realizado ao longo de 6 anos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva médico-cirúrgica de 40 leitos, em um hospital privado e de nível terciário em São Paulo, Brasil. O Grupo Caso foi identificado usando o banco de dados da Comissão de

  16. Recombinant activated factor VII: its mechanism of action and role in the control of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Geoffrey A; Hoffman, Maureane; Roberts, Harold R; Monroe, Dougald M

    2002-12-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has proven both safe and efficacious in the treatment of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A or B who have developed inhibitors. More recently, a growing number of reports suggests that rFVIIa may also have indications for the treatment of bleeding in patients with other hemostatic disorders, including qualitative and quantitative platelet defects, factor deficiencies other than hemophilia, and in otherwise healthy patients with uncontrollable hemorrhage following surgery or trauma. We have attempted to reconcile the various proposed mechanisms of action of rFVIIa with its apparent efficacy in such diverse clinical settings. A review of the literature was performed to determine those clinical scenarios in which rFVIIa appears to have been effective in controlling associated hemorrhage. Findings from our group and others have demonstrated that rFVIIa is able to directly activate factor X and increase thrombin production on the surface of activated platelets in the absence of factor VIII or IX, as well as to improve thrombin generation in thrombocytopenia, and to yield a fibrin dot more resistant to fibrinolysis in vitro. Through these primary mechanisms, we believe that rFVIIa may be able to compensate for a variety of defects in hemostasis and merits further investigation as a general therapeutic for uncontrollable hemorrhage.

  17. The global geographical overlap of aflatoxin and hepatitis C: Controlling risk factors for liver cancer worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Wu, Felicia

    2012-01-01

    About 85% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, liver cancer) cases occur in low-income countries, where the risk factors of dietary aflatoxin exposure and chronic hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) viral infection are common. While studies have shown synergism between aflatoxin and HBV in causing HCC, much less is known about whether aflatoxin and HCV synergize similarly. From an exposure perspective, we examine whether there is a geographical overlap in populations worldwide exposed to high dietary aflatoxin levels and with high HCV prevalence. While HCV is one of the most important risk factors for HCC in high-income nations (where aflatoxin exposure is low), we find that HCV prevalence is much higher in Africa and Asia, where aflatoxin exposure is also high. However, within a given world region, there are some inconsistencies regarding exposure and cancer risk. Therefore, there is a need to control risk factors such as aflatoxin and hepatitis viruses in a cost-effective manner to prevent global HCC, while continuing to evaluate biological mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase HCC risk. PMID:23281740

  18. Profile of suicide attempts and risk factors among psychiatric patients: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Bhatt

    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviour remains challenging for clinicians to predict, with few established risk factors and warning signs among psychiatric patients.We aimed to describe characteristics and identify risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with psychiatric disorders.Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted for clinically important confounders, was employed to determine risk factors for suicide attempts within a psychiatric patient population.The case (n = 146 and control groups (n = 104 did not differ significantly with regards to sociodemographic characteristics. The majority of the participants who had attempted suicide did so with high intent to die, and expected to die without medical intervention. The primary method of attempt was pharmaceutical overdose among the case participants (73.3%. Results showed impulsivity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.30 and borderline personality symptoms (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.13 were significantly associated with attempted suicide.Our findings indicate that known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide may not apply within psychiatric populations. Prevention strategies for suicidal behaviour in psychiatric patients may be effective, including limited access to means for suicide attempts (i.e. excess pharmaceutical drugs and target screening for high-risk personality and impulsivity traits.

  19. Analysis of the Risk Factors for Aerobic Vaginitis: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Nv; Wu, Wenjuan; Fan, Aiping; Han, Cha; Wang, Chen; Wang, Yingmei; Xue, Fengxia

    2015-06-09

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a newly defined clinical entity which may interfere with women's reproductive health and have negative effects on pregnancy. This study was to identify the risk factors for AV. Participants in this case-control study included healthy women and women with AV. All participants completed a standardized questionnaire covering sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, personal hygiene habits and health behaviors. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for statistical evaluation. A total of 290 women of reproductive age were enrolled. In the multivariate analysis, unmarried status (odds ratio [OR] 2.606, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.257-5.402), use of an intrauterine device (OR 4.989, 95% CI 1.922-12.952), long-term use of antibiotics (OR 11.176, 95% CI 1.363-91.666) and frequent vaginal douching (OR 4.689, 95% CI 1.363-16.135) were independent risk factors for AV. On the contrary, consistent condom use (OR 0.546, 95% CI 0.301-0.991) and college-level education or above (OR 0.255, 95% CI 0.131-0.497) were independent protective factors. Measures that may be considered to prevent AV include enhancing education to improve women's knowledge related to reproductive health, especially unmarried women, encouraging them to consistently use condoms as a contraceptive method, to avoid long-term use of antibiotics and to stop frequent vaginal douching. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. ZnO UV photodetector with controllable quality factor and photosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Campos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires have an enormous potential for applications as ultra-violet (UV photodetectors. Their mechanism of photocurrent generation is intimately related with the presence of surface states where considerable efforts, such as surface chemical modifications, have been pursued to improve their photodetection capabilities. In this work, we report a step further in this direction demonstrating that the relative photosensitivity and quality factor (Q factor of the photodetector are entirely tunable by an applied gate voltage. This mechanism enables UV photodetection selectivity ranging from wavelengths from tens of nanometers (full width at half maximum - FWHM down to a narrow detection of 3 nm. Such control paves the way for novel applications, especially related to the detection of elements that have very sharp luminescence.

  1. Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Fantu; Berhane, Yemane; Girma, Belaineh

    2012-11-24

    In Ethiopia although pregnant mothers increasingly attend antenatal clinics, utilization of skilled delivery service remains very low. The individual or health system factors that affect women's preferences for delivery places are not well known. A case control study was conducted in July 2010 to assess factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery service. A total of 324 mothers who recently delivered and visited either postnatal care or sought immunization services were included. Cases (n = 108) were mothers who gave birth at home and controls (n = 216) were those who delivered at health facility. Pre-tested and standardized questionnaires were used to collect relevant data by trained data collectors. Logistic regression model was used to control for confounding. The likelihood of delivering at home was greater among mothers with inadequate knowledge of pregnancy related services (AOR = 62, 95% CI: 3, 128.4), those who started attending ANC after 24 weeks of gestation (AOR 8.7, 95% CI: 2.2, 33.3), mothers having no formal education (Adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.63, 11.27) and rural residents (AOR = 3.6, 95%CI: 1.4, 9.0). The predominant factors associated with home delivery services were lack of knowledge about obstetrics care, delay in starting Antenatal Care (ANC) follow up, having, Illiteracy and rural residence. Audience specific behavioral change communication should be designed to improve the demand for delivery services. Health professionals should take the opportunity to encourage mothers attend delivery services during ANC follow up. Improvements should be made in social conditions including literacy and major social mobilization endeavors.

  2. Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Fantu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia although pregnant mothers increasingly attend antenatal clinics, utilization of skilled delivery service remains very low. The individual or health system factors that affect women’s preferences for delivery places are not well known. Method A case control study was conducted in July 2010 to assess factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery service. A total of 324 mothers who recently delivered and visited either postnatal care or sought immunization services were included. Cases (n = 108 were mothers who gave birth at home and controls (n = 216 were those who delivered at health facility. Pre-tested and standardized questionnaires were used to collect relevant data by trained data collectors. Logistic regression model was used to control for confounding. Result The likelihood of delivering at home was greater among mothers with inadequate knowledge of pregnancy related services (AOR = 62, 95% CI: 3, 128.4, those who started attending ANC after 24 weeks of gestation (AOR 8.7, 95% CI: 2.2, 33.3, mothers having no formal education (Adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.63, 11.27 and rural residents (AOR = 3.6, 95%CI: 1.4, 9.0. Conclusion The predominant factors associated with home delivery services were lack of knowledge about obstetrics care, delay in starting Antenatal Care (ANC follow up, having, Illiteracy and rural residence. Audience specific behavioral change communication should be designed to improve the demand for delivery services. Health professionals should take the opportunity to encourage mothers attend delivery services during ANC follow up. Improvements should be made in social conditions including literacy and major social mobilization endeavors.

  3. Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Schiffer, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested an association between pedophilia, neurocognitive disturbances, and specific personality profiles. However, inconsistencies in the findings have not been explained sufficiently, because many studies did not control for possible confounding factors, such as age, education level, or gender orientation. Therefore, the present investigation examined neurocognitive performance and personality profiles in pedophiles in dependence of sexual gender preferences and sexual deviance, as well as with regard to age and education level. Scores on the different neurocognitive tests, personality questionnaires, and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV (SCID) interviews. An extensive neurocognitive test battery (including a reduced version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin card-sorting test, d2 Attention-Deficit Test, and the Corsi block-tapping test) as well as two personality questionnaires (Minnessota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2] and the Multiphasic Sex Inventory [MSI]) were used to examine a consecutive sample of 20 psychiatrically assessed (SCID I and II) pedophile inpatients (nine exclusively attracted to females and 11 to males) from two high security forensic hospitals and 28 healthy controls (14 heterosexual, 14 homosexual). Compared with controls, pedophiles showed neurocognitive impairments and personality specifics in the majority of tests and questionnaires, such as reduced values on the intelligence scale and weaker performances in information processing, together with high scores for psychopathy and paranoia, and signs of sexual obsessiveness and sexual dysfunction. In contrast to previous reports, some of these alterations were at least partly explained by factors other than pedophilia, such as education level or age. These alterations may be seen to be in line with the hypothesis of a perturbation of

  4. Risk factors for maternal mortality in the west of Iran: a nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With a gradual decline in maternal mortality in recent years in Iran, this study was conducted to identify the remaining risk factors for maternal death. METHODS: This 8-year nested case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in the west of Iran, from April 2006 to March 2014. It included 185 women (37 cases and 148 controls. All maternal deaths that occurred during the study period were considered cases. For every case, four women with a live birth were selected as controls from the same area and date. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and the odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained for each risk factor. RESULTS: The majority of cases were aged 20-34 years, died in hospital, and lived in urban areas. The most common causes of death were bleeding, systemic disease, infection, and pre-eclampsia. The OR estimate of maternal death was 8.48 (95% CI=1.26-56.99 for advanced maternal age (≥35 years; 2.10 (95% CI=0.07-65.43 for underweight and 10.99 (95% CI=1.65-73.22 for overweight or obese women compared to those with normal weight; 1.56 (95% CI=1.08-2.25 for every unit increase in gravidity compared to those with one gravidity; 1.73 (95% CI=0.34-8.88 for preterm labors compared to term labors; and 17.54 (95% CI= 2.71-113.42 for women with systemic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, advanced maternal age, abnormal body mass index, multiple gravidity, preterm labor, and systemic disease were the main risk factors for maternal death. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in different settings is required to confirm our results.

  5. Risk Factors For Diabetic Foot In Tetouan, Morocco - A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham AOUFI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Diabetes is a globally major public health problem. Its evolution is insidious and silent before the appearance of serious complications as a consequence in terms of morbidity than of mortality.  Complications in the feet are among the most frequent and feared. This study helps identify factors associated with diabetic foot in diabetic patients in the province of Tetouan in public and private sector.Methods This is a case-control study in which 136 diabetic patients monitored in the public and private sector in the province of Tetouan were chosen. 68 patients had diabetic foot and 68 were diabetic patients without this complication. Data were collected from patients’ records and supplemented by interviews. The factors compared between the two groups were socio-demographic, biological and related to diabetes and lifestyle. These risk factors were determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses.Results Statistically significant associations were found between diabetic foot and several factors including: the irregular monitoring of patients: ORadjusted = 7.7 [1.9-23], the rate of glycated hemoglobin: ORadjusted = 1.7 [1.2-2.3], diabetes duration: ORadjusted = 1.2 [1.03-1.26], and physical activity ORadjusted = 1.1 [0.02-0.9]. However, no association was found between diabetic foot and the level of education or occupation.Conclusion To prevent the development of diabetic foot, more attention should be given to diabetic patients whose diabetes duration is long, patient monitoring should be regular and diabetes control should be optimal. In addition, physical activity is recommended for diabetic patients as part of promoting healthy lifestyles

  6. First Outbreak with MRSA in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Risk Factors and Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsing, Benedicte Grenness Utke; Arpi, Magnus; Andersen, Erik Arthur; Knabe, Niels; Mogensen, Dorthe; Buhl, Dorte; Westh, Henrik; Østergaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics and outbreak handling of a large methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Denmark June 25th–August 8th 2008, and to identify risk factors for MRSA transmission. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and the Danish Neobase database. All MRSA isolates obtained from neonates, relatives and NICU health care workers (HCW) as well as environmental cultures were typed. Results During the 46 day outbreak period, 102 neonates were admitted to the two neonatal wards. Ninety-nine neonates were subsequently sampled, and 32 neonates (32%) from 25 families were colonized with MRSA (spa-type t127, SCCmec V, PVL negative). Thirteen family members from 11 of those families (44%) and two of 161 HCWs (1%) were colonized with the same MRSA. No one was infected. Five environmental cultures were MRSA positive. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP) treatment (p = 0.006) and Caesarean section (p = 0.016) were independent risk factors for MRSA acquisition, whereas days of exposure to MRSA was a risk factors in the unadjusted analysis (p = 0.04). Conclusions MRSA transmission occurs with high frequency in the NICU during hospitalization with unidentified MRSA neonates. Caesarean section and nCPAP treatment were identified as risk factors for MRSA colonization. The MRSA outbreak was controlled through infection control procedures. PMID:23825581

  7. Risk factors for adolescent pregnancy in Bogotá, Colombia, 2010: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sofía Morón-Duarte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for adolescent pregnancy among female students in Bogotá, Colombia METHODS: This was a retrospective study of cases and controls matched by age, identified by means of a survey on the sexual behavior of adolescent students in Bogotá (Encuesta sobre el Comportamiento Sexual de los Adolescentes Escolarizados en Bogotá conducted in the first semester of 2010. All 272 cases and 544 randomly-selected controls were taken from 39 044 total records. Variables considered were sociodemographics, household structure, and family environment; sexual relationships and pregnancy; and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. Matching and conditional logistic regression were used to adjust for possible confounding factors RESULTS: The factors associated with increased risk of adolescent pregnancy based on multivariate analyses were: attending public school (odds ratio [OR]=2.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.45-3.51; history of siblings with adolescent pregnancy (OR =1.98; 95% CI: 1.55-2.76; early first sexual intercourse (12 years of age or less (OR =2.34; 95% CI: 1.01-5.40; having a self-reported low- or average-level of contraceptive knowledge (OR =3.92; 95% CI: 1.96-7.83; previous pregnancy (OR =14.09; 95% CI: 8.74- 22.70; and not living with both parents (OR 3.58; 95% CI: 2.10-6.16 CONCLUSIONS: Factors related to individual, family, and social environments that influence the incidence of adolescent pregnancy must be considered and addressed when designing interventions. The existing sex education curriculum is an important component in preventing adolescent pregnancy, however, parent/caregiver participation is required for success.

  8. First outbreak with MRSA in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors and control procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Grenness Utke Ramsing

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics and outbreak handling of a large methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in Denmark June 25(th-August 8(th 2008, and to identify risk factors for MRSA transmission. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and the Danish Neobase database. All MRSA isolates obtained from neonates, relatives and NICU health care workers (HCW as well as environmental cultures were typed. RESULTS: During the 46 day outbreak period, 102 neonates were admitted to the two neonatal wards. Ninety-nine neonates were subsequently sampled, and 32 neonates (32% from 25 families were colonized with MRSA (spa-type t127, SCCmec V, PVL negative. Thirteen family members from 11 of those families (44% and two of 161 HCWs (1% were colonized with the same MRSA. No one was infected. Five environmental cultures were MRSA positive. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP treatment (p = 0.006 and Caesarean section (p = 0.016 were independent risk factors for MRSA acquisition, whereas days of exposure to MRSA was a risk factors in the unadjusted analysis (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: MRSA transmission occurs with high frequency in the NICU during hospitalization with unidentified MRSA neonates. Caesarean section and nCPAP treatment were identified as risk factors for MRSA colonization. The MRSA outbreak was controlled through infection control procedures.

  9. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    through to continental scales). Our ability to reconstruct narratives of landscape dynamics of encompassing - mega-geomorphic - patterns can only be as good as the details of individual events we can discern in Earth history. Obviously, recognizing the centrality of "Conquering the Mesoscale" as the intrinsic prerequisite to test competing hypotheses of landscape dynamics, in the earth system context, calls for innovative research approaches. This is where Africa holds vast potential. The continent is the most remarkable natural laboratory to explore and tackle these challenges where we seek to build the composite mega-geomorphic chronicle informed in the detail of mesoscale process and form. But how does geomorphology, embedded in an earth system framework, advance beyond the established approaches in process and mega-geomorphology? The latter's limitations to reconstruct the tempo and mode of African landforms and palaeoenviroments reveal the stark limits for researchers. This is where a geobiological approach brings interesting opportunities, especially for Africa. Consider, for one, the interlinking patterns of high endemism and geographical heterogeneity of extant biodiversity across the continent, and moreover the interplay in biotic turnovers since the Mesozoic that shaped these regional and more local patterns. These individuated biotic assemblages making up the continent's biomes and ecoregions reveal strident congruence with physiographic controls: especially relief, drainage and edaphic variables. Calibrated by molecular clocks, resolved with DNA evidence, timetrees of this phylogenetic diversity reveal a richness of evolutionary signals; the spectrum of these spectacular biotic radiations of African biodiversity range from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The temporal spread of this phylogenetic diversity is exemplified, for example, in the extant mammal fauna: witness the Afrotheria compared to the Bovidae (Kingdon J et al. 2013. Mammals of Africa. Bloomsbury

  10. Clinical and pathologic factors predictive of biochemical control following post-prostatectomy irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Brabbins, Donald S.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Gonzalez, Jose; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Indications for post-prostatectomy radiation therapy are not well defined. We reviewed our experience treating post-prostatectomy patients with external beam irradiation to assess clinical and pathologic factors predictive of biochemical control. Materials and Methods: Between 1/87 and 3/93, 61 patients received post-operative tumor bed irradiation with a median dose of 59.4 Gy (50.4 - 68 Gy). Median follow-up was 4.1 years (7.6 months - 8.3 years) from irradiation. Patients were treated for the following reasons: 1) adjuvantly, within 6 months of surgery for extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle involvement, or positive surgical margins (n=38); 2) persistently elevated PSA post-operatively (n=2); 3) rising PSA >6 months after surgery (n=9); and 4) biopsy proven local recurrence (n=12). No patients had known nodal or metastatic disease. All patients had post-radiation PSA data available. Biochemical control was the endpoint studied using Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Biochemical control was defined as the ability to maintain an undetectable PSA ( 4 and ≤1 0, >10 and ≤20, and > 20 ng/ml. The 3 year actuarial rates of biochemical control were 100% for group 1, 66.7% for group 2, 61.5% for group 3, and 28.6% for group 4. Pre-RT PSA values were also evaluated. Univariate Cox models indicated lower presurgical and pre-RT PSA values were predictive of biochemical control (p=0.017, p 6 months after surgery (group 3), the 3 year actuarial rate of biochemical control was 55.6%. The 3 year actuarial rate of biochemical control for patients treated for a biopsy proven recurrence (group 4) was 8.3%. By pair-wise log rank test, the rates of biochemical control were significantly different between groups 1 and 3 (p=0.036), groups 1 and 4 (p<0.001), and groups 3 and 4 (p=0.009). Conclusion: Biochemical control was achieved in approximately half of the patients treated with post-operative prostatic fossa irradiation. Elevated presurgical and pre

  11. Hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort and associated risk factors in air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Villar, Anna Carolina; Azevedo, Renata Rangel

    2018-04-05

    An air traffic controller is a professional who performs air traffic control functions in air traffic control units and is responsible for controlling the various stages of a flight. To compare hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort and their risk factors among air traffic controllers in the approach control of São Paulo. In a cross-sectional survey, a voice self-evaluation adapted from to self-evaluation prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor for teachers was administered to 76 air traffic controllers at approach control of São Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort was 19.7% and 38.2%, respectively. In relation to air pollution, the percentages of hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort were higher among those who consider their working environment to be intolerable than among those in a comfortable or disturbing environment. The percentage of hoarseness was higher among those who seek medical advice due to vocal complaints and among those who experience difficulty using their voice at work than among those who experience mild or no difficulty. The percentage of vocal tract discomfort was higher among those in a very tense and stressful environment than among those who consider their work environment to be mild or moderately tense and stressful. The percentage of vocal tract discomfort was higher among those who describe themselves as very tense and stressed or tense and stressed than among those who describe themselves as calm. Additionally, the percentage of vocal tract discomfort was higher among those who care about their health. Among air traffic controllers, the percentage of vocal tract discomfort was almost twice that of hoarseness. Both symptoms are prevalent among air traffic controllers who considered their workplace intolerable in terms of air pollution. Vocal tract discomfort was related to a tense and stressful environment, and hoarseness was related to difficulty using the voice at work. Copyright © 2018 Associa

  12. The factors controlling species density in herbaceous plant communities: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates both the ideas and empirical evidence pertaining to the control of species density in herbaceous plant communities. While most theoretical discussions of species density have emphasized the importance of habitat productivity and disturbance regimes, many other factors (e.g. species pools, plant litter accumulation, plant morphology) have been proposed to be important. A review of literature presenting observations on the density of species in small plots (in the vicinity of a few square meters or less), as well as experimental studies, suggests several generalizations: (1) Available data are consistent with an underlying unimodal relationship between species density and total community biomass. While variance in species density is often poorly explained by predictor variables, there is strong evidence that high levels of community biomass are antagonistic to high species density. (2) Community biomass is just one of several factors affecting variations in species density. Multivariate analyses typically explain more than twice as much variance in species density as can be explained by community biomass alone. (3) Disturbance has important and sometimes complex effects on species density. In general, the evidence is consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis but exceptions exist and effects can be complex. (4) Gradients in the species pool can have important influences on patterns of species density. Evidence is mounting that a considerable amount of the observed variability in species density within a landscape or region may result from environmental effects on the species pool. (5) Several additional factors deserve greater consideration, including time lags, species composition, plant morphology, plant density and soil microbial effects. Based on the available evidence, a conceptual model of the primary factors controlling species density is presented here. This model suggests that species density is controlled by the effects of

  13. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xing Mei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, the stem cells responsible for male fertility, are one of a small number of cells with the abilities of both self-renewal and generation of large numbers of haploid cells. Technology improvements, most importantly, transplantation assays and in vitro culture systems have greatly expanded our understanding of SSC self-renewal and differentiation. Many important molecules crucial for the balance between self-renewal and differentiation have been recently identified although the exact mechanism(s remain largely undefined. In this review, we give a brief introduction to SSCs, and then focus on extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling SSCs self-renewal and differentiation.

  14. Identification of additional genes under the control of the transcription factor sigma F of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Decatur, A; Losick, R

    1996-01-01

    We describe the identification of five transcriptional units under the control of the sporulation transcription factor sigma F in Bacillus subtilis. These are csfA, csfB, csfC, csfD, and csfF, located at approximately 230 degrees, 2 degrees, 316 degrees, 205 degrees, and approximately 290 degrees, respectively, on the genetic map. Null mutations in csfA, csfB, csfC, or csfD, either alone or together, do not cause a noticeable defect in sporulation or germination.

  15. A Simple PV Inverter Power Factor Control Method Based on Solar Irradiance Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant rise in photovoltaic (PV) system installations throughout the last decade. This has posed some technical challenges to the distribution grid operators. Unfamiliar impacts of these relatively new energy sources now should be handled more comprehensively. The rigidity...... of these impacts mostly depends on PV penetration level, grid and weather characteristics as well as the interaction of load and generation. In this study, a reactive power control method is proposed benefitting from solar irradiance measurements in weather stations. Accordingly, power factors of PV inverters...

  16. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulenova, Alena [Principal Investigator; Vandegrift, III, George F. [Collaborator

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  17. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Resplandy, L.; Levy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kumar, M.D.

    , 5095–5109, 2012 www.biogeosciences.net/9/5095/2012/ doi:10.5194/bg-9-5095-2012 © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Biogeosciences Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea’s OMZ L. Resplandy1, M. Le´vy2, L. Bopp1, V. Echevin.... Resplandy et al.: Oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea OMZ OMZs are carefully examined for their possible interactions with the climate system and impacts on ecosystems. They could modulate atmospheric concentrations of major green- house gases such as CO2...

  18. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xing-Xing; Wang, Jian; Wu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the stem cells responsible for male fertility, are one of a small number of cells with the abilities of both self-renewal and generation of large numbers of haploid cells. Technology improvements, most importantly, transplantation assays and in vitro culture systems have greatly expanded our understanding of SSC self-renewal and differentiation. Many important molecules crucial for the balance between self-renewal and differentiation have been recently identified although the exact mechanism(s) remain largely undefined. In this review, we give a brief introduction to SSCs, and then focus on extrinsic and intrinsic factors controlling SSCs self-renewal and differentiation.

  19. A fast automatic power control circuit for a small form-factor pluggable laser diode drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huan; Wang Zhigong; Xu Jian; Miao Peng; Li Wei [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Luo Yin; Yang Siyong, E-mail: wanghuan@seu.edu.c [Jiangsu Sino-Chip OE-IC Co. Ltd, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A fast automatic power control (APC) circuit for a laser diode driver (LDD) has been implemented in a 0.6-{mu}m BiCMOS process. The APC circuit adopts double-loops and variable-bandwidth techniques to achieve a turn-on time of < 400 {mu}s for most kinds of TOSAs. Thus, it meets the small form-factor pluggable (SFP) agreement. Such techniques make a good tradeoff between stability, accuracy, turn-on time, noise and convenience. The measured results indicate that the APC circuit is suitable for SFP LDD. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DETAILED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, W.; O'HARA, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute's hybrid control room project, detailed human factors engineering guidance was developed for designing human-system interfaces that may be affected by introduction of additional digital technology during modernization of nuclear power plants. The guidance addresses several aspects of human-system interaction: information display, interface management, soft controls, alarms, computer-based procedures, computerized operator support systems, communications, and workstation/workplace design. In this paper, the ways in which digital upgrades might affect users' interaction with systems in each of these contexts are briefly described, and the contents of the guidance developed for each of the topics is also described

  1. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D’Alessio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types.

  2. Power factor controllers: their markets and performance. Applications and marketing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents the findings of a UK market investigation into the potential application for three phase power factor controllers (pfc's) in the range 0.375-150 kW. It looks in detail at various pieces of equipment which are commonly driven by case rotor induction motors (eg pumps, fans, compressors, machine tools) and provides estimates of the numbers of each such type of equipment in use in UK industry broken down by power band. It also provides guidelines concerning annual usages of such pieces of equipment and the motor loadings commonly associated with them. The importance of electricity as a source of energy and the pattern and type of motive power usage is then presented for a wide range of industry sectors in an attempt to identify the most promising prima facie markets for the pfc concept of motor control and energy saving. The report is one of a series.

  3. Attitudes, norms and controls influencing lifestyle risk factor management in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampt, Amanda J; Amoroso, Cheryl; Harris, Mark F; McKenzie, Suzanne H; Rose, Vanessa K; Taggart, Jane R

    2009-08-26

    services to patients. General practitioner attitudes, normative influences from both patients and the profession, and perceived external control factors (time, cost, availability and practice capacity) all influence management of behavioural risk factors. Provider education, community awareness raising, support and capacity building may improve the uptake of lifestyle modification interventions.

  4. Attitudes, norms and controls influencing lifestyle risk factor management in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Suzanne H

    2009-08-01

    patient's motivation, and cost and accessibility of services to patients. Conclusion General practitioner attitudes, normative influences from both patients and the profession, and perceived external control factors (time, cost, availability and practice capacity all influence management of behavioural risk factors. Provider education, community awareness raising, support and capacity building may improve the uptake of lifestyle modification interventions.

  5. Human factors issues in the use of artificial intelligence in air traffic control. October 1990 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.

  6. Effect of a participatory ergonomics intervention on psychosocial factors at work in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Eija; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Malmivaara, Antti; Hopsu, Leila; Mutanen, Pertti; Ketola, Ritva; Virtanen, Tuija; Holtari-Leino, Merja; Nykänen, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Riihimäki, Hilkka

    2010-03-01

    To study the effect of a participatory ergonomics intervention on psychosocial factors among kitchen workers. A cluster randomised controlled trial. Four cities in Finland, 2002-2005. 504 workers in 119 municipal kitchens. Kitchens were randomised to intervention (n=59) and control (n=60) groups. The intervention lasted 11-14 months and was based on the workers' active participation in work analysis, planning and implementing the ergonomic changes aimed at decreasing the physical and mental workload. Mental stress, mental strenuousness of work, hurry, job satisfaction, job control, skill discretion, co-worker relationships and supervisor support. Data were collected by questionnaire at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a 12-month follow-up (PI(12)). At the end of the intervention, the OR of job dissatisfaction for the intervention group as compared with the control group was 3.0 (95% CI 1.1 to 8.5), of mental stress 2.3 (1.2 to 4.7) and of poor co-worker relationships 2.3 (1.0 to 5.2). At the PI(12), the OR of job dissatisfaction was 3.0 (1.2 to 7.8). Analysis of the independent and joint effects of the intervention and unconnected organisational reforms showed that adverse changes were accentuated among those with exposure to both. No favourable effects on psychosocial factors at work were found. The adverse changes were due to a joint effect of the intervention and the unconnected organisational reforms. The findings do not support the usefulness of this kind of intervention in changing unsatisfactory psychosocial working conditions.

  7. Effects of environmental factors on child survival in Bangladesh: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Chakraborty, J; Chowdhury, J T; Chowdhury, U K; Ali, M; el Arifeen, S; Sack, R B

    1999-03-01

    The need for further studies on relationships between deaths and environmental variables has been reported in the literature. This case-control study was, therefore, carried out to find out the associations between several social and environmental variables and deaths of children due to infectious diseases such as those leading to diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection, measles and other diseases. Six hundred and twenty-five deaths (cases) and an equal number of matched living children (controls) aged 1-59 months, were studied in rural Matlab. An analysis of crude and adjusted odds ratio showed differential associations. Sources of drinking water, amount of stored water, conditions of latrines, number of persons sleeping with the child and the type of cooking site were statistically significantly associated with deaths due to infectious diseases after controlling for breast feeding, immunization, and the family size. Significant associations were also observed between: (i) the sources of drinking water and deaths due to ARI, and (ii) conditions of latrines and deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases, after controlling for the confounding variables. Several other environmental factors also showed associations with these various death groups, but they were not statistically significant. The size of the samples in death groups (small) and the prevalence of more or less homogeneous environmental health conditions probably diminished the magnitude of the effects. The results of the study reconfirm the importance of environmental health intervention in child survival, irrespective of breast-feeding, immunization, and selected social variables.

  8. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  9. Ergonomic analysis of work in energy control plants: factors to be observed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, R.

    1987-01-01

    To make evident the incidence of the technology modification due to the increasing automation of energy control plants on man, whose activity is limited to observation and control, with low working metabolism and high attention and concentration. The methodology is fundamentally based on the individual analysis of the factors affecting man. The following will be considered: a) load volume: the load volume generated by the above mentioned activity depends on the observation period, the number of indicators to be observed and the frequency of control activities; b) active participation: the lack of active participation due to a motionless task requires a constant yield disposition to develop an unusual activity; c) monotonous activity: the load is produced by maintaining a suitable physic-mental state through a volition effort; d) change of disposition: this component, which is not willingly admitted, changes the mechanism of compared functions during the day, following a biological law that depends from the hour; e) environment influence: the unfavorable physical influences, like climate, lack of light, noise, etc. also affect man. The analysis of mental load is specially important due to its influence on the performance, the accident risk and the safety of the system to be controlled. (Author)

  10. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, N.; Waheed, A.; Farhat, K.; Ismail, M.

    2015-01-01

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  11. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M; Rosebrock, Adam P; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. Glycaemic control and associated factors among patients with diabetes at public health clinics in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M I; Daud, Faiz; Ismail, Aniza

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of glycaemic control and factors associated with poor glycaemic control [glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%] among patients with type 2 diabetes treated in public health clinics in Johor, Malaysia. Cross-sectional study. A review of all patients aged over 18 years and with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes for >1 year. The National Diabetic Registry was used as the database for attendees at public health clinics in Johor Bahru between January and December 2013. A required sample of 660 was calculated, and a random sampling method was applied to acquire patient information across the 13 public health clinics in Johor Bahru. All relevant information (e.g. HbA1c, type of treatment and other parameters for glycaemic control) were abstracted from the registry. Sixty-eight percent of 706 patients had HbA1c >6.5%, and mean HbA1c was 7.8%. Younger patients (72.3%) had poorer glycaemic control than older patients (63.0%), and most patients with poor glycaemic control were obese (79.2%). Approximately 31.7% of patients did not achieve the target blood pressure 5 years), body mass index (obese), type of treatment (diet therapy vs combination therapy) and abnormal lipid profile were significantly associated with increased odds of HbA1C >6.5%. More than half (68%) of the patients with diabetes had HbA1c >6.5%. This highlights the importance of providing organized care to manage patients with diabetes in the primary care setting, such as weight reduction programmes, proper prescribing treatment, and age- and gender-specific groups to ensure good glycaemic control. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of recombinant factor VIIA for control of combat-related haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Dougherty, Amber L; Dye, Judy L; Mohrle, Charlene R; Galarneau, Michael R

    2010-02-01

    Recombinant activated human coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa), an intravascular strategy to promote clotting, is being used as an adjunct to surgical control of bleeding in combat trauma patients. To describe the initial experiences with rFVIIa administered to combat casualties at US Navy-Marine Corps medical treatment facilities in Iraq, and to compare survival outcomes of those treated with rFVIIa to controls not receiving rFVIIa. Medical encounter data from the US Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry were retrospectively reviewed to identify all battle-injured patients documented as having received rFVIIa during the period May 2004 to January 2006 of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Available clinical and injury related data are presented to characterise the patients. To assess effects of rFVIIa on survival outcomes, rFVIIa cases were matched to controls on injury severity and age. 22 battle-injured patients from the Combat Trauma Registry received rFVIIa. Primarily young US Marines, these patients typically had penetrating injuries from improvised explosive devices and gunshot wounds. Injuries were often abdominal. The average dose used was similar to that reported in another study of civilian trauma patients, although dosing varies widely in the existing experimental and anecdotal literature. Over two-thirds (68%) of the rFVIIa patients survived-an identical outcome seen for a matched control group of 22 patients. Survival of seriously injured combat casualties was good, although identical to that of a control group. Methodological limitations of this retrospective study preclude making firm conclusions about the effectiveness of rFVIIa. Future controlled studies are needed for safety and efficacy testing of rFVIIa in combat trauma patients.

  14. Human factors design of nuclear power plant control rooms including computer-based operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.; Becker, G.; Bohr, E.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific handling of human factors problems in control rooms began around 1970 on the basis of safety considerations. Some recent research work deals with the development of computerized systems like plant balance calculation, safety parameter display, alarm reduction and disturbance analysis. For disturbance analysis purposes it is necessary to homogenize the information presented to the operator according to the actual plant situation in order to supply the operator with the information he most urgently needs at the time. Different approaches for solving this problem are discussed, and an overview is given on what is being done. Other research projects concentrate on the detailed analysis of operators' diagnosis strategies in unexpected situations, in order to obtain a better understanding of their mental processes and the influences upon them when such situations occur. This project involves the use of a simulator and sophisticated recording and analysis methods. Control rooms are currently designed with the aid of mock-ups. They enable operators to contribute their experience to the optimization of the arrangement of displays and controls. Modern control rooms are characterized by increasing use of process computers and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays. A general concept for the integration of the new computerized system and the conventional control panels is needed. The technical changes modify operators' tasks, and future ergonomic work in nuclear plants will need to consider the re-allocation of function between man and machine, the incorporation of task changes in training programmes, and the optimal design of information presentation using CRTs. Aspects of developments in control room design are detailed, typical research results are dealt with, and a brief forecast of the ergonomic contribution to be made in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  15. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  16. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  17. [Clinical and psychopathological factors associated with impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Francàs, N; Martí Andrés, G; Ramírez, N; de Fàbregues, O; Álvarez-Sabín, J; Casas, M; Hernández-Vara, J

    2016-05-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) constitute a complication that may arise during the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several factors have been linked to the development of these disorders, and their associated severe functional impairment requires specific and multidisciplinary management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of ICDs and the clinical and psychopathological factors associated with the appearance of these disorders. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study of a sample of 115 PD patients evaluated to determine the presence of an ICD. Clinical scales were administered to assess disease severity, personality traits, and presence of psychiatric symptoms at the time of evaluation. Of the 115 patients with PD, 27 (23.48%) displayed some form of ICD; hypersexuality, exhibited by 14 (12.2%), and binge eating, present in 12 (10.1%), were the most common types. Clinical factors associated with ICD were treatment with dopamine agonists (OR: 13.39), earlier age at disease onset (OR: 0.92), and higher score on the UPDRS-I subscale; psychopathological factors with a significant association were trait anxiety (OR: 1.05) and impulsivity (OR: 1.13). ICDs are frequent in PD, and treatment with dopamine agonists is the most important risk factor for these disorders. High impulsivity and anxiety levels at time of evaluation, and younger age at disease onset, were also linked to increased risk. However, presence of these personality traits prior to evaluation did not increase risk of ICD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors influencing local control and survival for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, John H.; Barnett, Gene H.; Sohn, Jason W.; Fernandez-Vicioso, Eduardo; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify factors affecting local control and survival for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 3/90-10/95, 99 patients (median age 58, range 29-83; 44 women, 55 men) with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic intracranial metastases measuring < 4 cm in diameter and ≥ 1 cm from optic chiasm and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥ 70 underwent modified linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Patients characteristics included 20 with recurrent disease, 66 with solitary lesions, and 42 with systemic disease. Forty six patients underwent surgical resection prior to SRS (16 biopsy, 3 subtotal resection (STR), and 21 gross total resection (GTR)). Eighty of 99 patients underwent whole brain radiation treatments (median 4005 cGy/15 fx, range 2200-6000 cGy). A total of 154 lesions were treated with 143 being evaluable on follow-up CT or MRI scans. Radiosurgery parameters (median) were the following: volume 2.8 cc (range 0.1-38 cc) and a peripheral dose of 1700 cGy (range 500-2400 cGy) with normalization to the 80% line (range 50-90%). Survival was measured from the date of SRS. Local control was defined as stabilization or decrease in size of the intracranial lesion(s). RESULTS: The following factors were analyzed with respect to local control and survival: 1) solitary vs. multiple lesions, 2) Age < or ≥ 60, 3) sex, 4) radiosensitive vs. radioresistant (renal cell and melanoma) histologies, 5) recurrent vs. newly diagnosed lesions, 6) KPS (70-80 vs. 90-100), 7) extent of surgery (biopsy vs. STR/GTR), 8) use of whole brain radiation treatments, 9) absence or presence of systemic disease, 10) dose (< or ≥ 1500 cGy) and 11) volume (< or ≥ 3 cc). On univariate analysis, survival was significantly influenced by female sex, presence of solitary lesion, absence of systemic disease, and extent of surgery. On multivariate analysis, female sex (p=0.0037), absence of systemic disease

  19. Experimental validation of a Lyapunov-based controller for the plasma safety factor and plasma pressure in the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavkov, B.; Witrant, E.; Prieur, C.; Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; the TCV-Team

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, model-based closed-loop algorithms are derived for distributed control of the inverse of the safety factor profile and the plasma pressure parameter β of the TCV tokamak. The simultaneous control of the two plasma quantities is performed by combining two different control methods. The control design of the plasma safety factor is based on an infinite-dimensional setting using Lyapunov analysis for partial differential equations, while the control of the plasma pressure parameter is designed using control techniques for single-input and single-output systems. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller is analyzed in simulations using the fast plasma transport simulator RAPTOR. The control is then implemented and tested in experiments in TCV L-mode discharges using the RAPTOR model predicted estimates for the q-profile. The distributed control in TCV is performed using one co-current and one counter-current electron cyclotron heating actuation.

  20. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormoen, Garth W; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  1. A single-phase PWM controlled AC to DC converter based on control of unity displacement power factor

    OpenAIRE

    Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    1990-01-01

    A modified pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique that improves the displacement power factor and the input power factor of a single-phase AC to DC converter is discussed. The modified converter is shown to have a high input power factor and allows the of DC voltage from zero to more than the maximum value of the source voltage. The displacement power factor is unity, and the input power factor is almost unity in the wide range of current command

  2. Factors affecting Diatomaceous Earth effectiveness in the control of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Luis F.A.; Oliveira, Daian G.P.; Neves, Pedro M.O.J

    2008-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a potential alternative to control the lesser mealworm of poultry farms Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). Our study aimed to understand the role of some of the environmental and insect behavioral factors play on DE effectiveness, such as the substrate (chicken food and poultry house litter), temperature and DE repellent activity on lesser mealworm adults. Mortality was higher at the highest temperature (32 deg C), and it increased with DE concentration (53 and 84% respectively, for concentrations of 86 and 172 g/m2) (P < 0.05). The substrate also influenced DE effectiveness: 95% mortality was observed in the feed, against 4% in the poultry litter. Part of these results can be attributed to the removal of DE particles by the poultry bedding, as supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and rhodamine concentration on the surface of the insects. As to insect behavior, DE had a repellent effect, since trap capture decreased nearly 50% in traps containing DE as opposed to those containing only food. Therefore, environmental factors do affect the DE effectiveness, and they must be taken into consideration when looking into developing control strategies in the field. (author)

  3. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism: A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. A case-control study of risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Alvaro; Cook, Stuart D; Maghzi, Amir-Hadi; Divani, Afshin A

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have assessed risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS), although none have been conducted previously in Iran. The objective of this study was to study lifestyle and environmental risk factors of MS in the Iranian population. A case-control study, including 394 MS cases and 394 matched controls, was conducted in MS clinics in different Iranian cities. Information on lifestyles, environmental exposures, and past medical history was obtained from medical charts and phone interviews. In multivariable analysis, sunlight exposure was associated with a lower risk of MS: the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of MS associated with a 1-h increment in daily sunlight was 0.62 (0.53-0.73). Smoking was associated with MS risk in women (OR: 6.48, 95% CI: 1.46-28.78), but not in men (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.31-1.68) (p=0.002 for interaction). Finally, past history of common surgical procedures, infectious disorders, or exposure to pets and farm animals was not associated with MS risk. Different modifiable lifestyles, including sunlight exposure and smoking, were associated with lower MS risk in Iran. Interventions aimed at promoting smoking cessation and, more importantly, at increasing exposure to sunlight might contribute to the prevention of MS.

  5. Reproductive factors in relation to breast cancer: A hospital based case control study in Jammu, India

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    Langer Bhavna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: To Study the risk factors of Breast cancer , Setting:All the newly registered cases of Breast cancer in one year from Ist May 2004. Study Design:A Hospital based case control study. Methodology:Data was collected by a face to face interview using the prestructured Questionnaire after taking informed consent. Results: 100 cases of Breast Cancer and 100 controls were analyzed. Mean age of breast cancer cases was 50.20 ± 12.49 years. Income (p >0.39, Educational Status (p>0.35 Age at Marriage (p>0.36 Age at First pregnancy (p>0.32 Total No of live Birth (p>0.09 Duration of Breast Feeding (P>0.07 Showed no statistically significant relationship to the risk of Breast Cancer. Dietary History (p<0.001 Smoking History (p<0.04 Physical Activity (p<0.001 Age at Menarche (p<0.002 History of Breast Feeding (p<0.04 History of Abortion (p<0.003 were shown to be Statistically Significant to the risk of Breast Cancer . Conclusion : The risk factor which are often implicated in the risk of Breast Cancer may not hold true in our settings.

  6. Analysis of Risk Factors for Colonic Diverticular Bleeding: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yuusaku; Kudo, Shin-ei; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Misawa, Masashi; Okoshi, Shogo; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2016-03-01

    Diverticular bleeding can occasionally cause massive bleeding that requires urgent colonoscopy (CS) and treatment. The aim of this study was to identify significant risk factors for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Between January 2009 and December 2012, 26,602 patients underwent CS at our institution. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent an urgent CS due to acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Seventy-two patients were diagnosed with colonic diverticular hemorrhage. One hundred forty-nine age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the patients with nonbleeding diverticula who underwent CS during the same period. The relationship of risk factors to diverticular bleeding was compared between the cases and controls. Uni- and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio [OR], 14.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.89 to 55.80; pdisease (OR, 8.66; 95% CI, 2.33 to 32.10; p=0.00126), and hyperuricemia (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 1.74 to 138.00; p=0.014) remained statistically significant predictors of diverticular bleeding. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cerebrovascular disease and hyperuricemia were significant risks for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. The knowledge obtained from this study may provide some insight into the diagnostic process for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Association of Autism with Maternal Infections, Perinatal and Other Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisso, Dikran Richard; Saadeh, Fadi S; Saab, Dahlia; El Deek, Joud; Chamseddine, Sarah; El Hassan, Hadi Abou; Majari, Ghidaa; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2018-06-01

    This case-control study explores the association between pregnancy/birth complications and other factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Lebanese subjects aged 2-18 years. Researchers interviewed 136 ASD cases from the American University of Beirut Medical Center Special Kids Clinic, and 178 controls selected by systematic digit dialing in the Greater-Beirut area. Male gender (Adjusted Odds Ratio [95% CI]: 3.9 [2.2-7.0]); postpartum feeding difficulties (2.5 [1.2-5.4]); maternal infections/complications during pregnancy (2.9 [1.5-5.5], 2.1 [1.1-3.9]); consanguinity (2.5 [1.0-6.0]); family history of psychiatric disorders (2.2 [1.1-4.4]) were risk factors for ASD. Being born first/second (0.52 [0.28-0.95]) and maternal psychological support during pregnancy (0.49 [0.27-0.89]) were negatively associated with ASD. Identifying ASD correlates is crucial for instigating timely screening and subsequent early intervention.

  8. Microporous silk fibroin scaffolds embedding PLGA microparticles for controlled growth factor delivery in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Esther; Meinel, Anne J; Wildy, Sarah; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz

    2009-05-01

    The development of prototype scaffolds for either direct implantation or tissue engineering purposes and featuring spatiotemporal control of growth factor release is highly desirable. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds with interconnective pores, carrying embedded microparticles that were loaded with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), were prepared by a porogen leaching protocol. Treatments with methanol or water vapor induced water insolubility of SF based on an increase in beta-sheet content as analyzed by FTIR. Pore interconnectivity was demonstrated by SEM. Porosities were in the range of 70-90%, depending on the treatment applied, and were better preserved when methanol or water vapor treatments were prior to porogen leaching. IGF-I was encapsulated into two different types of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles (PLGA MP) using uncapped PLGA (50:50) with molecular weights of either 14 or 35 kDa to control IGF-I release kinetics from the SF scaffold. Embedded PLGA MP were located in the walls or intersections of the SF scaffold. Embedment of the PLGA MP into the scaffolds led to more sustained release rates as compared to the free PLGA MP, whereas the hydrolytic degradation of the two PLGA MP types was not affected. The PLGA types used had distinct effects on IGF-I release kinetics. Particularly the supernatants of the lower molecular weight PLGA formulations turned out to release bioactive IGF-I. Our studies justify future investigations of the developed constructs for tissue engineering applications.

  9. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  11. Udder diseases in dairy cows — field observations on incidence, somatic and environmental factors, and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Saloniemi

    1980-03-01

    cases reliable proof could be obtained as to whether the constructional details of the cowshed or stall or the milking hygiene had any effect on udder health. The observations made, however, were not in disagreement with those findings published in other Nordic countries. The significance of the cattle tender as an environmental factor is great. When a mastitis control programme is worked out, therefore, the mastitis situation in a herd, and the predisposing factors detected on the farm must be reliably demonstrated to the owner and the measures required for improvement must be clearly proposed.

  12. Interventions for improving modifiable risk factor control in the secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kate E; Mistri, Amit K; Khunti, Kamlesh; Haunton, Victoria J; Sett, Aung K; Wilson, Andrew D

    2014-05-02

    People with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk of future stroke and other cardiovascular events. Evidence-based strategies for secondary stroke prevention have been established. However, the implementation of prevention strategies could be improved. To assess the effects of stroke service interventions for implementing secondary stroke prevention strategies on modifiable risk factor control, including patient adherence to prescribed medications, and the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2013), the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Trials Register (April 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (1981 to April 2013) and 10 additional databases. We located further studies by searching reference lists of articles and contacting authors of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of organisational or educational and behavioural interventions (compared with usual care) on modifiable risk factor control for secondary stroke prevention. Two review authors selected studies for inclusion and independently extracted data. One review author assessed the risk of bias for the included studies. We sought missing data from trialists. This review included 26 studies involving 8021 participants. Overall the studies were of reasonable quality, but one study was considered at high risk of bias. Fifteen studies evaluated predominantly organisational interventions and 11 studies evaluated educational and behavioural interventions for patients. Results were pooled where appropriate, although some clinical and methodological heterogeneity was present. The estimated effects of organisational interventions were compatible with improvements and no differences in the modifiable risk factors mean systolic blood pressure (mean difference (MD) -2.57 mmHg; 95% confidence

  13. Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN: a case-control study

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    Mayowa O Owolabi, ProfDrMed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and population-attributable risks (PARs with 95% CIs. Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8 for cases and 57·8 years (13·7 for controls. 1430 (68% had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32% had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1% had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2–99·0 of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11–30·93 and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9–93·7 for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44–2·38 and 35·8% (25·3–46·2 for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19–2·13 and 31·1% (13·3–48·9 for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13–1·94 and 26·5% (12·9–40·2 for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98–3·37 and 22·1% (17·8–26·4 for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81–3·26 and 18·2% (14·1–22·3 for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40–2·54 and 11·6% (6·6–16·7

  14. Key Factors Controlling the Applicability and Efficiency of Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation has been considered as one of environmentally friendly and cost effective approaches for cleaning up the sites polluted by organic contaminants, such as chlorinated ethenes. Although bioremediation, in its widest sense, is not new, and many researches have been performed on bioremediation of different kinds of pollutants, an effective design and implication of in situ bioremediation still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity. Many factors may affect the applicability and efficiency of bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in situ, which include the type and concentration of contaminants, biological, geological and hydro-geological conditions of the site, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and soils to be treated, as well as the constraints in engineering. In this presentation, an overview together with a detailed discussion on each factor will be provided. The influences of individual factors are discussed using the data obtained or cited from different sites and experiments, and thus under different environmental conditions. The results of this study illustrated that 1) the establishment of microbial consortium is of crucial importance for a complete degradation of chlorinated ethenes, 2) in situ control of favorable conditions for increasing microbial activities for bio-degradation through a designed pathway is the key to success, 3) the focus of a successful remediation system is to design an effective delivery process that is capable of producing adequate amendment mixing of contaminant-degrading bacteria, appropriate concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and microbial nutrients in the subsurface treatment area.

  15. Canine diabetes mellitus risk factors: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Alan Gomes; de Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz Carvalho; Vivian, Itatiele Farias; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; González, Félix Hilário Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Different subtypes of canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) have been described based on their aetiopathogenesis. Therefore, manifold risk factors may be involved in CDM development. This study aims to investigate canine diabetes mellitus risk factors. Owners of 110 diabetic dogs and 136 healthy controls matched by breed, sex, and age were interviewed concerning aspects related to diet, weight, physical activity, oral health, reproductive history, pancreatitis, and exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. Two multivariate multivariable statistical models were created: The UMod included males and females without variables related to oestrous cycle, while the FMod included only females with all analysed variables. In the UMod, "Not exclusively commercial diet" (OR 4.86, 95%CI 2.2-10.7, Pdiet" (OR 4.14, 95%CI 1.3-12.7, P=0.01), "Table scraps abuse" (OR 3.62, 95%CI 1.1-12.2, P=0.03), "Overweight" (OR 3.91, 95%CI 1.2-12.6, P=0.02), and "Dioestrus" (OR 5.53, 95%CI 1.9-16.3, P=0.002) were statistically significant. The findings in this study support feeding not exclusively balanced commercial dog food, overweight, treats abuse, and diestrus, as main CDM risk factors. Moreover, those results give subside for preventive care studies against CDM development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On the factors controlling occurrence of F-region coherent echoes

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    D. W. Danskin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are known to control the HF echo occurrence rate, including electron density distribution in the ionosphere (affecting the propagation path of the radar wave, D-region radio wave absorption, and ionospheric irregularity intensity. In this study, we consider 4 days of CUTLASS Finland radar observations over an area where the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar has continuously monitored ionospheric parameters. We illustrate that for the event under consideration, the D-region absorption was not the major factor affecting the echo appearance. We show that the electron density distribution and the radar frequency selection were much more significant factors. The electron density magnitude affects the echo occurrence in two different ways. For small F-region densities, a minimum value of 1 × 1011 m-3 is required to have sufficient radio wave refraction so that the orthogonality (with the magnetic field lines condition is met. For too large densities, radio wave strong "over-refraction" leads to the ionospheric echo disappearance. We estimate that the over-refraction is important for densities greater than 4 × 1011 m-3. We also investigated the backscatter power and the electric field magnitude relationship and found no obvious relationship contrary to the expectation that the gradient-drift plasma instability would lead to stronger irregularity intensity/echo power for larger electric fields.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; auroral ionosphere

  17. Indoor environmental risk factors in young asthmatics: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, A; Wickman, M; Hedlin, G; Pershagen, G; Rietz, H; Nordvall, S L

    1995-11-01

    One hun