WorldWideScience

Sample records for daughter products

  1. A personal dosemeter of radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.; Richter, M.; Ochec, J.; Dohnal, J.

    1990-01-01

    The OD 88 personal dosemeter for radon daughter products uses an alpha particle track detector and is of active type, with forced air aspiration through the detecting system. The pumping device consists of a miniature membrane pump and an electronic speed controller. The air flow rate is little affected by normal changes in supply voltage and/or pneumatic resistance of the pump circuit. The dosemeter is embedded in a miner's lamp and is fed from its accumulator battery. The pumping device is activated as the lamp is taken out of the charger and deactivated as it is slid into the charger again. The dosemeter head accommodates an AFPC filter on which the radon daughter products deposit. The energy of the alpha particles is reduced by an air layer and a Makrofol decelerating foil. The particles hitting the detector give rise to defects with an intensity proportional to the total linear stopping power at the moment of incidence; ideal tracks 10 μm in size require incident energy of 1.1 to 1.3 MeV. The detector is replaced in a month and worked up in an etching vessel, making use of the higher solubility of the detecting layer of the foil in NaOH at the spot of the alpha particle incidence. (P.A.). 4 figs., 17 refs

  2. Factors influencing indoor concentrations of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between indoor concentrations of 222 Rn and its daughters and some influencing factors is discussed and expressions of concentrations are derived with relation to radon exhalation rate from indoor surfaces, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities on indoor surfaces. Experimental methods for determining radon exhalation rate, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities are also mentioned

  3. Metrology and monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The principles of measurement and monitoring are described as applied to radon- and thoron gases and their daughter products in occupational and non-occupational environments. Various methods of measurement, such as grab-sampling, continuous monitoring, integrated measurements and personal dosimetry are discussed. Uncertainties in different measurement methods are compared. An account of unattached fraction and plateout of radon daughters is included. General principles and guidelines for monitoring are presented for the purposes of practical radiation protection as well as research applications. Calibration aspects of measurement instruments are described and procedures for interlaboratory calibration are suggested. Sampling strategies for occupational and non-occupational environments are discussed and radiation protection training requirements are identified. Where sufficient information and consensus exist, guidelines on apparatus, methods and procedures for monitoring are provided. A summary of regulations in force or being developed and recommendations for monitoring radiation exposure to radon and its decay products in countries of the OECD is provided, together with cost estimates for national indoor radon surveys

  4. A radionuclide generator for the production of 211Pb and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.; Huizenga, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    211 Pb and its daughters are produced in a generator system which utilizes the distillation of the intermediate daughter 219 Rn from 223 Ra. The radium is precipitated as the stearate to isolate the parent while allowing the gaseous daughter to emanate. While the yield of the system is low, approximately 10%, the radionuclidic purity is extremely high. No measurable 223 Ra is found in the product. 223 Ra is separated from its parent, 227 Ac, by cation exchange. (author) 7 refs

  5. Measurement of airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughter products by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Ryan, M.T.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of naturally occurring uranium-238 and thorium-232 produces radon-222 and radon-220 isotopes which can escape into the atmosphere. If these radon gases become concentrated in air, their daughter products may present an inhalation hazard to man. The airborne concentrations of radon-222 can usually be measured very accurately in the presence of normal airborne concentrations of radon-220 and its daughters. In contrast, the measurements of the airborne concentrations of radon-220 daughters are usually complicated by the presence of radon-222 and its daughters even at normally occurring airborne concentrations. The complications involved in these measurements can be overcome in most situations by using an alpha particle spectrometer to distinguish the activity of radon-222 daughters from that due to radon-220 daughters collected on a filter. A practical spectrometer for field measurements of alpha particle activity on a filter is discussed

  6. Compact detector for radon and radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, H.W.; Oswald, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides an improved compact track registration detector for radon gas. The detector comprises a housing having an open mouth, a bottom, and side walls; track registration means, supported inside the housing, which forms damage tracks along paths traversed by alpha particles; a microporous filter positioned across the mouth of the housing to prevent entry of radon daughters and particulate matter; and a cap that may be placed on the mouth of the housing to retain the filter. The housing has internal wall surfaces dimensioned to optimize the registration of alpha particles from radon and radon daughters present in the housing

  7. Emanation of 232U and its radioactive daughter products from respirable size particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Griffith, W.C.; Hoover, M.D.; Kanapilly, G.M.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1978-01-01

    This study is to develop a model for the emanation of 232 U and its radioactive daughter products from particles of Th-U fuel material. The radiation doses to internal organs following inhalation of these particles can only be calculated by knowing the rate of emanation of the daughters from particles in the lung and the subsequent excretion or translocation of the daughters to other organs. The emanation mechanisms are recoil of the daughter nuclei from the particle during alpha decay of the parent, diffusion of inert gas daughters from the particle and dissolution of the particle itself in biological fluids. Experiments to evaluate these mechanisms will involve ThO 2 and UO 2 particles in the size range 0.1 to 1.0 μm MMAD uniformly labeled with 232 U. The influence of the material temperature history on emanation will be investigated by heat treating particles at 600 and 1400 0 C

  8. Some aspects of radon and its daughter-products in man and his environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.; Sha, J.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium was observed. The concentrations of radon and its short-lived daughter-products in houses was unusually high (> 5 to 10 pCi l - 1 , > 185 to 370 Bq m - 3 ) in some houses with unpaved crawl spaces, and with concrete basements. External counting of radon daughter-products in the residents of one of the radon-contaminated houses indicated that there may be interference with the assay of plutonium in the lungs of persons who live in those houses

  9. Present practices of the Department of National Health and Welfare for the area monitoring of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, H.

    1977-01-01

    The present practices of the Radiation Protection Bureau for the measurement of radon and daughter products have been briefly described. For radon gas, the Lucas chamber method is in use. Short-lived radon daughter products are determined by the modified Kusnetz method. These field methods are supported by radioanalytical procedures carried out at the environmental radioactivity laboratory. Some recent studies using these methods have been briefly summarized. Concentrations of daughter products up to 29 WL were found in a columbium mine and 63 WL in a tin mine under development. The level of radon daughters in some homes in a uranium mining community ranged up to 2 WL

  10. Concordance of mother-daughter diurnal cortisol production: Understanding the intergenerational transmission of risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Chen, Michael C; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Burley, Hannah W; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research is demonstrating concordance between mother and child diurnal cortisol production. In the context of maternal history of depression, intergenerational concordance of cortisol production could contribute to hypercortisolemia in children of depressed mothers, which has been shown to increase risk for MDD. The current study is the first to examine concordance in diurnal cortisol production between mothers with a history of depression and their never-depressed, but high-risk, children. We collected salivary cortisol across 2 days from mothers with (remitted; RMD) and without (CTL) a history of recurrent episodes of depression and their never-depressed daughters. As expected, RMD mothers and their daughters both exhibited higher cortisol production than did their CTL counterparts. Moreover, both across and within groups, mothers' and daughters' cortisol production were directly coupled. These findings suggest that there is an intergenerational concordance in cortisol dysregulation that may contribute to hypercortisolemia in girls at familial risk for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation exposure in homes through radon and thoron daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a random selection of about 6000 homes in the Federal Republic of Germany, the radon concentration in room air has been measured using a simple dosemeter developed by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The mean radon concentration has been determined to be approximately 40-50 Bqu/m 3 . If this experiment is taken as a representative survey for the FRG, the mean dose contributed by the natural radiation exposure through radon and its short-lived decay products to the effective annual dose to the lungs can be computed to be about 1 mSv (100 mrem), using the internationally accepted conversion factors. Apart from this survey, special radon measuring programmes have been carried out, including simultaneous recording of meteorological data, in order to obtain information on the parameters to be taken into account when describing the daily variations of radon concentrations. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Risks from principal components and their daughter products in alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on risk assessment, particularly as it applies to limits for alpha-contaminated waste. The general conclusions are: (1) no special characteristics of transuranic (TRU) waste justify its being a special category; (2) model calculations are largely subjective and can be influenced by the bias of the modeler; (3) ingrowth and concentration of TRU daughter products could be an important consideration in risk assessment. 13 figures

  13. Separation of actinium-227 from its daughter products by cationic resins technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method for separating actinium-227 from its daughter products based on ion exchange principle is shown. Radionuclides mixture in perchloric acid 8,5 N and chloridric acid 0,5 N medium pass by a cationic resin column. Thorium-227 and actinium-227, which are retained by the resin, are eluted with nitric acid 6 N which releases actinium-227 while oxalic acid 7% is used for thorium-227 elution [pt

  14. Experimental study of the combined effects of inhalation of radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chameaud, J.; Perraud, R.; Chretien, J.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    For 10 years, over 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. Considering several points and the dose-effect relationship especially, such cancers can be compared with human cancers. This type of experiments, fully mastered, has made it possible to undertake under good conditions the study of the co-carcinogenic effect of various inhaled pollutants such as tobacco smoke. In a first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000WLM cumulated dose of radon daughter products, knowing that this level induces some 30% of lung cancers. 50 animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (350 h.) In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon -tobacco group 32 cancers bigger and more invasive were observed. Under the same conditions, tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (2 groups of 30 rats, 500 and 100 WLM respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was higher that the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. This co-carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco was clearly demonstrated. Further experiments are considered in order to determine the processes involved

  15. Combined effects of inhalation of Radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chameaud, J.; Perraud, R.; Chretien, J.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1980-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, more than 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. These cancers were compared with human cancers. Another study examines the cocarcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke. In the first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000-WLM (working level month) cumulated dose of radon daughter products. Fifty animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (i.e., for a total of 352 hr). In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon-tobacco group, 32 cancers were observed, many of them larger and more invasive than those seen in animals exposed to radon only. Under the same conditions tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (two groups of 30 rats each, at 500 and 100 WLM, respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was greater than the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. The carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco smoke was clearly demonstrated

  16. Recent trends in monitoring radon and daughter products in Indian uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium mining is of comparatively recent origin in India. In keeping with the ICRP (1959) and IAEA (1967) recommendations on the subject, the radiation practice in this country has been to monitor the mine air for radon. But the fact that radon daughter products are responsible for a major contribution to the radiation dose to the lungs and the comparative ease of correlating incidence of lung cancer with cumulative exposure to radon daughters (WLM), as demonstrated by epidemiologists, cannot be lost sight of. The results of a series of simultaneous measurements of radon, its decay products and their unattached fractions are presented. These measurements of radon have been carried out under different operational and passive conditions in mines. It has been observed that in the mine air, not only RaA but significant fractions of RaB and RaC too, exist in 'free state'. Wide variations have been observed in the unattached fractions with median values around 6% for RaA, 3% for RaB and 1% for RaC. The unattached daughter activities in the return air are maximum under passive conditions and show declining trend as the mining operations assume momentum causing increase in the aerosol concentrations. Relative merits of monitoring the mine air for radon and/or its decay products are also discussed

  17. Mean size among the particles of short-lived radon daughter products in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, S.

    1980-01-01

    The diffusion-battery method is used to classify the radioactive particles according to their sizes. The diffusion coefficient is determined from the fractional penetration of the particles through the battery. Particle radii are derived from the diffusion coefficients with the Stokes-Cunningham-Millikan formula. At the exit and entrance of the battery, individual concentrations of radon daughter products 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi are determined. Thus the mean sizes of individual radon daughters can be obtained from the fractional penetration of individual nuclides through the diffusion battery. Despite large statistical fluctuations the mean size of 214 Bi is always shifted toward the larger size region as compared with those of other radionuclides

  18. Behaviour of 222Rn and its daughter products in open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondo-Estok, D.; Holy, K.; Stanys, T.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution the influence of the meteorological conditions on activity concentrations of the outdoor 222 Rn and its daughter products is discussed in detail. In addition, the correlation between concentrations of measured radionuclides is studied and empirical relations for concentrations of radon daughter products are presented. he courses of the activity concentrations of 222 Rn and its short-lived decay products in the outdoor atmosphere are very similar even in some details. The average equilibrium factor F determined on the basis of our measurements in the outdoor atmosphere is approximately about 20 % lower than the value F recommended by UNSCEAR 1996 for the open air (F = 0,7). The obtained nonlinear relations between radon and its decay products reduce the applications of decay products in the atmospheric studies on one hand but on the other hand they can be useful at the calculation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration with the aim to determine the effective radon dose on the basis of the measurements of its activity concentrations only. (authors)

  19. Investigation of the concentrations of radon-222 and its daughter products in Loutraki spas (Peloponnese, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritidis, Panaiotis; Angelou, Panaiotis.

    1984-07-01

    An express variant of the three-interval total alpha-counting filter method being suitable for the determination of elevated concentrations of 222 Rn decay products in air of increased humidity is described. The method has been used for the determination of radon daughters in air in the major radon spas of Loutraki. Concentrations of 222 Rn and 226 Ra in spa water have been determined as well. Annual effective dose equivalents for the personnel and the patients have been estimated. The need of certain radiation protection measures is pointed out. (author)

  20. An investigation into control of radon and its daughter products in some Cornish mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungey, C.J.; Hore, J.; Waller, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements of the uranium series are widespread as trace elements in the granitic rocks in which much of Cornwall's mining takes place. The radon gas, together with its decay or daughter products, can be inhaled by the underground worker. It is now realised that even a small concentration of the gas can be harmful; this is reflected by the tightening of control standards in the U.S.A. by a factor of 30 in the past 10 years. The current standards are such that many non-uranium mines must now provide some means of control. As yet, no statutory limits have been set in the United Kingdom mining regulations, but the industry locally is hopeful of achieving reduced levels that will pre-empt any forthcoming legislation. The first requirement of any control technique is the ability to monitor the effects of any action. An instrument developed recently in the U.S.A. now enables the radon daughter concentration to be determined quickly on the spot, so the effectiveness of any control measures can be evaluated more rapidly. The evaluation of the best potential methods of control requires some understanding of the behaviour of the decay products in typical mine environments. Several control techniques are being tested, both in controlled experimental conditions at the Camborne School of Mines and in field conditions at South Crofty and Wheal Pendarves mines. The experience and results of these tests so far are examined. (author)

  1. The importance of radon and its daughter products in environmental hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products have recently been paid great attention as components of natural ionizing radiation. Their presence in houses and flats are focus of interest. The radon isotopes and their short-lived daughter products are represented briefly, followed by a condensed survey of the historical development of this topic. There are various reasons why this became topical only 80 years after radon had been proved in the atmospheric air. After the listing of the different sources of radon, a rough risk estimation is given regarding the role of radon in lung cancer incidence in the GDR. For environmental hygiene the houses with particularly high radon content of the air, the causes of which are given, are of special importance. Among these causes the ventilation of rooms is the factor having the greatest influence on the radon concentration. From the evidence of occasional, extremely high radon values efforts are derived to elaborate limits of radon concentrations in flats. Finally, the priority of the radon problem for environmental hygiene is pointed out by indicating the current interest of this problem in literature and at congresses. (author)

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of uranium, daughter products and associated elements (lanthanides), application to ore prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.

    1987-09-01

    The behavior in ground water of uranium, daughter products with long half life (U 234 , Th 230 , Ra 226 ) and stable (radiogenic lead) and lanthanides is studied by two complementary methods: 1) In situ multielement tracing in fracturated granitic rocks and porous sedimentary rocks of low permeability allowing to understand interactions between hydrodynamics and geochemistry. 2) Study of the properties of U 234 and Pb 236 which are mineralization tracers and are relatively independent of redox conditions, on the contrary U 238 has a low solubility in reducing medium. Three areas are studied: Bazois and Lodeve basin (France) and Cigar Lake (Canada). Radioactive disequilibriums are thoroughly studied when required by ore/rock interaction. Adsorption-desorption phenomena are of great importance in proposed prospection models. If prospection models based on alpha activity ratio U 234 /U 238 and lead isotope ratio in ground water can be applied, an integrated prospection model requires more in situ and laboratory experiments [fr

  3. Radon and its short-lived daughter products in the lower atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.

    1964-01-01

    The variations of vertical and temporal distributions of natural radioactivity with geographical location in the lower atmospheric layers are shown. The content of radon and its short lived daughters products are measured. Radon content is measured continually with a new apparatus, the sensibility of which is 0,2.10 -11 Ci m -3 i.e. the fiftieth of the mean concentration near the soil, this apparatus allowed us to show that radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products is realised when the atmosphere is stable. Air observations between 0 and 100 meters above the ground point out that radon and its decay products are valuable tracers to mark the stability of the atmosphere. Under very stable nighttime conditions the radon accumulates in the former 30 meters of the air layer, at sunrise it ascends and at 9 o'clock attains 100 meters high. The removal rate of the air in the lower atmosphere is computed from the movement of this radon mass, it is equal to 90 per cent for a summer day. We have show that this radon comes from the soil in which it diffuses by brownian motion the intensity of which varies with the water content of the soil, its value for June 1958 is 6,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 and for January 1959 0.2,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s - 1. During the year 1958-1959 general mean of flux for the sedimentary soil studied is equal to 3. 8 ± 1.3, 10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 it is identical to the world wide mean computed by H. Israel. In a hilly site in the Morvan, air movements are well marked by this radioactivity. We observed from one hand downslope and up-slope breezes having, respectively, speeds of 0.2 m s -1 and 0.7 m s -1 and from the other hand by night, in the valley and with a light wind favours the stagnation of the air near the ground, a strong increase of the radioactivity which is proportional to the one of the granitic rocks of the region. The radon flux of this soil is 74,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 and the radioactivity of the air can attain 1.5,10 -8 Ci m

  4. Field monitoring versus individual miner dosimetry of radon daughter products in mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domański, T; Kluszczyński, D; Olszewski, J; Chruscielewski, W

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results realised simultaneously by two different and independent systems of measurement of an assessment of miners' exposure to radon daughter products which naturally occur in the air of mines. The first one, called the Air Sampling System (ASS), was based on the field monitoring of radon progeny in air, the second one, called the Individual Dosimetry System (IDS), was based on the individual dosimeters worn by miners. Experimental comparison of these two systems has been conducted for six years in eleven Polish underground metal-ore mines. This study reveals that no correlation exists between the concentration and annual miners' exposures evaluated by the ASS and IDS. The ratio ASS/IDS for mine population varies from 11.0 to 0.14 in respect of annual concentration means, and in respect to annual exposures, this ratio varies from 4.5 to 0.14. The conclusion to be drawn from six years' observation and comparison of both systems is that correct and true evaluation of miners' exposure to radon progeny can be made only by the use of the Individual Dosimetry System, since the Air Sampling System is too sensitive and too dependent on the Strategy of sampling and its radiation.

  5. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on personal dosimetry and area monitoring suitable for radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The programme of work of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency includes topics relating to radiation and environmental protection matters in mining and milling operations. A first Specialist Meeting on Personal Dosimetry and Area Monitoring suitable for Radon and Daughter Products was organised in October 1976 at Elliot Lake, Canada. The proceedings were published by NEA some months later. Following an enquiry among interested persons, NEA decided to organise a new meeting on the same subject in Paris from 20th to 22nd November 1978. The meeting dealt with questions relating to personal dosimetry techniques, the monitoring of the atmosphere in mines and their neighbourhood, as well as in buildings

  6. Cement As a Waste Form for Nuclear Fission Products: The Case of (90)Sr and Its Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerald, Lucile; Kohanoff, Jorge J; Correa, Alfredo A; Caro, Alfredo; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Ulm, Franz J; Saúl, Andrés

    2015-11-17

    One of the main challenges faced by the nuclear industry is the long-term confinement of nuclear waste. Because it is inexpensive and easy to manufacture, cement is the material of choice to store large volumes of radioactive materials, in particular the low-level medium-lived fission products. It is therefore of utmost importance to assess the chemical and structural stability of cement containing radioactive species. Here, we use ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to study the effects of (90)Sr insertion and decay in C-S-H (calcium-silicate-hydrate) in order to test the ability of cement to trap and hold this radioactive fission product and to investigate the consequences of its β-decay on the cement paste structure. We show that (90)Sr is stable when it substitutes the Ca(2+) ions in C-S-H, and so is its daughter nucleus (90)Y after β-decay. Interestingly, (90)Zr, daughter of (90)Y and final product in the decay sequence, is found to be unstable compared to the bulk phase of the element at zero K but stable when compared to the solvated ion in water. Therefore, cement appears as a suitable waste form for (90)Sr storage.

  7. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, A.

    2005-09-01

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ( 234 U et 238 U), thorium ( 230 Th et 232 Th), 226 Ra and 222 Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during α-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and α-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  8. Methods and measurements of indoor levels of radon and its daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Ramu, M.C.; Muraleedharan, T.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    General population is exposed, some times, to enhanced levels of radon (Rn) and its progeny concontrations in the indoor environment of dwellings, depending on various parameters like type of construction, location and ventilation features of the dwelling as well as on the occupancy factor. The risk involved in the indoor Rn exposure is briefly discussed in this report. Several methods are available for the measurement of Rn and its daughters in dwellings. This report describes in detail some of the suitable and convenient methods for the measurements. Methods for evluating ventilation rate in dwellings is also given. Grab sampling and time integrated measurements are described. The report also gives the results of some preliminary measurements carried out in some rooms and lecture halls of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The results are discussed and conclusions drawn with particular reference to a country-wide survey of Rn exposure. (author)

  9. An analytic solution to the time-dependent first-daughter fission-product plateout problem for multi-region isothermal slug flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkee, J.W. Jr.; Lee, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The time-dependent, axisymmetric, isothermal slug flow convective-diffusion equation with radioactive decay is solved analytically to predict the behavior of a first-daughter fission-product undergoing gaseous transport through multiple materials in a cylindrical pipe. The integration coefficients are determined using the Davidon variable metric minimization method. The behavior of fission-product material deposited on the conduit wall is described by a standard mass-transfer model. The time-dependent plateout rate behavior, determined previously for parent fission-product deposition, is again evident for daughter product plateout. Dominance of the daughter plateout by parent deposition characteristics is apparent. The determination of the daughter wall mass-transfer and diffusion coefficient using a least-squares analysis of measured data depends upon a reasonably low ratio of parent/daughter half-lives. This is illustrated with 137 Cs/ 137 Ba(=2x10 5 ) and 140 Ba/ 140 La(=7.6), where for 137 Cs/ 137 Ba the solution sensitivity to the 137 Ba deposition parameters is small and for 140 Ba/ 140 La a reasonable solution is readily obtained. (author)

  10. Radon and its daughter products behaviour in the air of an underground tourist route in the former arsenic and gold mine in Zloty Stok (Sudety Mountains, SW Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz Andrzej

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the occurrence of radon and its daughter products in the accessible workings, partially open to the public, in the former arsenic and gold mine in Zloty Stok. The geology of the area and the characteristics of the workings provide the background for explanation of the genesis of radon and its daughter products and of the spatial and temporal variations in their concentrations. The results demonstrate that well-ventilated areas along the tourist route have the lowest values of all the measured parameters and that temporal variations of these parameters are irregular. The highest concentration values for radon (up to 18.50 kBq/m 3 ) and its daughter products (up to 14.49 kBq/m 3 ) have been recorded in the workings with obstructed natural ventilation. These are the areas where seasonal oscillations in the concentrations of these isotopes have been registered, with the maxima in summer and the minima in winter. These sections of the workings are inaccessible to the casual visitor. Radon is supplied to the workings from the side walls and its concentration is influenced, most of all, by ventilation and the degree of rock fissuring. The reason is the uniform and not very high content of 226 Ra in the rocks where the galleries were excavated. Only locally, in the workings of the Gertruda adit lying outside the tourist route, do open fault zones have significant influence on enhanced concentrations of radon and its daughter products. These fault zones constitute effective routes of radon migration to the workings. In spite of this, it must be stated that neither guides nor tourists are exposed to excessive concentrations of radon or its daughter products in the tourist route area. However, the extension of the route to other workings will require the introduction of forced ventilation in order to lower the concentration of radon and its daughter products

  11. Alpha-gamma decay studies of 253No and its daughter products 253Md, 249Fm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessberger, F.P.; Antalic, S.; Kalaninova, Z.; Saro, S.; Venhart, M.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Sulignano, B.; Hofmann, S.; Streicher, B.; Leino, M.; Nishio, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear structure and decay of the isotope 253 No and its decay products 249 Fm and 253 Md were investigated by means of α - γ spectroscopy. Besides the established strong γ transitions from the 9/2 - [734] Nilsson level in 249 Fm, populated predominantly by the α decay of 253 No, into the ground-state (gs) rotational band, a couple of weaker γ lines (58.3, 129.2, 209.3 and 669.5keV) were observed and placed into the 249 Fm level scheme. The transition from the 7/2 - level in 249 Es, populated by the α decay of 253 Md, into the 9/2 + member of the gs rotational band, so far established for other odd-mass Es isotopes, was observed clearly. GEANT4 simulations were performed to investigate the influence of energy summing between α particles and conversion electrons (CE) on the shape of the α spectra at different implantation energies, leading to evidence for a weak α decay branch of 253 No into the gs of 249 Fm or the ground-state rotational band, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Simultaneous production of buds on mother and daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of hydroxyurea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K; Michio, I

    1979-12-01

    Individual budding yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enclosed in small culture chambers were observed through two budding cycles to examine their behavior during growth and division. In the nutrient medium (YHG medium), the duration of the budding cycles was 77 minutes for mother cells and 90 minutes for daughter cells. Continuous exposure of cells to 16 or 32 mm hydroxyurea extended the duration of the cycles and increased the volume of cells, resulting in the formation of abnormally large and equal-sized mother-daughter pairs. Each cell of these pairs subsequently produced buds simultaneously. Stained cell nuclei showed simultaneous nuclear division. This synchronous budding on mother-daughter pairs was repeated in the next budding cycle. The coordination of growth with division is discussed in relation to these results.

  13. Measurement of the absolute activity of alpha or beta emitters by measuring product nuclei (daughter) activity increase or by studing its radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.C. de.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for determining absolute activity of alpha or beta emitters by measuring daughter product radioactive decay is presented. The separation method of UX from hexahydrated uranyl nitrate UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O based on its dissolution in ethyl ether is described and the accuracy of this method is shown. The factors which accuate on total efficiency of a Geiger Mueller detector for beta particles are determined. The possibility to determine the mass of precursor element by daughter nuclei activity is shown. The results are compared with the one obtained by direct measurement of the mass (or number of atoms) of precursor radioactive substance and with theoretical values calculated for isotopes in secular equilibrium. (Author) [pt

  14. CANALPH-3: a portable three-channel alpha spectrometer for measuring the daughter products of radon and thoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    A portable three-channel alpha spectrometer for the measurment of radon and thoron daughters in uranium mines or homes is described. The computer programs for analysing the data to give the working levels of radon and thoron by both the alpha spectrometric and modified Kusnetz methods are included along with some typical results

  15. Dosimetry, measurement and properties of radon daughters and thoron daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.

    1982-03-01

    Various properties of radon and thoron daughter products are examined. Dosimeter methods and instrumentation (TLD and personal alpha dosimeters) are investigated as to performance under varying conditions such as humidity and pure or mixed atmospheric conditions. Optimized counting schemes are determined for the daughters of radon and thoron. An optimized counting scheme was experimentally examined under mine conditions. The optimization procedure takes into account the uncertainties associated with concentration, flow rate and radioactive decay. Measurements were made in two uranium mines at Elliot Lake, Ontario of the charged and unattached fractions of radon daughters in the mines. The physicochemical state of 218 Po in air was determined by measurement of rate of neutralization, diffusion coefficient and fraction born charge. Careful control of experimental conditions made it possible to obtain more precise and detailed quantitative data than previously possible

  16. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List (open-quotes Superfundclose quotes) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method, to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 ± 12%. On average 28 ± 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the 218 Po concentration was lower than that of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses

  17. A field method for monitoring thoron-daughter working level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Dhandayatham, R.; Raghavayya, M.; Nambiar, P.P.V.J.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of working level, generally used for radon daughters, has been extended to the daughter products of thoron. Accordingly, thorondaughter working level (TWL) has been defined as the alpha energy released from the ultimate decay of 100 pCi/1 each of the short-lived decay products of thoron. In order to facilitate the evaluation of inhalation hazard in thorium handling areas, a simple field method has been suggested to measure the thoron-daughter working level. A comparison of the potential alpha energies from radon-daughters and that from thoron-daughter is included. (K.B.)

  18. Emanation of /sup 232/U daughter products from submicrometer particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide by nuclear recoil and inert gas diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M.A.; Cuddihy, R.G. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.)

    1983-01-01

    Emanation of /sup 232/U daughter products by nuclear recoil and inert gas diffusion from spherical, submicrometer particles of uranium oxide and thorium dioxide was studied. Monodisperse samples of particles containing 1% /sup 232/U and having physical diameters between 0.1 and 1 ..mu..m were used for the emanation measurements. Thorium-228 ions recoiling from the particles after alpha-decay of /sup 232/U were collected electrostatically on a recoil cathode. Radon-220 diffusing from the particles was swept by an airstream into a 4 l. chamber where the /sup 220/Rn daughters were collected on a second cathode. Mathematical models of radionuclide emanation from spherical particles were used to calculate the recoil range of /sup 228/Th and the diffusion coefficient of /sup 220/Rn in the particle matrix. A /sup 228/Th recoil range of 0.02 ..mu..m and a /sup 220/Rn diffusion coefficient of 3 x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2//sec were obtained in both uranium oxide and thorium dioxide particles.

  19. Radon and its daughter products behaviour in the air of an underground tourist route in the former arsenic and gold mine in Złoty Stok (Sudety Mountains, SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylibski, T A

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the occurrence of radon and its daughter products in the accessible workings, partially open to the public, in the former arsenic and gold mine in Zloty Stok. The geology of the area and the characteristics of the workings provide the background for explanation of the genesis of radon and its daughter products and of the spatial and temporal variations in their concentrations. The results demonstrate that well-ventilated areas along the tourist route have the lowest values of all the measured parameters and that temporal variations of these parameters are irregular. The highest concentration values for radon (up to 18.50kBq/m3) and its daughter products (up to 14.49kBq/m3) have been recorded in the workings with obstructed natural ventilation. These are the areas where seasonal oscillations in the concentrations of these isotopes have been registered, with the maxima in summer and the minima in winter. These sections of the workings are inaccessible to the casual visitor. Radon is supplied to the workings from the side walls and its concentration is influenced, most of all, by ventilation and the degree of rock fissuring. The reason is the uniform and not very high content of 226Ra in the rocks where the galleries were excavated. Only locally, in the workings of the Gertruda adit lying outside the tourist route, do open fault zones have significant influence on enhanced concentrations of radon and its daughter products. These fault zones constitute effective routes of radon migration to the workings. In spite of this, it must be stated that neither guides nor tourists are exposed to excessive concentrations of radon or its daughter products in the tourist route area. However, the extension of the route to other workings will require the introduction of forced ventilation in order to lower theconcentration of radon and its daughter products. reserved.

  20. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  1. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    This patent describes a portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as in uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout displays the result in terms of working level-hours

  2. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    A portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure Radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air is described. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout diplays the result in terms of working level-hours

  3. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  4. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Grealy, G.; Gan, W.

    1982-01-01

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  5. Daughters on Hunger Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the embattled interactions between mothers and daughters in the stories by Edna O’Brien, Mary Lavin, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne and Mary Leland. This conflict involves an underlying distorted intimacy between women within a patriarchal Irish context. The daughter in the stories seeks to rebel against the ‘choking love’ of the tyrannical ‘patriarchal mother’ through a symbolic anorexia, in which the daughter rejects the mother’s food or the food associated with the mother. The mother is also shown to feel ambivalent and resistant towards the daughter’s attempt to break from her dependence upon the mother. The conflict and resistance between mothers and daughters in these stories can be evaluated against the framework of the patriarchal context in which women as mothers are silenced and made powerless in front of the ‘Father,’ and therefore, this resistance can be interpreted as a reaction to this patriarchal ideology and its framework in Irish society. The lost bond between older and younger women needs to be rediscovered and restored by a realisation of patriarchal ideology and furthermore, identification with female subjectivity. This identification between women seems to act as a source of redemption for women of different generations, which results in both liberating themselves from the patriarchal dogma.

  6. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third. Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime.

  7. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1983-01-01

    Some aspects of the behavior of radon and its short-lived daughters in vivo are described and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and time after a meal is demonstrated. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon produced from skeletally-deposited radium was observed and a similar effect in exhalation rate of environmental radon by persons containing no radium was noted. Persons living in houses with elevated concentrations of radon may contain sufficient activity for its detection by external gamma-ray counting. Some of the activity observed is due to inhaled daughter-products in the chest, and some to daughter-products associated with and produced by the decay of radon throughout the body. 3 references, 8 figures. (MF)

  8. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Late gestation heat stress of dairy cattle programs dam and daughter milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, G E; Tao, S; Laporta, J

    2017-12-01

    Anticipated increases in the world population to 9 billion people will lead to increased demand for food. Dairy products represent one of the most sustainable animal sources of food protein because ruminants can utilize byproduct and forage feeds unsuitable for human consumption. Continued improvements in productivity will depend on deeper understanding of the biology of lactation, including developmental programming of tissues critical to that process. Although prenatal programming of postnatal phenotype is well documented for growth, behavior, and disease, there may also be instances of "programming" that last for a specific physiological stage (e.g., lactation). We distinguish between these 2 terms by the use of developmental programming to describe a permanent effect, whereas the more general term is used to describe nonpermanent impacts on the mammary gland. Despite this complexity, here we review the evidence that exposure to elevated temperature and humidity during late gestation can program reduced yields in the subsequent lactation, largely through effects at the mammary gland. Furthermore, we provide emerging evidence that adult capacity for milk synthesis can be programmed in the calf that dam is carrying by events during fetal life occurring 2 yr before. Specifically, calves born to dams that are heat stressed for the final 6 wk of gestation produce 19% less milk in lactation relative to calves from dams provided with evaporative cooling. Importantly, the increased milk yield in animals derived from dams under evaporative cooling occurred without a greater decline in BW that accompanies negative energy balance during early lactation. Therefore, the increase in milk production suggests an increase in the efficiency of conversion of feed to milk. These data indicate that a brief period of heat stress late in development reduces the physiological efficiency of the cow in a coordinated manner to result in a substantial decline in productivity. It is likely

  9. Removal of radon daughters from indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.

    1985-01-01

    The internal radiological exposure of the general population is largely due to the airborne daughter products of radon and thoron, which are found in two states, attached to aerosols or unattached, of which the latter species according to several dose models have the highest radiological dose efficiency of the two. The radon daughters may be removed from indoor air by a series of processes like ventilation, filtration, plateout, and electrostatic deposition. Ventilation (with radon-free air) is, on the one hand, a very effective measure, but usually involves introduction of colder air, in variance with energy-saving efforts. Internal filtration will not affect the radon concentration but may reduce the level of daughter activities, roughly inversely proportional to the filtration rate. At the same time, however, filtration may also change the aerosol distribution and concentration of the air and, consequently, the partitioning of the radon daughters between the attached and unattached state. This, in turn, influences the rate of deposition of radon daughters both by diffusional plateout and as an effect of an electric field. Experiments are reported demonstrating reductions in the airborne potential alpha energy by factors of 4 to 5 by use of filtration rates of 3-4 times per hour. In case of low aerosol concentrations, however, the corresponding reduction in radiological dose to critical parts of the respiratory tract may be much smaller, due to the shift toward higher fractions of the radon daughters being in the unattached state caused by the filtration. The possibility of using electrostatic deposition of radon daughters is also discussed

  10. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  11. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC cows (n = 94,440; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC contemporaries (n = 141,365. In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall. Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however

  12. Radon and its short-lived daughter products in the lower atmosphere; Le radon et ses derives a vie courte dans la basse atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servant, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The variations of vertical and temporal distributions of natural radioactivity with geographical location in the lower atmospheric layers are shown. The content of radon and its short lived daughters products are measured. Radon content is measured continually with a new apparatus, the sensibility of which is 0,2.10{sup -11} Ci m{sup -3} i.e. the fiftieth of the mean concentration near the soil, this apparatus allowed us to show that radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products is realised when the atmosphere is stable. Air observations between 0 and 100 meters above the ground point out that radon and its decay products are valuable tracers to mark the stability of the atmosphere. Under very stable nighttime conditions the radon accumulates in the former 30 meters of the air layer, at sunrise it ascends and at 9 o'clock attains 100 meters high. The removal rate of the air in the lower atmosphere is computed from the movement of this radon mass, it is equal to 90 per cent for a summer day. We have show that this radon comes from the soil in which it diffuses by brownian motion the intensity of which varies with the water content of the soil, its value for June 1958 is 6,10{sup -17} Ci cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and for January 1959 0.2,10{sup -17} Ci cm{sup -2} s{sup -}1. During the year 1958-1959 general mean of flux for the sedimentary soil studied is equal to 3. 8 {+-} 1.3, 10{sup -17} Ci cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} it is identical to the world wide mean computed by H. Israel. In a hilly site in the Morvan, air movements are well marked by this radioactivity. We observed from one hand downslope and up-slope breezes having, respectively, speeds of 0.2 m s{sup -1} and 0.7 m s{sup -1} and from the other hand by night, in the valley and with a light wind favours the stagnation of the air near the ground, a strong increase of the radioactivity which is proportional to the one of the granitic rocks of the region. The radon flux of this soil is 74,10{sup -17} Ci

  13. Review of epidemiological studies on hazards of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Stewart, C.G.; Johnson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A review, with nearly 100 references, of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is presented. Calculations of the relative dose from daughter products, as well as of the variation in dose with such things as unattached fraction, particle size, age and breathing rate are discussed. Estimates of annual risk of lung cancer in miners after inhalation of thoron daughters are given, and compared with hazards of employment in various US industries. The implications of these epidemiological studies for future regulations are discussed

  14. Proceedings of the 9. international conference on health effects of incorporated radionuclides emphasis on radium, thorium, uranium and their daughter products - HEIR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. (eds.) [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The ninth international conference on 'Health Effects of Incorporated Radionuclides - Emphasis on Radium, Thorium, Uranium and their Daughter Products' HEIR 2004 was held at GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany, from November 29 until December 1, 2004. The growing popularity of this topic among the scientific community, especially the radiation protection community, was demonstrated by the largest number of participants in comparison to the earlier conferences. In all, there were 157 participants from 20 different countries of the world. In the conference 62 scientific and 12 poster presentations were included in 13 sessions. The scope of the conference covered studies related to the long-term follow-up of thorotrast subjects in Japan, Germany and Portugal, and also of the subjects exposed to Ra-224 for the treatment of bone tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis. The studies and discussions on these topics are important in view of the large number of liver cancers observed in the thorotrast patients and the number of bone cancers in the cases treated with Ra-224. A growth stunting was also observed for the subjects who received the Ra-224 injections early in their lives. Besides atom bomb survivors, the data from thorotrast patients could well help towards a better understanding of the health effects of irradiations. In addition to the scientific presentations on the above topics, there were a number of presentations on the incidence of lung cancer from radon exposure of miners and plutonium exposures causing lung cancer among the Mayak workers in the Russian Federation. Other stimulating presentations were on the tissue damaging mechanisms of alpha particles, having very high L.E.T., and also the related radiation weighting factor in comparison to beta and gamma radiations. There were also interesting presentations on the topics of uncertainties involved in the internal dose assessment from radiation exposure and

  15. Proceedings of the 9. international conference on health effects of incorporated radionuclides emphasis on radium, thorium, uranium and their daughter products - HEIR 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeh, U.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    The ninth international conference on 'Health Effects of Incorporated Radionuclides - Emphasis on Radium, Thorium, Uranium and their Daughter Products' HEIR 2004 was held at GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany, from November 29 until December 1, 2004. The growing popularity of this topic among the scientific community, especially the radiation protection community, was demonstrated by the largest number of participants in comparison to the earlier conferences. In all, there were 157 participants from 20 different countries of the world. In the conference 62 scientific and 12 poster presentations were included in 13 sessions. The scope of the conference covered studies related to the long-term follow-up of thorotrast subjects in Japan, Germany and Portugal, and also of the subjects exposed to Ra-224 for the treatment of bone tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis. The studies and discussions on these topics are important in view of the large number of liver cancers observed in the thorotrast patients and the number of bone cancers in the cases treated with Ra-224. A growth stunting was also observed for the subjects who received the Ra-224 injections early in their lives. Besides atom bomb survivors, the data from thorotrast patients could well help towards a better understanding of the health effects of irradiations. In addition to the scientific presentations on the above topics, there were a number of presentations on the incidence of lung cancer from radon exposure of miners and plutonium exposures causing lung cancer among the Mayak workers in the Russian Federation. Other stimulating presentations were on the tissue damaging mechanisms of alpha particles, having very high L.E.T., and also the related radiation weighting factor in comparison to beta and gamma radiations. There were also interesting presentations on the topics of uncertainties involved in the internal dose assessment from radiation exposure and the

  16. Proceedings of the 9. international conference on health effects of incorporated radionuclides emphasis on radium, thorium, uranium and their daughter products - HEIR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The ninth international conference on 'Health Effects of Incorporated Radionuclides - Emphasis on Radium, Thorium, Uranium and their Daughter Products' HEIR 2004 was held at GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany, from November 29 until December 1, 2004. The growing popularity of this topic among the scientific community, especially the radiation protection community, was demonstrated by the largest number of participants in comparison to the earlier conferences. In all, there were 157 participants from 20 different countries of the world. In the conference 62 scientific and 12 poster presentations were included in 13 sessions. The scope of the conference covered studies related to the long-term follow-up of thorotrast subjects in Japan, Germany and Portugal, and also of the subjects exposed to Ra-224 for the treatment of bone tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis. The studies and discussions on these topics are important in view of the large number of liver cancers observed in the thorotrast patients and the number of bone cancers in the cases treated with Ra-224. A growth stunting was also observed for the subjects who received the Ra-224 injections early in their lives. Besides atom bomb survivors, the data from thorotrast patients could well help towards a better understanding of the health effects of irradiations. In addition to the scientific presentations on the above topics, there were a number of presentations on the incidence of lung cancer from radon exposure of miners and plutonium exposures causing lung cancer among the Mayak workers in the Russian Federation. Other stimulating presentations were on the tissue damaging mechanisms of alpha particles, having very high L.E.T., and also the related radiation weighting factor in comparison to beta and gamma radiations. There were also interesting presentations on the topics of uncertainties involved in the internal dose assessment from radiation exposure and the

  17. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  18. Evaluation of thoron-daughter instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.L.

    1992-09-01

    Several DOE decontamination and decommissioning sites need to accurately measure thoron-daughter concentrations during decontamination efforts. Because the workers at these sites receive their dose from thoron-daughters rather than thoron gas, the thoron-daughter concentration is the measurement of interest. Some instruments currently used for making radon-daughter concentration measurements also claim the ability to measure thoron-daughter concentrations. This study evaluated the validity of those claims

  19. Lilavatis Daughters | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Lilavatis Daughters ... The book 'Lilavati's Daughters: The Women Scientists of India' was successfully ... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young age of 52, ...

  20. Radon daughter control in the Uravan Mineral Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The control of radon daughter products in mines of the Uravan Mineral Belt is strongly affected by the erratic nature of the ore deposits. Another problem is the frequent necessity of reactivating mine workings that have been inactive for many years. Ventilation holes and other airways are usually too small to provide adequate ventilation to satisfy current requirements, and they are often caved. The greatest change in ventilation systems in recent years has been the trend toward larger-diameter, drilled ventilation raises that provide more ventilation at considerably lower cost. The increase in raise size has aggrevated ground-support and ice-formation, difficulties, but these problems are being solved by lining the raises with shotcrete and grouting the water bearing horizons. Electronic air cleaners have been effectively used to remove radon daughter products from mine air for several years but their utility is limited by the rate of regrowth of the radon daughters after the air is cleaned. 5 figures

  1. Efficient measurement of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1992-01-01

    In environmental control there is an increasing need for efficient measurement of radon and thoron daughters in air. Measuring instruments should be rugged and portable for field use, while also permitting unattended operation for several days. Simple operating procedures should permit evaluation of rapidly changing concentrations over extended periods. These requirements demand careful balance in the design of hardware and measuring procedures. The design principles for a continuous flow-through spectrometer, that has been developed for precision sequential measurement of radon and thoron daughters, are described. Because of the high precision of measurement, this type of instrument should find application in environments from technologically enhanced natural radiation to the very lowest natural background situations. (author)

  2. Environmental radon and radon daughter dosimetry in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, R.B.

    1979-04-01

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's program to determine safety and costs related to decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Individual dose factors for the inhalation of radon and its daughter products are calculated for use in environmental dose assessments. The calculated committed dose equivalent factors for 222 Rn and its daughters are tabulated for lungs, bronchi tract and other organs. An activity median aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 μm was used. The dose to an individual is calculated by multiplying the estimated intake from inhalation for a particular radionuclide by the corresponding dose factor. A working level month-to-dose conversion factor is calculated to be 1 rad/WLM to the epithelial tissue of the T-B region, assuming 100% daughter equilibrium and 10% free 218 Po ions. This value is in reasonable agreement with recently reported values

  3. Working level measurement of radon daughters and thoron daughters by personal dosimetry and continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.; Leung, H.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of personal alpha dosimeters in mixed radon daughter and thoron daughter atmospheres in Ontario uranium mines is described together with monitoring developments which enable the radon daughter working level to be determined separately. The theoretical bases for continuous and integrated working level measurements based on individual and gross counts are presented in terms of the weighting factor for combining the thoron daughter working level with the radon daughter working level, and in terms of the in-growth time of the air. Implications for the determination of working level in the presence of thoron daughters are discussed

  4. Teenage Daughters as a Cause of Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan; Ribar, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from the U.S. that couples with daughters are more likely to divorce than couples with sons has not been found for other Western countries. Using 1995-2015 Dutch marriage registry data, we show that daughters are associated with higher divorce risks, but only when they are 13 to 18 years

  5. Randon daughter exposure of the U.K. population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    The highest dose to the body tissues from natural radioactivity is that to the bronchial epithelium arising predominantly from the short-lived daughters of 222 Rn with a lesser contribution from the daughters of 220 Rn. This paper discusses the estimation of current United Kingdom population exposure to these nuclides. At present the exposure for an average member of the population of the UK is 0.15 WLM y -1 when the winter ventilation rate is 0.8 h -1 . This will increase to 0.58 WLM y -1 if the winter ventilation rate is reduced to 0.2 h -1 . The use of electrostatic precipitators would decrease the measured WL but would not affect the unattached fraction of 222 Rn daughter products, which determines the dose to the epithelium. Other methods of reducing 222 Rn daughter concentrations under investigation include prevention of the ingress of 222 Rn from the subsoil and the coating of construction materials with a radon barrier

  6. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  7. The measurement of airborne rodon daughter concentrations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Lee, J.K.; Moon, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for determining the airborne concentration of radon daughter products has been developed, which is based on gross alpha counting of the air filter collections at several time intervals after completion of air sampling. The concentration of each nuclide is then obtained from an equation involving the alpha disintegrations, the sampling time, and the known numerical coefficients. The state of radioactive disequilibrium is also inventigated. The atmosphere sampled in the TRIGA Mark-III reactor room was largely in disequilibrium. The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between radon daughter products seems likely depend on sampling times associated with turbulence conditions. The data obtained here will certainly provide useful information on the evaluation of internal exposure and calibration of effluent monitoring instruments. (author)

  8. Technical evaluation of a radon daughter continuous monitor in an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-07-01

    An evaluation of a radon daughter monitor was carried out in an underground uranium mine. The monitor operates on continuous sampling and time integrating principles. Experimental and theoretical data were compared. Experimental results show that the monitor underestimates the Working Level, a fact which is partly attributed to plate-out of decay products in the monitor sampling head. However, a correction factor experimentally determined by standard calibration procedures can be programmed into the monitor to take into account losses by plate-out and other losses. Although the monitor was originally designed for radon daughters, it can equally be used in thoron daughter atmospheres and radon daughter/thoron daughter mixtures such as those encountered in some Canadian uranium mines. An analytical procedure is outlined to allow the calculation of Working Levels in radon daughter/thoron daughter atmospheres from the monitor α-count rate. The memory capability of the monitor should make it quite useful and flexible in underground and surface environments in the uranium mining industry

  9. Control of radon daughters in underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swent, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses technical developments that may enable uranium mine operators to improve engineering controls of radon daughter concentrations in mines, and developments in regulatory controls. The origin of radon daughters in underground mines is explained. The procedure for sampling and determining the concentration of alpha radiation in sampled air is reviewed. The principal technical development in the last few years has been the perfection and use of a class of meters which determine radon daughter concentrations in an air sample in a matter of two or three minutes without any aging period. A number of underground uranium mine operators are now using ''instant'' type meters and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has approved their use in a number of mines. The difficulty experienced by uranium mine operators in complying with a MSHA regulation which requires that no person be exposed to radon daughter concentrations exceeding 1 Working Level (WL) in any active working place is discussed

  10. Second workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A second meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, federal and provincial government representatives, and consultants was held to discuss progress in reducing the concentrations of radon and its daughter products in houses in communities like Bancroft, Elliot Lake, Port Hope, and Uranium City. Participants discussed successful and unsuccessful remedial techniques, possible sources of radon, and methods of measuring radon and radon daughters in buildings

  11. Perspective on cancer and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazards from radon and its daughters in the environment and the role they may play in contributing to the general cancer burden. Only in exceptional circumstances can one pick out one mutagen or one carcinogen and scientifically determine what its contribution is o our burden of birth defects and cancer. The risks associated with radon and its daughters are examined in light of this philosophy

  12. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  13. Methodology and monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, M.G.

    1984-02-01

    Methods are described for monitoring radon and thoron gases and their daughter products in occupational and non-occupational environments. Grab-sampling, continuous monitoring, integrated measurements and personal dosimetry are discussed. Errors in different measurement methods are compared. Calibration aspects of measurement techniques are described and procedures for interlaboratory calibration are suggested. An account of unattached fraction and plateout of radon daughters is included. Sampling strategies for occupational and non-occupational environments are discussed and a table of regulations and recommendations for monitoring radiation in countries of the OECD is provided. Radiation protection training requirements are identified. Where sufficient information and consensus of opinion exist, guidelines on apparatus, methods and procedures for monitoring are developed

  14. Reproductive prognosis in daughters of women with and without endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, T; Hansen, Maj Vadskjær Hjordt; Hartwell, D

    2013-01-01

    Do daughters of women with endometriosis exhibit an increased risk of endometriosis and impaired long-term reproductive prognosis when compared with daughters of women without endometriosis?......Do daughters of women with endometriosis exhibit an increased risk of endometriosis and impaired long-term reproductive prognosis when compared with daughters of women without endometriosis?...

  15. A computer method for simulating the decay of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The analytical equations representing the decay of a series of radioactive atoms through a number of daughter products are well known. These equations are for an idealized case in which the expectation value of the number of atoms which decay in a certain time can be represented by a smooth curve. The real curve of the total number of disintegrations from a radioactive species consists of a series of Heaviside step functions, with the steps occurring at the time of the disintegration. The disintegration of radioactive atoms is said to be random but this random behaviour is such that a single species forms an ensemble of which the times of disintegration give a geometric distribution. Numbers which have a geometric distribution can be generated by computer and can be used to simulate the decay of one or more radioactive species. A computer method is described for simulating such decay of radioactive atoms and this method is applied specifically to the decay of the short half life daughters of radon 222 and the emission of alpha particles from polonium 218 and polonium 214. Repeating the simulation of the decay a number of times provides a method for investigating the statistical uncertainty inherent in methods for measurement of exposure to radon daughters. This statistical uncertainty is difficult to investigate analytically since the time of decay of an atom of polonium 218 is not independent of the time of decay of subsequent polonium 214. The method is currently being used to investigate the statistical uncertainties of a number of commonly used methods for the counting of alpha particles from radon daughters and the calculations of exposure

  16. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  17. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect.

  18. Unattached radon daughter atoms and radon daughter equilibrium ratios in uranium mines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Uranium mines in Colorado and New Mexico were surveyed for airborne concentrations of radon (10043922) and radon daughters. A procedure for measuring individual daughters and the fraction of each existing as free atoms was developed and used for field monitoring. Samples were taken in working areas and particle counts were made. The data was analyzed to determine the ratio of radon to radon daughters as well as the ratios among the radon daughters. The author concludes that since the radon to working level ratios have not changed much in 20 years, using the ratio as the basis for estimating relative biological hazard is just as uncertain now as then. The large number of daughters present as free atoms indicate that the lung radiation doses calculated using any of the lung models need reexamination

  19. Radon daughters and work at display devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Nyblom, L.

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown that ions and electrically charged particles in the air can be transported in the electrostatic field between a face and a display device to either the face or the screen. Radon daughters can occur as ions, or sitting on charged particles. This prestudy shows that radon daughters were manifold concentrated on the face of a doll placed in front of a display device, or in a electrostatic field of the kind typical for displaying devices. The radiation dose, in the skin from the radon daughters in an ordinary office environment plus the addition caused by work at a display device, is not strong enough to cause skin damages alone. (BoK)

  20. Teenage Daughters as a Cause of Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Kabátek, Jan; Ribar, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from the U.S. that couples with daughters are more likely to divorce than couples with sons has not been found for other Western countries. Using 1995-2015 Dutch marriage registry data, we show that daughters are associated with higher divorce risks, but only when they are 13 to 18 years old. There are no detectable gender differences before or after those ages. These age-specific findings are at odds with son-preference and selection explanations for differences in divorce risks. In...

  1. Laboratory measurements of the influence of air treatment devices on radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajala, M.; Janka, K.; Graeffe, G.; Kulmala, V.; Lehtimaeki, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents laboratory measurements in which the effect of air cleaners on radon decay products has been studied. Experiments show that both a high-efficiency particulate air filter and an electrostatic precipitator substantially decrease the total airborne radon daughter concentration leading to a situation where most of the decay products are unattached. However, in some situations the concentration of fine particles generated by the corona discharge in the electronic air cleaner becomes high enough to increase the total radon daughter concentration and decrease the free decay product concentration. Impurities in the air may have a notable role in the formation of these condensation nuclei. (Author)

  2. Do Parents Discriminate against Their Heavyweight Daughters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christian S.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to support the parental prejudice hypothesis by having students report on their parents' attitudes. Results from two studies indicate that heavyweight women were more likely to pay their own way through college, irrespective of their parents' income. The selection bias against fat women was strongest for daughters of political…

  3. Vocational Preferences of Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Eldon M.; Goodman, Ronald E.

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the vocational interests of daughters of alcoholics. Mixed support was provided for the assumption that their vocational choices are nonperson oriented. Data did support the prediction of high scores on the realistic and intellectual scales of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory. (SJL)

  4. White piedra in a mother and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B

    2009-07-01

    White Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair caused by Trichosporon asahii. It is also known as trichomycosis nodosa or trichomycosis nodularis. We report two cases of White Piedra in a mother and her daughter for the rarity of such occurrence.

  5. Occupational exposure to radon daughters in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented for radon daughter concentrations in 70 premises of either factory-type or office-type in Cornwall. It is concluded that attention may need to be directed to offices in parts of the UK, the principal reason being their generally low ventilation rates. (U.K.)

  6. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France); Desequilibres des series de l'uranium dans les aquiferes: quantification des mecanismes de transport de l'uranium et de ses descendants: cas de l'aquifere de la craie (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, A

    2005-09-15

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ({sup 234}U et {sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 230}Th et {sup 232}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during {alpha}-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and {alpha}-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  7. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  8. An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in mine air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, T.; Chruscielewski, W.; Orzechowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in uranium mine air is described. The apparatus is useful for testing track detectors, air samplers, masks and filters and for determining occupational exposures. Increasing the humidity of the chamber air and increasing the amounts of aerosol injected both increase the values of the equilibrium factor, F. The equilibrium in the chamber air decreases after the aerosol injection but by using controlled pulse injections it was shown that the stability of F could be maintained inside the chamber for 4 hours. Results are also given for the structure of the equilibrium between radon and its daughters Qsub(i)/Q 0 in the chamber air as a function of the chamber air factor F and also for the potential α-energy of unattached products in relation to the total α-potential energy of radon daughter products in the chamber air as a function of factor F. (U.K.)

  9. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. If the subject moved to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon, the result would be an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend of the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. The author reports a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. 8 figures.

  10. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. Movement of the subject to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon would result in an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend on the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. We report a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. (author).

  11. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  12. Aging mothers' and their adult daughters' perceptions of conflict behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, K L

    1995-12-01

    Aging parents tend to perceive greater compatibility between themselves and offspring than do off-spring, but there is little research examining differences in perceptions of conflicts. Ninety-six older mothers (M age = 76) and their daughters (M age = 44) together selected a conflictual incident, then individually rated the degree to which they and the other person had engaged in destructive, constructive, or avoidant conflict behaviors. Mothers and daughters reported using constructive approaches more than other approaches. Mothers claimed to engage in constructive behaviors more than daughters recognized. Daughters reported engaging in destructive and avoidant behaviors more than mothers realized. Mothers also thought daughters felt better about the incident than daughters reported feeling about it. Findings suggest older mothers' underestimate daughters' negative behaviors and feelings in conflict situations.

  13. Quantification of the lung cancer risk from radon daughter exposure in dwellings - an epidemiological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, C.; Wingren, G.; Axelson, O.

    1986-01-01

    Some epidemiological studies have suggested a relationship between the concentration of decay products from radon, i.e., radon daughter exposure, in dwellings and lung cancer. Further experiences made from radon measurements have indicated that both building material and particularly the radioactivity in the ground is of importance for the leakage of radon into the houses. In Sweden, a survey is now ongoing in 15 municipalities with alum shale deposits, and in one area a case-referent evaluation has been made, considering building materials, ground conditions and smoking habits. The size of the study is small, but the results suggest that a risk is at hand and that there is a multiplicative effect from smoking and radon daughter exposure. About 30% of the lung cancers in the studied population might be attributable to elevated and potentially avoidable exposure to radon and radon daughters. (author)

  14. Shared Vision between Fathers and Daughters in Family Businesses: The Determining Factor That Transforms Daughters into Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Kessler Overbeke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014. Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013. In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke, Bilimoria, & Perelli, 2013, we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors.

  15. Shared vision between fathers and daughters in family businesses: the determining factor that transforms daughters into successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeke, Kathy K; Bilimoria, Diana; Somers, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014). Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013). In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke et al., 2013), we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors.

  16. African American mother-daughter communication about sex and daughters' sexual behavior: does college racial composition make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the influence of African American mothers' communication about sexual topics on the sexual attitudes and behavior of their college-enrolled daughters. Daughters were enrolled at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI) to assess whether and how college racial context might affect daughters' sexual attitudes and behavior. Findings indicated that daughters at the HBCU had less permissive attitudes about premarital sex than their counterparts at the PWI. This result was especially true for daughters of mothers with more conservative attitudes about premarital sex and who discussed such topics infrequently. Last, the combination of positive mother-daughter communication and fewer discussions about sexual topics resulted in lower levels of sexual experience among the daughters. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Shared vision between fathers and daughters in family businesses: the determining factor that transforms daughters into successors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeke, Kathy K.; Bilimoria, Diana; Somers, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014). Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013). In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke et al., 2013), we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors. PMID:26074830

  18. Occupational studies of radon daughters and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.W.; Ballew, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer mortality has been established. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the major studies of the health effects due to exposure to the decay products of radon gas and to discuss their potential implications with regard to risk associated with indoor radon. There has been much recent interest in the health hazards associated with radon largely motivated by the discovery of high levels of this radioactive gas in the Reading Prong (a geological area in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) and subsequently throughout the United States. Although at least three studies in the U.S. have been initiated to better estimate the lung cancer risks from low level indoor radon exposure, the results will not be known for several years. Consequently, present knowledge concerning such risks is almost entirely derived from studies of underground exposure to miners. Those studies effectively exclude women and children; therefore, assumptions must be made with regard to risk to a large segment of the population. Before discussing current health studies of radon daughter exposure, some background information is presented

  19. Assessment of radon-daughter deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1996-01-01

    Since some decades it is known, that most of the radiation dose to the lung is due to the inhalation of the short-lived decay products of 222 Rn. Their deposition in the respiratory tract strongly depends on the attachment rate to aerosol-particles present in the indoor air and their plate-out rate to the surfaces, instead of measuring the activity size distribution of the airborne decay products, knowledge on the respiratory tract retention has been incorporated in the design of a measurement system, called bronchial dosemeter, to assess the lung dose directly. The simulation of the deposition characteristics of the short-lived radon daughters in the nasal cavity and the bronchial tree is based on the comparison of the model of the respiratory tract with results from screen penetration theory. A bronchial dosemeter consisting of three sampling heads has been built and calibrated. Additionally, an outline of future activities will be given. (author)

  20. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung pathology and exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1980-01-01

    The data presented suggest that the primary carcinogen of lung cancer in uranium miners is cigarette smoking because the incidence of lung cancer in noncigarette smokers is insignificant. In cigarette-smoking uranium miners, however, the incidence of cancer in those exposed to significant amounts of radon daughters is higher than in the smoking, nonmining population. This suggests that radon is an additive carcinogen if the lung has been injured by the cigarette-smoking carcinogen. Preliminary studies measuring DNA, T cells, and rosette inhibition immunological studies indicate closer monitoring of uranium miners' health during this occupation may be justified

  2. The mother-daughter love affair across the generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, L; Sirola, R

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between mother and daughter is the basis for all love relationships throughout life. Through the eyes and hands of the mother, the intimate and caring nature of love is transmitted from generation to generation. Mother-daughter love is also the beginning of heterosexual love and of sensual pleasure. However, sexuality separates and alienates mother and daughter. As a consequence, the daughter's identification with the mother becomes the most important transmitter of love. We review psychoanalytic studies of the development and fate of the mother-daughter love relationship, with particular attention to the change of the daughter's early love for the mother to identification with the mother and falling in love with a man, and to the significance of sexuality in this developmental process.

  3. Daughter Species Abundances in Comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam; Cochran, Anita; Dello Russo, Neil; Kelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present analysis of high spectral resolution optical spectra of C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) acquired with the Tull Coude spectrometer on the 2.7-meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory and the ARCES spectrometer mounted on the 3.5-meter Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope at Apache Point Observatory. Both Tull Coude and ARCES provide high spectral resolution (R=30,000-60,000) and a large spectral range of approximately 3500-10000 Angstroms. We obtained two observation epochs, one in February 2015 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 AU, and another in May 2015 at a heliocentric distance of 1.9 AU. Another epoch in late August 2015 at a heliocentric distance of 3.0 AU is scheduled. We will present production rates of the daughter species CN, C3, CH, C2, and NH2. We will also present H2O production rates derived from the [OI]6300 emission, as well as measurements of the flux ratio of the [OI]5577 Angstrom line to the sum of the [OI]6300 and [OI]6364 Angstrom lines (sometimes referred to as the oxygen line ratio). This ratio is indicative of the CO2 abundance of the comet. As we have observations at several heliocentric distances, we will examine how production rates and mixing ratios of the various species change with heliocentric distance. We will compare our oxygen line measurements to observations of CO2 made with Spitzer, as well as our other daughter species observations to those of candidate parent molecules made at IR wavelengths.

  4. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  6. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  7. [The mother's role in breasfeeding her primiparous daughter: "the togetherness"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Rita Marinho; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Mamede, Marli Villela

    2004-01-01

    The authors' disquietudes are related to the structure for supporting women to breastfeed within their family environment. It is a qualitative study aiming at understanding the significance of breastfeeding among mothers and primiparous daughters, as well as identifying how the mother perceive herself as a means of support for her primiparous daughter and vice versa. The historic social construction of women for maternity has been used as a theoretical referential. The sample was made up of 10 women--five primiparous daughters and their mothers. The participation of the mother in her daughter's maternity was "to be along with her", sharing knowledge and life experiences.

  8. Einstein's daughter the search for Lieserl

    CERN Document Server

    Zackheim, Michele

    1999-01-01

    A thoroughly gripping and groundbreaking investigation into the mysterious fate of Albert Einstein's illegitimate daughter. Albert Einstein fell in love with Mileva Maric, the woman who would become his first wife, when they were students at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute. When Maric conceived a child out of wedlock, she went home to her family in Serbia to have the child. Lieserl Maric Einstein was born in 1902. Though Einstein and Maric married the following year, Lieserl was left in the care of her grandparents and never became a part of the Einstein family. In fact, her very existence was unknown until the recent discovery of a cache of letters between Einstein and Maric. The final reference to Lieserl comes in a September 1903 letter, when, at the age of approximately eighteen months, she simply disappears. What happened to Einstein's daughter is the most potent mystery to emerge from the mythology that surrounds one of the century's legendary figures, owing in large part to the careful and apparent...

  9. Evaluation and control of radon daughter hazards in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1974-11-01

    This monograph discusses primarily those health hazards to uranium miners which are produced by exposure to ionizing radiation. Emphasis is placed on the areas of evaluation of exposures to the radioactive gas radon-222 and its short-lived transformation products, and methods of controlling such exposures. A limited discussion of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is undertaken, and some procedures are given for evaluating hazards created by other common contaminants of mine atmospheres. A large amount of information exists on these topics, some of which is unpublished or is not readily available. While efforts were made to obtain data from all sources, undoubtedly some valuable work was overlooked. The monograph is an endeavor to assemble pertinent information and make it available to those who are concerned with producing uranium at minimal risks. Where they were available, a variety of procedures for evaluating hazards are given, and examples of systems for controlling hazards are included. 154 references

  10. Reducing radon daughter background in alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.; McFarland, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors are instruments designed to sample aerosols which may contain alpha-emitting radionuclides and, in near-real time, to monitor the sample for alpha emissions. This process is subject to interference from radon decay products. The usual method for overcoming this interference is by signal processing or data processing in such a manner as to accurately subtract a portion of the background from the transuranic count. An innovative alternative approach has been jointly developed in a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Texas A ampersand M University. The concept is to attempt to physically remove a portion of the interfering radon daughters from the incoming sample by a diffusion screen before the sample is collected. The results of laboratory tests indicate that a very high removal efficiency for unattached radon progeny can be obtained without excessive loss of efficiency for collection of the contaminant aerosols of concern. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Radon-daughter chamber instrumentation system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, R.; Johnson, L.

    1985-01-01

    The radon-daughter chamber instrumentation system collects environmental data from the radon-daughter chamber. These data are then recorded on a Tandberg system tape cartridge and transmitted to the HP-1000 computer for processing. Generators which inject radon and condensation nuclei into the chamber are also included with the instrumentation system

  12. Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; Pearson, Peter L.; Dubas, Judith S.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; te Velde, Egbert R.; van Noord, Paulus A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the heritability of age at natural menopause from mother-daughter pairs. Design: Two-generation families were selected to study heritability of menopausal age. Setting: Subjects were drawn from a population-based study. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-four mother-daughter pairs

  13. Mother/Daughter Relationship: Psychological Implication of Love in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper re-examines Toni Morrison's Beloved to identify an example of the types of mother/daughter relationship that existed between black mothers and their daughters and the implications of such relationship on the Black American society. The paper is a psychoanalytic reading, utilizing Melanie Klein's Object ...

  14. The Maternal Gift: Mothers' Investment in Their Daughters' Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the degree to which mothers participate in decisions surrounding their daughters' university choices in the English higher education sector, based on a gendered PhD study involving mother and adult daughter pairings in southern England. Examples are given of how extended middle-class mothering practices are enabling their…

  15. Reduction of radon daughter concentrations in structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    A structure was identified in Salt Lake City wherein uranium mill tailings had been used in the construction and where unusually high levels of radon daughter concentrations (RDC's) existed. The physical and radiological characteristics of the structure were assessed. Ventilation techniques were investigated to assess their effectiveness in reducing RDC's. A preferred set of equipment was identified, installed in the structure and operated to reduce RDC's. Parametric studies were conducted to determine if supplying fresh air or recirculating air through electrostatic precipitators is more effective in reducing RDC's. Fresh air was found to be more effective in reducing RDC's. RDC's have been reduced to levels at or near the target of 0.03 working level under optimal ventilation conditions. Natural gas consumption with the new equipment is about 39% higher than with the original equipment. Electrical energy usage and electrical demand are respectively 50 and 44% higher with the new equipment than with the original equipment. 16 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Mortality and indoor radon daughter concentrations in 13 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Wigle, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine if lung cancer and general mortality rates in 13 Canadian cities were significantly correlated with average indoor radon daughter concentrations. The radon daughter measurements were obtained from a study of 10,000 homes chosen in a statistically valid grab sample basis. Cancer deaths by year of death, sex, age, and cause were retrieved for each of the cities for the period 1957-1976. Age specific and age standardized mortality rates were calculated. The results showed no evidence of any substantial association between general or lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon daughter concentrations. The limitations of this study and the feasibility of a common international program of epidemiology of radon daughter exposure are discussed. A proposal is made for the use of case control studies of lung cancer to assess the relative importance of smoking, occupational and domestic exposure to radon daughters

  17. New ICRP recommendations on occupational limits for radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ICRP has recommended in 1959 for the first time a maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for the occupational exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters. Since this time more realistic dosimetric models for radon daughters have been developed. Taking into account epidemiological and new dosimetric findings the ICRP has adopted in March this year new recommendations on occupational limits for inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short-lived daughters. This report will be published this year as ICRP Publication 32 (ICRP 1981). The recommended limits for radon daughters were derived from the basic dose and risk limits as they were proposed by ICRP in its new basic recommendations (ICRP Publ. 26, 1977). In the following this basic system of dose limitation is shortly outlined before the special recommendations for radon daughters are described

  18. Parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin correlation analysis using LC-MS and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinyue; St Ange, Kalib; Wang, Xiaohua; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming

    2017-01-01

    Heparin is a structurally complex, polysaccharide anticoagulant derived from livestock, primarily porcine intestinal tissues. Low molecular weight (LMW) heparins are derived through the controlled partial depolymerization of heparin. Increased manufacturing and regulatory concerns have provided the motivation for the development of more sophisticated analytical methods for determining both their structure and pedigree. A strategy, for the comprehensive comparison of parent heparins and their LMW heparin daughters, is described that relies on the analysis of monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, and oligosaccharide composition. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is rapid, robust, and amenable to automated processing and interpretation of both top-down and bottom-up analyses. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides complementary top-down information on the chirality of the uronic acid residues and glucosamine substitution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the normalized abundance of oligosaccharides, calculated in the bottom-up analysis, to show parent and daughter correlation in oligosaccharide composition. Using these approaches, six pairs of parent heparins and their daughter generic enoxaparins from two different manufacturers were comprehensively analyzed. Enoxaparin is the most widely used LMW heparin and is prepared through controlled chemical β-eliminative cleavage of porcine intestinal heparin. Lovenox"®, the innovator version of enoxaparin marketed in the US, was analyzed as a reference for the daughter LMW heparins. The results, show similarities between LMW heparins from two different manufacturers with Lovenox"®, excellent lot-to-lot consistency of products from each manufacturer, and detects a correlation between each parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight heparins prepared from different heparin parents were analyzed. • An integrated analytical approach relied

  19. Parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin correlation analysis using LC-MS and NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinyue, E-mail: liux22@rpi.edu [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); St Ange, Kalib, E-mail: stangk2@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: wangx35@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); School of Computer and Information, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China); Lin, Lei, E-mail: Linl5@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); Zhang, Fuming, E-mail: zhangf2@rpi.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180 (United States); and others

    2017-04-08

    Heparin is a structurally complex, polysaccharide anticoagulant derived from livestock, primarily porcine intestinal tissues. Low molecular weight (LMW) heparins are derived through the controlled partial depolymerization of heparin. Increased manufacturing and regulatory concerns have provided the motivation for the development of more sophisticated analytical methods for determining both their structure and pedigree. A strategy, for the comprehensive comparison of parent heparins and their LMW heparin daughters, is described that relies on the analysis of monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, and oligosaccharide composition. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is rapid, robust, and amenable to automated processing and interpretation of both top-down and bottom-up analyses. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides complementary top-down information on the chirality of the uronic acid residues and glucosamine substitution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the normalized abundance of oligosaccharides, calculated in the bottom-up analysis, to show parent and daughter correlation in oligosaccharide composition. Using these approaches, six pairs of parent heparins and their daughter generic enoxaparins from two different manufacturers were comprehensively analyzed. Enoxaparin is the most widely used LMW heparin and is prepared through controlled chemical β-eliminative cleavage of porcine intestinal heparin. Lovenox{sup ®}, the innovator version of enoxaparin marketed in the US, was analyzed as a reference for the daughter LMW heparins. The results, show similarities between LMW heparins from two different manufacturers with Lovenox{sup ®}, excellent lot-to-lot consistency of products from each manufacturer, and detects a correlation between each parent heparin and daughter LMW heparin. - Highlights: • Low molecular weight heparins prepared from different heparin parents were analyzed. • An integrated analytical

  20. Observation and modeling of 222Rn daughters in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frodyma, N.; Pelczar, K.; Wójcik, M.

    2014-01-01

    The results of alpha spectrometric measurements of the activity of 222 Rn daughters dissolved in liquefied nitrogen are presented. A direct detection method of ionized alpha-emitters from the 222 Rn decay chain ( 214 Po and 218 Po) in a cryogenic liquid in the presence of an external electric field is shown. Properties of the radioactive ions are derived from a proposed model of ion production and transport in the cryogenic liquid. Ionic life-time of the ions was found to be on the order of 10 s in liquid nitrogen (4.0 purity class). The presence of positive and negative ions was observed. - Highlights: • A direct detection method of the alpha-emitters in a cryogenic liquid is shown. • We examine electrostatic drifting of the radioactive ions in liquid nitrogen. • The ions belong to the Radon-222 decay chain; Radon-222 is dissolved in the liquid. • The model of the ions production and behaviour in the liquid is proposed. • The ion production significantly depends on the nuclear decay type (alpha or beta)

  1. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Fuse

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference is a reflection of convergence or a persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan. METHODS I use data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997. Using multinomial logistic regression, I estimate the relationship between Japanese singles' gender role attitudes and their type of gender preference for children. RESULTS Findings suggest that the effect of gender role attitudes on one's child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women. CONCLUSIONS Traditionalism is still driving gender preference, though in a different way for men and women. Emerging daughter preference may not simply be a reflection of improvements in women's status, but in fact it is likely that persistent divergence in gender roles remain in Japan.

  2. Health hazards due to radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.; Tufail, M.

    1993-01-01

    The health hazards liked to radon and its daughters have become a matter of great public concern. When inhaled, a fraction of radon is dissolved into the lung fluid, from where it is transported to other parts of the body. The radiation damage is caused to the lungs due to alpha decay of radon during its transit time within the respiratory tract. Radon daughters are found to be even more dangerous than radon itself. These daughters attach themselves to dust particles present in the air. Some of the aerosols so produced enter the lungs and enter the blood stream. It has now been confirmed that radon and its daughters contribute about 70% of the internal dose received by an individual from natural radiation sources. The danger of indoor radon and its daughters is even higher for energy-saving houses and those having poor ventilation systems. This paper briefly describes the health hazards due to radon and its daughters. Different methods employed for the measurement of concentrations of radon and their daughters are described. The experience gained from the nation-wide surveys carried out in different countries is also given. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. Control of radon and daughters in uranium mines and calculations on biologic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, Duncan A.; Rushing, David E.; Coleman, Richard D.; Woolrich, Paul F.; Kusnetz, Howard L.; Bale, William F.

    2006-01-01

    A long range study under way by the Public Health Service since 1950 seeks to define the effects of uranium mining operations on the health of the miners and to derive data leading to the establishment of a healthful working environment. Although no evidence of health damage has been found among American miners, the European experience points to possible serious health effects. As a preventive measure, steps were therefore taken early in the industry's growth to safeguard the health of the miners. The current bulletin describes the results of the environmental study to date, together with the work of other investigators, with reference to methods of measuring atmospheric concentrations of radon and daughter products, the establishment of a safe working level for radon daughter products, and the development of effective control measures. It is believed that the material presented will be found useful by the industry and others, particularly in evaluating health hazards and in deriving economically feasible control methods

  4. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  5. Lawson Wilkins: recollections by his daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Elizabeth Wilkins

    2014-01-01

    Lawson Wilkins is well known as the "father" of the field of pediatric endocrinology, and his scientific accomplishments and legacy are thoroughly documented in this edition and elsewhere. Less well known, though, is what the man himself was like. Here, his daughter, Elizabeth McMaster, recalls the personal side of Dr. Wilkins including his upbringing as the son of a prominent Baltimore doctor, his medical education, establishment of a successful pediatric practice, and eventually the founding of the endocrine clinic at Johns Hopkins. Interwoven with anecdotes and reminiscences, this account provides a vivid sense of Wilkins' personality and life, from his boisterous nature and devotion to his family and career, to the tragic personal losses he endured. He was a man who threw himself fully into everything he did, whether it was making his own liqueur during Prohibition, collecting specimens from abnormally large circus performers as part of his earliest endocrine research, arranging raucous, impromptu singing parties, sailing the Chesapeake with friends, writing a definitive textbook of Pediatric Endocrinology, training a legion of fellows, or the pioneering work for which he is still known today.

  6. Impact of Behavioral Symptoms in Dementia Patients on Depression in Daughter and Daughter-in-Law Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Hyunjoo; Seong, Sujeong; Park, Soowon; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    One caregiver relationship that has been neglected in caregiver depression research is the daughter-in-law. Compared with Western countries, in which those who are closer in familial relationships such as the spouse or child usually take care of the patient, in many Asian countries, the daughter-in-law often assumes the caretaker role. However, not much research has been done on how this relationship may result in different caregiver outcomes. We sought to identify whether the association between patient characteristics and caregiver depressive symptoms differs according to the familial relationship between caregiver and patient. Ninety-five daughter (n = 47) and daughter-in-law (n = 48) caregivers of dementia patients were asked to report their own depressive symptoms and patient behavioral symptoms. Patients' cognitive abilities, daily activities, and global dementia ratings were obtained. Hierarchical linear regression was employed to determine predictors of depressive symptoms. Daughters-in-law had marginally higher depressive scores. After adjusting for caregiver and patient characteristics, in both groups, greater dependency in activities of daily living and more severe and frequent behavioral symptoms predicted higher caregiver depressive scores. However, greater severity and frequency of behavioral symptoms predicted depression to a greater degree in daughters compared with daughters-in-law. Although behavioral symptoms predicted depression in both caregiver groups, the association was much stronger for daughters. This suggests that the emotional relationship between the daughter and patient exacerbates the negative effect of behavioral symptoms on caregiver depression. The familial relationship between the caregiver and dementia patient should be considered in managing caregiver stress.

  7. Do mothers affect daughter's behaviors? Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate 169 Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads and their associations with health behaviors for eating healthy, engaging in physical activity, daughters perceived body weight, time spent with computer/video, and time viewing television. Female students aged 10-14 years were selected from private and public schools in the State of Kuwait. Results demonstrated that daughters exhibited similar behaviors to their mothers in their perceived eating behavior, physical activity, computer/video game use, and TV screen time. Future research is essential to determine the role of mothers in effective health behavior intervention strategies for female Kuwaiti adolescents.

  8. Radon and its daughters in various British mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Laidlaw, A.J.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1975-11-01

    The results of surveys of radon and radon daughter concentrations in a large number of mines, other than coal mines, in Great Britain are presented. Measurement methods are described, and estimates of the average radon daughter concentrations are given. A comparison is made between the results of radon and radon daughter determination. The radon daughter exposure of about 40% of the non-coal miners covered by a survey in 1973 was estimated to be above the recommended limit of 4 WLM in a year. Recommendations were made for reducing this exposure and for radiological surveillance. A follow-up survey shows some improvement partly due to the implementation of these recommendations, and by October 1975, the number of miners estimated to have an annual exposure above the recommended limit had fallen to about 30% of those included in the survey. (author)

  9. Instrumentation for collecting and measuring radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essling, M.A.; Hengde, W.; Markun, F.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Miranda, J.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new sampling can is described for collecting an air sample for determination of its radon content. Instruments which are employed for the continuous monitoring of radon or its daughters in houses are described and their performances discussed

  10. Comparison of two methods for investigating indoor radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Raes, F.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of radon daughters in realistic indoor environments has been investigated experimentally at the Universities of Gottingen and Gent. Both studies yielded the important result that the fraction of unattached radon daughters is higher than is assumed in earlier studies. Reineking-Porstendorfer and Vanmarcke-Raes adopted quite different methodologies to determine the unattached fraction. In this paper the methodologies are compared by means of joint measurements performed in a house with elevated radon concentrations. The results for the attachment rate, the deposition rate of the unattached daughters and the unattached fraction differ significantly, while the results for the deposition rate of the attached daughters and the equilibrium factor broadly agree. (author)

  11. Factors Associated with Parental Intent not to Circumcise Daughters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Daughters in Enugu State of Nigeria: An Application of the Theory ... dichotomized into two categories and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the ..... The impact of perceived cost and rewards.

  12. A mother with variant Turner syndrome and two daughters with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and two daughters with trisomy X: a case report ... has been reported, spontaneous pregnancy is rare with risk ... phenotype and includes learning disabilities, speech delays, .... X arise in maternal meiosis make this explanation less likely.

  13. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    1980-05-01

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house

  14. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  15. Doses and affects of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Radon and its short-lived daughters are one of the main contributors to the natural exposures of ionizing radiation to man. Their sources, levels and characteristics are described. By inhalation of radon and its daughters tissues in the lung are irritated by α-particles leading to an increased risk of lung cancer. Methods of calculation of doses and risks using the dosimetric approach and the epidemiological approach are described and discussed. (Author)

  16. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  17. Some measurements of the equilibrium factor for radon daughters in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Essling, M.A.; Wang, H.; Rundo, J.

    1982-01-01

    Because the radiation dose to the lung from environmental radon is due almost entirely to the inhalation of the short-lived daughter products, measurements of radon levels alone are not sufficient to determine the dose. Typically the activities of the daughter products in air are not in daughters themselves. The working level (WL) was introduced as a convenient unit to overcome this problem in uranium mines, and it is also applicable to other environments where radiation dosimetry is the principal concern. Since it is easier to determine the radon concentration than the working level, the task of determining lung doses would be simplified if those factors which determine equilibrium could be identified and their effects quantified. In order to do this, simultaneous measurements of radon concentrations and working levels must be made in houses under a variety of conditions. In addition, parameters that may affect the equilibrium factor, such as aerosol concentration and ventilation rate, must also be identified and monitored. Although the effects of such parameters may be best determined under controlled conditions in a laboratory, the results must be validated by measurements in houses. This paper describes these measurements

  18. Interference from radon-thoron daughters in plutonium channel of a continuous plutonium-in-air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, K.A.; Krishnamony, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a study conducted to define the extent of interference from the daughter products of radon/thoron to the plutonium channel of a continuous plutonium-in-air monitor. The effect on the detection limits of the instrument due to chemical form (transportable or non-transportable) and isotopic composition of plutonium aerosol are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Indoor concentrations of radon 222 and its daughters: sources, range, and environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The author here reviews what is presently known about factors affecting indoor concentrations of radon 222 and its daughters. In US single-family homes, radon concentrations are found to average about 1.5 pCi/1, but substantially higher concentrations occur frequently: perhaps a million US homes have concentrations exceeding 8 pCi/1 (from which occupants receive radiation doses comparable to those now experienced by uranium miners). The major contributor to indoor radon is ordinary soil underlying homes, with this radon being transported indoors primarily by the slight depressurization that occurs toward the bottom of a house interior (due to indoor-outdoor temperature differences and winds). Water from underground sources contributes significantly in a minority of cases, primarily residences with private wells, with public water supplies contributing only a few percent of indoor radon, even when drawn from wells. The strong variability in indoor concentrations is associated primarily with variability in the amount of radon entering homes from these various sources, and secondarily with differences in ventilation rates. However, for a given entry rate, the ventilation rate is the key determinant of indoor concentrations. Human doses are also influenced strongly by the chemical behavior of the daughters (i.e., decay products of radon), and considerable progress has been made recently in investigating a major aspect of this behavior, i.e., the manner in which daughters attach to airborne particles, to walls, and - indeed - to the lining of the lung itself, where the key radiation dose occurs

  20. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S.

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations

  1. Scavenging of radon daughters by precipitation from the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinami, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Inst. of Hygienic and Environmental Sciences (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    By the continuous measurement of the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and atmosphere and the data analysis, the following results were obtained. The radon daughters concentration was almost constant in the rain and snow water in spite of the length during weather without precipitation. It has not tendency to show the high concentration of radon daughters in precipitation and snow during beginning of them. When the precipitation intensity is constant, it`s concentration does not change during precipitation and snowfall. The concentration does not depend on the amount of precipitation, but on the precipitation intensity. We did not observe a correlation between the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and that in the surface air. The atmospheric concentration was decreased by precipitation and snowfall, but that of rain and snow water did not decrease. The above results seems to show that the contribution of washout under the cloud to radon daughters in rain and snow water is small and that of rainout in the cloud is large. This result is agreement with the Jacob`s experimental results. (S.Y.)

  2. On the radiation dose to lung tissues from radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    1980-04-01

    The work of Harley and Pasternak on calculating dose conversion factors for radon daughters is re-examined. It is found that their estimates of the deposit of radon daughters on the lung airways are too low and the factor for converting from equilibrium activity of radon daughters on the airways to dose to basal cells is too high; these are re-calculated. However, it is shown that inter-subject variability of the depth of the basal cells leads to considerable uncertainty in the individual dose. Finally average dose conversion factors are re-calculated for atmospheres which may be charactersitic of underground mines; the dose conversion factors range from 8 mGy/WLM to 40 mGy/WLM as calculated from the Weibel lung model and from 3 mGy/WLM to 17 mGy/WLM as calculated from the Landahl lung model

  3. Atmospheric radon daughters concentration inside and outside of cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuguo; Okabe, Shigeru; Aoki, Masayoshi; Imamura, Takakazu; Iwata, Yoshitomo; Tamura, Yukihide; Tsuboguchi, Masayasu

    1987-01-01

    The measurements of the atmospheric radon daughters concentration in and out of the cloud were carried out on the top of the mountain, and in the upper air of the sea by using the airplane. The difference of the concentrations between inside and outside of the stratus measured on the top of the mountain was not clear. The atmospheric radon daughters concentration at the top of the mountain decreased when the amount of precipitation at that point was large. Concerning the cumulus investigated by using the airplane, the concentration in the cloud was a little higher than the concentration out of the cloud. Results of the measurements show that the cloud seems to be constructed of the various air masses whose radon daughters concentrations are different from each other even though it appears to be uniform. (author)

  4. Dowry calculations: daughter's rights in her parental family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1993-01-01

    The practice of dowry in India has become identified as the primary cause of women's oppression. It sets families apart in the fight over dowry payments and results in violence against daughters including infanticide. Daughter's get their share of inheritance at the time of marriage under traditional Hindu law. The Dowry Prohibition Act outlaws this practice. On the other hand, customary law allowed entitlements to women which Victorian norms bypassed, thereby paving the way for the disinheritance of women. The ownership of land was vested exclusively in men, and, as land became scarce and women's labor became devalued, women came to be treated as mere dependents and considered as a liability. With the entrance of men into government service as policemen and bank and postal clerks, their status increased, while women continued working in the peasant economy. Government job holders received the biggest dowries because of their access to economic opportunities. Under the Hindu Succession Act, fathers were allowed to will away property in whosoever's favor, which led to the disinheritance of daughters in favor of sons. Inheritance laws increasingly moved in favor of men and against women. Changing marriage patterns also emerged, as paying exorbitant dowries was perceived as a way of upward social mobility. The wife inherited everything at the expense of daughters, and widows automatically got a pension after the husband. Therefore, the wife's right had a stronger social sanction than the rights of daughters in parental property, especially the right to live in the parental home and take care of old parents, should be the solution to this injustice. Thus, parents would look at daughters in the same light as sons, and the culture of women's devaluation would come to an end.

  5. Health hazards from radon daughters in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, O.; Edling, C.

    1980-01-01

    To clarify the possible etiological role for lung cancer from exposure to the low levels of radon and its daughters in dwellings, a case-control study was made, comparing cases of lung cancer with controls with respect to residency in different types of houses. This pilot study was restricted to include only people who lived in typically rural areas. The results support the hypothesis that radon and radon daughter exposure in dwellings is pertinent to the question of the etiology of lung cancer

  6. The radon daughter radiation hazard in controlled recirculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.; Burton, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    In deep South African gold mines, controlled recirculation systems with air cooling are being used to an increasing extent to improve the thermal environment. Recirculation causes some air to reside in the working area for a longer time than would have occurred without recirculation. Since radon daughters grow spontaneously from radon there is some concern that, with the extended residence time, the potential radiation hazard could increase to an unacceptable level. This paper describes the results obtained from a theoretical model of a controlled recirculation system. Guidelines for the design of recirculation systems to control the radon daughter radiation, and to keep it within acceptable limits are provided. 3 refs., 5 figs

  7. EXPLORING FATHER-DAUGHTER RELATIONSHIP IN THE ABHIJNANSAKUNTALAM AND HAMLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Naveen K. MEHTA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Shakespearian dramas, the kingly authority merges with the authority of a father. Shakespeare uses the father-daughter relationship fundamentally to discredit the practice of possession and the attitude of cupidity which was under attack in the Renaissance. During the world’s famous Indian dramatist Kalidasa period, the father was considered to be the head of the family. Kalidasa's immortal works also suggest that counsels of parents and teachers must be obeyed without any hesitation. The present paper is an attempt to explore the intricacies of the father-daughter relationship in the „Abhijnansakuntalam” and „Hamlet”, „Prince of Denmark”

  8. Model dosimetric for Radon and Daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, J.A.; Cardenas, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    You elaborates a model dosimetric for radon and their products of decline of short half life starting from the new model of the breathing tract of the publication 66 of the ICRP and the use of the systemic models proposed in the publication 67, 68 and 69 of the same commission. The correlated used methodology the incorporation of these radionuclides with the activity in organs and you excrete, considering the difference of metabolic behavior of the products of decline and of their predecessor

  9. Multagenicity of radon and radon daughters. Final technical report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the dose-response relationship with regard to the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence was studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions was investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains that differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The nature of radon/radon daughter-induced mutational lesions in human lymphoblasts was also investigated

  10. Mother centrioles do a cartwheel to produce just one daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyan V; Megraw, Timothy L

    2014-07-28

    In this issue of Developmental Cell, Fong et al. (2014) present evidence for a model of centriole duplication whereby the cartwheel-the starting building block in centriole biogenesis-assembles within the lumen of the mother centriole before templating the daughter centriole to ensure a single duplication event per cell cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Peoples' perception of mother-daughter sexual communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peoples' perception of mother-daughter sexual communication patterns and adolescent girls reproductive health in Enugu North ... become vulnerable to reproductive health problems such as teenage pregnancy, STDs, and HIV/AIDS. ... improved sexual communication skills on sexuality education were recommended.

  12. Limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughters in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in Swedish homes are described. The application of the Swedish provisional limitation system in use since 1980 is also reported. As a background the radon source and the international and national recommedations in other countries are reviewed. (author)

  13. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  14. Size distribution of radon daughter particles in uranium mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Hinchliffe, L.; Sladowski, R.

    1975-01-01

    The size distribution of radon daughters was measured in several uranium mines using four compact diffusion batteries and a round jet cascade impactor. Simultaneously, measurements were made of uncombined fractions of radon daughters, radon concentration, working level, and particle concentration. The size distributions found for radon daughters were log normal. The activity median diameters ranged from 0.09 μm to 0.3 μm with a mean value of 0.17 μm. Geometric standard deviations were in the range from 1.3 to 4 with a mean value of 2.7. Uncombined fractions expressed in accordance with the ICRP definition ranged from 0.004 to 0.16 with a mean value of 0.04. The radon daughter sizes in these mines are greater than the sizes assumed by various authors in calculating respiratory tract dose. The disparity may reflect the widening use of diesel-powered equipment in large uranium mines. (U.S.)

  15. An Exploration of Mothers' Attitudes towards Their Daughters' Menarche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Clare; Harden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Menarche is a significant milestone for young women, representing an important juncture between girlhood and maturation. The limited literature that exists suggests that a mother's reaction to her daughter's first periods can shape her experiences and perceptions of menstruation which, in turn, may impact on her self-image and, consequently,…

  16. Dissident Daughters? The Psychic Life of Class Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Valerie; George, Rosalyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper arose through a chance meeting between the two authors who are feminist mothers of teenage and 20 years plus daughters. We were attending an Economic and Social Research Council-funded seminar focusing on "new femininities" in the light of post-feminism and their worth and currency within the new politics of consumption and lifestyle.…

  17. Factors associated with parental intent not to circumcise daughters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored intention of parents not to circumcise daughters in Enugu State, Nigeria using theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework. A survey of 1345 parents was carried out using structured questionnaire with FGM question items based on TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm (SN), perceived ...

  18. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  19. Development and implementation of radon daughter measurement in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Mohamed, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a programme was developed to study radon daughter risks and to carry out field and experimental measurements. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority lead the implementation of this programme in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency through the coordination project EGY/9/020 and EGY/9/030. Several national authorities participated also in this study such as Nuclear Materials Corporation. This work involved the preparation and calibration of equipment, establishment of measuring techniques, survey in some cities and mines countrywide, and preparation of regulations for radiation safety of the workers who may be exposed to high levels of radon daughters. The study shows that there is no major environmental problem for the public due to exposure to radon daughter. Occupational problem may be probable in some underground mines with bad ventilation. Reported values for radon daughter levels in units of working level ranged from 0-0.26 in some buildings and ruins in the Egyptian cities and from 0-3 working level in underground phosphate and uranium mine in the Egyptian Eastern Desert

  20. Biological basis of inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Since inhalation exposure by radon and its daughters is very specific type of internal exposure, it is necessary to understand its characteristic nature. The specificity originates from the nuclear feature of radon daughters and the biological micro-environment in the respiratory tract. Inhaled radon and its daughters exist in the respiratory tract as ions attached to air dusts and deposit on the mucus surface of the respiratory tract by various mechanisms such as impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. Deposition of radon daughters is predominant around the site of the fourth generation according to Weibel's model. Deposited particles with radon daughters are cleared by muco-ciliary transportation. Its speed is estimated to be about 1.0 cm/min, at the upper region. Alpha decay will happen during transportation in the respiratory tract. Radon has no tissue affinity metabolically. Therefore, the irradiation is limited to the epithelial cells of respiratory tract. The cell components within 30-70 micron in depth are irradiated with alpha particle. Biological effectiveness of alpha radiation is very high compared with beta or gamma radiation. The target cell for carcinogenesis by radon exposure is considered to be the basal cell of epithelium. Lung cancer induced by radon inhalation is recognized to be squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, or oat-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The modification factors which influence the effect of radon exposure are co-inhalation of ore dust and smoking habit. According to epidemiological studies on lung cancer which occurred in uranium miners, it is suggested that the smoking habit strongly promotes lung cancer induction. (author)

  1. Giving Our Daughters What We Never Received: African American Mothers Discussing Sexual Health With Their Preadolescent Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Sheila R

    2018-04-01

    African American girls experience disparate rates of pregnancy and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, when compared to their non-Hispanic White counterparts. Among African American girls, current pregnancy rates are equal to the national crisis levels of teen pregnancy reported in 1990. This qualitative elicitation study was conducted to gain insight into the ways in which African American mothers and their daughters, between the ages of 9 and 14, communicate about sexual health. Early sexual health communication between mothers and daughters is known to enhance the sexual health outcomes of girls. A series of four focus groups and three in-depth interviews were conducted between July and September 2014. The theory of planned behavior was the organizing framework. Theoretical constructs that guided this study were attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. Results showed that what African American women share with their daughters about sexual health stems from their personal faith, values, and experiences. Findings from this study can inform interventions to provide support for this understudied population. Moreover, there are implications for health-care providers, particularly school nurses, who are in an ideal position to help increase mothers' self-efficacy to engage in sexual health conversations with their young daughters.

  2. Latina Daughters' Childbearing Attitudes: The Role of Maternal Expectations and Education Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls' and their mothers' expectations for their daughters' college attainment, mother-daughter communication about education, and daughters' early childbearing attitudes were examined in 146 U.S.-raised Latina girls (mean age = 14.4 years) and their mostly immigrant mothers. Through structural equation modeling, we…

  3. Potential laboratory health hazard of /sup 210/Pb and a simple procedure for separation of /sup 210/Pb from the daughters /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, J G [Arkansas Univ., Little Rock (USA). Medical Center; Blakemore, W M [The National Center for Toxicological Research, Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA

    1981-12-01

    Lead 210 (Radium D) is a naturally occurring radionuclide which is frequently used in toxicological studies due to its long half-life. The use of /sup 210/Pb in tracer studies poses two problems. First /sup 210/Pb, along with its daughters /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po, presents a significant health hazard to laboratory personnel. Second, the presence of the daughter products may interfere with the detection of /sup 210/Pb, particularly by techniques which discriminate poorly between different radioactive emissions, e.g. autoradiography. The potential laboratory health hazards of /sup 210/Pb and its daughters are briefly reviewed and a simple dithiozone extraction procedure which allows quantitative separation of /sup 210/Pb from the daughters /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Bi is described. The purified /sup 210/Pb may then be utilized to reduce the health hazard from the daughter products and to construct calibration curves for the quantitation of /sup 210/Pb in the presence of /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po by liquid scintillation counting.

  4. [Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  6. Influence of radon daughter exposure rate, unattachment fraction, and disequilibrium on occurrence of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Groups of male, specific-pathogen-free (SPF), Wistar rats were exposed to several concentrations of radon daughters and uranium ore dust to clarify the roles of exposure rate, unattached RaA daughters, and the degree of radon daughter disequilibrium, in the development of respiratory system disease. Modelled, human dosimetric data indicate that the dose to sensitive tissues of the respiratory tract increases with increasing radon daughter unattachment fraction and degree of disequilibrium. Data bearing on these developments as well as updated results of experiments designed to test the role of radon daughter exposure rate on lung tumour incidence are reported. (author)

  7. Influence of various room parameters upon radon daughter equilibrium indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, G.S.; Mazumdar, S.C.; Ashraf, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The parameters such as ventilation rate, attachment rate to aerosols and deposition processes, which influence the radon daughter equilibrium indoors, are discussed and the validity of the theoretical model checked by experiments. In agreement with the model calculations, the experimental data show, that the equilibrium factor F in rooms is mainly influenced by the rate of attachment to aerosols and the plateout of radon daughters. The equilibrium factor varies between 0.3 and 0.4 at an attachment rate of 300 h -1 . The influence of ventilation upon the free fraction of RaA( 218 Pp)-atoms is also investigated. This is in good agreement with the results of the measurements carried out in different types of rooms at the University Campus of Rajshahi. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Electronic instrument for radon daughter dosimetry. Report of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the daily exposures of uranium mining personnel to 222Rn daughters, a device is needed which will continually monitor the individual's exposure. Such a device has been built and tested and is known as the Radon Daughter Dosimeter. This is an electronic instrument using a solid-state detector and circuitry. The system permits the evaluation of cumulative exposures to airborne radon progeny, expressed in units of Working Level Hours (WL-HRS). The instrument is a personal device worn by the individual throughout the working shift. Since the instrument is in close proximity to the miner and measures continual exposure, it provides an accurate account of total cumulative exposure, thus avoiding the errors caused by the present technique of spot checking of the environment

  9. Develop generic equations to determine radon daughters concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Jerby, B.

    2011-06-01

    Measurements of radon daughter concentrations in air are very important to determine the human dose from background radiation. Therefore, many studies tried to find measurements methods depending on many specific parameters such as measurement time, air pumping period and sample volume. In this study a general equations to determine radon daughter's concentrations in air was found using direct samples. The Equations results were closed to the results obtained from other well known methods. Many measurements with different places and various conditions were performed; the results showed that the new equations are able to be used with an error less than 10%, The relative error can be reduced by increasing the pumping rate or measuring high concentration cases.(author)

  10. Decommissioning/closeout of Malargue site: measurement of radon daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Cadena, Guadalberto

    2000-01-01

    In Malargue complex there are about 700,000 mt of uranium tailings disposed off during 32 years of operation of the Malargue facility. The objective of the Malargue Site is to undertake the necessary actions to execute remediation programs. A summary of measurements of concentrations of radon daughter taken in different buildings of the city and in the field shows the influence of radon source. The results obtain for concentrations of radon daughter indicate that they do not differ significantly between each others. The environmental remediation of uranium mill tailings at Malargue Site is a requirement of Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and of the Mendoza province and a commitment to reduce the doses as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (ALARA concept). (author)

  11. Radiation exposure due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Underground miners working over long periods of time in mines with a high content of radon and radon daughters belong to that group of occupationally exposed persons who are subject to the greatest somatic risk, with values especially high if the permissible dose limits are exceeded. Follwing an overview of the permissible limits currently in use for radon and radon daughters as well as the results of examinations performed in nationally-owned underground mining of the G.D.R., considerations are presented on the measuring quantities requisite for statistical, control and safety measurements in this field. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the measuring procedures and instruments to be employed for practical work. (author)

  12. Development of diffusion-based radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.; Khan, A.; Leung, H.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the possible application of the mechanisms of thermophoresis and electrostatic collection via electrets to the collection of radon daughters with reference to personal alpha dosimeters for use in uranium mines. The potential advantage accruing from adoption of either one of these collection mechanisms is that collection is passive and does not depend upon the use of a pump (active), and is, therefore, intrinsically much more reliable

  13. Daughters Taking Over the Family Business : A Gender Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinidis, Christina; Cornet, Annie

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the succession process as perceived and lived by daughters taking over the family business, with a gender perspective. Despite the rich literature on the succession process in family firms, few studies use a gender approach, though an increasing number of ventures are launched, taken over and managed by women, largely contributing to the economic development. In line with Dumas (1998), Barbot et al. (2005) and Vera & Dean (2005), our research aims at analyzing the succ...

  14. Barber-Say syndrome in a father and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nathalie; Houtmeyers, Philippe; Janssens, Sandra; Blondeel, Philllip

    2010-10-01

    We report on a father to daughter transmission of Barber-Say syndrome (BSS), a rare, congenital disorder characterized by severe generalized hypertrichosis, macrostomia, ocular telecanthus, bulbous nose and atrophic skin. These two cases further support the autosomal dominant inheritance. Both presented with the typical BSS symptoms but the phenotypic expression in the father was milder. Treatment is challenging for both patients and doctors, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  16. Committed effective dose from thoron daughters inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.P.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Mankind's interest in natural radiation exposure levels has increased over the past fifty years and it is now recognized that the most significant contributors to human irradiation by natural sources are the short-lived decay products of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn). Despite the thoron short half-life of 55 s, effective dose from inhalation of thoron an its progeny ( 212 Pb and 212 Bi) must be considered, owing to the high thorium background in countries like Brazil, China and India, for example. The indoor committed effective dose was assessed by air sampling at the thorium purification plant and the nuclear materials storage site of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares; Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 21 glass fiber filter samples was analyzed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry in order to obtain the 212 Pb and 212 Bi activities. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) varied from 0.3 Bq/m 3 to 6.8 Bq/m 3 for the storage site air samples and from 9.9 Bq/m 3 to 249.8 Bq/m 3 for the thorium purification plant air samples. As retention studies indicate a biological half-life of a few hours inhaled thoron progeny in the human lungs, the main fraction of the potential alpha energy (PAEC) deposited is absorbed in the lungs, meaning negligible to the effective dose the contribution of the dose in other times. The committed effective dose due thoron progeny was performed by compartimental analysis following the ICRP 66 lung compartimental model and ICRP 67 lead compartimental model. The values obtained varied from 0.03 mSv/a to 0.67 mSv/a for the storage site air samples and from 0.12 mSv/a to 6.00 mSv/a for the thorium purification plant air samples. (author)

  17. Size distribution of radon daughter particles in uranium mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Hinchliffe, L.; Sladowski, R.

    1977-07-01

    An investigation of the particle size distribution and other properties of radon daughters in uranium mines was reported earlier but only summaries of the data were presented. This report consists mainly of tables of detailed measurements that were omitted in the original article. The tabulated data include the size distributions, uncombined fractions and ratios of radon daughters as well as the working levels, radon concentrations, condensation nuclei concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. The measurements were made in 27 locations in four large underground mines in New Mexico during typical mining operations. The size distributions of the radon daughters were log normal. The activity median diameters ranged from 0.09 μm to 0.3 μm with a mean of 0.17 μm. Geometric standard deviations were from 1.3 to 4 with a mean of 2.7. Uncombined fractions expressed in accordance with the ICRP definition ranged from 0.004 to 0.16 with a mean of 0.04

  18. A homeostatic clock sets daughter centriole size in flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Mustafa G.; Steinacker, Thomas L.; Novak, Zsofia A.; Baumbach, Janina; Muschalik, Nadine

    2018-01-01

    Centrioles are highly structured organelles whose size is remarkably consistent within any given cell type. New centrioles are born when Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) recruits Ana2/STIL and Sas-6 to the side of an existing “mother” centriole. These two proteins then assemble into a cartwheel, which grows outwards to form the structural core of a new daughter. Here, we show that in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos, daughter centrioles grow at a linear rate during early S-phase and abruptly stop growing when they reach their correct size in mid- to late S-phase. Unexpectedly, the cartwheel grows from its proximal end, and Plk4 determines both the rate and period of centriole growth: the more active the centriolar Plk4, the faster centrioles grow, but the faster centriolar Plk4 is inactivated and growth ceases. Thus, Plk4 functions as a homeostatic clock, establishing an inverse relationship between growth rate and period to ensure that daughter centrioles grow to the correct size. PMID:29500190

  19. Father-daughter relationship and the severity of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, N; Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, M; Zubery, E; Zalsman, G

    2015-01-01

    Mother-daughter relationship was the focus of studies on the development of eating disorders (ED) for many years. This study aimed to examine the association between the father-daughter relationship and ED and depressive symptoms. Fifty-three women diagnosed with ED were compared to a psychiatric control group (n=26) and to healthy participants (n=60) regarding their perception of their fathers and the relationship with them. Assessments were done using the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test, and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as narrative-based methods. Fathers' negative attributes were significantly associated with ED and depressive symptom. Two profiles of father-daughter relationship were found, the "caring and benevolent" relationship and the "overprotective and avoidant" one. In the latter, patients displayed significantly higher levels of food-restraint, more concerns about eating and about their body shape and appearance, and higher levels of depression. Negative perception of the father's parenting style as well as the quality of the relationship with him are crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of ED. Therapeutic programs for ED should focus not only on the relationship with the mother but must also address the relationship with the father. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental pulmonary carcinogenesis by radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fumiaki

    1989-01-01

    Information on experimental pulmonary carcinogenesis by radon and its daughters has come mostly from experiments carried out in France and United States of America. In rats a dose response relation was estimated to be linear with dose at low dose region. Studies of rats exposed daily to radon and radon daughters indicated that the frequency of pulmonary cancer at total exposure greater than 3000 WLM was greater when the exposure rates were low. At low total exposures the dose-rate effect was less apparent. Cigarette smoke increased the pulmonary cancer in rats but decreased in dogs. The decrease may be due to a decrease of absorbed doses with increased secretion of mucus and to an enhancement of mucociliary clearance. After inhalation of 222 Ru at equilibrium with radon daughters, rats were inoculated intrapleurally with asbestos fibres or glass fibres. The additive co-carcinogenic effects of this type of insult were demonstrated by the increased incidence of malignant thoracic tumours. As for species differences, dogs and hamsters are relatively resistant to cancer induction and rats are sensitive. While bronchogenic carcinomas are the most frequently observed radiation-induced pulmonary cancer in humans, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas are the most frequent type in most animal species. (author)

  1. Radon-daughter exposures in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Ingersoll, J.G.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    A radon concentration of 1 pCi/1 (37 Bq/m 3 ) appears to lie in the range that is typical for air inside US residential buildings. Moreover, some US residences have concentrations higher than 1 pCi/1, sometimes by an order of magnitude, implying significant individual risk to occupants. For typical radon daughter equilibrium ratios, this concentration corresponds to a radon daughter exposure rate of 0.2 working level months (WLM) per year. This exposure rate may account for a significant lung cancer incidence if data on lung cancers per unit exposure in miners are applicable to such low exposures. Reductions in air exchange rates may rise the typical exposure rate and even increase it to unacceptable levels in some cases. Measures that reduce energy use by reducing natural infiltration or mechanical ventilation in new or retrofit buildings are therefore undergoing severe scrutiny. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has performed measurements in buildings specifically designed to use energy efficiently or utilize solar heating. In many of these buildings radon concentrations appear to arise primarily from soil underlying the buildings. Measures to control higher levels, e.g., by mechanical ventilation with heat recuperation, appear to be economical. However, to evaluate energy-saving programs adequately requires a much more comprehensive characterization of radon sources (for example, by geographical area) and a much fuller understanding of the dynamics of radon and its daughters indoors than now exist

  2. Radon and radon-daughter exposure measurements by through-etched track registration in cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoefell, T.M.J.; Silva Estrada, J.J. da; Tavares, O.A.P.; Martins, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The use of cellulose nitrate films LR-115 type II (Kodak-Pathe) as a practical, exposure integrating device to measure the level of exposure to alpha particles in atmospheres which contain radon and radon-daughter products is investigated. The analysis of a number of cellulose nitrate films that have been exposed to calibrated radon test-chamber atmospheres has indicated good correlations between through-etched track density p and integrated alpha-particle exposure Σa (Working-Level-Hour). It is shown that the response of the cellulose nitrate detector to radon-daughter alpha-particle exposures is linear, and that reliable conservative estimations of the Working-Level-Hour can be obtained from Σa = 3.0(p-b), where p is expressed in tracks/mm 2 (b is the background level). These results recommend the use of the special red cellulose nitrate films as a convenient dosimeter for monitoring radioactive contaminants in mine atmospheres. (Author) [pt

  3. Generation to generation: discrimination and harassment experiences of physician mothers and their physician daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Diane K; Zucker, Alyssa N; Mercurio, Andrea E; Landry, Laura J; Rich, Michael; Shrier, Lydia A

    2007-01-01

    To examine bias and sexual harassment experiences of physician mothers and their physician daughters; correlations of these experiences with career satisfaction, stress at work, stress at home, and percentage of women in specialty; and influences of the mother on her daughter's experiences. A convenience sample of 214 families with mother and daughter physicians was sent a 56-item survey that included questions on bias and sexual harassment experiences. Statistical comparisons were made within 136 dyads where both mother and daughter returned the questionnaire. Eighty-four percent of mothers and 87% of daughters responded. Mothers and daughters reported similarly high rates and severity of sexual harassment before medical school, while in residency/fellowship, while in practice/work setting, and by teachers and supervisors. Daughters reported higher rates of harassment during medical school and by patients, mothers by colleagues. Gender and racial/ethnic discrimination was lower for daughters compared with their mothers, but gender discrimination was still substantial. Compared with other daughters, daughters who experienced discrimination or sexual harassment reported lower career satisfaction and more stress at work and at home and worked in specialties with fewer women. Gender discrimination and sexual harassment remain entrenched in medical education and professional workplaces. Maternal role models and mentors were not as protective as anticipated. Leadership of medical institutions and professional associations must deal more effectively with persistent discrimination and harassment or risk the loss of future leaders.

  4. Migration of uranium daughter radionuclides in natural sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, S.; Thomson, J.

    1991-01-01

    An irregular concentration/depth profile of uranium in deep-sea turbidities, previously elucidated, has been exploited to obtain in-situ effective diffusion coefficients for the long-lived members of the 238 U natural series. The findings are relevant to the assessment of deep-sea sediments as potential repositories for high-level radioactive waste, because waste actinides decay through the same chains of daughter radionuclides as natural actinides. This work was part of the CEC Mirage project-Second phase, Natural analogues research area

  5. Some measurements of radon and its daughters in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; May, H.A.; Plondke, N.J.; Keefe, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The bare soil in the unpaved crawl space of a house is the source of unusually high levels (greater than or equal to 185 Bq m -3 ) of radon in the air of some houses (46% of those investigated), although the radium content of the soil is normal (approx. 40 Bq kg -1 ). High concentrations can also be found in the air in the basement sump. Measurements made with an Environmental Working Level Monitor in two houses showed that the average annual concentration of radon daughters may be in the region of 0.01 WL

  6. Commentary on Becoming a Daughter: Trauma is a powerful teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2006-06-01

    Personal life crises profoundly impact genetic counselor practice. In this commentary, themes from Matloff's (in press) article, Becoming a Daughter are highlighted and expanded upon. These themes include: personal impact of a life crisis, and professional impact vis a vis empathy countertransference, self-disclosure, nondirectiveness, and self-confidence. Strategies that help genetic counselors manage personal life crises within their clinical practice and also promote their professional development are emphasized, including normalization of life crises, self-reflection, boundary-setting, and use of peer supervision and consultation.

  7. Ventilation cost impact of reduced radon-daughter working levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Published information on costs of radon-daughter control in uranium mines was analyzed to develop estimates of the cost per ton for any level of radiation exposure control. All data were converted to 1967 cost of living index to provide a common analysis base. Results of the analysis show that the cost per ton increases exponentially as the radiation level is lowered. A linear relationship with the cost of living index is assumed, and equations and graphs are provided to estimate control cost per ton for any exposure control level and cost of living index

  8. Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1993-01-01

    For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of only contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meteorological conditions, the measured air concentrations of 214 Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the 222 Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m -3 . For the artifical radionuclides 60 Co, 131 I and 137 Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m -3 , respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2. (orig.)

  9. Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1993-04-01

    For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of only contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meteorological conditions, the measured air concentrations of [sup 214]Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the [sup 222]Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m[sup -3]. For the artifical radionuclides [sup 60]Co, [sup 131]I and [sup 137]Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m[sup -3], respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2. (orig.).

  10. Estimation of ventilation rate in uranium or thorium handling laboratories using short-lived thoron daughter activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivade, R.K.; Deshpande, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium in oxide form is used as fuel in the Indian PHWR. Natural 238 U fuel contains 232 Th as an impurity to the extent of 50 - 60 ppm. This thorium impurity is converted to 232 U in reactor during irradiation. 232 U is converted to 224 Ra by alpha decays, 224 Ra further decays to 220 Rn by alpha decays. 220 Rn decays to stable 208 Pb by emitting alpha, beta particles and gamma rays. 220 Rn is inert gas but its daughter products are in particulate form. Effective half-life of Tn decay series is 10.6 hrs and four days are required to reduce the air borne activity concentration to negligible level on a filter paper sample. Uranium or thorium is handled remotely in the glove boxes with proper shielding. Glove boxes are under optimum negative pressure. Exhausts from glove boxes are connected to stack with proper filtration. Amber ares of the Lab is also supplied with conditioned air supply for human comfort and to keep the atmospheric thoron daughter concentration under control. Even after using proper engineering safety features, thoron that is in the gaseous form can came out from glove boxes due to holes on the neoprene gloves of micro or nano dimensions. Probability of thoron gas leakage is more during bagging out or bagging in operations. This gives rise to thoron daughter activity in the working atmosphere of Lab constantly and workers should be protected adequately

  11. Attitude of Israeli mothers with vaccination of their daughters against human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Aharon, Osnat; Palickshvili, Sharon; Gurman, Vicky

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine whether the model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) succeeds in predicting mothers' intention to vaccinate their daughters against the human papilloma virus infection. Questionnaires were distributed among convenience sample of 103 mothers of daughters 18 years and younger. Approximately 65% of mothers intend to vaccinate their daughters. Behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and level of knowledge had a significant positive effect on mothers' intention to vaccinate their daughters. High levels of religiosity were found to negatively affect mothers' intention to vaccinate their daughters. The TRA combined with level of knowledge and level of religiosity succeeds in predicting mothers' behavioral intentions regarding vaccinating daughters. This indicates the significance of nurses' roles in imparting information and increasing awareness among mothers. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Influence of random daughter exposure rate, unattachment fraction, and disequilibrium on occurrence of lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Groups of male, specific-pathogen-free (SPF), Wistar rats were exposed to several concentrations of radon daughters and uranium ore dust to clarify the roles of exposure rate, unattached RaA daughters, and the degree of radon daughter disequilibrium, in the development of respiratory system disease. Modeled, human-dosimetric data indicate that the dose to sensitive tissues of the respiratory tract increases with increasing radon-daughter unattachment fraction and degree of disequilibrium. Experimental verification of these dose-effect relationships is needed to protect the health of workers and of the public exposed to radon-daughter environments. Data bearing on these relationships as well as updated results of experiments designed to test the role of radon-daughter exposure rate on lung-tumor incidence are reported. 13 references, 3 tables

  13. Older Parents Benefit More in Health Outcome From Daughters' Than Sons' Emotional Care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Gu, Danan; Vaupel, James W

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. As compared with having son(s), having daughter(s) is significantly more beneficial at older ages in China, with regard to maintaining higher cognitive capacity and reducing mortality risk. Such daughter advantages in providing emotional care to older parents are more profound among the oldest-old aged 80+ as compared with the young-old aged 65 to 79 and surprisingly more profound in rural areas as compared with urban areas, even though son preference is much more common among rural residents. We describe how educational campaigns aimed at informing the public about the benefits of daughter(s) for older parents' health outcome could help promote gender equality and reduce traditional son preference, especially in rural China.

  14. Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yecheng; Huang Zhanyun; She Chengye

    1992-01-01

    Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor is introduced in this paper. With the single-chip microcomputer automation comes into effect in the process from sampling to measuring of radon and radon daughters. The concentrations of radon and radon daughters can be easily shown when the conversion coefficients are pre-settled before the measurement. Moreover, the principle and design are briefly discussed according to the characteristics of the monitor

  15. Control of daughter centriole formation by the pericentriolar material: Control of centriole duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Loncarek, Jadranka; Hergert, Polla; Magidson, Valentin; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    Controlling the number of its centrioles is vital for the cell as supernumerary centrioles result in multipolar mitosis and genomic instability1,2. Normally, just one daughter centriole forms on each mature (mother) centriole3,4; however, a mother centriole can produce multiple daughters within a single cell cycle5,6. The mechanisms that prevent centriole ‘overduplication’ are poorly understood. Here we use laser microsurgery to test the hypothesis that attachment of the daughter centriole to...

  16. Mother - Daughter Relationship’s links to Daughter’s Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    ONAYLI, Selin; ERDUR-BAKER, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation of mother - daughter relationship to an adult daughter’s self- esteem and life satisfaction. 426 university students with a mean age of 21.62 (SD= 2.35) participated in the study. Adult Mother - Daughter Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered. The canonical correlation analysis revealed that three indicators of mother - daughter relationship (connectedness, interdependency, and trust in hierarchy) ...

  17. Metal screen retention for thoron daughter free atoms and atoms attached to condensation nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.; Webb, J.; Fitts, D.; Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Metal support screens available in a 47 mm commercial filter holder (model F3052-4, available from Scientific Products, Bedford, MA) assembly were tested for retention of thoron daughter atoms and atoms attached to condensation nuclei as a function of the flow rate of the carrier air stream. Sources of Pb-212 were generated on the surface of a metal disk by exposing the disk to thoron emanation generated from a special preparation of Th-228. This source of Pb-212, in transient equilibrium with its daughters, was placed in a flow through chamber connected in series to two of the metal screens backed by a glass fiber filter. Most of the recoil product radioactivity emitted from the Pb-212 source and collected on the screens was due to single atoms of Tl-208, which is born by alpha decay of Bi-212 with a recoil energy of 116 keV. Some free atoms of Bi-212 were also observed. Alpha autoradiographs of Filter samples placed on the downstream side of the two metal screens gave proof of the existence of Pb-212 aggregates through their alpha star images. These aggregate recoil particles were found to have a much higher penetration through the screens than free atoms of Tl-208 and Bi-212. Penetration of Tl-208 atoms and ions decreased exponentially as the inverse of the carrier air flow rate. Penetration varied from 0.047 at 0.088 cfm to 0.661 at 2.47 cfm. Atoms of Pb-212 attached to condensation nuclei were obtained by passing thoron into a reaction chamber containing naturally occurring condensation nuclei from the laboratory. The retention for these attached species varied both as a function of the flow rate and the age of the aerosol. The maximum retention varied from 0.525% at 6.38 cfm to 3.5% at 0.636 cfm for respective delay times of 120 and 30 minutes post the introduction of the thoron into the reaction chamber. A system consisting of a single screen backed by a glass fiber filter may be used to obtain the numbers of radon or thoron daughter free atoms and attached

  18. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Gonzalez, Velda J; Diaz-Toro, Elba C; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Pattatucci, Angela; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Although opportunities to vaccinate against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available, vaccination rates in Puerto Rico remain low. Communication between parents and adolescents about sexual topics may influence decisions about HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among young women; yet, few studies have addressed this issue. This qualitative study explored Puerto Rican mothers' and daughters' communication on sex-related topics, and HPV, including the HPV vaccine. Thirty participants, including 9 mothers and 21 daughters, participated in seven focus groups. Participants were divided into groups of mothers and daughters, and further stratified by vaccination status. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify emergent themes. Focus group data revealed four main themes: (1) limited parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics; (2) daughters' discomfort discussing sex-related topics with their parents; (3) parental focus on abstinence; and, (4) limited parent-daughter communication about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Although daughters in this study struggled with feelings of embarrassment, invasion of privacy, encouragement of abstinence, and the fear of parents' reaction to them being sexually active prior to marriage, they also recognized the need to increase the parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics including HPV and the HPV vaccine. Educational efforts should target both daughters and parents to increase communication skills and self-efficacy and to enable them to discuss sexual health in open and nonjudgmental conversations.

  19. Measurements of the deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Essling, M.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces have been measured by exposing the window of a proportional counter to the air of a house with high concentrations of radon and its daughters. Deposition velocities for unattached 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) of approximately 4 mm sec - 1 were obtained by dividing the deposition rates by the concentrations of unattached daughters in the air. These results agree with those obtained by other workers but are dependent on the assumptions made about the fractions of the daughters which are attached to the atmospheric aerosol

  20. Cell cycle phases in the unequal mother/daughter cell cycles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Chlebowicz-Sledziewska, E; Fangman, W L

    1984-11-01

    During cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother cells produce buds (daughter cells) which are smaller and have longer cell cycles. We performed experiments to compare the lengths of cell cycle phases in mothers and daughters. As anticipated from earlier indirect observations, the longer cell cycle time of daughter cells is accounted for by a longer G1 interval. The S-phase and the G2-phase are of the same duration in mother and daughter cells. An analysis of five isogenic strains shows that cell cycle phase lengths are independent of cell ploidy and mating type.

  1. Like mother like daughter: putamen activation as a mechanism underlying intergenerational risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colich, Natalie L; Ho, Tiffany C; Ellwood-Lowe, Monica E; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; LeMoult, Joelle L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2017-09-01

    Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors for developing depression in adolescence. Given the role of aberrant reward processing in the onset and maintenance of depression, we examined the association between mothers' and their daughters' neural response to the anticipation of reward and loss. Fifteen non-depressed mothers with a history of recurrent depression and their never-disordered daughters, and 23 mothers without past or current depression and their never-disordered daughters, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the monetary incentive delay task. To assess mother-daughter concordance, we first identified ROIs involved in the anticipation of reward and loss across all mother-daughter pairs. Within each of these ROIs, we examined the association between mothers' and daughters' neural response, and the interaction between group status and mothers' neural response in predicting daughters' neural response. We found a significant association between mothers' and daughters' putamen response to the anticipation of loss, regardless of mother's depression history. Furthermore, pubertal stage moderated the association between mother-daughter putamen concordance. Our findings suggest a unique role of the putamen in the maternal transmission of reward learning and have important implications for understanding disorders characterized by disturbances in reward learning and processing, such as major depression. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent of Indoor 222Rn Daughters in Inchass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmad, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The dominant component of natural radiation dose for the general population comes from the radon gas 222 Rn and its short-lived decay products, Ra A ( 214 Po), Ra B ( 214 Pb), Ra C ( 214 Bi), Ra C( 214 Po) in the breathing air. The objective of the present work is to assess the affective dose equivalent of the inhalation exposure of indoor 222 Rn for occupational workers. Average indon concentrations (Bqm -3 ) were monitored in several departments in Nuclear Research Center by radon monitor. We have calculated the lung dose equivalent and the effective dose equivalent for the Egyptian workers due to inhalation exposure of an equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon daughters which varies from 0.27 to 2.5 mSvy -1 and 0.016 to 0.152mSvy -1 respectively. The annual effective doses obtained are within the accepted range of ICRP recommendations

  3. The abstraction of independent cross-sections from the γ activities of successively decayed daughter nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiwen; Zhang Li; Zhao Jinhua; Hu Qingyuan

    1999-01-01

    A technique for abstracting independent cross section on the basis of the γ activities from the observed isotope itself or its successively decayed daughter nuclei was developed. It is specially applicable for determining the independent cross sections of the isotope products involved in quick, element-separated samples. The authors have used it in the isotope-distribution measurement for Hg element produced in the reaction of 600-MeV 18 O beam bombarding on thick natural lead target, and a total of Hg-isotope independent cross sections more than twenty were obtained in the mass range of 180∼209. Some representative examples showing how the authors deduced these independent cross sections are given

  4. Zero Time of Transitory Nuclear Events Derived by Parent-Daughter Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir-El, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The detection and identification of a nuclear event that results in the dissemination of radioactive products into the environment can be realized by dating the age of the event. In order to correct observed activities for the decay since the occurrence of the event, the age must be known to a high level of confidence. Previous papers. described the method to date the age of a nuclear event by measuring the activity of two fission products, which constitute the clock in this application. Within the proficiency test programme for radionuclide laboratories supporting the CTBT, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric test of a Chinese thermonuclear device, was used to determine the zero time by calculating the theoretical peak area ratio of 95Nb/95Zr. Their approach used only the main gamma lines at 766 and 757 keV and assigned the same detection efficiency to both these close lines. Their methodology of calculating the uncertainty of zero time is subject to comments because it takes the sum of two components (nuclide ratio and activity ratio as function of time) in quadrature. In another paper, the activity of 95Nb as a function of time was presented without any development or expression for the zero time. Analytical equations for zero time and the associated uncertainty calculations were derived in a recent paper using a measured activity ratio of two nuclides and illustrating the procedure by data from the Chinese test. The evaluation of the zero time uncertainty was performed by a very large set of very complicated analytical equations. The present paper aims at developing a procedure to determine the zero time and its uncertainty in a transitory nuclear event by treating a parent-daughter system of 3 nuclides, where one daughter feeds the other one, in addition to its direct feeding by the decay of the parent

  5. Mother-daughter dyadic approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L; White, Neil H; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M

    2014-12-29

    Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls , is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendations to specify that preconception counseling should "Start at puberty…". This directive requires support from well-informed mothers of teens. Our goal is to provide both teen girls and their mothers with preconception counseling knowledge, and provide mothers with sex-communication training. Evaluation should focus on mother-daughter dyads. This feasibility study explored mother's and daughter's awareness and knowledge of diabetes and pregnancy, and preconception counseling; and compared mother-daughter responses using dyadic analyses. A mixed-method design was conducted with 10 mothers of daughters with T1D. Mothers were given READY-Girls intervention and completed knowledge and support questionnaires. Their responses were compared to those of their daughter's who were participating in a large randomized, control intervention trial with READY-Girls . The major theme from one-on-one interviews was, "I know nothing about diabetes/pregnancy risks and PC". Mother's and daughter's perceptions of having limited knowledge were confirmed by low knowledge scores. Mothers perceived giving higher levels of support compared to their daughter's perceptions of receiving support. Mothers can play a vital role in initiating discussions regarding reproductive-health with their daughters and reinforcing preconception counseling. Mother-daughter team approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes is feasible. Mother-daughter dyadic analyses can be important to explore

  6. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M; Rosebrock, Adam P; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  7. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  8. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  9. Monitoring employee exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Lokan, K.H.

    1979-06-01

    Practical methods for measuring the concentration in air of radon and radon daughter are reviewed, and straightforward procedures are described for reliable field measurements. Typical field data, and sample calculations are provided, together with suitable procedures for calculating and reporting cumulative radon daughter exposures

  10. Communication strategies to reduce cancer disparities: Insights from African-American mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E

    2015-12-01

    Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. How My Daughter Taught Me to Teach: The Importance of Active Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt-Gierut, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how her daughter, who was diagnosed with a profound hearing loss when she was a year old, taught her to teach, and demonstrates the importance of active communication. Teaching her daughter English as her second language has posed many challenges, but has also revealed successful strategies that the author has…

  12. Conflict management of mothers and daughters belonging to individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, N P

    1999-12-01

    Research on the mother-daughter relationship during adolescence is mostly conducted in Western and European cultures where individualism is stressed. To examine ethnic/cultural differences and similarities in this relationship, 80 dyads of British (white) and Pakistani mothers and their adolescent daughters were studied. On the basis of the theories of cultural variability dimension and conflict face negotiation, it was hypothesized that mothers and daughters from the two cultures would use different styles of handling disagreements/conflicts. That is, Pakistani mothers and daughters would use an avoiding style, whereas British mothers and daughters would use either a dominating or compromising style, to a greater degree. It was also argued that Pakistani daughters and mothers will express more intimacy and relational harmony, will exhibit greater connectedness and mutuality and demonstrate lesser individuality and self-assertion compared to their British counterparts. However, it appeared that both the groups used an avoiding style equally, although the British group used a dominating style more than Pakistani group. As hypothesized, Pakistani mothers and daughters expressed more intimacy, relational harmony, connectedness and mutuality and lesser individuality than British mothers and daughters. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  13. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  14. A Healthy Lifestyle Program for Latino Daughters and Mothers: The BOUNCE Overview and Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma N.; Knox, Brook; Scherer, Rhonda; Maldonado, Gabriela; Sharma, Shreela V.; Alastuey, Lisa; Bush, Jill A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Few family-based healthy lifestyle programs for Latinos have been conducted, especially family programs targeting mother-daughter dyads. Purpose: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of the Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition Counseling and Exercise (BOUNCE) program designed for Latino mother-daughter pairs. Methods: 92…

  15. Mother Daughter Relationships: From Infancy to Adulthood. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    Topics related to characteristics of mother/daughter relationships in contemporary patriarchal societies are discussed in this seminar paper. The first section describes cases intended to illustrate ways patriarchal social structures limit contemporary mother/daughter relationships, provides a brief historical contrast, and suggests possible…

  16. Caring for a Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities in Managing Menstruation: A Mother's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background: The concerns of mothers and their experiences while providing help to their daughters with intellectual disability (ID) and considerable support needs during menstruation have rarely been addressed. This qualitative study explored mothers' experiences and perceptions of managing their daughters' menstruation. Method: Twelve Taiwanese…

  17. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  18. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  19. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive

  20. Bio-mathematical models for radon daughters inhalation. The ModeLung software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomulescu, Vlad C.; Rusu, Mircea

    2002-01-01

    Radon and its decay daughters are the most important sources for natural irradiation of population. ModeLung software is based on the human respiratory tract compartment model and is computing radiation doses on several internal organs and tissues for subjects inhaling radon daughters attached to aerosols. Radiation doses are presented for several subjects performing different types of activity under specific environmental conditions. (authors)

  1. Reciprocity in Intergenerational Support: A Comparison of Chinese and German Adult Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Beate; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Zheng, Gang; Shi, Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how Chinese and German adult daughters evaluate the norm of reciprocity and the unbalanced exchange of support in relation to their aging parents. Women from rural and urban China (n = 292) and from Germany (n = 264) have participated in this study. Results show that for the German daughters, differently from rural Chinese…

  2. The attachment of radon daughters to submicron aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.G.; Bigu, J.

    1984-04-01

    A study of the effects of aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution and relative humidity on the Working Level and the radon daughter concentration was conducted in a 3000 L radon environmental chamber. Typical values of the aerosol concentration varied in the 1 x 10 3 particles/cm 3 to 4.5 x 10 5 particles/cm 3 range. Various size distributions of aerosols that have mean diffusional aerodynamic diameters of .025 μm, .045 μm and .090 μm were tested. A good correlation was found between the Working Level and the aerosol concentration as well as the relative humidity. Most of the activity seems to be associated with particles of diameter between .05 μm and .2 μm. The results presented here are in agreement with work done by other investigators in the health physics field

  3. Cross Cultural Conflicts in Not Without my Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyoningsih Setyoningsih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the cultural conflicts between the main characters in the novel Not Without my Daughter (NW. The analysis was carried out through the following process. The first procedure related to problems of classification i.e. cross cultural conflicts. The next phase of data analysis related to the colletion data of cross cultural conflicts in NW. The last phase is presentation the result of the analysis that had been conducted in this research. Having analyzed the data, the researcher concludes  that cultural conflicts occured in NW because of  stereotype, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. Cultural conflicts can be prevented if we increase our awareness of our own attitudes and learn to be sensitive to cross-cultural differences. However, if we develop intercultural sensitivity, it does not mean that we need to lose our cultural identities-but rather that we recognize cultural influences within ourselves and within others.

  4. From mother to daughter. Psychic disease: genetic or environmental influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Infrasca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of genetic versus environmental influences in psychiatric disorders is widely discussed in biomedical literature, but remains still controversial. Familiarity has been observed in some disesase, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic attack disorder. In this study we analyse three generations of women, for a total of 4 women (a mother, her two daughters, and a granddaughter followed by our Psychiatric Department for depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study was to assess wheather there are similarities among the clinical status of the four women, and verify the relationship among those disorders. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI was administered to all the patients and the scores obtained were compared. We found out that the many aspects and psychological traits were present in all the four women. These similarities suggest the presence of a dynamic trans-generational transmission.

  5. Dosimetry of radon and its daughters by two SSNT detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faj, Z.; Planinic, J.

    1991-01-01

    Disintegration, ventilation and deposition (plateout effect) were considered as removal processes for radon and its daughters in the air and their concentration equations were used in deriving a relationship between the equilibrium factor (F) and track densities of the bare SSNT detector (D) and the filtered one (D 0 ). Using the calibrated sensitivity coefficient of the LR-115 detector, k=2.64x10 -3 m, and the measured average track densities (D,D 0 ) in a single house living room in Osijek during the year 1989, the radon concentration c 0 =40.15 Bq.m -3 , equilibrium factor F=0.46 and effective dose equivalent H E =1.48 mSv.y -1 were obtained. (author)

  6. Analysis of Father and Daughter in Absalom, Absalom!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Shuang

    2016-01-01

    William Faulkner is a world-famous American novelist. Absalom, Absalom! is a story which happened in the southern United States, and it tells a family’s experience of rising and falling from 1860 to 1910. Faulkner gave a very vivid depiction and description of the characters to profoundly show the conflict between people and people, and the conflict between people and their inner world, touching the universal problems which are related to the condition of human beings. Through Sutpen, the representative of the old South, Faulkner showed his attitudes towards the old South, the racism. In his eyes, the old South was destined to fail and to decay because of the evil and rotten racism and tradition of this land. While through Judith, the daughter of Sutpen, Faulkner made the readers see the hope and future of a new world, the new South after civil war.

  7. Meaning of becoming mother and son/daughter through massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez Doren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Revealing the experience of mothers when massaging their children to know the phenomenon in the context of a mother-child healthy development. Method: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach carried out with 11 women who massaged their children and answered the guiding question: What did the experience of massaging your child mean to you? Results: The experience of massaging their children meant the development of their being a mother and of being a son/daughter, in addition to developing the attachment relationship between them. The massage can operationalize this integrality, become a tool of communication, stimulation and promotion of secure attachment, by promoting the loving interaction between mother and child. Conclusion: This practice should be considered as an option in the programs that promote the comprehensive health of the mother and child.

  8. Studies on deposition of radon daughters on glass surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loerinc, M.; Feher, I.; Palfalvi, J.

    1998-01-01

    In a certain village in Northern Hungary, in some houses the radon concentration was found to be in the order of kBq.m -3 . In an attempt to decide whether an earthquake or the near-by mining activity is to blame, past radon concentration was studied making use of radon daughters embedded in the surface layer of glass sheets. In the investigation several conclusions were reached: drastic changes in Rn concentration could be excluded, ie., the high Rn concentration existed over the last 50 years; the continuing deposition of dirt on the glass surface and the occasional cleaning had no significant effect; the effect of corrosion processes at the glass surface should be further investigated. (A.K.)

  9. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Theriot, Julie A

    2016-08-30

    Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond) daughter cell separation (DCS) driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes) or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives), observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis) with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae Much of our knowledge on bacterial cytokinesis comes from studying rod-shaped model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis Less is known about variations in this process among different bacterial species. While cell division in many bacteria has been characterized to some extent genetically or biochemically, few species have been examined using video microscopy to uncover the kinetics of cytokinesis and daughter cell separation (DCS). In this work, we found that fast (millisecond) DCS is exhibited by species in two independent clades of Gram-positive bacteria and is particularly prevalent

  10. CT detection of daughter nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma after lipiodol infusion via the hepatic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Hajime; Ohgami, Syoichi; Katsuragi, Masami

    1985-02-01

    The detectability of daughter nodules in 80 hepatocellular carcinomas was compared between CT assisted by Lipiodol Ultra Fluid (Lipiodol) infused via the hepatic artery and IHA (Infusion hepatic angiography). Lipiodol infused via the hepatic artery was selectively accumulated in the tumor vessels and the tumors and small daughter nodules appeared as markedly high density areas by CT. 18 cases in which the daughter nodules were detected were identified only by CT. Furthermore, in 38 cases CT demonstrated superior detectability of the daughthr nodules than IHA. In 15 cases the daughter nodules were newly detected in areas other than the invaded area where the primary tumor existed. This method is very effective in the diagnosis of daughter nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. (author).

  11. Internal causes of radon and its daughters upward migration and cluster phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Qiu Yuande; Hou Xinsheng; Wu Yunping; Zu Xiulan; Wang Xiaoqin

    1999-01-01

    Radon and its daughters have a very big specific gravity. But under laboratory conditions, they have the ability to migrate upward. The phenomenon can't be interpreted by an external cause but by an internal cause. The mechanism is that radon and most of its daughters and parents are decaying bodies able to radiate α-particles. After deceleration, 4He can combine with radon and its daughters and parents to form clusters. When the buoyancy of air is greater than the gravity of the clusters, self-ascending occurs. Accordingly, the distance that Rn covered during 3.825 days (Rn half-life) should not be regarded as Rn and its daughters migrating distance, but should be calculated according to all effects. That clusters can be formed by 4He, Rn and its daughters are valuable to study because of the similarity between Rn and heavy metal particles

  12. Studies on the migration rule and mechanism of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Qiu Yuande; Hou Xinsheng; Wu Yunping; Zu Xiulan; Wang Xiaoqin

    2000-01-01

    By using very precise, highly sensitive, static accumulated, easily repeated CD-1 α-cup, the migration rule and mechanism of radon and its daughters was studied. Significant results were obtained: (1) Under laboratory conditions, the vertical component of migration of radon and its daughters was much greater than the horizontal component, the former was over 90% and the latter was less than 10%. (2) Despite the very big specific gravity of radon and its daughters, the descending component of migration was less than 45%, while the ascending component was more than 45%. (3) After α-particles (emitted from radon and its daughters) being slowed down. 4 He combined with the radon and its daughters to form clusters. When the density of the cluster was less than that of the air, the self-ascending would occur

  13. Methods of Increasing the Performance of Radionuclide Generators Used in Nuclear Medicine: Daughter Nuclide Build-Up Optimisation, Elution-Purification-Concentration Integration, and Effective Control of Radionuclidic Purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of “early elution schedule” was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement

  14. 'He supported me 100%': Mexican-immigrant fathers, daughters, and adolescent sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Samari, Goleen

    2018-02-19

    First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women. Qualitative data identify four types of father-daughter relationships: 'good,' hostile, distant, and conflicted. Supporting the qualitative patterns, quantitative data find that positive or 'good' father-daughter relationship quality is significantly associated with reduced risk of early sexual initiation. Importantly, father-daughter separation across borders and economic inequality facing immigrant families is associated with hostile or distant father-daughter relationship quality and increased risk of early sexual initiation. Reports of good father-daughter relationships are common and may protect against early sexual initiation in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Policies that keep families together and reduce economic inequality among immigrants may also reduce sexual health disparities among immigrant adolescents.

  15. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  17. Comparison of five-minute radon-daughter measurements with long-term radon and radon-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

    1983-01-01

    Five-minute air filter radon daughter measurements were made in 84 buildings in Edgemont, South Dakota, in which annual average radon daughter concentrations have been determined from six 100-hour Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) measurements. Averaging radon concentrations were also determined in 50 of these buildings using Terradex Track Etch detectors. The standard deviation of the difference between the (natural) logarithms of the RPISU annual averages and the logarithms of the air filter measurements (SD-ln) was found to be 0.52. This SD-ln is considerably smaller than the SD-ln of 0.71 between the RPISU annual averages and the air filter measurements reported by ALARA at Grand Junction, Colorado; presumably because a considerable number of air filter measurements in Edgemont were disregarded because of short turnover times or high wind speeds. Using the SD-ln of 0.52 it can be calculated that there would only be a 5% probability in Edgemont that the RPISU annual average would be greater than 0.015 WL if the five-minute measurement were equal to 0.010 WL. This indicates that the procedure used in Edgemont of clearing buildings from remedial action if the five-minute measurement were less than 0.010 WL was reasonable. There was about a 28% probability that the RPISU annual average would be less than 0.015 WL if the five-minute measurement were 0.033 WL, indicating that the procedure of performing an engineering assessment if the average of two five-minute measurements was greater than 0.033 WL was also reasonable. Comparison indicates that the average of two RPISU measurements taken six months apart would provide a dependable estimate of the annual average

  18. Intergenerational abortion tendency between mothers and teenage daughters: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M Michèle; Vigod, Simone N; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-01-29

    A teenage woman's sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother's experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters' data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother's history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter's birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter's risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother's history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother- daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%-10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%-4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86-2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69-1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91-2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19-2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33-2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced abortion. © 2018 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  19. The daughter centriole controls ciliogenesis by regulating Neurl-4 localization at the centrosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil, Abdelhalim; Tormanen, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The two centrioles of the centrosome differ in age and function. Although the mother centriole mediates most centrosome-dependent processes, the role of the daughter remains poorly understood. A recent study has implicated the daughter centriole in centriole amplification in multiciliated cells, but its contribution to primary ciliogenesis is unclear. We found that manipulations that prevent daughter centriole formation or induce its separation from the mother abolish ciliogenesis. This defect was caused by stabilization of the negative ciliogenesis regulator CP110 and was corrected by CP110 depletion. CP110 dysregulation may be caused by effects on Neurl-4, a daughter centriole–associated ubiquitin ligase cofactor, which was required for ciliogenesis. Centrosome-targeted Neurl-4 was sufficient to restore ciliogenesis in cells with manipulated daughter centrioles. Interestingly, early during ciliogenesis, Neurl-4 transiently associated with the mother centriole in a process that required mother–daughter centriole proximity. Our data support a model in which the daughter centriole promotes ciliogenesis through Neurl-4–dependent regulation of CP110 levels at the mother centriole. PMID:28385950

  20. Biological effects of daily inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.; Filipy, R.E.

    1973-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters, C57BL mice, and specific-pathogen-free rats were exposed simultaneously in groups of 16 animals each for 90 hours per week to aerosols consisting of radon plus 3000--6000 Working Levels of radon-daughters with and without 18 mg/m 3 carnotite uranium ore dust. Condensation nuclei concentrations ranged from 2000--4000 per ml and from 90,000--120,000 per ml in the chamber without and with uranium ore dust, respectively. At 4 months of exposure only one of the rodents remained alive. Histopathology of radon-daughter exposed mice includes acute interstitial pneumonitis, severe pulmonary congestion, and supperative rhinitis; mice inhaling radon-daughters with ore showed these lesions plus macrophage proliferation, alveolar septal cell hyperplasia, and bronchial epithelial hyperplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters showed proliferating lesions characterized by alveolar septal thickening, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, septal fibrosis, and occasionally adenomatoid metaplasia and squamous metaplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters with ore dust showed similar effects plus granulomatous response and intense septal fibrosis. Rats inhaling radon-daughters showed lesions similar to those of hamsters but more focalized with classic radiation pneumonitis; rats exposed to radon-daughters with ore showed similar lesions, with greater consolidation and pneumoconiosis. These findings will be discussed in relation to pulmonary pathology in uranium miners

  1. Biomedical applications of radionuclide generators with equal decay constants for parent and daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to an article by Spencer and Hosain (Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes; 27:57 (1976)) on the theoretical aspects of radionuclide generator systems in which the parent and daughter nuclides have equal decay constants in which it was suggested that 'it would be possible to use an appropriate chemical compound of a parent and introduce it in a biological system to study the behaviour of the daughter element'. It is here pointed out that this suggestion assumes that in any biological system the daughter radionuclide produced by the decay of the parent nuclide in vivo will readily enter the general 'metabolic' pool of the daughter element. However studies are cited which have shown that virtually all the daughter radionuclide in many such systems remain within the skeleton and thus it is asserted that the assumption that a daughter radionuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide in vivo provides a true tracer for the behaviour of the daughter element is not generally valid, and considerable caution would have to be used in the interpretation of results obtained by this type of study. In a reply, the original authors say that the point made is germane but that the concept was well known to them and hence the use of the expression 'an appropriate chemical compound of a parent...' in their original paper. (U.K.)

  2. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  3. An exploratory study of mother-daughter physicians: an intergenerational comparison of professional and personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Diane K; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-12-01

    Physician daughters of physician mothers may experience unique advantages in their career development and in combining career and family. The objective of this exploratory study, the first on mother-daughter physicians, was to compare the professional and personal characteristics of physician mothers and their physician daughters. Two hundred fourteen families with at least one mother-daughter physician pair were identified through a nationwide search; 84% of the mothers and 87% of the daughters contacted returned a 56-item questionnaire. Data were analyzed to compare professional and personal characteristics of the subset of mothers and daughters who had both responded (n = 136 pairs). Compared to their physician mothers, physician daughters were less satisfied with their career, less likely to feel in control of their work environment, more likely to report moderate or severe daily stress at work, and less likely to want their children to become physicians or to want to become physicians again if they were to relieve their lives. They were also less likely to want to change specialties. Physician daughters were more likely than their physician mothers to be 30 years or older when they had their first child, to have taken parental leave, and to have a spouse who took parental leave and less likely to experience their caregiving as a hindrance to their professional work and advancement. Despite the availability of a physician mother role model, physician daughters reported less career satisfaction and more work-related stress than their physician mothers. These findings warrant further exploration and support the need for new work-family paradigms in medicine.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the control of indoor radon daughter levels in new structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.E. Jr.; Guimond, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry in Florida, the US Environmental Protection Agency has surveyed residences built atop uraniferous reclaimed phosphate mining land. These surveys have shown elevated radon daughter levels to exist in structures built on this land. In order to allow safer use of this land for residential construction, various state-of-the-art radon daughter control technologies were evaluated by the Agency. These included forced ventilation, polymeric sealants, excavation, crawl space construction, and improved slab quality. From a cost-effectiveness evaluation, improved slab quality and crawl space construction were determined to best satisfy the criteria for optimal radon daughter control

  5. Radon daughter exposure estimation and its relation to the exposure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1981-10-01

    Under current Atomic Energy Control Regulations, the annual limit for individual exposure to radon daughters is 4 WLM. The Regulations do not specify how the exposure is to be determined nor to what accuracy the measurements should be made. This paper discusses the historical and conventional grab-sampling and time-weighting methods for assigning exposures to radon daughters in uranium mines in Canada. As a further step in the evolution of exposure assignments, the system of personal radon daughter dosimetry is introduced as the more accurate means of assigning individual exposures and of adhering to the intent of the exposure limit

  6. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP

  7. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the international commission on radiological protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice, and which are discussed in the paper, include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP [fr

  8. Transmitting Ainu traditional food knowledge from mothers to their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki-Goodman, Masami

    2017-11-01

    Since 2004, research has been conducted in the Ainu Indigenous community of the Saru River Region of Biratori in Northern Japan examining traditional food use knowledge. The purpose was to improve the socio-cultural environment for the Ainu People by implementing interventions meant to reintroduce traditional Ainu food use, so that they can live with dignity and in harmony with non-Ainu people in the heterogeneous community where Japanese cultural values dominate. Ten years after the start of this research, a series of interviews was conducted with Ainu mothers and daughters active in the community to evaluate the result of the interventions because, in accordance with culturally established Ainu gender roles, the Ainu women prepare the Ainu dishes. The interviews indicated that the community of both Ainu and non-Ainu people shared traditional Ainu food as a communal food at community events organized by the Ainu members of the community. The people in the community now identify traditional Ainu dishes with Ainu names, indicating the establishment of culinary and linguistic boundaries between Ainu traditional food and mainstream Japanese food. This also signals that the Ainu People have begun to establish a basis for reconstructing their unique ethnic identity, once suppressed by the government's former assimilation policy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Phenomena associated with rain deposition of radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Since Rn daughter nuclides generated from Rn gas in the air are generally absorbed on aerosol, its radioactivities are apt to deposit onto the ground with raindrop. Here, the effects of raining on the radiation level were investigated. The amount of precipitation was determined using a highly sensitive rain gauge (the nominal sensitivity of 0.0043 mm) and air radioactive level was measured using a scintillation monitor of 2``{phi}x2``NaI(Tl) which was set at 1.5 m height above the ground. The rising of {gamma}-radiation level associated with rainfall was expressed as percentage of the base line activity. The radiation level increased depending on the intervals between the successive rainfalls and the increase of radioactivity from base line was greater when the rainfall interval was less than 12 hours. Therefore, the amount of radiation deposit was suggested to be small when the rainfall interval is short. Ordinarily, the increase of air radiation level caused by rain deposition was thought to be within a range of 20-50%. (M.N.)

  10. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dividing cells of the coccoid Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus undergo extremely rapid (millisecond daughter cell separation (DCS driven by mechanical crack propagation, a strategy that is very distinct from the gradual, enzymatically driven cell wall remodeling process that has been well described in several rod-shaped model bacteria. To determine if other bacteria, especially those in the same phylum (Firmicutes or with similar coccoid shapes as S. aureus, might use a similar mechanically driven strategy for DCS, we used high-resolution video microscopy to examine cytokinesis in a phylogenetically wide range of species with various cell shapes and sizes. We found that fast mechanically driven DCS is rather rare in the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives, observed only in Staphylococcus and its closest coccoid relatives in the Macrococcus genus, and we did not observe this division strategy among the Gram-negative Proteobacteria. In contrast, several members of the high-G+C Gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Brachybacterium faecium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis with diverse shapes ranging from coccoid to rod all undergo fast mechanical DCS during cell division. Most intriguingly, similar fast mechanical DCS was also observed during the sporulation of the actinobacterium Streptomyces venezuelae.

  11. Maternal borderline personality disorder symptoms and parenting of adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Beeney, Joseph F; Hipwell, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are associated with poorer parenting. However, most studies conducted are with young children. In the current study, the authors examined associations between maternal BPD symptoms and parenting in an urban community sample of 15-to 17-year-old girls (n = 1,598) and their biological mothers. Additionally, the authors tested the impact of adolescent temperament on these associations. Mothers reported on their own psychopathology and their daughters' temperament. Adolescent girls reported on mothers' parenting methods in terms of psychological and behavioral control. Results demonstrated that maternal BPD symptoms were associated with aspects of psychological and behavioral control, even after controlling for maternal depression and alcohol use severity. After examining specific BPD components that may account for these associations, the authors found that affective/behavioral dysregulation, but not interpersonal dysregulation or identity disturbance, uniquely accounted for parenting. Adolescent temperament did not moderate these associations. BPD symptoms, particularly affective/behavioral dysregulation, are important targets when conducting parenting interventions.

  12. Occupational radon daughter exposure in underground workplaces in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Kolstad, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Occupational doses from radon daughter exposure in different underground environments in Norway have been estimated. Monitoring programs have been undertaken in mines, hydroelectric power stations, defence installations and tunnels. Based on these measurements the average effective dose equivalent and the corresponding collective effective dose equivalent have been estimated. Hydroelectric power stations is the largest group. In 1984 and 1985 measurements were performed in about 130 of the appr. 150 facilities in Norway. The average radon concentration was about 270 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent between 2 and 2.5 mSv. In 1984 there were about 19 mines in operations in Norway. Based on the measurements, the average radon concentration in mines is 260 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent 3.4 mSv. However, at the time being there are only 10 mines in operation and the number of miners has been reduced from about 1400 in 1984 to about 900 in 1990. The measurements show that the average level of radon in defence installations and tunnels is less than in mines and hydroelectric power stations. The total collective effective dose equivalent for workers underground in Norway is estimated in this paper to be between 5 and 7 manSv. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Do daughters really cause divorce? Stress, pregnancy, and family composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Nobles, Jenna

    2014-08-01

    Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers' son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth-a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.

  14. Daughter-Initiated Cancer Screening Appeals to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, M; Genderson, M W

    2016-12-01

    Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low-income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n = 22) were exposed to a 60-min interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n = 18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86 %) and adults (82 %) reported that the message was shared while 71 % in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations.

  15. Measurement of simulated lung deposition of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement system for the lung deposition of radon daughters based on respiratory models was suggested by Hopke et al. By choosing suitable mesh size and flow velocities it is possible to design a multiple-wire screen sampler simulating deposition in the respiratory tract of aerosols over the size range 0.5-1000 nm. This paper describes a preliminary investigation where simulated deposition in the nasal tract and in the bronchii (for mouth breathing as well as nasal breathing) is determined. The measurements were performed in atmospheres where the normalised exposure rate (equilibrium factor) was varied by changing the aerosol loading of the air as well as by enhanced electrostatic plateout. The general results of the measurements are that the energy deposited in the nose with nasal breathing and in the bronchii with mouth breathing varies as the calculated dose while the energy deposited in the bronchii with nasal breathing follows the exposure. It is also demonstrated that the energy deposited for a fixed value of the radon concentration may vary by a factor of 2-7 depending on the treatment of the air. (author)

  16. From rockstar researcher to selfless mentor: a daughter's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Garsow, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Carlos Castillo-Chavez's tenure at Cornell University with Simon Levine, also marks the beginning of my life as his daughter. I was nine months old when I arrived to Ithaca, and my recollections of my father in elementary school and middle school were of him furiously writing equations at his desk, or outside on the chalk board in our shed, or on napkins, notepads or anything he could get his hands on at restaurants; but more likely than not, away. When I was young, my father was becoming the researcher that today makes him a three-time Presidential honoree, a member of Barak Obama's Presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science, and of course, the purpose of this volume. Even in those early days, he was away a lot--either traveling to conferences or increasingly as an invited lecturer, or at the office. Of course, I was still (and am) a daddy's little girl, bonded forever by a shared obsession with the same movies (The Godfather, My Name is Nobody, The Man from Snowy River); the same TV shows (Law and Order); and all things sports related, but I also knew that my father was a very busy man and his time was limited. So I would watch him work, often with my own little extra homework he would give me to keep me entertained, peck him on the check and let him know that I would take over his job when I was old enough.

  17. Some problems of parametric neutron activation analysis based on the use of radioactive daughters of longer-lived mothers with low mother/daughter half-life ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of the use of radioactive daughters originated from the decay of longer-lived radioactive mothers in parametric activation analysis, when the ratio: mother half-life to daughter half-life is less than 10, are discussed. The mother-daughter relationships: 47 Ca/ 47 Sc; 95 Zr/ 95 Nb; 140 Ba/ 140 La; 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 115 Cd/ 115m In are selected as models for the study. The cases when the radionuclide of interest is formed through both direct and indirect routes are also analyzed. As illustrative example, the direct reaction and the reaction chain: 47 Ti(n,p) 47 Sc/ 46 Ca(n,γ) 47 Ca(β - ) 47 Sc are evaluated with respect to the determination of the elements involved and their reciprocal interferences. (author)

  18. Exploration the Supportive Needs and Coping Behaviors of Daughter and Daughter in-Law Caregivers of Stroke Survivors, Shiraz-Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamzadeh, Sakineh; Tengku Aizan, Hamid; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Hamidon, Basri; Rahimah, Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    The period of hospital stay and the first month after discharge have been found to be the most problematic stages for family caregivers of stroke survivors. It is just at home that patients and caregivers actually understand the whole consequences of the stroke. The adult offspring often have more different needs and concerns than spousal caregivers. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the needs of this particular group of caregivers. Therefore, this qualitative content analysis study aimed to explore the supportive needs and coping behaviors of daughter and daughter in-law caregivers (DILs) of stroke survivors one month after the patient's discharge from the hospital in Shiraz, Southern of Iran. This is a qualitative content analysis study using semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling of seventeen daughter and daughter in-law caregivers. The data revealed seven major themes including information and training, financial support, home health care assistance need, self-care support need, adjusting with the cultural obligation in providing care for a parent in-law, and need for improving quality of hospital care. Also, data from the interview showed that daughter and daughter in-law caregivers mostly used emotional-oriented coping strategies, specially religiosity, to cope with their needs and problems in their care-giving role. The results of this qualitative study revealed that family caregivers have several unmet needs in their care-giving role. By providing individualized information and support, we can prepare these family caregivers to better cope with the home care needs of stroke survivors and regain control over aspects of life.

  19. Plk1 relieves centriole block to reduplication by promoting daughter centriole maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anil; Kong, Dong; Sharma, Meena; Magidson, Valentin; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Centrosome overduplication promotes mitotic abnormalities, invasion and tumorigenesis. Cells regulate the number of centrosomes by limiting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle. The orthogonal orientation between a mother and a daughter centriole, established at the time of centriole duplication, is thought to block further duplication of the mother centriole. Loss of orthogonal orientation (disengagement) between two centrioles during anaphase is considered a licensing event for the next round of centriole duplication. Disengagement requires the activity of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), but how Plk1 drives this process is not clear. Here we employ correlative live/electron microscopy and demonstrate that Plk1 induces maturation and distancing of the daughter centriole, allowing reduplication of the mother centriole even if the original daughter centriole is still orthogonal to it. We find that mother centrioles can undergo reduplication when original daughter centrioles are only ∼80 nm apart, which is the distance centrioles normally reach during prophase. PMID:26293378

  20. Concern as motivation for protection: an investigation of mothers' concern about daughters' breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Lindsay; Silk, Kami J; Yun, Doshik; Bowman, Nicholas David; Anderson, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    The present study surveyed mothers with daughters (N = 386) to investigate how mothers' concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using protection motivation theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers' concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. In addition, a content analysis of mothers' open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns and trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. The authors discuss implications for incorporating mothers' concerns into breast cancer prevention messages as a novel strategy for campaign designers.

  1. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  2. Parents and Daughters in Two Novels by Arab American Authors: “Khalas, Let Her Go”

    OpenAIRE

    Ismet Bujupaj

    2016-01-01

    Multiple intersecting pressures bear upon immigrant parent-child, and especially immigrant mother-daughter relationships depicted in Randa Jarrar’s novel, A Map of Home, and Mohja Kahf ’s novel, The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf. Each of these novels is a Bildungsroman story, the protagonist of each being a budding artist. As the growing daughters struggle toward autonomy and parents react from complex pressures upon them, the reader gains insight on the interconnected structural and psychologi...

  3. Normal Pubertal Development in Daughters of Women With PCOS: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Brindle, Eleanor; Vesper, Hubert W; Botelho, Julianne C; Lee, Peter A; Dodson, William C

    2017-01-01

    Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are thought to be at increased risk for developing stigmata of the syndrome, but the ontogeny during puberty is uncertain. We phenotyped daughters (n = 76) of mothers with PCOS and daughters (n = 80) from control mothers for reproductive and metabolic parameters characteristic of PCOS. We performed a matched case/control study at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that included non-Hispanic, white girls 4 to 17 years old. We obtained birth history, biometric, ovarian ultrasounds, whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for body composition, 2-hour glucose challenged salivary insulin levels, and two timed urinary collections (12 hours overnight and 3 hours in the morning) for gonadotropins and sex steroids. We measured integrated urinary levels of adrenal (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) and ovarian [testosterone (TT)] steroids. Other endpoints included integrated salivary insulin levels and urinary luteinizing hormone levels. There were no differences in detection rates or mean levels for gonadotropins and sex steroids in timed urinary collections between PCOS daughters and control daughters, nor were there differences in integrated salivary insulin levels. Results showed that 69% of Tanner 4/5 PCOS daughters vs 31% of control daughters had hirsutism defined as a Ferriman-Gallwey score >8 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry between groups in the three major body contents (i.e., bone, lean body mass, and fat) or in ovarian volume between groups. Matched for pubertal stage, PCOS daughters have similar levels of urinary androgens and gonadotropins as well as glucose-challenged salivary insulin levels. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  4. Parental smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Michels, Karin B; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to parental smoking may have long-term impact on the development of disease in adulthood. We examined the association of parental smoking during pregnancy with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the daughter. METHODS: We included 15,665 singleton pregnancies....../day) during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms....

  5. Depression impacts the physiological responsiveness of mother–daughter dyads during social interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Marlissa C.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Swartz, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother–child interactions—and never among mother–adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother–daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother–daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. Results While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. Conclusions Vagal responses observed in control mother–daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother–daughter dyads. PMID:28060443

  6. Depression impacts the physiological responsiveness of mother-daughter dyads during social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Marlissa C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Wright, Aidan G C; Swartz, Holly A

    2017-02-01

    Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother-child interactions-and never among mother-adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother-daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother-daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. Vagal responses observed in control mother-daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother-daughter dyads. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Love Relationships between Mother and Daughter in Beloved and Annie John

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumoto, Jitsuko; クスモト, ジツコ; 楠元, 実子

    2009-01-01

    For minority and female, especially young daughters such as Denver inBeloved by Toni Morrison, or Annie in Annie John by Jamaica Kincaid, itis difficult to build own identities under the suppression and the solitudethey face. For them, the love and affection from and to their mothersbecome a crucial factor in their mental growth. This paper focuses on thedevelopment of two daughters' identities though love relationships withtheir mothers. We will examine the characteristics of love and emotio...

  8. Domestic and personal determinants of the contamination of individuals by household radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Kardatzke, D.R.; Toohey, R.E.; Essling, M.E.; Pagnamenta, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radon daughters were counted by gamma spectroscopy from 180 adult residents of eastern Pennsylvania during the winter of 1983-84. Body radon daughter contamination is an index of relative individual respiratory exposures to radon daughters. These can be related to household radon levels, and to personal risk factors such as sex and tobacco smoking. Over 75% of this Pennsylvania population appeared to have environmentally enhanced radon daughter contamination; 59% had counting rates greater than 2 s.d. above background. House radon levels were the major determinants of radon daughters contamination in the 112 subjects for which both sets of measurements were available (p<.001). Both sex (<.02) and cigarette smoking (p<.005) were found to significantly modify that relationship, after nonlinear adjustment for travel times. Using a logarithmic model, for a given radon level body contamination by radon daughters in females was 2-3.5x higher than in males. Nonsmokers had 2-4x higher levels of contamination than smokers. For female nonsmokers relative to male smokers (which in general corresponds to the population of major concern relative to the population from which risk estimates have been derived), the excesses multiply. These results are for total contamination, both internal and external

  9. Contribution of radon in natural gas to the dose from aiborne radon-daughters in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.J.; Moore, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.

    1973-01-01

    Data have been obtained on the radon concentration in natural gas supplied to several metropolitan areas in the United States. The average value of 20 pCi/l was selected to estimate the contribution of this source of natural radioactivity to doses from radon-daughters received by individuals in homes. Radon-daughter concentrations in the home atmosphere were calculated by use of computer programs for an 8000 ft 3 house in which 27 ft 3 of gas per day was used for cooking in an unvented kitchen range. The total estimated dose to the bronchial epithelium included contributions from radon plus daughters in the outside ventilation air, each of which was assumed to be present at a concentration of 0.13 pCi/l, and from the radon plus daughters in the natural gas. The latter contribution averaged approximately 3 percent of the total dose. There was a 3.5 percent decrease in the estimated total dose when the air change rate increased from 0.25 to 2.0 per hour. We conclude that radon and radon-daughters entering the home with natural gas produce a negligible fraction of the total dose to the respiratory system of home occupants from airborne radon-daughters

  10. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keera Allendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters versus sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may be transforming the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. RESULTS In recent decades, fertility has declined to at least replacement levels. Respondents also perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and pre-marital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a unique causal contribution to changes in the gender system.

  11. Concordant Patterns of Brain Structure in Mothers with Recurrent Depression and Their Never-Depressed Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Behzadian, Negin; LeMoult, Joelle; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated that having a mother with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the strongest predictors of depression in adolescent offspring. Few studies, however, have assessed neural markers of this increased risk for depression, or examined whether risk-related anomalies in adolescents at maternal risk for depression are related to neural abnormalities in their depressed mothers. We addressed these questions by examining concordance in brain structure in two groups of participants: mothers with a history of depression and their never-depressed daughters, and never-depressed mothers and their never-depressed daughters. We scanned mothers with (remitted; RMD) and without (control; CTL) a history of recurrent episodes of depression and their never-depressed daughters, computed cortical gray matter thickness, and tested whether mothers' thickness predicted daughters' thickness. Both RMD mothers and their high-risk daughters exhibited focal areas of thinner cortical gray matter compared with their CTL/low-risk counterparts. Importantly, the extent of thickness anomalies in RMD mothers predicted analogous abnormalities in their daughters; this pattern was not present in CTL/low-risk dyads. We identified neuroanatomical risk factors that may underlie the intergenerational transmission of risk for MDD. Our findings suggest that there is concordance in brain structure in dyads that is affected by maternal depression, and that the location, direction, and extent of neural anomalies in high-risk offspring mirror those of their recurrent depressed mothers. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. When daughters are unwanted. Sex determination tests in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1995-01-01

    Amniocentesis and ultrasound have been used for detecting fetal abnormalities, but in India they have been used for sex determination, leading to the abortion of hundreds of thousands of female fetuses. As a result, by 1991 the sex ratio had declined to 929 females per 1000 males from 972 females per 1000 males in 1901. This amounts to a deficit of almost 30 million females in the whole population. The regional prevalence of sex preferences has spread horizontally and vertically in the south and the northeast, where the ratios used to be more favorable. A ban on such prenatal diagnosis was passed in several states, but it proved to be ineffective and unenforceable. The result was only that the fees charged soared. Finally, in August 1994 the Indian Parliament enacted the Prenatal Diagnostics Techniques Act that prohibited genetic counseling centers to perform such procedures unless strict criteria were observed (age over 35 years, two or more previous abortions, exposure to drugs, infections, and mental or physical retardation). However, the emergence of a police-doctor nexus is dangerous for the well-being of any society and could lead to criminalization of the medical profession. Some doctors also rationalize this practice as a means of controlling population, because the custom continues to have children until the desired number of sons are born. In low sex ratio regions seclusion, disinheritance of women from property, low female literacy, poor health, greater incidence of domestic violence, and low employment rates are typical. The aversion to female infants is a culturally conditioned choice which materializes in the pervasive dread of daughters. Women themselves perpetuate the dread because of their own misery, low status, abuse, and the burden of the dowry. The devaluation of women is rooted in history, particularly in the northwest where constant wars favored a martial society for males (with strict purdah for females), and in addition British colonialism

  13. Transgenerational effects of nutrition are different for sons and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzari, Z V; van Straalen, N M; Ellers, J

    2016-07-01

    Food shortage is an important selective factor shaping animal life-history trajectories. Yet, despite its role, many aspects of the interaction between parental and offspring food environments remain unclear. In this study, we measured developmental plasticity in response to food availability over two generations and tested the relative contribution of paternal and maternal food availability to the performance of offspring reared under matched and mismatched food environments. We applied a cross-generational split-brood design using the springtail Orchesella cincta, which is found in the litter layer of temperate forests. The results show adverse effects of food limitation on several life-history traits and reproductive performance of both parental sexes. Food conditions of both parents contributed to the offspring phenotypic variation, providing evidence for transgenerational effects of diet. Parental diet influenced sons' age at maturity and daughters' weight at maturity. Specifically, being born to food-restricted parents allowed offspring to alleviate the adverse effects of food limitation, without reducing their performance under well-fed conditions. Thus, parents raised on a poor diet primed their offspring for a more efficient resource use. However, a mismatch between maternal and offspring food environments generated sex-specific adverse effects: female offspring born to well-fed mothers showed a decreased flexibility to deal with low-food conditions. Notably, these maternal effects of food availability were not observed in the sons. Finally, we found that the relationship between age and size at maturity differed between males and females and showed that offspring life-history strategies in O. cincta are primed differently by the parents. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Investigations of radon and radon daughters in surficial aquifers of florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The principal purpose of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that radon soil flux, considered the principal source of indoor radon contamination, has an underlying relationship to the radon content of associated shallow groundwaters. The working hypothesis was that radon build-up in both soil and shallow groundwater is basically a consequence of the same factor, radon emanation from soil grains and the solid surfaces of the aquifers. Groundwater may be advantageous as an indicator of radon potential. Another object of the project was to investigate temporal and spatial trends of radon daughter products in shallow aquifers. After analyzing all of the radon soil, flux, and groundwater measurements made over the two-year study period, it is clear that while there is no direct relationship between either radon soil concentration or flux and groundwater radon. Measurements in wells where polonium is present at very high concentrations have shown that 210Po is largely unsupported by its radioactive predecessor, and that polonium is considerably more variable, in both space and time than other parameters measured in the same wells, including radon

  15. Parent-daughter equilibria in ocean arising out of disposal of solid radioactive wastes on the sea bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, T.P.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    One dimension diffusion model, incorporating geochemical elimination and reflection at ocean boundaries, is employed to show the differences in spatial and temporal distribution of parent and daughter radionuclides, produced in situ, due to the discharge of solid radioactive wastes on to the sea bed. Concentration of daughter is generally lower than that of parent in deep waters. Short-lived daughters (relative to parent) reach spatial equilibrium with parent for finite periods whereas long-lived daughters attain only a fraction of the parent activity. However, when the dumping operation is assumed to be for infinite period, the relative ratio of concentration of daughter to parent would reach value > 1 in surface waters irrespective of the half-lives of the daughter and the magnitude of this ratio increases with increase in half-life of the daughter relative to the parent. This is the result of steep vertical gradient for the parent due to the small physical half-life and more or less uniform concentration of long-lived daughter. Geochemical elimination rate, when becomes significant in the overall removal processes, controls this differential spatial gradient of daughter and parent. However, the integrated activity of daughter over the entire depth is equal to or less than the parent activity. (author)

  16. Intergenerational abortion tendency between mothers and teenage daughters: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M. Michèle; Vigod, Simone N.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Ray, Joel G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A teenage woman’s sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother’s experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters’ data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother’s history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter’s birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter’s risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother’s history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother– daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. RESULTS: A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%–10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%–4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86–2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69–1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91–2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19–2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33–2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. INTERPRETATION: We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced

  17. Asterless licenses daughter centrioles to duplicate for the first time in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Zsofia A; Conduit, Paul T; Wainman, Alan; Raff, Jordan W

    2014-06-02

    Centrioles form centrosomes and cilia, and defects in any of these three organelles are associated with human disease [1]. Centrioles duplicate once per cell cycle, when a mother centriole assembles an adjacent daughter during S phase. Daughter centrioles cannot support the assembly of another daughter until they mature into mothers during the next cell cycle [2-5]. The molecular nature of this daughter-to-mother transition remains mysterious. Pioneering studies in C. elegans identified a set of core proteins essential for centriole duplication [6-12], and a similar set have now been identified in other species [10, 13-18]. The protein kinase ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4 recruits the inner centriole cartwheel components SAS-6 and SAS-5/Ana2/STIL, which then recruit SAS-4/CPAP, which in turn helps assemble the outer centriole microtubules [19, 20]. In flies and humans, the Asterless/Cep152 protein interacts with Sak/Plk4 and Sas-4/CPAP and is required for centriole duplication, although its precise role in the assembly pathway is unclear [21-24]. Here, we show that Asl is not incorporated into daughter centrioles as they assemble during S phase but is only incorporated once mother and daughter separate at the end of mitosis. The initial incorporation of Asterless (Asl) is irreversible, requires DSas-4, and, crucially, is essential for daughter centrioles to mature into mothers that can support centriole duplication. We therefore propose a "dual-licensing" model of centriole duplication, in which Asl incorporation provides a permanent primary license to allow new centrioles to duplicate for the first time, while centriole disengagement provides a reduplication license to allow mother centrioles to duplicate again. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparisons of chewing rhythm, craniomandibular morphology, body mass and height between mothers and their biological daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Catherine; Louie, Ke'ale; Maawadh, Ahmed; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2015-11-01

    To study and compare the relationships between mean chewing cycle duration, selected cephalometric variables representing mandibular length, face height, etc., measured in women and in their teenage or young-adult biological daughters. Daughters were recruited from local high schools and the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Selection criteria included healthy females with full dentition, 1st molar occlusion, no active orthodontics, no medical conditions nor medication use that could interfere with normal masticatory motor function. Mothers had to be biologically related to their daughters. All data were obtained in the School of Dentistry. Measurements obtained from lateral cephalograms included: two "jaw length" measures, condylion-gnathion and gonion-gnathion, and four measures of facial profile including lower anterior face height, and angles sella-nasion-A point (SNA), sella-nasion-B point (SNB) and A point-nasion-B point (ANB). Mean cycle duration was calculated from 60 continuous chewing cycles, where a cycle was defined as the time between two successive maximum jaw openings in the vertical dimension. Other variables included subject height and weight. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the mother-daughter relationships and to study the relationships between cephalometric variables and chewing cycle duration. Height, weight, Co-Gn and Go-Gn were significantly correlated between mother-daughter pairs; however, mean cycle duration was not (r(2)=0.015). Mean cycle duration was positively correlated with ANB and height in mothers, but negatively correlated with Co-Gn in daughters. Chewing rate is not correlated between mothers and daughters in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-05-14

    Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers' involvement. A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. The snowball method was used to select mothers. Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers' awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. The mothers' awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Parenting practices, parents' underestimation of daughters' risks, and alcohol and sexual behaviors of urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée

    2008-05-01

    In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.

  1. Correlation analysis of milk production traits across three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between milk production traits over whole lactations was evaluated across three generations of Simmental cows (between daughters, dams and granddams) by a corelation analysis with whole lactation traits in the daughter generation being used as the dependent variables (x1), and those in ...

  2. African American Mother–Daughter Communication About Sex and Daughters’ Sexual Behavior: Does College Racial Composition Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of African American mothers’ communication about sexual topics on the sexual attitudes and behavior of their college-enrolled daughters. Daughters were enrolled at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI) to assess whether and how college racial context might affect daughters’ sexual attitudes and behavior. Findings indicated that daughters at the HBCU had less permissive attitudes about premarital sex than their counterparts at the PWI. This result was especially true for daughters of mothers with more conservative attitudes about premarital sex and who discussed such topics infrequently. Last, the combination of positive mother–daughter communication and fewer discussions about sexual topics resulted in lower levels of sexual experience among the daughters. PMID:17500604

  3. Measurements of 222Rn and its daughters and estimation of internal doses to workers in underground buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianping; Lu Zhizhao; Li Yuanshan

    1993-03-01

    The results of concentration measuring of 222 Ru and its daughters and estimation of internal doses to workers in the underground buildings at Nanjing city are presented. The double filtering membrane method and Thomas method were used in the monitoring of 222 Rn and its daughters, and the dose conversion factor was taken from the latest UNSCEAR report. Concentration distributions of 222 Rn and its daughters were approximately log-normal. The geometric means for 222 Rn was 40.5 Bq · m -3 and for its daughters was 1.4 x 10 -7 J · m -3 . The equilibrium factor was 0.63. The radioactive equilibrium ratio between short-lived 222 Rn daughters was 1:0.57:0.49. The estimation value of annual effective dose equivalent from 222 Rn daughters to workers working at underground sites was 1.3 mSv, which was 86% higher than that of those working on ground sites

  4. Centriole overduplication through the concurrent formation of multiple daughter centrioles at single maternal templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duensing, A; Liu, Y; Perdreau, S A; Kleylein-Sohn, J; Nigg, E A; Duensing, S

    2007-09-20

    Abnormal centrosome numbers are detected in virtually all cancers. The molecular mechanisms that underlie centrosome amplification, however, are poorly characterized. Based on the model that each maternal centriole serves as a template for the formation of one and only one daughter centriole per cell division cycle, the prevailing view is that centriole overduplication arises from successive rounds of centriole reproduction. Here, we provide evidence that a single maternal centriole can concurrently generate multiple daughter centrioles. This mechanism was initially identified in cells treated with the peptide vinyl sulfone proteasome inhibitor Z-L(3)VS. We subsequently found that the formation of more than one daughter at maternal centrioles requires cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 as well as Polo-like kinase 4 and that overexpression of these proteins mimics this phenotype in the absence of a proteasome inhibitor. Moreover, we show that the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein stimulates aberrant daughter centriole numbers in part through the formation of more than one daughter centriole at single maternal templates. These results help to explain how oncogenic stimuli can rapidly induce abnormal centriole numbers within a single cell-division cycle and provide insights into the regulation of centriole duplication.

  5. Presence of UV-endonuclease sensitive sites in daughter DNA of UV-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, S.; Setlow, R.B.

    1978-02-01

    Asynchronous Chinese hamster cells were irradiated with 10 Jm -2 uv radiation and 0.25 to 4 hours later pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine. Cells synchronized by shaking off mitotic and G 1 cells were irradiated in either the G 1 -phase or S-phase of the cell cycle and pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine in the S-phase. After a 12 to 14 hour chase in unlabeled medium, the DNA was extracted, incubated with Micrococcus luteus uv-endonuclease and sedimented in alkaline sucrose. The number of endonuclease sensitive sites decreased as the time between uv irradiation and pulse-labeling of daughter DNA increased. Further, there were significantly less endonuclease sensitive sites in the daughter DNA from cells irradiated in the G 1 -phase than in the S-phase. These data indicate that very few, if any, dimers are transferred from parental DNA to daughter DNA and that the dimers detected in daughter DNA may be due to the irradiation of replicating daughter DNA before labeling

  6. Optimizing measurement sensitivity to facilitate monitoring environmental levels of Rn-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the measurement of environmental levels of radioactivity, the primary problem is the accumulation of a statistically meaningful number of counts within a reasonable period of time. In the case of measurements of airborne 222 Rn-daughter concentrations, the problem is further complicated by the particularly short half-life, 3.05 minutes, of RaA (Po 218 ). Since the Rn-daughters, (RaA, RaB [Pb 214 ] and RaC [Bi 214 ]) are of interest, the equations interrelating these Rn-daughter concentrations were derived from the laws of radioactive-series decay. These equations, although straightforward, are cumbersome to solve. To facilitate the efficient use of these equations, a computer program has been written which permits the calculation of Rn-daughter concentrations or expected counts for a given set of measurement parameters (flow rate and detector efficiencies). A subroutine then calculates the optimum pumping and counting times required to provide the number of counts necessary for acceptable statistics at environmental levels of 222 Rn-daughter concentrations. This subroutine contains a set of parameters, flow rate and efficiencies, that are fixed using realistic restrictions. The use of these optimized pumping and counting times results in maximum measurement sensitivity under realistic constraints

  7. Hong Kong Chinese daughters' intergenerational caregiving obligations: a cultural model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, E

    2001-11-01

    This paper, based on a study carried out in Hong Kong, outlines the caregiving obligations of Hong Kong Chinese daughters towards their frail elderly parents. A cultural model approach drawn from cognitive anthropology is taken to focus on how Chinese caregiving daughters develop a sense of what is right and emotionally fulfilling and acquire the motivation to care for their parents. An ethnographic approach was used in the study and techniques included guided and open-ended interviews and non-participatory observations. A total of 20 co-residential caregiving daughters were interviewed in their homes on average twice over the course of one year. All interviews were conducted in Cantonese. Although the sample was small, daughters' accounts are structured by reference to cultural models and this structure provides the common basis for generalisability of results. Concepts of Confucian antecedents, reciprocity and personhood and other modern ideas of filial duty are explored. Conclusions are drawn about the shifting rights and obligations of Chinese caregiving daughters within the contemporary urban realities of Hong Kong. The findings of this study have relevance for the development of welfare policy for older Chinese persons and the chronically ill, and to all services involving women. The findings will also serve to inform family caregiver education programs.

  8. Carcinogenic effects of radon daughters, uranium ore dust and cigarette smoke in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Stuart, B.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of pulmonary lesions in beagle dogs was studied following chronic inhalation exposures to radon (at 105 +- 20 nCi/l), radon daughters (at 605 +- 169 WL), uranium ore dust (at 12.9 +- 6.7 mg/m 3 ) and cigarette smoke. Chronic exposures to mixtures of these agents caused significant lifespan shortening compared with controls. Survival times of controls and smoke-exposed dogs were equivalent during the 4 to 5-yr mean survival time of the dogs exposed to radon-daughter and ore-dust mixtures (with or without added cigarette smoke). Animals with tumors of the respiratory tract generally has cumulative radon-daughter exposures exceeding 13,000 WLM; their survival time was longer than that of nontumor-bearing animals. Exposure to cigarette smoke had a mitigating effect on radon daughter-induced tumors. Exposures to smoke from 10 cigarettes/d, 7 d/wk produced no significant respiratory tract lesions. Exposure to 20 cigarettes/d, 7 d/wk resulted in pulmonary emphysema, fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Emphysema and fibrosis were much more prevalent and severe in the dogs exposed to mixtures including radon daughters and uranium/ore dust. These dogs also had adenomatous lesions which progressed to squamous metaplasia of alveolar epithelium, epidermoid carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Pathologic changes in the airways of these dogs were most prominent in the nasal mucosa, and included a few squamous carcinomas in the nasal cavity. (author)

  9. Levels of Rn and its daughters in houses in the northern part of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yulin; Wang Gongpeng; Yu Shui; Wang Yuping; Li Weina.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we described the levels of Rn and Rn daughters and their diurnal variation in spring and autumn in 18 typical houses in Harbin, Changchun and Jinxi. The results showed that there was no difference in levels of Rn and Rn daughters inside and outside the new and old houses in spring. The Rn concentration was 7.4∼12.5 Bq m -3 . The level of Rn daughters was 1.0-1.3 mWL. Both of them generally increased in winter and the Rn concentration was 15.1-95.1 Bq m -3 . The potential energy of Rn daughters was 4.6-21.3 mWL. The potential energy of Rn daughters in new houses were 20 and 10 times those in spring in Changchun and Harbin respectively and Rn concentrations were 10 and 4 times those in spring respectively. Rn concentrations in a few houses exceeded 200 Bq m -3 . It was lower from 12:00 to 20:00 and slightly higher from 20:00 to the next morning, and the high concentration peak can be found at morning from 4:00 to 6:00 after 24 hours continuous observation. The results was in agreement with those reported in UNSCEAR 1982 Report

  10. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong No; Chang, Kylie Hae Jin; Cho, Seong Sik; Park, Sung Ho; Park, Sung Taek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9-14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9-14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants' pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P mothers with negative attitudes toward vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea.

  11. Mother-daughter communication about sex: the influence of authoritative parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex has been shown to delay sexual activity and increase contraceptive and condom use. The influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perception of daughters' risk on communication about sex was examined in this study. Mothers in a random sample (n=283) with daughters aged 9-15 years were mailed surveys asking about communication with their daughters regarding 11 sex-related topics. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perceptions of risk on the number of topics communicated about and age of the daughter at time of communication for a variety of sexual health communication topics. Authoritative parenting style was related to the number of topics communicated about and was a predictor of age of daughter at the time of communication about sexual intercourse, menstruation, dating/relationships, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, alcohol, contraceptives, and abstinence, while perceptions of risk were not significant influencers of age at the time of communication for any topics. This research points to the importance of parenting style in determining the timing of parent-child communication about sexual and other risk behaviors.

  12. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9–14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9–14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants’ pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea. PMID:27914142

  13. Hispanic maternal influences on daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors: The role of maternal acculturation, adiposity, and body image disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; McCarley, Kendall; Scherer, Rhonda; Posada, Alexandria

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether maternal adiposity, acculturation, and perceived-ideal body size discrepancy for daughters were associated with daughters' engagement in unhealthy weight control behaviors. A total of 97 Hispanic mother-daughter dyads completed surveys, rated a figure scale, and had their height, weight, and adiposity assessed. Mothers (M age =39.00, SD=6.20 years) selected larger ideal body sizes for their daughters (M age =11.12, SD=1.53 years) than their daughters selected for themselves. Mothers had a smaller difference between their perception of their daughters' body size and ideal body size compared to the difference between their daughters' selection of their perceived and ideal body size. More acculturated mothers and those mothers with larger waist-to-hip ratios were more likely to have daughters who engaged in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These findings highlight the relevant role that maternal acculturation and adiposity may have in influencing daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A law of removing radon by ventilation and air requirement calculation for eliminating radon daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang

    1988-06-01

    In accordance with testing data of removing radon and its daughters by ventilation from shrinkage and filling stopes of uranium mines, a law of removing radon by ventilation from the stopes is analyzed and summed. According to the decay law of radon and its daughters, an accumulation equation of potential alpha energy from radon daughters is presented with hyperbolic regression equation. the calculating formulae of ventilation flow are derived from the accumulation equation for eliminating radon daughters in inlet flow with or without contamination. It has been proved that the amount of ventilation air calcuated could meet the requirements of radiation safety rationally and economically

  15. Studies on the diffusional and electrical transport of the daughter aerosols of radon and thoron in moving gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a detailed theoretical study of the transport characteristics of the daughter products of radon and thoron gases in channel flow devices. Specific aspects examined include: (i) development of the Green's function of the convective-diffusion operator and its boundary layer forms with and without axial diffusion, (ii) transport probabilities of recoil atoms (RaB) emitted into stagnant and moving gases, due to alpha decays of the parent atoms (RaA) deposited on surfaces, (iii) a comprehensive theory of double filter systems and (iv) microscopic theory of particle transport in moving fluids based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Both uniform and parabolic velocity profiles are considered. Various applications of the solutions in interpreting the measured data are presented. Chief among them is the application of the advanced theory of double-filter systems employed in Trombay studies for the measurements of thoron in the exhaled breath of thorium workers. (author). 130 refs., 4 figs

  16. Preliminary findings radon daughter levels in structures constructed on reclaimed Florida phosphate land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a survey of the radon daughter levels in structures in Polk County, Florida, built on reclaimed phosphate tailings containing various amounts of 226 Ra. The structures surveyed consisted primarily of private dwellings although a few office buildings were also surveyed. Track-etch films and TLD air samplers were used to measure the levels of radon daughters within the structures and in structures built on non-phosphate land. Radiation levels were converted to WL units (the working level (WL) unit is defined as the potential α energy from the short-lived daughters of Rn which will produce 1.3 x 10 5 MeV in one liter of air). The highest observed level in any structure was 0.2 WL. Possible health hazards to long-time occupants are discussed

  17. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  18. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988...... dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups, in which daughters...... of overweight mothers had lower levels of DHEAS and estradiol, and lower FEI compared to daughters of normal weight mothers. No associations were found for ovarian follicle count in any of the groups. Conclusions for Practice We found that higher maternal BMI is associated with earlier age of menarche...

  19. Like Mother, Like Daughter?: Matrilineal Opposition in African American Mulatta Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pochmara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article juxtaposes representations of mothers and daughters in selected African American novels that feature near-white female protagonists: W. W. Brown’s Clotel, Or the President’s Daughter (1853, Frances E. W. Harper’s Iola Leroy (1892, Charles Chesnutt’s The House behind the Cedars (1900, and Pauline Hopkins’s Hagar’s Daughter (1902. It explores the matrilineal opposition through a formalist close analysis of the melodramatic poetics of the texts and examines the political significance of such aesthetic choices. The novels expose the American history of interracial relations through their foregrounding of the mulatta protagonists and numerous scenes of anagnorisis of their multiracial identities. Simultaneously, their “erotics of politics” rewards the choice of a black spouse and thus celebrates the emergence of the self-determined black community.

  20. Quantitative aspects of radon daughter exposure and lung cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, C.; Axelson, O.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an excessive incidence of lung cancer in miners with exposure to radon daughters. The various risk estimates have ranged from six to 47 excess cases per 10 6 person years and working level month, but the effect of smoking has not been fully evaluated. A group of iron ore miners was studied in an attempt to obtain quantitative information about the risk of lung cancer due to radon and its daughters among smoking and non-smoking miners. The results show a considerable risk for miners to develop lung cancer; even non-smoking miners seem to be at a rather high risk. An additive effect of smoking and exposure to radon daughters is indicated and an estimate of about 30-40 excess cases per 10 6 person years and working level month seems to apply on a life time basis to both smoking and non-smoking miners aged over 50. (author)

  1. Comparative toxicity in rats vs hamsters of inhaled radon daughters with and without uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaven, J.C.; Palmer, R.F.; McDonald, K.E.; Lund, J.E.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous exposures of rats and hamsters to inhaled radon daughters, with and without uranium ore dust, were performed daily for five months. Pulmonary pathology developing in 6 to 13 mo after cessation of daily exposures included interstitial fibrosis, emphysema, epithelial hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and malignant neoplasia. Rats showed a greater variety and more severe response to these uranium mine inhalation exposures than did hamsters. Inhalation of radon daughters with uranium ore dust displayed the site of greatest damage, including squamous carcinoma, from the nasopharynx to the lungs. Sixty percent of the rats exposed to radon daughters with ore dust developed primary pulmonary carcinomas, providing an appropriate short-term experimental animal model for investigation of respiratory tract carcinogenesis in uranium miners

  2. Mine engineering and ventilation problems unique to the control of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Quality and quantity of ventilation are the two interrelated but key factors in any radon-daughter control programme. The better the intake air quality (little or no contamination from radon and its daughters), the less are the total air requirements for ventilation of active mining areas. Engineering principles for quantity distribution of air through underground working areas are straightforward and the formulae and theories governing forced ventilation are not within the scope of this paper. Rather, this paper discusses the principal methods of utilizing mine planning to facilitate radon-daughter control and also treats the more subtle features of mine ventilation which are especially critical in the ventilation of mines where radon gas constitutes an environmental contamination problem. (author)

  3. Time sequence determination of parent–daughter radionuclides using gamma-spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J. L.; Britton, R. E.; Abrecht, D. G.; Davies, A. V.

    2017-05-06

    The acquisition of time-stamped list (TLIST) data provides additional information useful to gamma-spectrometry analysis. A novel technique is described that uses non-linear least-squares fitting and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to simultaneously determine parent-daughter atoms from time sequence measurements of only the daughter radionuclide. This has been demonstrated for the radioactive decay of short-lived radon progeny (214Pb/214Bi, 212Pb/212Bi) described using the Bateman first-order differential equation. The calculated atoms are in excellent agreement with measured atoms, with a difference of 1.3 – 4.8% for parent atoms and 2.4% - 10.4% for daughter atoms. Measurements are also reported with reduced uncertainty. The technique has potential to redefine gamma-spectrometry analysis.

  4. The determination of a continuous radon daughter equilibrium factor in an operating uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radon daughter exposures to workers at the Olympic Dam Operations copper and uranium mine are calculated from a series of grab samples obtained from various work locations around the mine. Currently under consideration is the introduction of personal passive radon dosimeters to determine the workers' radon daughter exposures. The study reported in this paper involved the determination of long-term equilibrium factors using real-time monitoring of radon and radon daughters. Consequently, variation in equilibrium factor for different tasks can be identified. In practice, the equilibrium factor varies with location and task; however, a conservative over-estimate of 0.28 can be confidently applied to all tasks. The error due to over-estimation remains minimal for all workers. This real-time monitoring method will reduce potential errors in dose assessment compared with the grab sampling technique. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Transport of short lived radioactive contaminants with prologed half-lives of daughters through river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, S.M.; Prohl, G.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main pathways for transporting contaminants to other parts in the environment, are rivers. This work is devoted for deriving and assessment the concentration of soluble radio contaminants along a river at any time after discharge, including the short-lived radionuclides in comparison with the discharge time interval, and prolonged half-life of the produced daughter nuclei. The assumed boundary conditions and deduced formulas can be applied either in case of accidental release or discharge under authority control. The formulas determining the produced daughter nuclei concentration require inequality of the parent and daughter nuclei half-lives. Because of the regional variation of river morphology, the assumed constancy of the flow velocity and dispersion coefficient requires dividing the river path into zones of similar hydrologic characteristics

  6. The effect of filtration on radon daughter atmospheres: Laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne radon daughters may be removed from the air by internal filtration using mechanical or electrofilters. The effect of the filtration may be evaluated in absolute measure by the decrease in the potential alpha energy concentration (or equivalent equilibrium concentration) or relatively by the decrease in the equilibrium factor. The filtration, however, may also change the distribution of airborne radon daughter activity between the unattached and the aerosol-attached state in a way to increase the radiological dose corresponding to a given potential alpha energy concentration. The paper describes a series of laboratory and field experiments which indicate that it is possible by the use of household electrofilters with filtration rates of 2-3 h -1 to lower the radon daughter concentrations to about 20 -30 % and the average radiological dose to about 50-60 % of the value in unfiltered air

  7. Having a son or daughter with Down syndrome: perspectives from mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotko, Brian G; Levine, Susan P; Goldstein, Richard

    2011-10-01

    This study asks parents who have children with Down syndrome (DS) how they feel about their lives so that such information could be shared with expectant couples during prenatal counseling sessions. A valid and reliable survey instrument was mailed to 4,924 households on the mailing lists of six non-profit DS organizations. Of the 2,044 respondents, 99% reported that they love their son or daughter; 97% were proud of them; 79% felt their outlook on life was more positive because of them; 5% felt embarrassed by them; and 4% regretted having them. The parents report that 95% of their sons or daughters without DS have good relationships with their siblings with DS. The overwhelming majority of parents surveyed report that they are happy with their decision to have their child with DS and indicate that their sons and daughters are great sources of love and pride. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of experiences in long-term radon and radon-daughter measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

    1982-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing side-by-side measurements of radon and radon daughter concentrations using several instruments and techniques, and is comparing these measurements with side-by-side measurements made by other investigators at other locations. The standard deviation of the differences between the (natural) logarithms of the Terradex Track Etch radon concentrations and the logarithms of the Radon Progency Integrating Sampling Units (RPISU) radon daughter concentrations (S.D.-ln) measured in 50 buildings in Edgemont, South Dakota, was 0.37. Using this S.D.-ln, it can be calculated that if the Track Etch radon daughter concentration is 0.010 WL there should be only a 14% probability that the RPISU average would be greater than 0.015 WL, and only a 3% probability tht the RPISU average would be greater than 0.020 WL. If buildings had been cleared from remedial action when the Track Etch averages were less than 0.10 WL, then about 61% of the buildings would have been cleared from remedial action, and only a few percent of these buildings would have actually had average RPISU concentrations greater than 0.015 WL. The S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements made by ALARA at Grand Junction, the PERM radon measurements and the MOD-225 radon daughter measurements made by Mound Facility at Canonsburg and Middlesex, and the PERM and Track Etch radon measurements made by Mound Facility at Salt Lake City were similar to the S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements at Edgemont

  9. Are daughters' childbearing intentions related to their mothers' socio-economic status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Testa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike actual fertility, fertility intentions are often found to be positively correlated with education. The literature explaining this paradox is scarce. Objective: We aim to fill the gap in the existing scientific literature by searching for the main factors that influence highly educated women to plan a larger family size. Methods: Using the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for four countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, and Norway, we analyse the relationship between mother's socio-economic status and daughter's fertility intentions, controlling for daughter's socio-economic status and sibship size. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models are employed to estimate the predictors of women's additionally intended number of children. Results: We find that the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through sibship size among childless daughters: Daughters with more siblings intend to have more children. After the transition to parenthood, the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through the mother's level of education: Daughters with highly educated mothers intend to have more children. Conclusions: The empirical results suggest that the positive link between births intentions and level of education might not merely be an artefact generated by the design of cross-sectional surveys but the outcome of a better socio-economic status that allows forming positive reproductive plans. Contribution: The positive role of mother's socio-economic status on daughter's fertility decision-making offers a valuable interpretation of the positive link between education and fertility intentions which goes beyond the alternative explanations referring to self-selection, partner effect, or time squeeze, and needs to be confirmed by further research.

  10. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello; Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  11. From mothers to daughters: transgenerational food and diet communication in an underserved group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane Baer; Musham, Catherine; McLellan, Mary S

    2004-01-01

    Studies show that young girls are highly influenced by their mothers' attitudes toward food and body image. To investigate the nature of the information about food that mothers transfer to their daughters, the researchers used focus groups comprising African American women. Results suggest that when educators work with low-income African American women, they should be cognizant of overeating from the perspectives of early food scarcity, reverence for the mother's authoritative role in the family and respect for cultural differences in body size norms. In addition, nutrition educators should counsel young mothers to understand the impact of their eating habits on their daughters.

  12. EWLMII: a measurement and data-acquisition system for radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    Development of new methods and instruments for the measurement of WL and Rn-daughter concentrations has been in progress for several years. However, efficient methods of data acquisition has not been the primary thrust of this research. If large volumes of data from automated instruments are to be efficiently analyzed, a built in data acquisition system is needed. One such instrument, the EWLMII, is described. The need for accelerated research for the understanding and control of Rn-daughters can be enhanced by such an instrument.

  13. The reduction of airborne radon daughter concentration by plateout on an air mixing fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Ho, W.L.; Hopke, P.K.; Parsley, R.; Stukel, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of experiments have been made in the U.S. Bureau of Mines Radon Test Chamber to study the effects of condensation nuclei, humidity and turbulence on the rapid deposition or plateout of radon daughter activity on the chamber walls. Under low humidity conditions the presence of a small fan reduced the working level by 41%. The activity was not deposited on the walls by the turbulent flow from the fan but actually became attached to the fan blades. High relative humidity (> 80%) totally inhibited this observed effect. A detailed mechanism for transport of the daughter species seems to be the critical factor in interpreting the experimental results. (author)

  14. EWLMII: a measurement and data-acquisition system for radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    Development of new methods and instruments for the measurement of WL and Rn-daughter concentrations has been in progress for several years. However, efficient methods of data acquisition has not been the primary thrust of this research. If large volumes of data from automated instruments are to be efficiently analyzed, a built in data acquisition system is needed. One such instrument, the EWLMII, is described. The need for accelerated research for the understanding and control of Rn-daughters can be enhanced by such an instrument

  15. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  16. Theoretical estimation of absorbed dose to organs in radioimmunotherapy using radionuclides with multiple unstable daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, K.A.; Sgouros, G.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity and clinical utility of long-lived alpha emitters such as Ac-225 and Ra-223 will depend upon the fate of alpha-particle emitting unstable intermediates generated after decay of the conjugated parent. For example, decay of Ac-225 to a stable element yields four alpha particles and seven radionuclides. Each of these progeny has its own free-state biodistribution and characteristic half-life. Therefore, their inclusion for a more accurate prediction of absorbed dose and potential toxicity requires a formalism that takes these factors into consideration as well. To facilitate the incorporation of such intermediates into the dose calculation, a previously developed methodology (model 1) has been extended. Two new models (models 2 and 3) for allocation of daughter products are introduced and are compared with the previously developed model. Model 1 restricts the transport to a function that yields either the place of origin or the place(s) of biodistribution depending on the half-life of the parent radionuclide. Model 2 includes the transient time within the bloodstream and model 3 incorporates additional binding at or within the tumor. This means that model 2 also allows for radionuclide decay and further daughter production while moving from one location to the next and that model 3 relaxes the constraint that the residence time within the tumor is solely based on the half-life of the parent. The models are used to estimate normal organ absorbed doses for the following parent radionuclides: Ac-225, Pb-212, At-211, Ra-223, and Bi-213. Model simulations are for a 0.1 g rapidly accessible tumor and a 10 g solid tumor. Additionally, the effects of varying radiolabled carrier molecule purity and amount of carrier molecules, as well as tumor cell antigen saturation are examined. The results indicate that there is a distinct advantage in using parent radionuclides such as Ac-225 or Ra-223, each having a half-life of more than 10 days and yielding four alpha

  17. Time for "The Talk"... Now What? Autonomy Support and Structure in Mother-Daughter Conversations about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauras, Carrie P.; Grolnick, Wendy S.; Friendly, Rachel W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how mothers communicated with their young adolescent daughters about the high-stakes topic of sex, as well as more everyday topics, from a Self-Determination Theory perspective. Mothers and their 11- to 14-year-old daughters (44 dyads) participated in two conversations and reported on their experiences. In the everyday…

  18. Analytical solution and simplified analysis of coupled parent-daughter steady-state transport with multirate mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Haggerty

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, a steady-state analytical solution of concentrations of a parent solute reacting to a daughter solute, both of which are undergoing transport and multirate mass transfer, is presented. Although the governing equations are complicated, the resulting solution can be expressed in simple terms. A function of the ratio of concentrations, In (daughter...

  19. Perceptions of Help Given to Healthy Older Mothers by Adult Daughters: Ways of Initiating Help and Types of Help Given

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Tanya S.; Grusec, Joan E.; Bernardini, Silvia Cortese

    2003-01-01

    Older mother-adult daughter dyads (N = 43) addressed two issues pertaining to the ways in which help is initiated (offered, requested, and imposed help) and type of help given (instrumental help, advice, and emotional support) a) mothers' reasoning about these aspects of help, and b) daughters' understanding of mothers' feelings. Both groups noted…

  20. Parents willingness to pay for a human papillomavirus vaccine to protect their adolescent daughters. Maule Region, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio A Cerda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the willingness to pay of parents of teenage daughters for a vaccine against human papillomavirus in the Maule Region, Chile. Materials and methods. A sample of 386 parents with daughters between 12 and 18 years old, representing the five largest cities of the Region of Maule, socioeconomically stratified. WTP was obtained using the contingent valuation method in double bounded format. Results. Parents are willing to pay an average of US$ 252.71 to vaccinate their daughters against virus, where the price and number of daughters negatively affects the probability of willingness to pay, and family income positively affects the probability. Conclusion. There is a possibility of using shared funding between the government and the parents of potential daughter to be affected by the human papillomavirus to reduce cervical cancer events.

  1. Distinguish natural sources out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in Gamma ray spectrum analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yahong; Liu Yigang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Methods: In gamma ray spectrum analyses, the activity concentration of every daughter is the same as that of its parent when the material is in secular equilibrium. The activity concentrations of daughters and their parents are different when the material is out of secular equilibrium. Results: It is different to determine whether the exposures from these materials should be exempted that materials containing natural radionuclides are in or out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Conclusion: It is important to determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in gamma ray spectrum analyses. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of radon and radon-daughter concentration measurement devices under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.D.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) conducted a study to expose 10 radon and 7 radon-daughter concentration measurement devices in the DOE/GJPO Radon/Radon-Daughter Environmental Chamber for a series of 24 controlled-environment tests. The tests evaluated the devices' response to temperature, relative humidity, dew point, condensation-nuclei concentration, radon-daughter/radon equilibrium ratio, and non-uniform radon and radon-daughter concentration. Devices were evaluated for linear response as a function of concentration. In addition to response to environmental parameters, the evaluation included determining the utility of the devices in providing reasonable assurance of compliance with the radon and radon-daughter concentration standards for DOE remedial action programs. This reasonable assurance criterion is based on a coefficient of variation of 25 percent for devices deployed for year-long measurements and a coefficient of variation of 18 percent for devices deployed for intermittent sampling. 39 refs., 65 figs., 33 tabs

  3. Organizational changes of the daughter basal complex during the parasite replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Hu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, many of which are important human and animal pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. These parasites cause disease only when they replicate, and their replication is critically dependent on the proper assembly of the parasite cytoskeletons during cell division. In addition to their importance in pathogenesis, the apicomplexan parasite cytoskeletons are spectacular structures. Therefore, understanding the cytoskeletal biogenesis of these parasites is important not only for parasitology but also of general interest to broader cell biology. Previously, we found that the basal end of T. gondii contains a novel cytoskeletal assembly, the basal complex, a cytoskeletal compartment constructed in concert with the daughter cortical cytoskeleton during cell division. This study focuses on key events during the biogenesis of the basal complex using high resolution light microscopy, and reveals that daughter basal complexes are established around the duplicated centrioles independently of the structural integrity of the daughter cortical cytoskeleton, and that they are dynamic "caps" at the growing ends of the daughters. Compartmentation and polarization of the basal complex is first revealed at a late stage of cell division upon the recruitment of an EF-hand containing calcium binding protein, TgCentrin2. This correlates with the constriction of the basal complex, a process that can be artificially induced by increasing cellular calcium concentration. The basal complex is therefore likely to be a new kind of centrin-based contractile apparatus.

  4. Development of lesions in Syrian golden hamsters following exposure to radon daughters and uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Busch, R.H.; Filipy, R.E.; Stuart, B.O.

    1981-01-01

    The development of lesions in Syrian Golden hamsters was studied following life-span inhalation exposures to radon, radon daughters and uranium ore dust. Clinical measurements revealed that life-span exposures to radon daughters and uranium ore dust, singly or in combination, caused no significant changes in mortality patterns, body weights or hematological parameters compared with controls. Pulmonary and nonpulmonary lesions are presented. Exposure to uranium ore dust provoked inflammatory and proliferative responses in the lungs consisting of macrophage accumulation, alveolar cell hyperplasia, and adenomatous alteration of alveolar epithelium. The adenomatous lesions did not undergo further morphologic change. Exposure to radon and radon daughters was associated with increased occurrence of bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and with metaplastic changes of alveolar epithelium. Squamous carcinoma developed in only a few hamsters and only in those animals receiving radon daughter exposures exceeding 8000 WLM. It is concluded that an animal model other than the hamster would be more appropriate for study of the pulmonary carcinogenic potential of uranium ore alone. (author)

  5. Talking to Daddy's Little Girl about Sex: Daughters' Reports of Sexual Communication and Support from Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Cederbaum, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Although mothers are widely acknowledged as the primary in-home sexual educators of children, fathers also play an important role in sexual socialization. Paternal involvement is linked to positive social and psychological outcomes; an increased father-daughter communication can delay sexual debut and decrease frequency of engagement in…

  6. Parents' Marital Distress, Divorce, and Remarriage: Links with Daughters' Early Family Formation Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…

  7. Sexual Risk among African American Girls: Psychopathology and Mother-Daughter Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…

  8. Hispanic Mothers' Beliefs Regarding HPV Vaccine Series Completion in Their Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Muñoz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (~39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers' salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series.…

  9. Estimation of radon daughter levels in the ventilation planning of an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, T.H.; Wise, K.N.; Leach, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion parameters determined by laboratory measurements can be utilized for predictions of radon daughter exposures in underground mining environments, as well as providing data for ventilation planning purposes. Wherever possible field measured data for the various diffusion parameters should be used. Underground mining methods, the tunnel model and diffusion theory are considered

  10. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.; Hadler, J.C.N.; Iunes, P.J.; Navia, L.M.S.; Neman, R.S.; Paulo, S.R.; Rodrigues, V.C.; Souza, W.F.; Tello, C.A.S.; Zuniga, A.

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied

  11. Ventilation systems as an effective tool for control of radon daughter concentration in mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-10-01

    Experience in mines shows that a very high concentration of radon daughters builds up in an unventilated dead end heading. Even minimal air movement results in a drastic reduction in radon daughter concentration. Designing the ventilation system to provide an optimized flow of fresh air into the workplace results in acceptable climatic conditions and radon daughter levels. The example of the Director fluorospar mine in Newfoundland is used to illustrate the actual design and operation of a ventilation system that provided effective radon daughter control. It was found at this mine that the age of the air underground should be kept as low as possible; that no areas of the mine should be left unventilated unless they could be kept at negative pressure; that a comparatively simple remote control and monitoring system helped stabilize ventilation and detected upsets; that the ventilation system should operate continuously, even when the mine is shut down for short periods; and that pressurization of the mine seemed to inhibit radon influx

  12. Why do low-income minority parents choose human papillomavirus vaccination for their daughters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Pierre-Joseph, Natalie; Marquez, Cecilia; Iloka, Sandra; Clark, Jack A

    2010-10-01

    To explore low-income minority parents' attitudes, intentions, and actions with regard to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their daughters. Semistructured interviews were conducted in English and Spanish with parents of girls aged 11-18 who were attending clinic visits in an urban medical center and a community health center. We assessed intention with formal scales, probed parents' attitudes regarding vaccination with open-ended questions, and reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods. Seventy-six parents participated (43% African American, 28% Latino, and 26% Caucasian). Most were mothers, had completed high school, and described themselves as religious; nearly one-half were immigrants. Intention correlated highly with receipt of the vaccine; 91% of parents intended to vaccinate their daughters against HPV, and 89% of the girls received vaccination within 12 months of the interview. Qualitative analysis revealed that most parents focused on the vaccine's potential to prevent cervical cancer. Some parents expressed concerns about unknown side effects and promotion of unsafe sexual practices, but these concerns did not hinder acceptance in most cases. The majority of the low-income minority parents surveyed viewed HPV vaccination as a way to protect their daughters from cancer, and thus chose to vaccinate their daughters. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trust versus concerns-how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Grandahl, Maria; Höglund, Anna T; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-11-01

    From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10-12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11-12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Three themes emerged through the analysis: Trust versus concern, Responsibility to protect against severe disease, and Information about HPV and HPV vaccination is important. The parents expressed trust in recommendations from authorities and thought it was convenient with school-based vaccination. They believed that cervical cancer was a severe disease and felt a responsibility to protect their daughter from it. Some had certain concerns regarding side effects and vaccine safety, and wished for a dialogue with the school nurse to bridge the information gaps. Trust in the recommendations from authorities and a wish to protect their daughter from a severe disease outweighed concerns about side effects. A school-based vaccination programme is convenient for parents, and the school nurse has an important role in bridging information gaps. The findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized; however, it can provide a better understanding of how parents might reason when they accept the HPV vaccination for their daughter.

  14. Trust versus concerns—how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Höglund, Anna T.; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background. From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10–12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Methods. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11–12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results. Three themes emerged through the analysis: Trust versus concern, Responsibility to protect against severe disease, and Information about HPV and HPV vaccination is important. The parents expressed trust in recommendations from authorities and thought it was convenient with school-based vaccination. They believed that cervical cancer was a severe disease and felt a responsibility to protect their daughter from it. Some had certain concerns regarding side effects and vaccine safety, and wished for a dialogue with the school nurse to bridge the information gaps. Conclusions. Trust in the recommendations from authorities and a wish to protect their daughter from a severe disease outweighed concerns about side effects. A school-based vaccination programme is convenient for parents, and the school nurse has an important role in bridging information gaps. The findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized; however, it can provide a better understanding of how parents might reason when they accept the HPV vaccination for their daughter. PMID:23777602

  15. Radon and radon daughter measurements at and near the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Leggett, R.W.; Dickson, H.W.; Myrick, T.E.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the radon and radon daughter measurements made to date (1978) at the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. These measurements were one portion of a more comprehensive radiological survey conducted at this site and the surrounding area from 1976 to 1978. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's and as a result contains elevated levels of surface an subsurface contamination. On-site indoor radon daughter and radon concentrations exceeded both the US Surgeon General Guidelines and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's maximum permissible concentration limits for radon (10 CFR Part 20) in all structures surveyed. Off-site structures showed concentrations of radon and radon daughters at or only slightly above background levels, except for one site where the radon levels were found to be above the 10 CFR Part 20 guidelines. Outdoor radon ad radon daughter concentrations, measured both on and off the site, were well below the guidelines, and the data give no indication of significant radon transport from the site

  16. Positioning of the NOR-bearing chromosomes in relation to nucleoli in daughter cells after mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmárová, M; Smirnov, E; Kovácik, L; Popov, A; Raska, I

    2008-01-01

    It is known that chromosomes occupy non-random positions in the cell nucleus. However, it is not clear to what extent their nuclear positions, together with their neighborhood, are conserved in daughter cells. To address specific aspects of this problem, we used the model of the chromosomes carrying ribosomal genes that are organized in clusters termed Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs). We compared the association of chosen NOR-bearing chromosomes (NOR-chromosomes) with nucleoli, as well as the numbers of nucleoli, in the pairs of daughter cells, and established how frequently the daughter cells had equal numbers of the homologs of certain NOR-chromosomes associated with individual nucleoli. The daughter cells typically had different numbers of nucleoli. At the same time, using immuno-FISH with probes for chromosomes 14 and 15 in HeLa cells, we found that the cell pairs with identical combinations appeared significantly more frequently than predicted by the random model. Thus, although the total number of chromosomes associated with nucleoli is variable, our data indicate that the position of the NOR-bearing chromosomes in relation to nucleoli is partly conserved through mitosis.

  17. Biological effects in beagle dogs of inhaled radon daughters, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Stuart, B.O.; Hackett, P.; Ragan, H.A.; McDonald, K.E.

    1975-01-01

    After 5 years of daily inhalation exposures to 600 WL radon daughters plus uranium ore dust and/or cigarette smoking, observed pulmonary lesions include macrophage proliferation, septal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia, emphysema, endothelial proliferation, and bronchiolar-alveolar epithelial changes involving multiple foci of squamous metaplasia with atypia. Epithelial neoplasms were found in the respiratory tracts of three dogs. (U.S.)

  18. Psychological aspects of idiopathic scoliosis: the specificity of the mother-daughter relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Pyatakova

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: General and specific characteristics of the mother-daughter relationship in families of adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis and families of healthy adolescent girls were revealed. In the context of complex surgical treatment, preventive measures are necessary to address psychological difficulties in adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  19. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  20. Protocol for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations: Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.H. Jr.; Pacer, J.C.

    1988-05-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has developed a protocol which specifies the procedures to be used for determining indoor radon-daughter concentrations in support of Department of Energy remedial action programs. This document is the central part of the protocol and is to be used in conjunction with the individual procedure manuals. The manuals contain the information and procedures required to implement the proven methods for estimating average indoor radon-daughter concentration. Proven in this case means that these methods have been determined to provide reasonable assurance that the average radon-daughter concentration within a structure is either above, at, or below the standards established for remedial action programs. This document contains descriptions of the generic aspects of methods used for estimating radon-daughter concentration and provides guidance with respect to method selection for a given situation. It is expected that the latter section of this document will be revised whenever another estimation method is proven to be capable of satisfying the criteria of reasonable assurance and cost minimization. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Older parents enjoy better filial piety and care from daughters than sons in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; George, Linda; Sereny, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. METHOD: Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. RESULTS: As compared......' health outcome could help promote gender equality and reduce traditional son preference, especially in rural China....

  2. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Acculturation, Familism and Mother-Daughter Relations among Suicidal and Non-Suicidal Adolescent Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Alvarez-Sanchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report…

  4. A Mother and Her Daughters: Jewish Teachers and the Fight against Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before 1999, there was little research on teachers and apartheid aside from some biographical sketches. "A Mother and Her Daughters" is part of an ongoing oral history project of teachers who fought apartheid. It is contextualized through the literature on Jews and apartheid in South Africa and joins the growing literature on…

  5. Assessment of radiation exposure to miners due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is given of the basic considerations regarding the establishment of lung limits for miners exposed to radon and radon daughters. Problems associated with the practical conduct of radiation protection monitoring are also dealt with, for example, the implications of temporal and local variations in activity levels to the mode of sampling and the interpretation of results. (author)

  6. Protecting our Khmer daughters: ghosts of the past, uncertain futures, and the human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nancy J; Do, Huyen H; Talbot, Jocelyn; Sos, Channdara; Ros, Srey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    The FDA approved the first human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in 2006. Research into parental decision-making and concerns about HPV vaccination highlights questions about parenting and parents' role in the crafting of their daughters' future sexuality. In contrast to much of this literature, we explore narratives from interviews with Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine-age eligible daughters who experienced genocide and came to the USA as refugees. We conducted in-depth, in-person interviews with 25 Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine-age eligible daughters. Interviews were conducted in Khmer and translated into English for analysis. We followed standard qualitative analysis techniques including iterative data review, multiple coders, and 'member checking.' Five members of the research team reviewed all transcripts and two members independently coded each transcript for concepts and themes. Interview narratives highlight the presence of the past alongside desires for protection from uncertain futures. We turn to Quesada and colleagues' concept structural vulnerability to outline the constraints posed by these women's positionalities as genocide survivors when faced with making decisions in an area with which they have little direct knowledge or background: cervical cancer prevention. Our study sheds light on the prioritization of various protective health practices, including but not exclusive to HPV vaccination, for Khmer mothers, as well as the rationalities informing decision-making regarding their daughters' health.

  7. Study of fragmentation potential for doubly magic 208Pb daughter cluster radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhmanpreet Kaur; Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, BirBikram

    2017-01-01

    In present work, the selected CR decays of different trans-lead parent nuclei are investigated within the collective clusterisation approach of quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), specifically, which lead to 208 Pb daughter nucleus, always, through emission of clusters 14 C, 18,20 O, 22 Ne, 23 F, 24,26 Ne, 28,30 Mg and 34 Si

  8. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi and Swiatecki [6] put forward a model for exotic decay studies that uses Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region and uses simple power law for overlap region. These authors [7] studied the effect of deformation of parent, daughter and shell attenuation on half-life time treating ...

  9. Sex-ratio biasing towards daughters among lower-ranking co-wives in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate as to whether human females bias the sex ratio of their offspring as a function of their own condition. We apply the Trivers-Willard prediction-that mothers in poor condition will overproduce daughters-to a novel measure of condition, namely wife rank within a polygynous

  10. Workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, representatives of other government departments, and consultants was called to exchange information on steps taken to lower radiation levels in houses in communities such as Elliot Lake, Uranium City, and Port Hope. Discussions covered the sources of radon and radon daughters in these houses, radon measurement techniques, and remedial methods that worked or were not successful

  11. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, R.J.; Stenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, that are a continuing cause of concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the U.S. Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of U.S. veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality radio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  12. How the Internet Saved My Daughter and How Social Media Saved My Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marc C.

    2011-01-01

    This installation is a personal and cathartic engagement with my initial inability to cope with my daughter's cancer. It details events that began in August of 2008 and concluded, in a sense, in February of 2009. I offer it with hopes of helping digitally-oriented rhetoric and composition scholars "determin[e] a should for a we" (Patricia Sullivan…

  13. Leisure, gender, and kinship in dementia caregiving: psychological vulnerability of caregiving daughters with feelings of guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Losada, Andrés; Marquez, María; Laidlaw, Ken; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; López, Javier

    2014-07-01

    The moderator role of guilt on the effect of leisure activities on dementia caregivers' depressive symptoms was analyzed, considering differences by kinship and guilt as a multidimensional construct. Participants were 351 caregivers (58.97% daughters, 10.54% sons, 19.66% wives, and 10.83% husbands). Measures included frequency of leisure activities, depressive symptoms, and guilt (total scale and 5 factors). A moderator role of guilt was found only for daughters. Specifically, significant interactions between guilt and frequency of leisure activities were found for the total scale and for the Factors 1 (guilt about doing wrong by the care recipient), 2 (guilt about failing to meet the challenges of caregiving), and 3 (guilt about self-care). For those daughters who reported lower levels of leisure activities, showing higher levels of guilt was associated with higher scores in depressive symptoms, whereas those with lower levels of guilt showed lower depressive symptoms scores. Feelings of guilt may have different consequences on caregivers' distress depending on caregivers' gender and kinship. Daughters with higher levels of guilt who do not engage in leisure activities may be especially vulnerable to suffering psychological distress. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of an online mother-daughter body image and well-being intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Atkinson, Melissa J; Garbett, Kirsty M; Williamson, Heidi; Halliwell, Emma; Rumsey, Nichola; Leckie, George; Sibley, Chris G; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-09-01

    Poor body image is a public health issue. Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study evaluated an accessible, scalable, low-intensity internet-based intervention delivered to mothers (Dove Self Esteem Project Website for Parents) on mothers' and their adolescent daughters' body image and psychosocial well-being. British mother-daughter dyads (N = 235) participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial (assessment-only control; mothers viewed the website without structured guidance [website-unstructured]; mothers viewed the website via a tailored pathway [website-tailored]). Dyads completed standardized self-report measures of body image, related risk factors, and psychosocial outcomes at baseline, 2 weeks post-exposure, 6-week, and 12-month follow-up. Dyadic models showed that relative to the control, mothers who viewed the website reported significantly higher self-esteem at post-exposure (website-tailored), higher weight esteem at 6-week follow-up (website-tailored), lower negative affect at 12-month follow-up (website-tailored), engaged in more self-reported conversations with their daughters about body image at post-exposure and 6-week follow-up, and were 3-4.66 times more likely to report seeking additional support for body image issues at post-exposure (website-tailored), 6-week, and 12-month (website-tailored) follow-up. Daughters whose mothers viewed the website had higher self-esteem and reduced negative affect at 6-week follow-up. There were no differences on daughters' body image, and risk factors among mothers or daughters, at post-exposure or follow-up. Tailoring website content appeared beneficial. This intervention offers a promising 'first-step' toward improving psychosocial well-being among mothers and daughters. In order to further optimize the intervention, future research to improve body image-related outcomes and to understand mechanisms for change would be beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all

  15. Parental smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Michels, Karin B; Tobias, Deirdre K; Li, Shanshan; Chavarro, Jorge E; Gaskins, Audrey J; Vaag, Allan A; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-02-01

    Fetal exposure to parental smoking may have long-term impact on the development of disease in adulthood. We examined the association of parental smoking during pregnancy with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the daughter. We included 15,665 singleton pregnancies from 10,152 women in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort whose mothers participated in the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort Study. Data on maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and associated covariates were recalled by the mothers. GDM diagnosis was self-reported by the daughters and was validated by medical record review in a previous study. We used log-binomial models with generalized estimating equations to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed a positive association between maternal heavy smoking during pregnancy and risk of GDM in the daughter. The multivariable-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of GDM among women whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy, continued smoking 1-14, 15-24, and ≥ 25 cigarettes/day were 1.00 (reference), 1.05 (0.81-1.35), 1.27 (0.95-1.70) and 1.98 (1.18-3.30), respectively (P for trend = 0.01). Further adjustment for the women's perinatal variables, adult-life characteristics and body mass index during various periods of life modestly attenuated the association. No association was observed between paternal smoking during the pregnancy period and risk of GDM in the daughter. Maternal heavy smoking (≥ 25 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Epidemiological Association 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. HPV vaccine acceptance among African-American mothers and their daughters: an inquiry grounded in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B

    2017-05-29

    Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine

  17. A retrospective study of radon daughter concentrations in the workplace in the fluorspar mines of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkhill, D.A.; Dory, A.B.

    1984-07-01

    Fluorspar mining began in St. Lawrence, Newfoundland in the early thirties. In the early years the existing economic and social conditions resulted in poor health and safety practices in the mines. A high incidence of many types of pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, among the miners was investigated by the Department of National Health and Welfare, and by 1960 radiation in the mines was recognized as the major cause. The original epidemiological study used radon daughter exposure estimates determined from a limited number of radon daughter measurements in one of the mines. Insufficient experience existed at that time to allow a proper technical assessment of the mines and to modify the estimated radon daughter concentrations accordingly. A review of the environmental conditions in the early years of mining and a revision of the estimates of radon daughter concentrations in those mines is presented. Environmental working conditions were determined based on a review of maps, inspectors' reports, Commission hearings, recollections of former workers and of the authors. Comparison to the conditions in the mines in later years, when radiation samples were taken more frequently allowed estimations of the probable radon daughter concentrations that would have existed in the mines earlier. Ranges of estimated average concentrations were made by mines for each year and wherever possible for broad types of job classes. Rather than attempting to propose single numbers for radon daughter concentrations, which in turn might have implied an accuracy that did not exist, ranges of average radon daughter concentrations were estimated

  18. Measurement of airborne radon daughters - a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.; Lo, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The standard mathematical treatment of the build-up and decay of airborne radionuclides on a filter paper uses the solutions of the so-called Bateman equations adapted to the sampling process. These equations can be interpreted as differential equations for the expectation of an underlying stochastic process, which describes the random fluctuations in the accumulation and decay of the sampled radioactive atoms. The probability distribution for the number of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi atoms, accumulated after sampling time t, is the product of three Poisson distributions. It is shown that the distribution of the number of counts, registered by a detector with efficiency ε during a counting period T after the end of sampling, is also the product of three Poisson distributions. Its mean is dependent on ε, t, T, flow rate, and N A 0 , N B 0 and N C 0 , the number of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi atoms per unit volume. This joint Poisson distribution was used to construct the likelihood given the observed number of counts. Using Bayes' Theorem posterior densities were obtained for N A 0 , N B 0 and N C 0 . These densities characterise the remaining uncertainty about the unknown airborne concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi atoms. (author)

  19. The mother-daughter guilt dynamic: effects of type 1 diabetes during life transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bodil; Dunning, Trisha; Cox, Helen; O'Connell, Beverly

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore and describe the strategies young women with type 1 diabetes used to manage life transitions. The paper describes one aspect of how guilt dynamic often operates between mothers and daughters and how the women managed the guilt dynamic to create stability in their lives. When a child is diagnosed with diabetes, major transitional changes occur in the relationships between the mother and her child. The changes affect the psychological and social aspects of their lives and have a major impact on how young women manage their diabetes. A guilt dynamic between mothers and young women with diabetes emerged as a major theme in a larger study that investigated how young women with diabetes managed life transitions. Although the literature indicates that mothers of chronically ill children experience guilt feelings towards their children, little research was identified that addressed the emotional dynamics between mothers and daughters with diabetes. Using grounded theory method, interviews were conducted with 20 women with type 1 diabetes and five mothers during 2002 and 2003. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse the data and develop an in-depth understanding of the experience of living with diabetes during life transitions. The findings revealed that guilt feelings created a two-way dependency between mothers and their daughters with diabetes. The two-way dependency involved feelings of being a burden to each other, difficulty balancing responsibilities for diabetes management, difficulty relinquishing emotional and social dependency especially during life transitions. In addition, these issues were rarely discussed openly with each other or with health professionals. The findings provide additional information about the human experience of the mother-daughter relationship and the effect on coping with diabetes in the context of life transitions. Understanding the impact diabetes has on the emotional and social well being of

  20. Maternal recalled gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and obesity in the daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M.; Forman, Michele R.; Michels, Karin B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that exposures during fetal life affect adult metabolism. We assessed the relation between recalled maternal pre-pregnancy body mass, gestational weight gain (GWG), and adiposity in the daughter. Design Retrospective cohort study among mother-nurse daughter dyads in the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Nurses’ Mothers’ Cohort. Mothers of participants completed questionnaires regarding their nurse-daughter in 2001. Participants 26,506 mother-nurse daughter dyads born between 1946 and 1964. Main outcome measures Body mass index of the nurse-daughter at age 18 and in 2001. Results At age 18, 561 (2.1%) daughters were obese (BMI greater than 30), and in 2001, 5,442 (22.0%) were obese. Adjusting for covariates, women whose mothers had a recalled pre-pregnancy BMI of 29 had a 6.1-fold increased risk of obesity at age 18 and a 3.4-fold risk of obesity in 2001, compared with women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 21. We found a U-shaped association between recalled GWG and offspring obesity. Compared with a maternal weight gain of 15–19 lb, GWG obesity risk at age 18 (odds ratio[OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.02–2.34) and in 2001 (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.05–1.53). High weight gain (40+ lbs) was also associated with obesity risk at age 18 (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.22–2.69) and in 2001 (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.48–2.04). These associations were stronger among mothers who were overweight prior to pregnancy (p for interaction = 0.03), and they persisted with adjustment for birth weight. Conclusion A high recalled pre-pregnancy BMI and extremes of recalled GWG are associated with an increased risk of adolescent and adult obesity in offspring, particularly when the mother is overweight. Pre-pregnancy weight and GWG may be modifiable fetal origins of overweight and obesity in women. PMID:19528964

  1. Velocardiofacial syndrome in father and daughter: What is the mechanism for the deletion 22(q11.2q11.2) in only the daughter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magenis, R.E.; Gunter, K.; Toth-Fejel, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    E.G. had marked feeding difficulty noted at birth; the cause was determined to be a paralyzed palate. In 1992 chromosome studies were performed because of the provisional diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome, and a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 22 was found. Recently the family was seen in our Genetics Clinic. The father had unusual facial features shared by his daughter, a paralyzed upper lip and a history of repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. His chromosomes appeared normal. FISH studies were performed on the child`s peripheral blood using the ONCOR DiGeorge region probe (D22S75) and the deletion verified. However, the father`s chromosomes were not deleted for the ONCOR probe (D22S75) and probe DO832 sent to us by Peter Scambler. Skin cells were then obtained and no deletion was detected in a total of 66 cells examined using both probes. Several questions arise from these data: does the father have velocardiofacial syndrome? Does he have occult mosaicism? Does he have a molecular deletion not detected by the probes used? And was this deletion somehow {open_quotes}amplified{close_quotes} in his daughter?

  2. Recent investigations and conclusions on radiation exposure from radon and its daughters in rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willau, E.

    1984-04-01

    Radon and its daughters emanate from structural materials and are concentrated in closed rooms. Measurements were first made in Vienna in concrete and brick buildings. The difference between these two materials is explained by the effect of different window tightness this being lower in the older brick buildings. It is conjectured that plaster is more important than the bulk wall material. In order to test the influence of the geological ground these measurement in Vienna (rubble ground) were complemented by those in Wagrain (shale ground) and the difference again explained by different window tightness. With regard to height above the ground the radon and daughter concentration was found to 2-3 times higher in cellars and at ground flour than at higher levels. The variation of concentration during and after airing was also investigated. (G.Q.)

  3. A review of instrumentation for determination of radon and its daughters concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryuhei

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the review is to provide the aid for selection and understanding of the radon and its daughters measurement techniques which have been developed for radiation protection activities in various environments such as working of living environment. The practical purpose of the measurement for surveillance in environmental situation is the dose estimation for the public due to the inhalation of natural occurring radioactive materials. The techniques for the determination of radon and thoron concentratin by the active methods with the grab and continuous sampling, and also structures of radon monitors of various passive type are described. Explanation was made on the typical instruments for the determination of the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of radon daughters by the various detecting systems such as solid state detector, and for the estimation of integrated PAEC in the various environments by the PAEC monitors using the cellulose nitrate film or TLD elements (author)

  4. Ventilation systems as an effective tool for control of radon daughter concentration in mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-10-01

    Introduced with a brief discussion of the key role of ventilation in controlling mine atmospheres, the effects of the design of the ventilation system on the control of radon daughter concentrations are illustrated with specific reference to Alcan's Director Mine, St-Lawrence, Nfld. (This fluorspar mine was found to have high radon concentrations due to mine water bringing in dissolved radon.) After a discussion of the health physics history of the mine, the various phases of the ventilation system design and the general results are detailed. The author draws some conclusions having general application to the design of any mine with a radon or thoron daughter concentration. These include minimizing the 'age' of the air; the need for continuous ventilation in all areas; the value of remote control and monitoring; and the benefits of mine pressurization

  5. Experiences of parents whose sons or daughters have (had) attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Caspersen, Jimmy; Hansen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    problem and relatives are understood as playing an important role in suicide prevention; however, suicide and suicidal behaviour affect the relatives' lives profoundly, both emotionally and socially, and the psychosocial impact on families is underresearched. DESIGN: Focus groups with parents of sons......AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to gain further insights into the experiences of parents of sons or daughters who have attempted suicide and how these parents respond to the increased psychosocial burden following the suicide attempt(s). BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health...... or daughters who have attempted suicide. METHODS: In January and February 2012, we interviewed two groups of parents recruited at a counselling programme for relatives of persons who have attempted suicide. The analysis combined a thematic analysis with a subsequent analysis of how the themes were negotiated...

  6. Study of correcting the effect of daughter age on determining 235U enrichment of fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jingshan; Zhou Chengfang; Luo Minxuan; Liu Yun

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-ray passive technique is a very effective method to assay and determine 235 U enrichment of nuclear power plant fuel rods. There is a weakness in this passive method, i.e. only after the uranium isotope daughters of UO 2 pellets have reached to equilibrium with uranium parent, then the 235 U enrichment can be determined. This weakness greatly restricts the application of the method. A new two-peak and two-window technique is developed that can overcome the interference of uranium daughter decay in determining 235 U enrichment of nuclear fuel rods, and the results are very satisfactory. The new technique will play an important role in the gamma-ray passive technique for determining 235 U enrichment of fuel rods. This new technique also makes the gamma-ray passive method perfectly. (11 figs., 6 tabs.)

  7. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  8. Simulation of radon short lived decay daughters' inhalation using the lung compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomulescu, Vlad C.

    2002-01-01

    Radon and its short-lived decay daughters are the main source of radiation on natural ways for population. The radon gas, released from soil, water or construction materials is producing by radioactive decay the following solid daughters: Po-218, Bi-214, Pb-214, and Po-214, which can attach to aerosols, and consequently penetrate the organism by inhalation. The human respiratory tract can be approximated by aid of a compartment model that takes into account the different anatomical structures exposed to contamination and irradiation, as well as the respective physiological processes. This model is associated to a mathematical equation system that describes the behavior of the radioactive material inside the body. The results represent the dose equivalent on different organs and tissues, as a function of subject and the activity performed in contaminating environment. (author)

  9. Multivariate signal processing in measurements of radon and radon daughters in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.; Machaj, B.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive measurements of radon and radon daughters concentration gauge in a radon chamber were carried out. Count rate 'spectra' against time at the output of radiation detectors were measured and registered. The count rate spectra were then processed employing Principal Component Regression (PCR). A root mean square error of the count rate was estimated. It was found that PCR processing removes a great part of count rate random fluctuations originating from the radiation statistics that results in a decrease of count rate random error. The root mean square error of count rate in a radon daughter monitor is about 3 times lower, which is equivalent to the error of the gauge with a 9 times higher air flow rate if no PCR processing is used. In case of the radon concentration gauge the increase of sensitivity is even higher and amounts to 5 times. (author)

  10. Mothers' factors associated with female genital mutilation in daughters in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P

    2017-03-01

    An important proactive factor for the continuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) is tradition and customs inherited in the family from mothers to daughters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine mothers' factors associated with the occurrence of FGM among their daughters. The datasets from the Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, on 5,184 women aged 15 to 49 years having at least one daughter, was used. Multivariate analysis based on a binary logistic regression model was applied. Mothers' age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.18 at ages 25-34 years, aOR = 22.64 at ages 35-44 years, and aOR = 29.78 at ages 45-49 years, compared to the age group 15-24 years), educational level (aOR = 0.52 for primary education, aOR = 0.26 for secondary education, and aOR = 0.03 for higher education compared to uneducated), employment status (aOR = 0.55 for women having office work compared with unemployed), FGM status (aOR = 27.44 for circumcised mothers compared to uncircumcised), the governorate of residence (aOR = 18.73 for Suleimaniya and aOR = 33.23 for Erbil compared with Dohuk), and the wealth index of the household (aOR = 0.55 for richest group compared to the poorest) were significantly associated with the occurrence of FGM in daughters. Strategies aimed at preventing this harmful practice in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region should include female education and empowerment.

  11. Radon and its daughters in the maritime atmosphere near Japan islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Sadamu

    1982-01-01

    In the maritime atmosphere near the land, natural radon and its daughters dispersed from land to over ocean are found gradually to attain their radioactive equilibrium with time lapse after they left land sources. Radioactive equilibrium is found to be established at the distance 100 - 150 km from the land, at least in winter season. Farther off from the distance about 150 km from the land, radioactive equilibrium will get deviation mode from their equilibrium state. (author)

  12. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  13. Radium and radium-daughter nuclides in carbonates: a brief overview of strategies for determining chronologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Radium isotopes have been used extensively to trace the movement of groundwater as well as oceanic water masses, but these radionuclides (and their daughters) are also useful chronometers for the determination of the time scales of other Earth and environmental processes. The purpose of this overview is to present the application of Ra and Ra daughters in the dating of carbonates. We show that the choice of dating method (decay of excess radionuclide or ingrowth of daughter) depends strongly on the parent/daughter activity ratios in the water in which the carbonate was precipitated. Thus freshly precipitated carbonates uniformly show excesses of 226 Ra relative to its parent 230 Th, and 226 Ra decay can provide ages of carbonates over Holocene time scales. In contrast, carbonates are precipitated in waters of greatly varying 210 Pb/ 226 Ra. Corals, deep-sea hydrothermal vent clams and the shelled cephalopod Nautilus live in waters with significant dissolved 210 Pb and all show excesses of 210 Pb in their carbonate. Bivalve molluscs from nearshore and coastal waters, and carbonates deposited from groundwater environments (e.g. travertines) in which 210 Pb is efficiently scavenged from solution, show deficiencies of 210 Pb relative to 226 Ra. In contrast, fish otoliths strongly discriminate against 210 Pb regardless of the environment in which the fish lives. Deficiencies of 228 Th relative to 228 Ra are common in all carbonates. Useful time ranges for the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra and 228 Th/ 228 Ra chronometers are ∼100 y and ∼10 y, respectively.

  14. Some remarks on exact methods for WL and 222Rn-daughter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    For an exact determination of the three 222 Rn-daughter concentrations (RaA, B and C) which properly weighted yield the Working Level, three equations relating observed counts (α or β) to these unknown concentrations have to be solved. The half-lives in the 222 Rn decay series, the type of decay and the counting errors, limit the suitable set of equations. Some aspects of two such exact methods are discussed

  15. Acculturation, Familism and Mother-Daughter Relations Among Suicidal and Non-Suicidal Adolescent Latinas

    OpenAIRE

    Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report significantly less mutuality and communication with their mothers than non-attempters. Mothers of attempters reported lower mutuality and communication with t...

  16. Non-neoplastic pulmonary disease from inhaled radon daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters plus uranium ore dust, with and without concurrent cigarette smoking, for 2 to 5-1/2 yr have produced massive pulmonary fibrosis and severe emphysema. The cumulative exposure doses are similar to those associated with a 5-fold or greater increase in death rate of uranium miners due to chronic respiratory insufficiency, including pneumoconiosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and emphysema

  17. Carcinogenesis of inhaled radio daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters and to uranium ore dust for 4-1/2 to 6 yr have produced respiratory tract carcinomas, at similar cumulative working level months (WLM) of exposures to those which induced carcinomas in uranium miners. Biological data from the beagle-dog experiments can therefore be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk under changing exposure conditions in future uranium miners

  18. Hydrocephalus, skeletal anomalies, and mental disturbances in a mother and three daughters: A new syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferlini, A.; Zanetti, A.; Milan, M.; Calzolari, E. [Universita di Ferrara, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-04

    We report on a family in which a mother and her 3 daughters have delayed psychomotor development and/or psychosis, hydrocephalus with white matter alterations, arachnoid cysts, skeletal anomalies consisting of brachydactyly, and Sprengel anomaly. Biochemical and cytogenetic analyses were normal on all 4 patients. The pattern of inheritance, clinical manifestations, and variability of expression suggest that this is a new hydrocephalus syndrome possibly transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Radiation after-effects in daughter generations of barley grown under conditions of enhanced radioactive background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, O.N.; Shershunova, V.I.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Stimulation of growth and development was observed in the first daughter generation of barley plants grown under conditions simulating an enhanced radioactive background. The stimulatory effect was partially reproduced in the second generation, and signs of depression of initial growth of plants were found in the third generation. A great number of alterations and their regular occurrence allow to refer them to lingering modifications originating under the effect of a radiation factor on vegetating plants

  20. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  1. Comparison of a continuous working level monitor for radon daughters with conventional grab-sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of a radon daughter monitor was carried out under laboratory controlled conditions. The monitor operates on continuous sampling and time integrating principles and was tested in conjunction with a newly designed, large radon/thoron room calibration facility. The monitor was tested under constant and rapidly fluctuating radiation conditions. Experimental data obtained with the monitor were compared with data obtained by conventional grab-sampling and with an automated radon daughter/thoron daughter 'grab-sampler'. The Working Level used in the tests ranged from less than 0.01 WL to approximately 10 WL. The measurements were carried out under low aerosol concentration (1 x 10 3 - 2 x 10 3 cm -3 , approximately) to study plate-out effects in the sampling head. Good agreement (within about 10 %) was found between the monitor, conventional grab-sampling and the automated grab-sampler. The monitor should prove quite flexible, useful and reliable for monitoring underground and surface environments in the uranium mining industry

  2. Lung dose and lung cancer risk by inhalation of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1983-01-01

    The inhalation of short-lived radon daughters constitutes the most important occupational radiation exposure in mines, particularly in uranium mines. Among some groups of miners exposed in the past to relatively high radon levels, an excess lung cancer incidence has been observed. In addition to this occupational hazard, the observed radon levels in domestic houses indicate that the inhalation of short-lived radon daughters seems to be the most important component of the radiation exposure of the population from natural sources. For the quantification and judgment of the radiological impact by inhalation of radon daughters in mines as well as in houses, it is necessary to estimate the relationships between the inhaled activity or potential alpha (α) energy of these radionuclides, the dose to target tissues in the lung, and the possible associated lung cancer (LC) risk. It is the purpose of this paper to give a condensed review of our present knowledge in this field and to indicate the main gaps and uncertainties where future research seems necessary

  3. Correlation between parent and daughter element concentrations as a means of valuing isochrons of igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1989-01-01

    The question whether a series of samples from an igneous rock can be attributed to an isochron for radiogeochronological dating or for determining the initial isotope ratio of the daughter element of the radioactive decay can be valued by investigating the correlation between the concentrations 1 c and 2 c of mother ( 1 c) and daughter element ( 2 c). The slope of the regression line in a lg 1 c to lg 2 c diagram is given by 1 D - 1/ 2 D - 1 or 1 D - 1/ 2 D - 1 · 2 D/ 1 D, where 1 D and 2 D are the solid-liquid distribution coefficients of parent and daughter element, if the concentration patterns are ruled by fractional crystallization or by partial melting, respectively. The agreement between experimentally found slopes and those calculated from distribution coefficients thus gives additional evidence whether or not the isochron reflects a magma solidification or magma generation age, respectively. The method is discussed for the Rb-Sr-, Sm-Nd-, La-Ce-, La-Ba- and K-Ca-geochronometers, using distribution coefficients calculated on the basis of a global model of the generation of the most abundant continental igneous rocks. The application on Rb-Sr-isochrons of a series of various granites of the Erzgebirge and the Saxonian Granulite Massif in the Southern Part of the GDR reveals new evidence of postmagmatic autosomatosis having altered the chemical composition of the Younger granites of the Western Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge). (author)

  4. Misfits of War: First World War Nurses in the Daughters of Mars by Thomas Keneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branach-Kallas Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of the representation of Australian nurses in Thomas Keneally 2012 First World War novel, The Daughters of Mars. Inspired by rigorous research, Keneally fictionalizes the lives of two nursing sisters in the Middle East, on a hospital ship in the Dardanelles, as well as in hospitals and casualty clearing stations on the Western Front. His novel thus reclaims an important facet of the medical history of the First World War. The author of the article situates her analysis in the context of historical research on the First World War and the Australian Anzac myth, illuminating the specifically Australian elements in Keneally’s portrait of the Durance sisters. She demonstrates that The Daughters of Mars celebrates the achievements of “Anzac girls”, negotiating a place for them in the culture of commemoration. Yet, at the same time, Keneally attempts to include his female protagonists in the “manly” world of Anzac values, privileging heroism over victimization. Consequently, they become “misfits of war”, eagerly accepting imperial and nationalist ideologies. Thus, in a way characteristic of Australian First World War literature, The Daughters of Mars fuses the tropes of affirmation and desolation.

  5. Association Between Parental HPV Knowledge and Intentions to Have Their Daughters Vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Lisa N; Onsomu, Elijah O; Merwin, Elizabeth; Hall, Naomi M; Harper-Harrison, Alfreda

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 causes 66% of cervical cancers (Dunne et al., 2014). Vaccination during adolescence can prevent HPV-associated cervical cancers, yet less than half of adolescent girls are vaccinated. This study examined the association between HPV knowledge and parental intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV. A retrospective, cross-sectional, national data set from the 2006-2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was used. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between intent to vaccinate and HPV knowledge. After controlling for other covariates, parents who were knowledgeable were more likely to intend to have their daughters vaccinated compared with those who were not knowledgeable (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 3.96, p = .004). Having HPV knowledge would significantly increase parents' intent for vaccination against the disease for their daughters. Health care providers should integrate HPV-related education for parents within their services, and policymakers should consider requiring HPV vaccination for school attendance.

  6. Tracing and dealing with dwellings with high radon and radon daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdwall, Hans

    1980-01-01

    In the late 1970s it was found that a number of buildings in Sweden, primarily those made from alum shale-based concretes, had elevated radon and radon daughter levels. A special commission investigated the problem and established provisional limiting values for radon daughter exposures, gamma radiation from the ground, and the concentrations of radioactive materials in building materials. With regard to gamma radiation from the ground the commission proposed that no building be built in an area where outside gamma radiation exceeds 100 μR/h. For building materials a gamma index (mγ) and a radium index (mRa) are suggested: mγ = Csub(K)/10000 + Csub(Ra)/1000 + Csub(Th)/700; mRa = Csub(Ra)/200 (Csub(K), Csub(Ra) and Csub(Th) are the concentrations of potassium, radium and thorium respectively). The proposed limiting values are such that the gamma index and the radium index be less than 1. It is also suggested that action should be taken to reduce radon levels in buildings with radon daughter concentrations of 0.27 WL within two years and 0.10 WL within 5 years

  7. Culturally-grounded mother-daughter communication-focused intervention for Thai female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powwattana, Arpaporn; Thammaraksa, Pimrat; Manora, Sroy

    2018-02-05

    Teenage pregnancy-prevention interventions have fallen short in significantly decreasing risk of pregnancy for Thai populations. The "breaking the voice" ("rak luk khun tong pood") culture-appropriate teenage pregnancy-prevention program was developed using community-based research. Qualitative analyses of focus group data identified salient factors related to sexual communication and behavior. The integration of focus group results with theoretical constructs guided the development of an intervention to reduce risky sexual behavior by increasing communication between mothers and their adolescent daughters. A total of 157 mother-daughter dyads from congested areas in Bangkok participated in pilot testing of the intervention by the use of a survey. The findings indicated a significant increase in the frequency of and number of sexual risk communication (P assertiveness, and ability to decrease sexual risk among daughters (P < .05). "Breaking the voice" represents a female-focused and culturally-relevant intervention to combat teenage pregnancy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Stochastic model of radon daughter deposition and clearance in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1996-01-01

    Morphometric measurements of human airway casts have repealed that the human bronchial tree is an asymmetrically dividing network, exhibiting individual variations of airway dimensions within a given airway generation Thus, a statistical correlation exists between the linear dimensions of a given parent airway and those of the asymmetrically dividing daughter branches. This statistical relationship, however, is constrained by correlations among various geometrical parameters. i.e., the human lung is not a fully stochastic system. From a statistical analysis of these morphometric data, the following geometrical parameters could be obtained for each airway generation or bifurcation: (i) probability distributions for diameters and lengths, ratios of parent cross section to the combined cross section of both daughters, ratios of major to minor daughter diameters, and branching angles for major and minor branches; (ii) correlations of diameters and lengths; and (iii) the probability of terminating the bronchial region as a function of both diameter and generation number. Since the original lung morphometry refers to total lung capacity, airway diameters and lengths were scaled down to functional residual capacity. (author)

  9. Coupling of replisome movement with nucleosome dynamics can contribute to the parent-daughter information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2018-06-01

    Positioning of nucleosomes along the genomic DNA is crucial for many cellular processes that include gene regulation and higher order packaging of chromatin. The question of how nucleosome-positioning information from a parent chromatin gets transferred to the daughter chromatin is highly intriguing. Accounting for experimentally known coupling between replisome movement and nucleosome dynamics, we propose a model that can obtain de novo nucleosome assembly similar to what is observed in recent experiments. Simulating nucleosome dynamics during replication, we argue that short pausing of the replication fork, associated with nucleosome disassembly, can be a event crucial for communicating nucleosome positioning information from parent to daughter. We show that the interplay of timescales between nucleosome disassembly (τp) at the replication fork and nucleosome sliding behind the fork (τs) can give rise to a rich 'phase diagram' having different inherited patterns of nucleosome organization. Our model predicts that only when τp ≥ τs the daughter chromatin can inherit nucleosome positioning of the parent.

  10. Parents and Daughters in Two Novels by Arab American Authors: “Khalas, Let Her Go”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Bujupaj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple intersecting pressures bear upon immigrant parent-child, and especially immigrant mother-daughter relationships depicted in Randa Jarrar’s novel, A Map of Home, and Mohja Kahf ’s novel, The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf. Each of these novels is a Bildungsroman story, the protagonist of each being a budding artist. As the growing daughters struggle toward autonomy and parents react from complex pressures upon them, the reader gains insight on the interconnected structural and psychological factors in the intergenerational dynamics these novels portray, often with humor. The personal psychological history of the parents, as well as their displacement through immigration, in addition to anti-Arab racism in their U.S. settings and how each of these factors relates also to gender, complicate the parents’ relationships with their daughters. Through a close reading informed by postcolonial and psychological approaches, this article argues that these novels do not depict only one category of oppression but also offer multiple layers of critique.

  11. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Poston, J.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  12. Can Better Mother-Daughter Relations Reduce the Chance of a Suicide Attempt among Latinas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Zayas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available National surveys and other research on adolescent Latinas show that adolescent females have higher rates of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts than other ethnic and racial minority youth. Internalizing behaviors and family conflicts are commonly associated with suicidality in research on adolescents. In the case of Latinas, we explore the connection between adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement, mother-adolescent mutuality, internalizing behaviors, and suicidality. This paper presents data from a study of 232 Latinas, some with a recent history of suicide attempts (n=122. The results show that higher adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement was associated with greater mother-daughter mutuality and thus led to reduction in the likelihood of suicide attempts. The relationship between mother-daughter mutuality and suicide attempts among Latinas is mediated by specific internalizing behaviors (withdrawn depressive. Our findings highlight the positive effect that Latino cultural values have in the relationship between Latina adolescent and their mothers and confirm the importance that internalizing behaviors and the mother-daughter relationship have for suicide attempters.

  13. Alpha-particle dosimetry using solid state nuclear track detectors. Application to 222Rn and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillon, R.; Chambaudet, A.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for the determination of the detection efficiency of a solid state nuclear track detector for radon and its short-lived daughters was presented. First, particular attention is paid to the α-particles having energies and angles of incidence that lead to observable tracks after an adapted chemical etching. The results are then incorporated in a mathematical model to determine the theoretical radon detection efficiency of a polymeric detector placed in a cylindrical cell. When applied to LR115 and CR39 detectors, the model reveals the influence of the position of the radon daughters inside the cell. Radon daughters tend to link up with natural atmospheric aerosols and then settle on the cell's inside wall. This model allows to determine, among other things, the cell size for which the detector response is independent of the fraction daughters plated out. (author)

  14. Engaging Fathers to Increase Physical Activity in Girls: The "Dads And Daughters Exercising and Empowered" (DADEE) Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Young, Myles D; Barnes, Alyce T; Eather, Narelle; Pollock, Emma R; Lubans, David R

    2018-04-10

    Existing strategies to increase girls' physical activity levels have seen limited success. Fathers may influence their children's physical activity, but often spend more time with their sons and rarely participate in family-based programs. To test a novel program designed to increase the physical activity levels of fathers and their daughters. In a two-arm RCT, 115 fathers (29-53 years) and 153 daughters (4-12 years) were randomized to (i) the "Dads And Daughters Exercising and Empowered" (DADEE) program, or (ii) a wait-list control. The 8-week program included weekly educational and practical sessions plus home tasks. Assessments were at baseline, 2 months (postintervention), and 9 months. The primary outcomes were father-daughter physical activity levels (pedometry). Secondary outcomes included screen-time, daughters' fundamental movement skill proficiency (FMS: perceived and objective), and fathers' physical activity parenting practices. Primary outcome data were obtained from 88% of daughters and 90% of fathers at 9 months. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed favorable group-by-time effects for physical activity in daughters (p = .02, d = 0.4) and fathers (p competence (objective: d = 1.1-1.2; perceived: d = 0.4-0.6), a range of fathers' physical activity parenting practices (d = 0.3-0.8), and screen-time for daughters (d = 0.5-0.8) and fathers (d = 0.4-0.6, postintervention only). Program satisfaction and attendance were very high. This study provided the first experimental evidence that efforts to increase physical activity behavior in preadolescent girls would benefit from a meaningful engagement of fathers. Clinical Trial information: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000022561.

  15. Improving uptake and engagement with child body image interventions delivered to mothers: Understanding mother and daughter preferences for intervention content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2016-12-01

    Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct determination of 222Rn gas using the electret to remove daughters at formation. Annual progress report, June 1, 1981-May 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report covers progress made from 1 June 1981 to 31 May 1982 in developing a continuous monitor which measures only 222 Rn without interference from the daughters. Five 222 Rn counters have been built which determine 222 Rn alone by alpha scintillation counting in the presence of an electret to remove the short-lived daughter products from the counting chamber. The chamber design is based on the work of Chittaporn et al., (1981) at New York University's Department of Environmental Medicine. The detection chamber is a 1.8 liter (12.7 cm diameter by 14 cm high) cylinder lined with zinc sulfide alpha phosphor. The detector sits directly on a 12.7 cm diameter phototube. The 5 units have calibration factors which range from 155 to 186 counts/hour per pCi 222 Rn/liter and an average background count of 6 counts/hour. The lower limit of detection for a one hour count is thus 0.03 pCi 222 Rn/l, well below environmental levels

  17. LILAVATI'S DAUGHTERS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alwyn

    woman student of mathematics in India, she has innumerable descendants ... the Indian women of science. We wanted this collection of essays to mirror our cultural diversity, and to cover a range of disciplines so that any woman student could gain from the insights and experiences of other women to whom they can relate ...

  18. Forgotten daughters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TSC

    2009-04-05

    Apr 5, 2009 ... In his classical treatise, he addresses problems in algebra, ... serve her female compatriots who would sooner die than allow a male doctor to ... But the severe winters took a toll on her health, and like the mathematician.

  19. Daughter Zion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2014-01-01

    Discussing Kathleen M. O’Connor’s understanding of the book of Jeremiah as a book by and for traumatized survivors of the collapse of Jerusalem (587 B.C.E.), this essay introduces the concepts of cultural memory (Jan Assmann) and cultural trauma (Jeffrey Alexander) as the methodological bases...... for a synchronic reading of the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations. It is suggested that the apparently chaotic shape of Jeremiah as well as the orderly style of Lamentations reflect the emphasis of the collective agents or carrier groups (Alexander) that stood behind the writing down of the books on the healing...

  20. [Acceptance of the vaccine against human papilloma virus from mothers to daughters aged 9 to 13 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Verdugo, Melissa Karina; Zonana Nacach, Abraham; Anzaldo Campos, Maria Cecilia

    2013-11-01

    If you consider that at some point in life 50% of sexually active women have had an infection with the human papilloma virus is indisputable that any attempt to reduce the prevalence worth undertaking it. The vaccine to prevent HIV infection has not enjoyed the same degree of acceptance than others, hence the interest in knowing some of the reasons that has not achieved universal vaccination. To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability among mothers with adolescents girls between 9 and 13 years old. The mothers were interrogated about HVP vaccine acceptability, reasons provided for acceptance or non-acceptance and if mothers know that vaccine is offered free for public health institutions We interview a 250 mothers with 281 daughters, 38 daughters have already received the vaccine. Eighty nine percent of the mothers reacted positively to the possibility of vaccinating theirs daughters. The reasons of vaccine non-acceptance were because not knowing enough about infection, mother felt that their daughters were not at risk for acquiring HVP infection, the vaccine is new and mothers unknown side effects. Thirty nine percent of the mothers want to know more about the vaccine safety, 21% about length protection duration and 16% concerning about if the vaccine is effective. Fifty seven per cent of the mothers know that Health Secretary offers vaccine free. Mothers whom have been vaccinated their daughters, had daughters with lower age (9.8 +/- 0.9 vs 10.8 +/- 1.3 years, p = 0.0001), were more frequently married (79 vs 51%, p = 0.002) and more likely to report that they had heard about VPH vaccine from some source (100 vs 66%, p = 0.0001) that mothers have not yet vaccinated their daughters. The acceptability of VPH vaccine was 89%. Continued health education and propaganda is needed to promote a better knowledge of VPH vaccine.

  1. Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the daughter DNA strands in uv-irradiated human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, A R; Kirk-Bell, S [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK)

    1978-03-01

    Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the newly-synthesized DNA were detected during post-replication repair of DNA in uv-irradiated human fibroblasts. These pyrimidine dimer sites were inferred from a decrease in the molecular weight of pulse-labelled DNA after treatment with an extract of Micrococcus luteus containing uv-specific endonuclease activity. In DNA synthesized immediately after irradiation, the frequency of these daughter strand dimer sites was 7 to 20% of that in the parental DNA. Such sites were found in fibroblasts from normal donors and from xeroderma pigmentosum patients (with defects in excision-repair or post-replication repair). They were excised from the DNA of normal cells. As the time between uv irradiation and pulse-labelling was increased, the frequency of dimer sites associated with the labelled DNA decreased. If the pulse-label was delivered 6 h after irradiation of normal cells or excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells, no dimer sites were detected in the labelled DNA. It has usually been assumed that daughter-strand dimer sites were the result of recombinational exchanges. The assay procedure used in these experiments and in similar experiments of others did not distinguish between labelled DNA containing pyrimidine dimers within the labelled section, and labelled DNA which did not contain pyrimidine dimers but was attached to unlabelled DNA which did contain dimers. The latter structures would arise during normal replication immediately following uv irradiation of mammalian cells. Calculations are presented which suggest that a significant proportion and conceivably all of the dimer sites associated with the daughter strands may have arisen in this way, rather than from recombinational exchanges as has been generally assumed.

  2. Epidemiological study on the cancer mortality in an area with elevated radon daughter exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1983-07-01

    In many countries water containing considerable amounts of Radon-222 is used in so-called ''Radon Spas'' for therapeutical purposes. In the Austrian radon spas Badgastein and Bad Hofgastein many detailed studies of the environmental natural radioactivity have been carried out for about 20 years. The accumulated annual doses to the basal cells of the segmental and subsegmental bronchiols (receiving the highest dose at inhalation of radon and daughters, and target for lung cancer) were calculated for several population groups in this area. The researcher calculated the exposure to radon and daughter accumulated over a lifetime for each single person who lived in Badgastein for at least 10 years and died between 1947 and 1980. The lifetime bronchial doses of 1366 residents who died between 1947 and 1980 from several causes of death were calculated. Altogether 56 lung cancer cases occurred. From that the annual lung cancer incidence rate for Badgastein (30 and 108 per 10 5 living people of all ages and for persons over 40 years respectively) is not statistically different from the mean observed lung cancer cases in the whole Federal Province of Salzburg (32 and 98 respectively). A case-control study has also been carried out to compare the mean annual lifetime exposure of lung cancer deaths with those of other. It can be seen that for the higher exposed population groups and even more so for the miners, the persons who died of lung cancer received a higher dose than those who died of other cancer and other causes. Therefore radon daughter inhalation may be responsible for lung cancer induction even in a non-mining environment

  3. Acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination among Californian parents of daughters: a representative statewide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra

    2007-02-01

    To examine likelihood of parental acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent girls, together with reasons for acceptance and nonacceptance. The ultimate goal of this research is to inform policy decisions and educational planning in this area. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents in California households was conducted, yielding 522 parents with an eligible daughter. Cross tabulations and odds ratios were employed to analyze likelihood of vaccination acceptability. Reasons provided for acceptance or nonacceptance were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 75% of the sample reported that they would be likely to vaccinate a daughter before age 13 years. Hispanic parents were more likely to accept vaccination than were non-Hispanic parents, whereas African-American and Asian-American parents were less likely. Other subgroups less likely to accept vaccination were identified. Five clusters of reasons by nonaccepting parents emerged: pragmatic concerns about effects on sexual behavior, specific HPV vaccine concerns, moral concerns about sexual behavior, general vaccine concerns, and denial of need. A sixth group of interest comprised those who would vaccinate before age 16 years, but not age 13. Consistent with previous studies on this topic, a large majority of California parents endorsed HPV vaccination for daughters by the recommended age. Although important subgroup disparities were found, majorities of all subgroups supported vaccination. This information, together with the identified clusters of cognitive decision factors for nonacceptance, has implications for policy decisions and educational planning in this area. Suggestions for further research on subgroup disparities and on cognitive factors involved in parents' decisions arise from these findings.

  4. Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the daughter DNA strands in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, A.R.; Kirk-Bell, S.

    1978-01-01

    Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the newly-synthesized DNA were detected during post-replication repair of DNA in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. These pyrimidine dimer sites were inferred from a decrease in the molecular weight of pulse-labelled DNA after treatment with an extract of Micrococcus luteus containing UV-specific endonuclease activity. In DNA synthesized immediately after irradiation the frequency of these daughter strand dimer sites was 7-20% of that in the parental DNA. Such sites were found in fibroblasts from normal donors and from xeroderma pigmentosum patients (with defects in excision-repair or post-replication repair). They were excised from the DNA of normal cells. As the time between UV-irradiation and pulse-labelling was increased, the frequency of dimer sites associated with the labelled DNA decreased. If the pulse-label was delivered 6 h after irradiation of normal cells or excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells, no dimer sites were detected in the labelled DNA. It has usually been assumed that daughter-strand dimer sites were the result of recombinational exchanges. The assay procedure used in these experiments and in similar experiments of others did not distinguish between labelled DNA containing pyrimidine dimers within the labelled section, and labelled DNA which did not contain pyrimidine dimers but was attached to unlabelled DNA which did contain dimers. The latter structures would arise during normal replication immediately following UV-irradiation of mammalian cells. Calculations are presented which suggest that a significant proportion and conceivably all of the dimer sites associated with the daughter strands may have arisen in this way, rather than from recombinational exchanges as has been generally assumed. (author)

  5. Aerosol properties and unattached fraction of radon daughters close to the human face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, P.; Bohgard, M

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of the air in a dwelling with a radon problem can be done by measuring several parameters, such as radon concentration, radon daughter concentration, passive and active aerosol size distribution, unattached fraction etc. This is often done by placing the monitors at a certain location in the room, for example 1 m above the floor and away from the walls. The question then is: is this sampled air representative for the air that we breathe, that is, the air close to the face. In this study we have investigated two of the parameters: the size distribution of the inactive aerosol, and the unattached fraction of the activity concentration. (author)

  6. Simulation model of lung cancer incidence related to smoking and radon daughter exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolowijk, J.A.J.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of lung cancer and radon daughter exposure is presented. It is aimed to provide a quantitative estimate in the form of dose-effect relationship. The nature of the cigarette smoking and radon exposure interaction it is shown to be a multiplicative or sub-multiplicative function rather than a simpler model in which the effect of the two exposures would be summed. The model was written in the SAS programming language. An annotated listing of the program is given. 4 refs

  7. Calibration of apparatus for short living radon daughters monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.; Lebecka, J.; Skubacz, K.

    1988-01-01

    A liquid scintillation method was developed for absolute measurement of radon daughters concentration in air. Calibration of site IRDM equipment appears as a significant problem. Usually it employs simultaneous measurements with the calibrated device and the reference one, of known detection efficiency. This yields systematic errors resulting from errors in evaluation of the detection efficiency. The presenting method is an absolute one. The efficiency for α and β particles is of about 100%. Thanks to this the developed method is excellent as a comparative one for calibration purposes. (author)

  8. The "Annie hypothesis": did the death of his daughter cause Darwin to "give up Christianity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, John; Pallen, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines one of the most widely believed episodes in the life of Charles Darwin, that the death of his daughter Annie in 1851 caused the end of Darwin's belief in Christianity, and according to some versions, ended his attendance of church on Sundays. This hypothesis, it is argued, is commonly treated as a straightforward true account of Darwin's life, yet there is little or no supporting evidence. Furthermore, we argue, there is sufficient evidence that Darwin's loss of faith occurred before Annie's death.

  9. Positioning of the NOR-bearing chromosomes in relation to nucleoli in daughter cells after mitosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalmárová, Markéta; Smirnov, Evgeny; Kováčik, Lubomír; Popov, Alexey; Raška, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 421-425 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1691 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1662; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; Wellcome Trust(XE) 075834/04/Z Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chromosome positioning * NORs * daughter cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  10. Trust versus concerns—how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter

    OpenAIRE

    Gottvall, Maria; Grandahl, Maria; Höglund, Anna T.; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background. From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10–12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Methods. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11–12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, ...

  11. Indoor radiation exposures from radon and its daughters: a view of the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Exposure to radon daughters indoors can result in significant risk to the general public, particularly those living in homes with much higher than average concentrations. This paper reviews what is known about indoor concentrations, associated risks, and the effect of measures to save energy by reducing ventilation rates. It concludes that, by employing appropriate control measures in homes having unacceptably high concentrations, the average exposure (and therefore risk) of the general public can remain at its present level, or even decrease, despite programs to save energy by tightening homes

  12. The mother-daughter health collaborative: a partnership development to promote cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Thomas, Teleangé; Sanders, Kimberly; Hill, Lydia; Johnson, Marcia

    2010-03-01

    Creating meaningful partnerships with community partners to address cancer disparities remain challenging and a work in progress. This paper examines what started as the traditional formation of an academic-community partnership and evolved well beyond the initial research tasks. We evaluate the partnership process, which includes assessments by the members of the Mother-Daughter Health Collaborative, focusing on how partnership involvement in the data analysis process contributed to a sense of ownership and urgency about providing cancer education. The work of partnership is on-going, fluid, and challenging.

  13. Older adults' influence in family care: how do daughters and aging parents navigate differences in care goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Allison R; Zarit, Steven H; Van Haitsma, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to address how older adults influence their daily care when their preferences conflict with those of their adult daughter caregivers. Using a sample of 10 dyads (N = 20) of an older adult and adult daughter, we utilize content analysis strategies to analyze in-depth, semi-structured interview data with QSR NVIVO to investigate how older adults influence their care, how daughters respond to such efforts of influence, and how dyads navigate differences in care goals. When there is agreement in goals, dyads report tasks going well and both individuals' requests are honored. When there are differences in care goals, daughters most frequently reason with their older parents, while parents walk away or 'let go' of their requests. Daughters report making decisions for their parents for health or safety-related needs. However, all dyads discuss differences in care goals, whereby parents are perceived as insisting, resisting, or persisting in care. Findings illustrate complex patterns of responses by families when navigating differences in daily care goals that carry important implications for research and the development of dyadic-based family interventions.

  14. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. Results: The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. Conclusion: This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  15. Determination of the thoron daughter working level by a one gross alpha-count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Lau, W.K.

    1983-02-01

    A study has been done on the determination of the thoron daughter Working Level, WL(Tn), by a one gross α-count. The relationship between the gross α-count rate per unit of volume of air sampled and WL(Tn), denoted the F-factor, has been investigated as a function of sampling time, elapsed time from the end of the sampling period, i.e., waiting time, and the thoron daughter disequilibrium ratio [ThC]/[ThB]. It has been found that F depends on both the waiting time and [ThC]/[ThB]. If α-count measurements are made at least 300 min after the end of sampling, F changes by less than 10 percent over the full range of theoretical values of [ThC]/[ThB], i.e., from 0 to 1. The F-factor is independent of [ThC]/[ThB] at approximately 215 min after the end of sampling. This feature can be used to determine WL(Tn) with higher accuracy and at least 1.5 hr earlier than is commonly done using other one gross α-count methods reported in the literature

  16. Loss of Centrobin Enables Daughter Centrioles to Form Sensory Cilia in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Marco; Pollarolo, Giulia; Llamazares, Salud; Reina, Jose; Riparbelli, Maria G; Callaini, Giuliano; Gonzalez, Cayetano

    2015-08-31

    Sensory cilia are organelles that convey information to the cell from the extracellular environment. In vertebrates, ciliary dysfunction results in ciliopathies that in humans comprise a wide spectrum of developmental disorders. In Drosophila, sensory cilia are found only in the neurons of type I sensory organs, but ciliary dysfunction also has dramatic consequences in this organism because it impairs the mechanosensory properties of bristles and chaetae and leads to uncoordination, a crippling condition that causes lethality shortly after eclosion. The cilium is defined by the ciliary membrane, a protrusion of the cell membrane that envelops the core structure known as the axoneme, a microtubule array that extends along the cilium from the basal body. In vertebrates, basal body function requires centriolar distal and subdistal appendages and satellites. Because these structures are acquired through centriole maturation, only mother centrioles can serve as basal bodies. Here, we show that although centriole maturity traits are lacking in Drosophila, basal body fate is reserved to mother centrioles in Drosophila type I neurons. Moreover, we show that depletion of the daughter-centriole-specific protein Centrobin (CNB) enables daughter centrioles to dock on the cell membrane and to template an ectopic axoneme that, although structurally defective, protrudes out of the cell and is enveloped by a ciliary membrane. Conversely, basal body capability is inhibited in mother centrioles modified to carry CNB. These results reveal the crucial role of CNB in regulating basal body function in Drosophila ciliated sensory organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Centriole amplification by mother and daughter centrioles differs in multiciliated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jord, Adel; Lemaître, Anne-Iris; Delgehyr, Nathalie; Faucourt, Marion; Spassky, Nathalie; Meunier, Alice

    2014-12-04

    The semi-conservative centrosome duplication in cycling cells gives rise to a centrosome composed of a mother and a newly formed daughter centriole. Both centrioles are regarded as equivalent in their ability to form new centrioles and their symmetric duplication is crucial for cell division homeostasis. Multiciliated cells do not use the archetypal duplication program and instead form more than a hundred centrioles that are required for the growth of motile cilia and the efficient propelling of physiological fluids. The majority of these new centrioles are thought to appear de novo, that is, independently from the centrosome, around electron-dense structures called deuterosomes. Their origin remains unknown. Using live imaging combined with correlative super-resolution light and electron microscopy, we show that all new centrioles derive from the pre-existing progenitor cell centrosome through multiple rounds of procentriole seeding. Moreover, we establish that only the daughter centrosomal centriole contributes to deuterosome formation, and thus to over ninety per cent of the final centriole population. This unexpected centriolar asymmetry grants new perspectives when studying cilia-related diseases and pathological centriole amplification observed in cycling cells and associated with microcephaly and cancer.

  18. Distinct mechanisms eliminate mother and daughter centrioles in meiosis of starfish oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Pinto, Joana; Somogyi, Kálmán; Karreman, Matthia A; König, Julia; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Gönczy, Pierre; Schwab, Yannick; Lénárt, Péter

    2016-03-28

    Centriole elimination is an essential process that occurs in female meiosis of metazoa to reset centriole number in the zygote at fertilization. How centrioles are eliminated remains poorly understood. Here we visualize the entire elimination process live in starfish oocytes. Using specific fluorescent markers, we demonstrate that the two older, mother centrioles are selectively removed from the oocyte by extrusion into polar bodies. We show that this requires specific positioning of the second meiotic spindle, achieved by dynein-driven transport, and anchorage of the mother centriole to the plasma membrane via mother-specific appendages. In contrast, the single daughter centriole remaining in the egg is eliminated before the first embryonic cleavage. We demonstrate that these distinct elimination mechanisms are necessary because if mother centrioles are artificially retained, they cannot be inactivated, resulting in multipolar zygotic spindles. Thus, our findings reveal a dual mechanism to eliminate centrioles: mothers are physically removed, whereas daughters are eliminated in the cytoplasm, preparing the egg for fertilization. © 2016 Borrego-Pinto et al.

  19. A Case Report on Management of Father Daughter Incest with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjir Rashid Soron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incest is a neglected and hidden public health problem. This case is about a patient who was victim of sexual abuse, suffered from schizophrenia and abused his biological daughter. He was physically and sexually abused by seniors and classmates, developed paranoid delusion and auditory hallucination. During the course of the illness, he was hospitalized several times as a case of schizophrenia and sexual dysfunction was his main concern. The patient’s illness followed a waxing and waning course. He took medication on on-and-off basis. He abused his biological daughter sexually at the later stage of the illness. Ultimately, the patient attempted suicide after an indecent sexual act with another relative and he was admitted to the hospital. He was treated with risperidone that was titrated to 10 mg per day. After continuing the medication for 2 years he regained a functioning life and remained stable with medication. This case shows the importance of exploring the sexual behavior of the patients and sharing the experience may help in the treatment of schizophrenia patients with incest.

  20. Dynamics of Rn-222 daughter size distribution evolution: modelling and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, G.; El Moussaoui, B.; Renoux, A.

    1989-01-01

    Size distribution of short lived radon daughters is considered as a fundamental parameter in radiation protection in so far as about 40% of human exposure is due to inhalation of such radioactive particles, in mines as well as in indoor environments. Many experiments have been carried out in various conditions: controlled atmospheres, uranium mine atmospheres, atmospheric air, and more recently in houses because of the increasing interest in exposure to natural radiation. From an experimental point of view, previous measurements dealt with the cumulative size distribution of radon progeny alpha activity. Then, in spite of the difficulty in comparing data of different investigators, it was often found that a significant part of the activity was associated with particles above 0.1 μm in diameter. Otherwise, a bimodality was often observed in the case of airborne radioactive particles. The attachment of small radioactive ions or atoms produced by the radon decay on ambient particles has been studied. Differences arise in the calculation of the attachment coefficient and in the choice of the natural particle size distribution. This paper presents our investigation in this field by studying the theoretical and experimental aspects of the radon daughter behaviour in a cylindrical vessel simultaneously. (author)

  1. Narrative of a drug user's daughter: impact on family daily routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the repercussions of coexisting with the drug use in a family based on the daughter's narrative of a woman who is a multiple drugs user. Method: A case study with a family accessed in 2014, through the records of a Poison Control Center in the North of Paraná. It was used a semi-structured interview and field journal, and resources of thematic oral history to apprehend the story, from the question "How is/was for you and your family to live with a mother who is a drug user?” Results: The daughter's memories emphasized repercussions in the family context: long-term of living with drug abuse; absence or transience of the motherly figure, with rupture processes for homeless situation; cycle of parental disruption/forgiveness and continued presence and fatherly support. Final considerations: The narrative indicated a family that could be added to the process of rehabilitation and social reintegration of the female drug user.

  2. An unusual case of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (HNDI) affecting mother and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Dinesh; Hart, Rachel; Jones, Caroline; Ellis, Ian; Ramakrishnan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes iInsipidus (HNDI) is an uncommon disorder due to a resistance to anti-diuretic hormone leading to a reduced urinary concentrating ability. The X-linked form is fully expressed in hemizygous male patients, but diabetes insipidus may also present in heterozygous females where it must be distinguished from autosomal and other secondary causes. We report a mother and daughter in the same family with HNDI due to a heterozygous deletion in exon 1 of the AVPR2 gene, not previously described in the literature. A 5-year-old girl was referred for investigation of polyuria and polydipsia. The patient had a water deprivation test elsewhere at the age of 3 that was inconclusive. A degree of water restriction was imposed leading to headaches. The thyroid, cortisol, renal, and calcium profiles were normal. Her mother showed similar symptoms that had not been previously investigated. AQP2 (Aquaporin) and initial AVPR2 gene sequencing had not identified a mutation, but subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a heterozygous large exon 1 deletion of the AVPR2 gene. The same deletion was also found in the child's mother. The patient's symptoms have significantly improved on appropriate treatment. Further analysis revealed skewed X inactivation in mother and daughter.

  3. Comparing summer and winter indoor radon and radon daughters activity in Campinas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, O.S.; Hadler, N.J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Neman, R.S.; Souza, W.F.; Tello, S.C.A.; Paulo, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a technique - based on alpha particle track detection using CR-39 - where the activity originated from indoor radon can be potentially separated into three fraction: (i) radon in the air, (ii) radon daughters (RD), 218 Po and 214 Po, in the air and (iii) RD plated-out on the detector surface during exposure. In this work only a partial separation was carried out, then our results are limited to radon plus RD in the air and RD attached to detector surface. These activities can be separated if size and gray level of the round tracks are measured using an automatic optical microscopy system.Our group carried out an indoor radon and radon daughters (RD) survey in Campinas made up by a summer (November, 96 to May, 97) and a winter (May, 97 to November, 97) exposure, where the detectors were placed in the same rooms of the same dwellings (approximately 100) in both cases. Comparing winter and summer alpha activity for the detectors analyzed up to now, approximately 45 dwellings, we observed that: i) it seems that the source of radon is the material (brick and concrete mainly) making up walls, floor and ceiling of the dwellings, ii) there is no clear relationship between intensity of aeration and the activities measured in this work, and iii) the average ratio between winter and summer activity in the air (radon plus RD) is approximately equal to similar ratios observed in other countries, but for radon only. (author)

  4. Leaching of uranium and thorium from monazite: III. Leaching of radiogenic daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.; Eyal, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The solid-state diffusion model of actinide leaching developed in Part II of this series is applied to leaching of radiogenic daughters of the actinide decay chains. For an untreated natural monazite, the direct leaching component of 228 Th release is larger than that for 232 Th because of enhanced solid-state mobility for 228 Th provided by 228 Ra-recoil tracks. A significant portion of the 228 Th which appears in the leachate, however, is attributed to decay of insoluble 228 Ra which is continually released from the mineral by matrix dissolution and recoil ejection. For a monazite sample that was annealed at 800 degree C prior to leaching, the bulk of the 228 Th in solution was supplied by decay of 228 Ra rejected from the mineral matrix during annealing. The radiogenic 234 U daughter of the 238 U decay chain did not exhibit similarly enhanced leaching because the long half-life of 234 U permitted local radiation damage to be annealed out at ambient temperature prior to 234 U decay

  5. Measurements of radon daughter concentrations in structures built on or near uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Kerr, G.D.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is discussed that has been used to measure air concentrations of short-lived daughters of 222 Rn in residential and commercial structures built on or near uranium mill tailings in the western part of the United States. In this technique, the concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC are calculated from one integral count of the RaA and two integral counts of the RaC' alpha-particle activity collected on a filter with an air sampling device. A computer program is available to calculate the concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC in air and to estimate the accuracy in these calculated concentrations. This program is written in the BASIC language. Also discussed in this paper are the alpha-particle spectrometer used to count activity on the air filters and the results of our radon daughter measurements in Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico. These results and results of other measurements discussed in a companion paper are now being used in a comprehensive study of potential radiation exposures to the public from uranium mill tailing piles

  6. Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Suffering Daughters and Wives. Sentimental Themes in Finnish and Nordic Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija Isomaa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines sentimental themes and scenarios in Nordic nineteenthcentury literature, focusing on Finnish realism. The main claim of the article is that the treatment of the Woman Question in Nordic literature is thematically connected to French sentimentalism that depicted upper-class women caught in the conflict between personal freedom and familial duties. Typical scenarios were family barrier to marriage and love triangle, in which an unhappily married woman fell in love with another man. French sentimental social novels took a stance on the position of women. Similar themes and scenarios can be found in Nordic nineteenth-century novels and plays. The ‘daughter novel’ tradition from Fredrika Bremer’s The President’s Daughters (1834 to Minna Canth’s Hanna (1886 depict the sufferings of upper-class girls in patriarchal family and society. A Doll’s House (1879 by Henrik Ibsen centers on the theme of conflicting duties, depicting the moral awakening of a doll-like wife, and Papin rouva (1893, ‘The Wife of a Clergyman’ by Juhani Aho concentrates on the sufferings and moral considerations of the unhappily married Elli. The article suggests that the sentimentalist legacy informs the Nordic nineteenth-century literature and should be taken into account in the scholarship.

  8. Comments upon 'basis of intake limits for radon and thoron daughters'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.G.

    1984-05-01

    AECB consultative document C-78 proposes that the different types of exposure in uranium mines should be combined in such a fashion that the sum of the fractions contributing to annual dose (each fraction being the annual exposure of each type divided by the corresponding maximum permissible annual exposure) does not exceed unity. In order for this approach to be valid it is necessary for each of the demoninators to represent the same risk of mortality from malignancy, in this instance mortality from lung cancer where malignancy and mortality are very nearly equal. Document C-78 indicates that the limit of 50 mSv/a for whole body gamma irradiation and 4.7 WLM/a exposure to radon daughters are assumed to carry the same risk of mortality from malignancy. In the following document it is demonstrated that this assumption is not valid and consequently the current recommendations of C-78 for combining risk from gamma radiation and radon daughters are also not tenable

  9. Radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M H; Lindstrom, J B; Dungey, C E; Kisieleski, W E

    1979-11-01

    Radon concentration, working level, and meteorological variables were measured continuously from June 1977 through June 1978 at three stations in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill with measurements integrated to hourly intervals. Both radon and daughters show strong variations associated with low wind velocities and stable atmospheric conditions, and diurnal variations associated with thermal inversions. Average radon concentration shows seasonal dependence with highest concentrations observed during fall and winter. Comparison of radon concentrations and working levels between three stations shows strong dependence on wind direction and velocity. Radon concentrations and working-level distributions for each month and each station were analyzed. The average maximum, minimum, and modal concentration and working levels were estimated with observed frequencies. The highest concentration is 11,000 pCi/m/sup 3/ on the tailings. Working-level variations parallel radon variations but lag by less than one hour. The highest working levels were observed at night when conditions of higher secular radioactive equilibrium for radon daughters exist. Background radon concentration was measured at two stations, each located about 25 km from the mill, and the average is 408 pCi/m/sup 3/. Average working-level background is 3.6 x 10/sup -3/.

  10. Unusual Father-to-Daughter Transmission of Incontinentia Pigmenti Due to Mosaicism in IP Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Francesca; Conte, Matilde Immacolata; Diociaiuti, Andrea; Bigoni, Stefania; Branda, Maria Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; El Hachem, Maya; Ursini, Matilde Valeria

    2017-09-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti (IP; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man catalog #308300) is an X-linked dominant ectodermal disorder caused by mutations of the inhibitor of κ polypeptide gene enchancer in B cells, kinase γ ( IKBKG )/ nuclear factor κB, essential modulator ( NEMO ) gene. Hemizygous IKBKG/NEMO loss-of-function (LoF) mutations are lethal in males, thus patients are female, and the disease is always transmitted from an IP-affected mother to her daughter. We present 2 families with father-to-daughter transmission of IP and provide for the first time molecular evidence that the combination of somatic and germ-line mosaicism for IKBKG/NEMO loss of function mutations in IP males resulted in the transmission of the disease to a female child. We searched for the IKBKG/NEMO mutant allele in blood, urine, skin, and sperm DNA and found that the 2 fathers were somatic and germ-line mosaics for the p.Gln132×mutation or the exon 4-10 deletion of IKBKG/NEMO , respectively. The highest level of IKBKG/NEMO mutant cells was detected in the sperm, which might explain the recurrence of the disease. We therefore recommend careful clinical evaluation in IP male cases and the genetic investigation in sperm DNA to ensure correct genetic counseling and prevent the risk of paternal transmission of IP. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Lindstrom, J.B.; Dungey, C.E.; Kisieleski, W.E.

    1979-11-01

    Radon concentration, working level, and meteorological variables were measured continuously from June 1977 through June 1978 at three stations in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill with measurements integrated to hourly intervals. Both radon and daughters show strong variations associated with low wind velocities and stable atmospheric conditions, and diurnal variations associated with thermal inversions. Average radon concentration shows seasonal dependence with highest concentrations observed during fall and winter. Comparison of radon concentrations and working levels between three stations shows strong dependence on wind direction and velocity. Radon concentrations and working-level distributions for each month and each station were analyzed. The average maximum, minimum, and modal concentration and working levels were estimated with observed frequencies. The highest concentration is 11,000 pCi/m 3 on the tailings. Working-level variations parallel radon variations but lag by less than one hour. The highest working levels were observed at night when conditions of higher secular radioactive equilibrium for radon daughters exist. Background radon concentration was measured at two stations, each located about 25 km from the mill, and the average is 408 pCi/m 3 . Average working-level background is 3.6 x 10 -3

  12. Impact of framing on intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey R; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2011-10-01

    Effective promotion of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine across ethnic/racial groups may help curtail disparities in cervical cancer rates. This study aims to investigate mothers' intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV as a function of message framing (gain versus loss) across three cultural groups: Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic African-American. One hundred fifty mothers were recruited from city department of health clinics and asked to respond to information about the HPV vaccine for their daughters. In a repeated-measures experiment, two different frames (gain and loss) were used to present the information. The results indicated that both frames are equally effective in promoting vaccination intentions in non-Hispanic white mothers. Conversely, a loss frame message was more effective in non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic mothers. Information sharing campaigns, aimed at promoting the HPV vaccine among ethnic minority groups should be modified to not focus exclusively on the benefits of vaccination.

  13. The use of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery for controlling radon and radon-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Roseme, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    An energy research house in Maryland was found to have radon concentrations far in excess of recommended guidelines. A mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery was installed in this house to test its effectiveness as an energy-efficient control technique for indoor radon. Radon concentration was monitored continuously for two weeks under varying ventilation conditions (0.07 to 0.8 air changes per hour (ach)) and radon daughter concentrations were measured by grab-sample techniques about nine times daily during this period. At ventilation rates of 0.6 ach and higher radon and radon daughter levels dropped below guidelines for indoor concentrations. Comparison with other studies indicates that indoor radon buildup may be a problem in a considerable portion of houses characterized by their low infiltration rates. The use of mechanical ventilation systems with air-to-air heat exchangers may offer a practical, cost-effective, and energy-efficient means of alleviating not only the radon problem specifically but also the general deterioration of indoor air quality in houses designed or retrofitted to achieve low infiltration

  14. Protecting our Khmer daughters: Ghosts of the past, uncertain futures, and the HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nancy J.; Do, Huyen H.; Talbot, Jocelyn; Sos, Channdara; Ros, Srey; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The FDA approved the first HPV vaccine in 2006. Research into parental decision-making and concerns about HPV vaccination highlight questions about parenting and parents’ role in the crafting of their daughters’ future sexuality. In contrast to much of this literature, we explore narratives from interviews with Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine age-eligible daughters who experienced genocide and came to the United States as refugees. Design We conducted in-depth, in-person interviews with 25 Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine-age eligible daughters. Interviews were conducted in Khmer and translated into English for analysis. We followed standard qualitative analysis techniques including iterative data review, multiple coders, and ‘member checking’. Five members of the research team reviewed all transcripts and two members independently coded each transcript for concepts and themes. Results Interview narratives highlight the presence of the past alongside desires for protection from uncertain futures. We turn to Quesada and colleagues’ (2011) concept structural vulnerability to outline the constraints posed by these women’s positionalities as genocide survivors when faced with making decisions in a area with which they have little direct knowledge or background: cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion Our study sheds light on the prioritization of various protective health practices, including but not exclusive to HPV vaccination, for Khmer mothers, as well as the rationalities informing decision-making regarding their daughters’ health. PMID:24905057

  15. Maternal acceptance, attitude and knowledge on human papilloma virus vaccination for their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairaing, Karicha; Suwannarurk, Komsun; Thaweekul, Yudthadej; Poomtavorn, Yenruedee

    2012-01-01

    To compare the basic knowledge scores, attitudes and acceptability to HPV immunization before and after acknowledge about HPV, cervical cancer and vaccine to study group. An anonymous survey was applied to women attending the outpatient clinic, Thammasat University Hospital from April 2010 to October 2010. Basic knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine, attitudes and acceptability to HPV immunization were collected via a self administered questionnaire. A total of 173 mothers completed the survey responses rate of 86.5% (173/200). There is no difference in characteristic and lifestyles of the responders. The basic knowledge scores was higher in the subjects who had higher education level and regular cervical screening history. Most of subjects (> 85%) recognized that HPV is associated with cervical cancer but more than half of them confused about route of transmission. Basic knowledge scores is increased in all acceptability group (strongly agree to strongly disagree) after be informed about HPV and vaccine was observed. Most subjects (78.6%) agree to their daughters' vaccination indicating the high vaccine acceptances. The leading factors to maternal acceptances were free vaccination, negative attitudes such as sexual behavior of daughters and positive attitudes such as vaccine efficacy. HPV vaccine acceptance seems to be depended on cost and efficacy than maternal knowledge. The vaccine is not widely used. The cost-effectiveness analysis should be provided by government. Education and communication in public media are aimed for increasing coverage of vaccination in the future. Maternal acceptances of vaccine depend on high efficacy and low cost.

  16. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Beatrice N; Balogun, Mobolanle R; Okafor, Ifeoma P

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi Info™ version 7. The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9%) and HPV vaccines (19.7%) among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization schedule to eliminate the financial barrier.

  17. Suicidal ideation among rural immigrant daughters-in-law with multi-roles as females, farmers and immigrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qirong; Jin, Yu; Zhan, Shengwei; Yu, Xiaodong; Huang, Fen

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is a major public health issue in China, and suicidal ideation is an important step in the suicidal process. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among rural immigrant daughters-in-law with multi-role of female, farmer and immigrant in China. A total of 939 participants including 474 local daughters-in-law and 465 immigrant daughters-in-law were surveyed using the self-rating questionnaire. Demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, impulsivity and suicidal ideation were assessed. Results indicated that the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation among rural immigrant daughters-in-law was 9.68%. Physical disability, domestic violence and negative events demonstrated statistical significance by suicidal ideation (p suicidal ideation had higher scores of depression, anxiety and impulsiveness in the univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression showed that physical disability (OR = 7.43, 95%CI: 2.84-19.46), domestic violence (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.02-6.88), depression (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 1.01-1.12), impulsiveness (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.08) and motor impulsiveness (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 1.01-1.14) were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation is an issue that can't be ignored among rural immigrant daughters-in-law. And the findings should be considered for the intervention of the suicide among the rural immigrant daughters-in-law.

  18. Estimate of lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor exposure to natural radon-222 daughters in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Young Chang; Jeong-Ho Lee; Chung-Woo Ha

    1993-01-01

    Lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor 222 Rn daughters exposure in Korea was quantitatively estimated by a modified relative risk projection model proposed by the U.S. National Academy of Science and the recent Korean life table data. The lifetime excess risk of lung cancer death attributable to annual constant exposure to Korean indoor radon daughters was estimated to be about 230/10 6 per WLM, which seemed to be nearly in the median of the range of 150-450/10 6 per WLM reported by the UNSCEAR in 1988. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  19. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM: An interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eKatsikitis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviours in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  20. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM): an interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, Mary; Jones, Christian; Muscat, Melody; Crawford, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviors in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  1. In situ Ge(Li)-spectrometric measurements of gamma radiation from radon daughters under different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, R.R.; Persson, B.R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The photon fluence from radionuclides in the ground and air was measured continuously with a Ge(Li) spectrometer during several weeks. The most prominent change in photon fluence rate near the ground was obtained during periods of heavy rainfall. Deposition of the short-lived radon daughters 214 Pb and 214 Bi on the ground surface can cause a temporary increase in the external absorbed dose rate of approximately 2μrads/h. The photon fluence from airborne radon daughters can be correlated to the degree of atmospheric stability. During stable conditions the photon fluence increases and the activity ratio 214 Bi/ 214 Pb decreases

  2. Khmer American Mothers' Knowledge about HPV and HBV Infection and Their Perceptions of Parenting: My English Speaking Daughter Knows More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeok Lee, RN, PhD, FAAN

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The study suggests that situation-specific conceptual and methodological approaches that take into account the uniqueness of the sociocultural context of CAs is a novel method for identifying factors that are significant in shaping the perception of Khmer mothers' health education related to HBV and HPV prevention among their daughters. The communication between mother and daughter about sex and the risk involved in contracting HBV and HPV has been limited, partly because it is seen as a “taboo subject” and partly because mothers think that schools educate their children regarding sexuality and health.

  3. Detector for gaseous nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Kubo, Katsumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the fabrication of a precipitator type detector, as well as improve the reliability. Constitution: Gas to be measured flown in an anode is stored in a gas processing system. By applying a voltage between the anode and the cathode, if positively charged Rb or Cs which is the daughter products of gaseous fission products are present in the gas to be measured, the daughter products are successively deposited electrostatically to the cathode. The daughter products issue beta-rays and gamma-rays to ionize the argon gas at the anode, whereby ionizing current flows between both of the electrodes. Pulses are generated from the ionizing current, and presence or absence, as well as the amount of the gaseous fission products are determined by the value recorded for the number of the pulses to thereby detect failures in the nuclear fuel elements. After the completion of the detection, the inside of the anode is evacuated and the cathode is heated to evaporate and discharge the daughter products externally. This eliminates the effects of the former detection to the succeeding detection. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Perceptions of Fathers' Involvement in Their Daughters' Sports: The Relationship to Self-Esteem and Fear of Failure in Specialized AAU Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Jan E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and describe a daughter's perception of father involvement in her sports; and the relationship to her self-esteem and fear of failure. The purpose of the study was exploratory in nature and it was hypothesized that quality father involvement would be positively associated with a daughter's self-esteem and…

  5. International intercalibration and intercomparison programme for radon, thoron and daughters measuring equipment. Part. 1: Radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Solomon, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Programme for Radon, Thoron and Daughters Monitoring Equipment, abbreviated IIIP, is a program organized jointly by Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Radiation Protection Research Programme of the Commission of European Communities. The broad purpose of the IIIP is to determine if the somewhat diverse calibration procedures used in different countries are equivalent. The general approach was to select four regional reference laboratories and entrust them with the details of project definition and execution. The four selected laboratories are: Australian Radiation Laboratory, US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory, UK National Radiation Protection Board, US DOI Bureau of Mines. The Organizing Committee that selected the four laboratories remained intact and served an oversight function in all work to date

  6. Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of 218 Po and 214 Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny

  7. Maternal HIV Serostatus, Mother–Daughter Sexual Risk Communication and Adolescent HIV Risk Beliefs and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S.

    2012-01-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters’ abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter’s HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973

  8. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF MELITTA SCHMIDEBERG KLEIN. MORE THAN MELANIE KLEIN'S REBEL DAUGHTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassullo, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Compared to the impact of the work of Melanie Klein on the history of psychoanalysis, the contributions of her daughter, Melitta Schmideberg, passed almost unnoticed. At present, Schmideberg is solely remembered for having harshly attacked her mother at the start of the Controversial Discussions of the British Psycho-Analytical Society and for having coined the fitting expression "stable instability" in order to describe borderline and asocial personality disorders. However, the author discusses how the early groundbreaking discoveries of Klein with regards to primitive anxieties were the result of the joint work and thinking of Melanie and Melitta. Moreover, he argues that the conflict between the two, along with the subsequent polarization of their views, did not facilitate the development of psychoanalysis, neither did it help the analytic community to recognize the value of Melitta's contributions to psychoanalysis.

  9. Comparison of radon and thoron daughter behaviour in two underground uranium mine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    Measurements were made of aerosol concentration and size distribution in 5 locations downstream of working areas in two Canadian uranium mines which use track and trackless mining methods. In the track mining area the aerosol concentration ranged from 3x10 4 to 7x10 4 /cm 3 , averaging 5x10 4 /cm 3 . The highest values were associated with the passage of diesel equipment. The count median diameter of the aerosol varied from 32 to 94 nm, with the smaller sizes associated with the presence of diesel exhaust. The activity median diameter was measured for radon and thoron daughters in each environment. In the track mine the diameter of 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi averaged 54, 50, 54 nm respectively, and of 212 Pb averaged 70 nm. In the trackless mine, these diameters were 73, 70, 85 and 100 nm, respectively. The activity median diameter in terms of radon Total Potential Alpha Energy was found to be 89 nm

  10. Radon and radon daughters indoors, problems in the determination of the annual average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The annual average of the concentration of radon and radon daughters in indoor air is required both in studies such as determining the collective dose to a population and at comparing with limits. Measurements are often carried out during a time period shorter than a year for practical reasons. Methods for estimating the uncertainties due to temporal variations in an annual average calculated from measurements carried out during various lengths of the sampling periods. These methods have been applied to the results from long-term measurements of radon-222 in a few houses. The possibilities to use correction factors in order to get a more adequate annual average have also been studied and some examples have been given. (orig.)

  11. Radon and radon daughter measurements and methods utilized by EPA's Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), Office of Radiation Programs, has the responsibility for conducting the Environmental Protection Agency's study of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry. Numerous measurements in structures constructed on land reclaimed from phosphate mining showed that working levels in these structures range from 0.001 to 0.9 WL. Sampling is performed by drawing air through a 0.8 micrometer pore size, 25 mm diameter filter at a flow rate of 10 to 15 liters/minute for from 5 to 20 minutes, depending on the daughter levels anticipated. The detection system consists of a ruggedized silicon surface barrier detector (450 mm 2 -100 micrometer depletion) connected through an appropriate pre-amplifier-amplifier to a 1024-channel multichannel analyzer. Other measurement methods are also discussed

  12. Level of radon and its daughters, and internal exposure doses in Shaanxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xin; Zhang Yawei; Yu Huilian

    1992-01-01

    About 4500 indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with FDT-84 sampler throughout Shaanxi Province in various seasons, and the concentrations of radon and its daughters in the air were determined with FD-3016 scintillator. Meanwhile, the diurnal, seasonal and altitudinal variation of radon and its progeny in Xi'an area were observed. The annual effective dose equivalent for individual adult resident was estimated to be 1.73 mSv·a -1 and the annual collective effective dose equivalent for the residents- in the whole province was estimated to be 5.09 ± 10 4 man.Sv·a -1 . The concentration levels and the doses are within the range of the data published in UNSCEAR reports in recent years, and all of them are in the normal range of the natural background

  13. Characteristics of attached radon-222 daughters under both laboratory and underground uranium-mine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.O.; Cooper, J.A.; Langford, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.

    1981-09-01

    The organic, inorganic, and radiological characteristics of airborne aerosols have been measured as a function of particle size in controlled atmosphere test chambers and operating uranium mines. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in two mines ranged from 26 to 57 ng/m 3 of air. The carbon chain length of adsorbed n-alkanes was correlated with particle size. Normal mining activities produced an ore dust aerosol with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) greater than 2 μm. The elements Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, and U exhibited elemental ratios similar to bulk ore and had comparable MMAD's. The S, Zn, and Pb were higher in aerosols than bulk ore and were associated with smaller MMAD particulates. Radon daughter particle size distributions were influenced by the kinds of particulates generated in mining activity

  14. A tracking algorithm for the reconstruction of the daughters of long-lived particles in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Dendek, Adam Mateusz

    2018-01-01

    A tracking algorithm for the reconstruction of the daughters of long-lived particles in LHCb 5 Jun 2018, 16:00 1h 30m Library, Centro San Domenico () LHC experiments Posters session Speaker Katharina Mueller (Universitaet Zuerich (CH)) Description The LHCb experiment at CERN operates a high precision and robust tracking system to reach its physics goals, including precise measurements of CP-violation phenomena in the heavy flavour quark sector and searches for New Physics beyond the Standard Model. The track reconstruction procedure is performed by a number of algorithms. One of these, PatLongLivedTracking, is optimised to reconstruct "downstream tracks", which are tracks originating from decays outside the LHCb vertex detector of long-lived particles, such as Ks or Λ0. After an overview of the LHCb tracking system, we provide a detailed description of the LHCb downstream track reconstruction algorithm. Its computational intelligence part is described in details, including the adaptation of the employed...

  15. Parent and African American Daughter Obesity Prevention Interventions: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monique; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In the U.S., overweight/obesity among African American (AA) girls has become epidemic. Since parental factors may be associated with improved weight status, it is important to understand the empirical evidence for including parents in obesity prevention interventions with AA girls. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify effectiveness and characteristics of obesity prevention interventions for AA girls (6-17 years) and their parent. Included interventions addressed physical activity (PA), dietary/eating behaviors, and body composition. Of 708 studies published through March 2014, eight met inclusion criteria. Though effects were in the intended direction for most, statistically significant effects were found only for dietary intake and eating behavior. Interventions were characterized by exclusion of girls ages 13-17, failure to link parent involvement to child outcomes, the absence of family systems theory, and modest effects. Further research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of daughter/parent obesity prevention interventions.

  16. Analysis of thick source alpha particle spectrum from radium and its daughters in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The alpha particle energy spectrum of 226 Ra and its four alpha emitting daughters in an ashed, ground bone sample has been resolved into its components using a computerized spectrum stripping algorithm. These calculated results have been compared to direct measurements of the 226 Ra and 214 Po distributions obtained by alpha--gamma coincidence techniques. The ability of the calculation to deconvolute the total spectrum into its five alpha components implies that straightforward alpha counting may be used instead of the very low efficiency 226 Ra alpha--gamma coincidence method. From knowledge of the actual 226 Ra distribution, along with suitable detector energy and efficiency calibrations, one could determine endosteal cell dose rate empirically

  17. Familial hypophosphataemic rickets affecting a father and his two daughters: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpebegh, C O; Blanco-Blanco, E

    2010-01-01

    Hypophosphataemic rickets (HR) is a rare cause of short stature associated with limb deformities. To report the clinical and laboratory features of HR in two siblings and their father. Following the diagnosis of HR in a 4-year-old girl, her siblings and parents were screened using clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters. Short stature, lower limb deformities, frontal bossing and hypophosphataemia were present in all three patients. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was markedly elevated in both siblings who were aged two and 11 years but only minimally raised in their 43-year-old father. While spontaneous mutation is the presumed aetiology in the father, X linked dominant inheritance is the likely cause in both daughters. Hypophosphataemic rickets should be considered in the differential diagnosis of short stature associated with limb deformities regardless of a family history of HR. Serum ALP may not be remarkably elevated when the diagnosis is made in adulthood.

  18. The duration of mitosis and daughter cell size are modulated by nutrients in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Ricardo M; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2017-11-06

    The size of nearly all cells is modulated by nutrients. Thus, cells growing in poor nutrients can be nearly half the size of cells in rich nutrients. In budding yeast, cell size is thought to be controlled almost entirely by a mechanism that delays cell cycle entry until sufficient growth has occurred in G1 phase. Here, we show that most growth of a new daughter cell occurs in mitosis. When the rate of growth is slowed by poor nutrients, the duration of mitosis is increased, which suggests that cells compensate for slow growth in mitosis by increasing the duration of growth. The amount of growth required to complete mitosis is reduced in poor nutrients, leading to a large reduction in cell size. Together, these observations suggest that mechanisms that control the extent of growth in mitosis play a major role in cell size control in budding yeast. © 2017 Leitao and Kellogg.

  19. House characteristics associated with gamma radiation and radon daughter working levels in eastern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Dignam, J.J.; Anast, G.A.; Reilly, M.A.; Gerusky, T.M.; Hartman, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    Working levels (WL) of radon daughters and γ measurements in basements are described for ∼ 1200 houses near the Reading Prong. House variables included condition and construction materials of basement floors and walls, basement heights and areas, heating systems, air conditioning, water supply, and presence of drains and sump pumps. WLs were poorly predicted by house characteristics or γ measurements, while γ levels were well predicted by house characteristics and WL. Factors predicting high γ levels tended to be associated with low WLs and vice versa. Dirt basement floors and fieldstone basement walls were strongly associated with high γ levels, as were poor wall conditions in multivariate analyses. Gamma levels were low in electrically heated homes. High WLs were strongly associated with electric heat, low WLs with basement walls of fieldstone and/or in poor condition. Large house volumes and well water supply were also associated with higher WLs. (author)

  20. Radon daughter plate-out measurements at SNOLAB for polyethylene and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Matthew; Bauer, Dan; Bunker, Ray; Calkins, Rob; Cooley, Jodi; Loer, Ben; Scorza, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    Polyethylene and copper samples were exposed to the underground air at SNOLAB for approximately three months while several environmental factors were monitored. Predictions of the radon-daughter plate-out rate are compared to the resulting surface activities, obtained from high-sensitivity measurements of alpha emissivity using the XIA UltraLo-1800 spectrometer at SMU. From these measurements, we determine an average $^{210}$Pb plate-out rate of 249 and 423~atoms/day/cm$^{2}$ for polyethylene and copper, respectively, when exposed to radon activity of 135 Bq/m$^{3}$ at SNOLAB. A time-dependent model of alpha activity is discussed for these materials placed in similar environmental conditions.

  1. Maternal stress before and during pregnancy and subsequent infertility in daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, O; Li, J; Kesmodel, U S

    2016-01-01

    is likely to be very stressful. We based the timing of exposure on the date of the death of the family member, although the stress may well have started earlier. Infertility was also defined indirectly, and many women in the cohort were too young at the end of the follow-up to have been diagnosed. However...... trimester may affect the later fecundity of daughters. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This study was supported by a grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2010-StG-260242-PROGEURO) to the ProgEuro project (http://progeuro.au.dk). O.P.-R. is partly supported by a fellowship from Aarhus University...... and a travel grant from Oticon Fonden. The authors report no conflict of interests....

  2. Contribution of radon daughters plated-out in a cylindrical device by track-technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, A.F. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Kotb, M.A. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Biophysics Dept.); Toth-Szilagyi, M. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1991-01-01

    CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector is used to measure the fraction of alpha-particle tracks due to radon daughters activities plated-out on the internal walls of a cylindrical-shaped plastic can. Radium chloride solution is used as a radon source, the exposure time is ranged from 4 hours to 3 days. To assess the percentage of plate-out effect on CR-39 nuclear track detector, two different methods were used. In one experiment, a few circular parallel pairs of CR-39 sheets were hanged in the can device. In the other experiment, the estimation of the plate-out effect has been performed, after exposure to the radon source, by detecting tracks with a second unexposed sheet placed in close contact to the exposed wall and detectors. In the two methods, it was found that the chemically etched tracks related to plated-out activities contribute about 50% of the measured alpha-particles tracks. (orig.).

  3. Postcolonial Recycling of the Oriental Gothic: Habiby's Saraya, The Ghoul's Daughter and Mukherjee's Jasmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gamal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Emile Habiby's Saraya, The Ghoul's Daughter (1991 and Bharati Mukherjee's Jasmine (1989 as two postcolonial novels seeking to rewrite the history of Palestinian and Indian diaspora according to their respective myths of Oriental vampires. Habiby's recycling of the Palestinian folktale of the ghoul and Mukherjee's recuperation of the Hindu myth of Lord Shiva aim to spotlight the classical vampiric topoi of otherness, unspeakableness, foreignness, and border existences in colonial and post-colonial contexts. Postcolonial Gothic writing is thus shown to foreground gender, nationality, and ethnicity as sites of both power conflict and cultural exchange. Adopting a counter-Orientalist approach, the study sheds light on the different strategies these two postcolonial texts employ to deconstruct the demonic and ghostly constructions of Arabs and Indians.

  4. Understanding the experience of adult daughters caring for an ageing parent, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Anthierens, Sibyl; Van Assche, Elisa; Welvaert, Joanna; Verhoeven, Véronique; Wens, Johan; Remmen, Roy

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to describe how adult daughters experience caring for a frail older parent at home. In the near future the ageing of the population will have a major impact on the demand for formal and informal long-term care. Relatives, especially spouses and adult children are the main providers of informal care. Qualitative research methodology was used to study the experience of adult daughters caring for their frail older parents. A phenomenological research perspective was used to better understand the daily experiences of caring for an ageing parent. Data were collected using open-ended interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Eleven women between 40-70 years of age participated in this study. Inductive coding of the interview data led to four main themes: being a caregiver as a natural process in life, the perception and consequences of caregiving activities, sharing care and finding a good balance between caring for an ageing parent and other responsibilities. Caregiving activities could be divided into visible and invisible activities and generated different feelings. The visible activities were more easily shared with other family members and professionals than the invisible ones. The women who struggled the most and tended to have a higher level of burden were those who experienced less support from their family. This study provided more insight into the experiences women have when caring for a parent. Supporting family networks that help in both visible and invisible activities may prevent overburden. Consumer-led care and the active participation of the informal caregiver in the decision-making process for building the care plan need to become more prominent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Parent-daughter communication about abortion among nonpregnant African-American adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Katherine M; Martins, Summer L; Kavanagh, Erin K; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2014-12-01

    To identify correlates of parent-daughter communication about abortion among nonpregnant adolescents. Nonpregnant African-American females aged 14-17 years attending one of three charter schools on Chicago's South Side were recruited and surveyed regarding parental relationship quality, attitudes toward sexual health, and communication about sexual health. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for ever discussing abortion using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 265 adolescents, 43.0% had ever discussed abortion with a parent. While 72.3% would voluntarily tell a parent about an abortion plan, 19.2% feared a parent would physically hurt her, punish her, or evict her. Ever communicating about abortion was significantly associated with having a mother who had a teen pregnancy (OR, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.78); having a prochoice abortion attitude (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.29-8.25); having discussed sexually transmitted infections (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.13-7.77) or birth control (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.35-6.47) with a parent; and perceived parental approval of adolescent sexual activity (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.88). Ever communicating about abortion was inversely related to being sexually experienced (OR, .48; 95% CI, .23-.99) or anticipating supportive parental reactions to an abortion decision (OR, .31; 95% CI, .13-.75). Although almost half of our sample was sexually active, the majority had never talked to their parents about abortion. Some reported fears of harm should the situation arise. Public policy should focus on promoting parent-daughter communication before an unwanted pregnancy rather than forcing communication after it occurs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mexican adolescents' experience of menarche and attitudes toward menstruation: role of communication between mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, M L; Molina-Abolnik, M

    2012-12-01

    First, to explore the kind of information that Mexican mothers give their daughters about menstruation before their menarche, and to study the impact of this communication on how prepared the daughters felt when they experienced their menarche. Second, to investigate the influence of the menarcheal experience on attitudes toward menstruation. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 3 different public schools. 405 Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 12-15 years. Participants answered a questionnaire that had 3 parts: (a) General data, (b) topics related to menses that participants had discussed with their mothers prior to menarche, and (c) menarcheal experience. They also answered a questionnaire about menstrual attitudes. Although most of the participants knew what they should do when they experienced their menarche, only 39% stated they had felt prepared to start menstruating. Regarding menstrual attitudes, adolescents scored highest on Negative Feelings and Secrecy rather than on Positive Feelings. Participants who had previously discussed the emotional aspects of menses with their mothers were more likely to claim they had felt prepared to start menstruating when they got their first period (OR = 3.45). The fact that adolescents felt prepared to start menstruating predicted positive attitudes toward menstruation (β = .19) Discussing the emotional aspects of menses prior to menarche is crucial to being prepared for menarche, and to holding positive attitudes toward menstruation. Information on biological knowledge and practical aspects of menses needs to be supplemented with emotional issues. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of chloroethene degradation rates based on ratios of daughter/parent compounds in groundwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Chlorinated solvent spills at industrial and urban sites create groundwater plumes where tetrachloro- and trichloroethene may degrade to their daughter compounds, dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride and ethane. The assessment of degradation and natural attenuation at such sites may be based on the analysis and inverse modelling of concentration data, on the calculation of mass fluxes in transsects, and/or on the analysis of stable isotope ratios in the ethenes. Relatively few work has investigated the possibility of using ratio of concentrations for gaining information on degradation rates. The use of ratios bears the advantage that dilution of a single sample with contaminant-free water does not matter. It will be shown that molar ratios of daughter to parent compounds measured along a plume streamline are a rapid and robust mean of determining whether degradation rates increase or decrease along the degradation chain, and allow furthermore a quantitation of the relative magnitude of degradation rates compared to the rate of the parent compound. Furthermore, ratios of concentration will become constant in zones where degradation is absent, and this allows to sketching the extension of actively degrading zones. The assessment is possible for pure sources and also for mixed sources. A quantification method is proposed in order to estimate first-order degradation rates in zones of constant degradation activity. This quantification method includes corrections that are needed due to longitudinal and transversal dispersivity. The method was tested on a number of real field sites from literature. At the majority of these sites, the first-order degradation rates were decreasing along the degradation chain from tetrachloroethene to vinyl chloride, meaning that the latter was often reaching important concentrations. This is bad news for site owners due to the increased toxicity of vinyl chloride compared to its parent compounds.

  8. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezenwa BN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi-Info™ version 7. Results: The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9% and HPV vaccines (19.7% among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P<0.05. There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9% and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%. Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion: Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization

  9. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Christopher W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment. Results Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients. Conclusions B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod

  10. Cdk1 Phosphorylates Drosophila Sas-4 to Recruit Polo to Daughter Centrioles and Convert Them to Centrosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Zsofia A; Wainman, Alan; Gartenmann, Lisa; Raff, Jordan W

    2016-06-20

    Centrosomes and cilia are organized by a centriole pair comprising an older mother and a younger daughter. Centriole numbers are tightly regulated, and daughter centrioles (which assemble in S phase) cannot themselves duplicate or organize centrosomes until they have passed through mitosis. It is unclear how this mitotic "centriole conversion" is regulated, but it requires Plk1/Polo kinase. Here we show that in flies, Cdk1 phosphorylates the conserved centriole protein Sas-4 during mitosis. This creates a Polo-docking site that helps recruit Polo to daughter centrioles and is required for the subsequent recruitment of Asterless (Asl), a protein essential for centriole duplication and mitotic centrosome assembly. Point mutations in Sas-4 that prevent Cdk1 phosphorylation or Polo docking do not block centriole disengagement during mitosis, but block efficient centriole conversion and lead to embryonic lethality. These observations can explain why daughter centrioles have to pass through mitosis before they can duplicate and organize a centrosome. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BOUNCE: A community-based mother–daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise), to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consis...

  12. Parentification, substance use, and sex among adolescent daughters from ethnic minority families: the moderating role of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Guided by structural family systems theory, this study explored the relationship between parentification and adolescent daughters' sexual risk engagement and substance use. We also explored how adolescent reports of parental monitoring moderated the relationship between parentification and adolescent risk. Data were from a cross-sectional, cross-generational study of 176 mother-daughter dyads from low-income, inner-city, ethnic minority families. In this sample, which included a subset of mothers with HIV, parental physical symptoms were associated with slightly higher levels of parentification. Parentification was associated with adolescent daughters' intention to have sex (but not substance use) in a direction opposite to prediction. Higher parentification was associated with lower intention to have sex. Parental monitoring did not moderate relationships between parentification and adolescent risk. These findings highlight that despite the negative influence hypothesized in structural family systems theory, parentification was not associated with risk engagement of high-risk adolescent daughters in ethnic minority families with low income. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  13. THE IDEA OF SALVATION IN "THE TALE OF IGOR'S CAMPAIGN" AND IN PUSHKIN'S NOVEL "THE CAPTAIN'S DAUGHTER"

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeeva L. G.

    2008-01-01

    The article raises the question of internal communication of "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" and "The Captain's Daughter" and their genetic affiliation with a common spiritual source, namely, the Holy Tradition. The author proves that these works as the highest demonstration of the national literary tradition undoubtedly must belong to the same spiritual space.

  14. THE IDEA OF SALVATION IN "THE TALE OF IGOR'S CAMPAIGN" AND IN PUSHKIN'S NOVEL "THE CAPTAIN'S DAUGHTER"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeeva L. G.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the question of internal communication of "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" and "The Captain's Daughter" and their genetic affiliation with a common spiritual source, namely, the Holy Tradition. The author proves that these works as the highest demonstration of the national literary tradition undoubtedly must belong to the same spiritual space.

  15. Differences in acculturation and trajectories of anxiety and alcohol consumption among Latino mothers and daughters in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Maritza; Sanchez, Mariana; Rojas, Patria; Villar, Maria Elena; De La Rosa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This study documents generational differences in the impact of acculturation related factors on anxiety and alcohol use behaviors between adult Latino mothers and adult daughters. Findings indicate that for mothers (n=144) and daughters (n=149), self-reported anxiety levels decreased from baseline to follow up (p=.001). For mothers at follow up (n=147), results indicate that affiliation to Latino culture is negatively associated with anxiety (p= .018). Conversely, employment and partner relationship stress are positively associated with anxiety (p = .05 and p = .016 respectively). In addition, self-reported anxiety is positively associated with alcohol intake (p = .002) and employment (p = .007). For daughters(n=149), partner relationship stressors, anxiety and alcohol intake decreased significantly from baseline to follow up at a p = .01, p = .01 , p = .05 respectively. In addition, for daughters at baseline (n=160), affiliation to U.S. culture is positively associated with self-reported anxiety (p = .01). Employment is negatively associated with alcohol consumption (p = .027). At follow up (n=152), daughters’ partner relationship stress is positively associated with self- reported anxiety (p = .049). Findings in this study can be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions, support groups and individual therapy sessions by taking into consideration generational differences among Latino women. PMID:26399773

  16. [Response of HeLa cells to mitomycine C. III. The analysis of nucleoli of mother and daughter cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Iu P; Neguliaev, Iu A; Tsupkina, N V

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the number of nucleoli in cells of the established HeLa-M line was carried out before and after exposure to mitomycin C in a concentration of 10 μg/ml for 2 h. Using time-lapse microscopy, nucleoli in mother and their respective daughter cells were computed. It has been shown that the average number of nucleoli per cell is generally higher in daughter cells than in mother cells, and a standard deviation, on the contrary, decreases. An average number of nucleoli in daughter cells, whose mother cells had been treated with mitomycin C, was higher than in corresponding cells of control group. The separate analysis has been performed for the cells having from 1 to 4 nucleoli. Nonrandom complete coincidence of the number of nucleoli in mather and daughter cells has been typicaly shown for about 1/7 of the total cell population. Mitomycin C reduces this value of about 1.5 times.

  17. Merlino-Perkins Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory (MP-FDI): Construction, Reliability, Validity, and Implications for Counseling and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino Perkins, Rose J.

    2008-01-01

    The Merlino-Perkins Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory, a self-report instrument, assesses women's childhood interactions with supportive, doting, distant, controlling, tyrannical, physically abusive, absent, and seductive fathers. Item and scale development, psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and…

  18. What constitutes consent when parents and daughters have different views about having the HPV vaccine: qualitative interviews with stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, F.; Morris, L.; Davies, M.; Elwyn, G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The UK Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme commenced in the autumn of 2008 for year 8 (age 12-13 years) schoolgirls. We examine whether the vaccine should be given when there is a difference of opinion between daughters and parents or guardians. DESIGN: Qualitative study

  19. In the ideal condition an experimental study on migration of radon and its daughters in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing; Zhang Jinzhao; Wang Qing

    2010-01-01

    According to the relevant theory of thermodynamics, this presentation which based on the radon migration of the cluster theory has deduced ordinarily the ideal velocity period and displacement. The purpose was to establish the theoretical model of migration of radon and its daughters in the atmosphere in the ideal case, which would provide a underlying theoretical basis for the further research. (authors)

  20. Post-lobotomy epilepsy illustrated by the story of Ellinor Hamsun, the daughter of the famous Norwegian author Knut Hamsun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Tuft

    2017-01-01

    Most of the stories of these people are anonymous and their post-lobotomy lives are scarcely documented. If it was not for the fact that Ellinor Hamsun (1916–1987 was the daughter of the famous Nobel Prize winning Norwegian author Knut Hamsun, her lobotomy story and the subsequent iatrogenic epilepsy would probably have remained unknown.

  1. Third workshop on radon and radon daughters in urban communities associated with uranium mining and processing. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This third meeting of Atomic Energy Control Board staff, contractors, federal and provincial government representatives, and delegates from outside Canada was held to discuss progress in reducing concentrations of radon and radon daughters in houses. Speakers talked about successful and unsuccessful remedial measures, methods of measuring and monitoring thoron and radon in houses, and indoor radon concentrations in Canada, Britain and Sweden

  2. Khmer American Mothers' Knowledge about HPV and HBV Infection and Their Perceptions of Parenting: My English Speaking Daughter Knows More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Tang, Shirely S; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Semino-Asaro, Semira; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe Khmer mothers' understanding of HBV and HPV prevention as well as their perception of parenting on health and health education of their daughters in the US. The qualitative pilot study guided by the revised Network Episode Model and informed by ethnographic analysis and community-based purposive sampling method were used. Face-to-face audiotaped interviews with eight Khmer mothers were conducted by bilingual female middle-aged community health leaders who spoke Khmer. The findings revealed that Khmer mothers clearly lacked knowledge about HBV and HPV infection prevention and had difficulty understanding and educating their daughters about health behavior, especially on sex-related topics. The findings showed that histo-sociocultural factors are integrated with the individual factor, and these factors influenced the HBV and HPV knowledge and perspective of Khmer mothers' parenting. The study suggests that situation-specific conceptual and methodological approaches that take into account the uniqueness of the sociocultural context of CAs is a novel method for identifying factors that are significant in shaping the perception of Khmer mothers' health education related to HBV and HPV prevention among their daughters. The communication between mother and daughter about sex and the risk involved in contracting HBV and HPV has been limited, partly because it is seen as a "taboo subject" and partly because mothers think that schools educate their children regarding sexuality and health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Latina Mothers' and Daughters' Expectations for Autonomy at Age 15 (La Quinceañera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Laura F.; Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Lopez-Tello, Gisselle

    2014-01-01

    American children gain more autonomy as they progress through adolescence, however, autonomy-granting for Latina adolescent girls from immigrant families is a relatively unexplored question. In this study, we identified behaviors that Mexican mothers and their daughters deemed to be appropriate when they reach the age of "La…

  4. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  5. Guanylic nucleotide starvation affects Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother-daughter separation and may be a signal for entry into quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagot Isabelle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanylic nucleotides are both macromolecules constituents and crucial regulators for a variety of cellular processes. Therefore, their intracellular concentration must be strictly controlled. Consistently both yeast and mammalian cells tightly correlate the transcription of genes encoding enzymes critical for guanylic nucleotides biosynthesis with the proliferation state of the cell population. Results To gain insight into the molecular relationships connecting intracellular guanylic nucleotide levels and cellular proliferation, we have studied the consequences of guanylic nucleotide limitation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle progression. We first utilized mycophenolic acid, an immunosuppressive drug that specifically inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in de novo GMP biosynthesis. To approach this system physiologically, we next developed yeast mutants for which the intracellular guanylic nucleotide pools can be modulated through changes of growth conditions. In both the pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that guanylic nucleotide limitation generated a mother-daughter separation defect, characterized by cells with two unseparated daughters. We then showed that this separation defect resulted from cell wall perturbations but not from impaired cytokinesis. Importantly, cells with similar separation defects were found in a wild type untreated yeast population entering quiescence upon nutrient limitation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that guanylic nucleotide limitation slows budding yeast cell cycle progression, with a severe pause in telophase. At the cellular level, guanylic nucleotide limitation causes the emergence of cells with two unseparated daughters. By fluorescence and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that this phenotype arises from defects in cell wall partition between mother and daughter cells. Because cells with two unseparated

  6. Black mother's intention to vaccinate daughters against HPV: A mixed methods approach to identify opportunities for targeted communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Forbes, Laura; Ivankova, Nataliya; Mayo-Gamble, Tilicia; Kelly-Taylor, Kendria; Deakings, Jason

    2018-03-24

    The cervical cancer disparity continues to exist and has widened between Black and non-Hispanic White women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines could potentially reduce this disparity, yet remain underused among Black female adolescents. We investigated psychosocial and cultural factors associated with Black mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against HPV, and explored views toward a HPV vaccine mandate. In this quantitative dominant, mixed methods study, cross sectional surveys (n=237) and follow-up semi-structured interviews (n=9) were conducted with Black mothers of daughters. A 2-step logistic regression determined factors associated with Black mothers' intention. Thematic content analysis determined emerging themes. Perceived susceptibility (p=.044), perceived barriers (pHPV vaccination intentions. Follow-up interviews provided insight into factors influencing mothers' intentions. Mothers with low intentions did not perceive their daughter to be currently sexually active or in near future, thus, not at HPV risk. Pediatricians were identified as the most influential person on maternal decision-making if there was a pre-existing relationship. However, many mothers had not received a pediatricians' recommendation for their daughters. Barriers influencing mother's decision-making include knowledge, daughters' age, and mistrust in pharmaceutical companies and physicians. Mothers were not in favor of the HPV vaccine mandate. Findings demonstrate the need to develop and evaluate physician-led interventions on HPV and vaccine importance, and engage these mothers in intervention development to build trust between physicians, researchers, and Black mothers to improve HPV vaccine uptake in Black female adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Differences in Acculturation and Trajectories of Anxiety and Alcohol Consumption Among Latina Mothers and Daughters in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Maritza; Sanchez, Mariana; Rojas, Patria; Villar, Maria Elena; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-08-01

    This study documents generational differences in the impact of acculturation related factors on anxiety and alcohol use behaviors between adult Latino mothers and adult daughters. Findings indicate that for mothers (n = 144) and daughters (n = 149), self-reported anxiety levels decreased from baseline to follow up (p = 0.001). For mothers at follow up (n = 147), results indicate that affiliation to Latino culture is negatively associated with anxiety (p = 0.018). Conversely, employment and partner relationship stress are positively associated with anxiety (p = 0.05 and p = 0.016 respectively). In addition, self-reported anxiety is positively associated with alcohol intake (p = 0.002) and employment (p = 0.007). For daughters(n = 149), partner relationship stressors, anxiety and alcohol intake decreased significantly from baseline to follow up at a p = 0.01, p = 0.01, p = 0.05 respectively. In addition, for daughters at baseline (n = 160), affiliation to U.S. culture is positively associated with self-reported anxiety (p = 0.01). Employment is negatively associated with alcohol consumption (p = 0.027). At follow up (n = 152), daughters' partner relationship stress is positively associated with self- reported anxiety (p = 0.049). Findings in this study can be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions, support groups and individual therapy sessions by taking into consideration generational differences among Latino women.

  8. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedecke Julia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status, their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score. Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308, regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI. The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685. The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960 regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342 between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p

  9. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbank, William

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses long-standing issues of fundamental interest in elementary particle physics. The most important outcome of this work is a new limit on neutrinoless double beta decay. This is an extremely rare and long-sought-after type of radioactive decay. If discovered, it would require changes in the standard model of the elementary constituents of matter, and would prove that neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same, a revolutionary concept in particle physics. Neutrinos are major components of the matter in the universe that are so small and so weakly interacting with other matter that their masses have not yet been discovered. A discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay could help determine the neutrino masses. An important outcome of the work on this project was the Colorado State University role in operating the EXO-200 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and in analysis of the data from this experiment. One type of double beta decay of the isotope "1"3"6Xe, the two-neutrino variety, was discovered in this work. Although the other type of double beta decay, the neutrinoless variety, was not yet discovered in this work, a world's best sensitivity of 1.9x10"2"5 year half-life was obtained. This result rules out a previous claim of a positive result in a different isotope. This work also establishes that the masses of the neutrinos are less than one millionth of that of electrons. A unique EXO-200 analysis, in which the CSU group had a leading role, has established for the first time ever in a liquid noble gas the fraction of daughter atoms from alpha and beta decay that are ionized. This result has important impact on other pending studies, including nucleon decay and barium tagging. Novel additional discoveries include multiphoton ionization of liquid xenon with UV pulsed lasers, which may find application in calibration of future noble liquid detectors, and studies of association and dissociation reactions of Ba"+ ions in gaseous xenon. Through

  10. Measurement of radon, radon daughters and thoron concentrations by multi-detector devices. No. E/12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Varga, Zs.

    1983-01-01

    There is a growing interest in collection of data concerning human exposures to naturally occurring alpha-emitting radionuclides (e.g. in mines, dwellings, building materials, industrial wastes, coal fuel cycle, water supply, soil, plants, etc.). Most of such studies are incomplete for the following reasons: in radon measurements the contribution of thoron is generally neglected, the determination of equilibrium factor is complicated or not possible at all, short- and long-term concentration fluctuations cause difficulties in obtaining representative mean values, the plate-out effect is generally not taken into account. A variety of simple methods were studied that could be used to overcome some of these difficulties by using cups equipped with two or more alpha-sensitive nuclear track detectors. A theoretical foundation of the quantitative measurements with such devices is presented. Experimental data are reported on radon, radon daughters and thoron concentrations measured by multi-detector devices in cave soil gas and in air of Hungarian dwellings. (author)

  11. Hispanic mothers’ beliefs regarding HPV vaccine series completion in their adolescent daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Mu�oz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (∼39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers’ salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series. Thirty-two mothers of girls (aged 11–17) that had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, completed in-depth interviews. Six girls had received one dose of the HPV vaccine, 10 girls had received two doses, and 16 girls had received all three doses. The questions elicited salient: (i) experiential and instrumental attitudes (behavioral beliefs); (ii) supporters and non-supporters (normative beliefs) and (iii) facilitators and barriers (control beliefs). Directed content analysis was employed to select the most salient beliefs. Mothers: (i) expressed salient positive feelings (e.g. good, secure, happy and satisfied); (ii) believed that completing the series resulted in positive effects (e.g. protection, prevention); (iii) believed that the main supporters were themselves, their daughter’s father and doctor with some of their friends not supporting series completion and (iv) believed that vaccine affordability, information, transportation, ease of scheduling and keeping vaccination appointments and taking their daughter’s immunization card to appointments were facilitators. This study represents the first step in building theory-based framework of vaccine series completion for this population. The beliefs identified provide guidance for health care providers and intervention developers. PMID:28088755

  12. Surface to nuclear distances in human bronchial epithelium: Relationships to penetration by Rn daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, F.; Hovey, A.; McEwen, T.; O'Connor, R.; Unruh, H.; Bowden, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer in U miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of particulate Rn daughters. Since the depth of penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium lining the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the study were to measure the thickness of the epithelium at all levels of the human bronchial tree, to determine the distances of epithelial nuclei from the mucociliary surface, and to compare these parameters in smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens were examined; 26 were from smokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers, allowing us to treat the 29 cases as a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness, and distances of nuclei from the surface are also less in the peripheral bronchi. Allowing for artefacts of tissue preparation, the mean distance from the mucociliary surface to the underlying nuclei varies between 17 and 38 microns

  13. Diasporic Authenticity Assertions: Analysis of Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Tabatabaei Lotfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt to examine the active interaction of history and memory, in formulation of a diasporic authentic picture of past, in Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter (2001. Amongst discursive disciplines, memory and history perform vitally, in picturing past; both attempt to reproduce events, by emblematic narrative acts. However, their erratic quality endorses the existence of counter- stories that endangers displaying a homogeneous past. Among miscellaneous categories of memories, autobiographical memory asserts to obtain an authentic presentation, but as any other forms of accounts, it exhibits an imprecise fictional image. This psychological alleviation ensures the future mental integrity of trauma victims. In memory narratives, the contingent temperament of power network and continual formulation of resisting frameworks might be explored. Tan’s diasporic assertion of authenticity, as a migrant writer, amalgamated with employment of fantasy is to obtain a shared diasporic identity, among her characters, although personal accounts of characters undergo an extensive amount of contingency. The newly forged identity is collective in nature and defies the geographical and temporal borders and grants a humane picture rather than a diasporic one; an identity that is established to venerate the cardinal role of personal memory, in endowing legitimate truth.

  14. Radon and thoron daughter activities in the environment of the King George Island (West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Solecki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of 253 gamma spectrometric analyses of radon daughters in soil and bedrocks of the King George Island (West Antarctica are presented. Measured values range from 0.1 to 58.4 Bq/kg, and from 4.9 to 75.5 Bq/kg for 214Bi and 208Tl respectively, but most measurements fall in the lower part of this range due to predominantly basaltic character of the geological basement. Obtained gamma spectrometric data correspond well to very low soil gas radon content measured by means of Kodak LR115 being below 454 Bqm-3. Low soil gas radon content and characteristic type of architecture is responsible for low indoor radon activity in Arctowski Station being as low as 10- 15 Bqm-3. The highest 105 Bqm-3 indoor Rn activity has been measured in the greenhouse bungalow of the station. This increased value was probably connected with the presence of about 1000 kg of imported soil material in the greenhouse room of the bungalow. Local zones of increased uranium and thorium content, discovered as a result of radiometric mapping, can potentaily influence atmospheric radon used for meteorological interpretation.

  15. Structure and functional regulation of RipA, a mycobacterial enzyme essential for daughter cell separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Marasco, Daniela; Squeglia, Flavia; Soldini, Silvia; Pedone, Emilia; Pedone, Carlo; Berisio, Rita

    2010-09-08

    Cell separation depends on cell-wall hydrolases that cleave the peptidoglycan layer connecting daughter cells. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this process is governed by the predicted endopeptidase RipA. In the absence of this enzyme, the bacterium is unable to divide and exhibits an abnormal phenotype. We here report the crystal structure of a relevant portion of RipA, containing its catalytic-domain and an extra-domain of hitherto unknown function. The structure clearly demonstrates that RipA is produced as a zymogen, which needs to be activated to achieve cell-division. Bacterial cell-wall degradation assays and proteolysis experiments strongly suggest that activation occurs via proteolytic processing of a fully solvent exposed loop identified in the crystal structure. Indeed, proteolytic cleavage at this loop produces an activated form, consisting of the sole catalytic domain. Our work provides the first evidence of self-inhibition in cell-disconnecting enzymes and opens a field for the design of novel antitubercular therapeutics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Local energy deposited for alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-affan, I.A.M.; Haque, A.K.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to calculate the local energy deposited by alpha particles emitted from radon daughters deposited on the mucus surface in the lung airways. For the particular case of 218 Po (Ra A) and 214 Bi (Ra C'), microdose spectra have been evaluated in test spheres of 1 μm diameter which were taken to lie within airways of diameters 18 000, 3500 and 600 μm. In each case, the contributions of the near and far wall were computed separately. The average microdosimetric parameters y-bar F and y-bar D have also been calculated. For the two smaller airways, y-bar F and y-bar D values were found to be about 110 and 135 keV μm -1 for 218 Po and about 87 and 107 keV μm -1 for 214 Bi respectively. The corresponding values were about 10% higher for the largest airway. (author)

  17. STS-93 Mission Specialist Tognini and daughter prepare to board aircraft for return flight to Housto

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the Skid Strip at the Cape Canaveral Air Station, Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, representing the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and his daughter Tatinana prepare to board an aircraft for their return flight to Houston following the completion of the STS-93 Space Shuttle mission. Landing occurred on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility on July 27 with main gear touchdown at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT. The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history. On this mission, Eileen Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander.

  18. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup

    2013-06-01

    Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.

  19. House characteristics associated with gamma radiation and radon daughter working levels in eastern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Dignam, J.J.; Reilly, M.A.; Gerusky, T.M.; Hartman, T.T.; Anast, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Working levels (WL) of radon daughters and γ measurements in basements are described for ∼1200 houses near the Reading Prong. House variables studied included condition and construction materials of basement floors and walls, basement heights and areas, heating systems, air conditioning, water supply, and presence of drains and sump pumps. WL's were poorly predicted by house characteristics or γ measurements, while γ levels were well predicted by house characteristics and WL. Except for windowless basements, associated with both high γ andl high WL measurements, factors predicting high γ levels tended to be associated with low WL's and vice versa. Dirt basement floors and fieldstone basement walls were strongly associated with high γ levels, as were poor wall conditions in multivariate analyses. Gamma levels were low in electrically heated homes. High WL's were strongly associated with electric heat, low WL's with basement walls of fieldstone and/or in poor condition. Large house volumes and well water supply were also associated with higher WL's. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Radon daughter concentrations in and around dwellings in the northern part of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfs, F.; Hofstede, H.; Meijer, R.J. de; Put, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of radon daughters in and around 80 dwellings located in the northern part of the Netherlands has been determined using a one-filter method. Median values of 2.0 and 0.4 mWL were measured for the indoor and outdoor concentrations, respectively. The average outdoor concentration was about an order of magnitude higher for wind directions between SE-SW than for SW-NW. On average, dwellings with double pane windows and/or concrete floors were found to have significantly higher radon concentrations than those with single pane windows and/or wooden floors. For the living room of a particular dwelling, 18 measurements were carried out. The data for this dwelling indicate a linear relation between the concentration indoors and outdoors with a slope of 3.8 +- 2.0. This unexpected behaviour is thought to be related to ventilation via the crawl space. Measurements of ventilation patterns and measurements of radon concentrations in the living room and the crawl space are consistent with this picture. (author)