WorldWideScience

Sample records for darkest africa 1887-1889

  1. Woman and language in darkest Africa: The quest for articulation in two postcolonial novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brink

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on issues raised by Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and on ways in which two recent novels, The Expedition to the Baobab Tree (Stockenstrdni and The Whales in Lake Tanganyika (Hagerfors employ the same model of the journey of exploration in order to break down phallo- and eurocentric concepts of language in an attempt to arrive at a new articulation of Africa. In Heart of Darkness Marlow crosses the limits of language in his confrontation with the Other (Kurtz, and Africa, both of which have a female dimension and has to invent a ‘new’ language, post facto, to explain his discovery to the Woman who awaits him at the other end. In the Stockenstrdm text, the narrator and central personage is already female, but she is illiterate; and in order to articulate her body, in which her journey is subsumed, an implied narrator may have to narrate on her behalf, in a language which first has to liberate itself from the processes of bondage and appropriation to which the slave woman has been subjected all her life. In The Whales in Lake Tanganyika an interiext arises from the dialogue of this narrative with H.M. Stanley's historical journal; and this projects the diarist Shaw as the deconstructor of male and European dichotomies. Shedding conventional langitage, linearity and 'reality’, his diary becomes the translation of an inaccessible ‘new’ language which is the only way in which Spivak’s 'subaltern’ can attain speech to articulate the femininity implicit in Africa.

  2. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...... we have engaged with Africa in a similar manner as we have done with other emerging economies? We also introduce the papers published in this special issue and highlight directions for future research....

  3. Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arship and knowledge production on Africa in this part of the world, not only in .... modern agricultural production that were seen as parts of and necessary for 'de- ... the government to liberalise and remove what were in effect social protection .... by numerous authors as the 'age of globalisation' (a notion which in itself is.

  4. Fast atmospheric correction algorithm based on the darkest pixel approach for retrieving the aerosol optical thickness: comparison with in-situ AOT measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Alexakis, Dimitrios

    2011-11-01

    Darkest pixel atmospheric correction is the simplest and fully image-based correction method. This paper presents an overview of a proposed 'fast atmospheric correction algorithm' developed at MATLAB based on the RT equation basics and the darkest pixel approach. The task is to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the application of this atmospheric correction. The effectiveness of this algorithm is performed by comparing the AOT values from the algorithm with those measured in-situ both from MICROTOPS II hand-held sunphotometer and the CIMEL sunphotometer (AERONET).

  5. The darkest EMCCD ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Olivier; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Lessard, Simon

    2010-07-01

    EMCCDs are devices capable of sub-electron read-out noise at high pixel rate, together with a high quantum efficiency (QE). However, they are plagued by an excess noise factor (ENF) which has the same effect on photometric measurement as if the QE would be halved. In order to get rid of the ENF, the photon counting (PC) operation is mandatory, with the drawback of counting only one photon per pixel per frame. The high frame rate capability of the EMCCDs comes to the rescue, at the price of increased clock induced charges (CIC), which dominates the noise budget of the EMCCD. The CIC can be greatly reduced with an appropriate clocking, which renders the PC operation of the EMCCD very efficient for faint flux photometry or spectroscopy, adaptive optics, ultrafast imaging and Lucky Imaging. This clocking is achievable with a new EMCCD controller: CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons. This new controller, which is now commercialized by Nüvü cameras inc., was integrated into an EMCCD camera and tested at the observatoire du mont-M'egantic. The results are presented in this paper.

  6. Festivals of the Darkest Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacha, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

  7. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher ... Relevance of traditional methods of conflict resolution in the justice systems in Africa ... in South Africa and China: Evidence from the application of governance theory ...

  8. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...

  9. 'The darkest times of my life': Recollections of child abuse among forced migrants persecuted because of their sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J; Kahn, Sarilee; Chatterji, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) children and youth are likely to experience abuse by peers, parents, and other adults and that these experiences correlate with a host of mental health problems. However, there is little understanding of the experiences of LGBT children and youth living in countries where social and legal protections for sexual and gender minorities are limited or nonexistent. This qualitative study used thematic analysis to explore the child and adolescent abuse experiences and their impact on the pre-migration mental health of LGBT forced migrants. We analyzed 26 interviews with individuals who obtained refugee or asylee status in the United States or Canada on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Participants originated from countries in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Analysis revealed the following themes: abuse by parents and caregivers, abuse by peers and school personnel, having nowhere to turn, and dealing with psychological distress. Findings indicate that participants experienced severe verbal, physical, and sexual abuse throughout childhood and adolescence and that this abuse occurred at home, in school, and in the community. Furthermore, there were no resources or sources of protection available to them. Participants linked their abuse to subjective experiences of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress, as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conclude with implications for refugee adjudication practices, mental health care, and international policy.

  10. Africa Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of HIV/AIDS on» Gross Domestic Product (GGP) in the WHO. Africa Region ... methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion. , programmes. ..... develop new products), for which we could not find data ...

  11. AFRICA2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.

  12. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  13. Ceres' darkest secret and its putative exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorghofer, N.; Mazarico, E.; Platz, T.; Schroeder, S.; Byrne, S.; Carsenty, U.; Combe, J. P.; Ermakov, A.; McFadden, L. A.; Prettyman, T. H.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Craters near Ceres' rotational poles can be shadowed year-round and trap volatiles. The persistently shadowed regions (PSRs) have been mapped in the northern hemisphere in two ways: by illumination modeling based on the topography and by stacking of images acquired near summer solstice. Scattered light reveals bright crater floor deposits (BCFDs) in a few PSRs. The lack of BCFDs in most PSRs can in part be explained by changes in Ceres' obliquity (axis tilt). At least one BCFD is illuminated and spectroscopically identified as H2O ice; this deposit is exceptionally bright and unusual morphologically. The BCFDs are likely water ice, either delivered through the exosphere or exposed ground ice. The remarkably shallow depths at which water ice is encountered on Ceres, on a global scale, imply that only a small amount of H2O was supplied to its water exosphere from this endogenic source. Ice that accumulated in the PSRs is hence easily dominated by other sources. The lack of optically thick ice deposits in most PSRs provides an upper bound on the exogenic delivery of water to Ceres, estimated as processes relevant to other Solar System bodies as well.

  14. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  15. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  16. Rediscovering Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which China and Africa began a friendship that was built around Beijing’s political backing and developmental aid to a crop of emerging indepen- dent African nations.In the 1980s and 1990s,China shifted its focus by devoting more efforts to establishing a rapport with big powers and neighboring countries to create a sound environment for self-development.Since the turn of the cen- tury,however,the African continent has been rediscovered by China as a strategic partner in many areas.As the Chinese market has flourished,so too has the African economy,which maintained a growth momentum in recent years and has achieved a modest prosperity rarely seen in its history. He Fan,Deputy Director of the Research Center on International Finance affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shared his comments about this partnership on blog on the eve of the New Year.

  17. Transformation of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEBATES. A Theory of an Africa as a Unification. Nation: A ... assault on the ramparts of colonial power.' - Frantz Fanon. ..... following remain critical to the shaping Africa's future still in the 21 st century. ...... Concept papers covering the regions.

  18. Student Power in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Thierry M. Luescher is Senior Researcher and Assistant Director: ... relation to university governance, national politics, citizenship and democracy in Africa. ... the book Student Politics in Africa: Representation and Activism, published as.

  19. Unemployment in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chris

    The spatial understanding of unemployment in South Africa is often limited to ... decade in order to generate sustainable growth and maintain social cohesion. ... from Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) was released electronically and can be ...

  20. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in collecti

  1. The Dragon Enters Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Tren , Richard. "State in Fear: Zimbabwe’s Tragedy is Africa:s Shame", . May-June 2005, 10, http:/ /www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2005/afm...Ncube, Roger Bate, and Richard Tren , "State in Fear: Zimbabwe’s Tragedy is Africa’s Shame", May-June 2005, 10, http:/ /www.reliefweb.int/library

  2. Adventure in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelProsser

    2004-01-01

    In 1990 to 1991, my wife and I taught at the University of Swaziland in southeast Africa. Swaziland is one of the only three country kingdoms in Africa, with Morocco and Leaotho as the others. Swaziland is surrouded by South Africa on three sides and on one side by Mozambique. it has ling been called the peaceful kingdom and is 97% black.

  3. The China-Africa Saga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China and Africa make good partners in development chinese President Hu Jintao’s recent visit to Africa exemplified three leading features of China’s policy toward Africa:all-round cooperation,unwavering assistance and commitment to

  4. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak insti

  5. Four concepts of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... concepts of Africa is shown to be based on a particular logic with both strengths and weaknesses. ... Introduction .... In this section I argue that it is indeed possible to conceive of .... early history does one find evidence of a conception of Africa .... the King ceded all his land to the French in return for their.

  6. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  7. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  8. SME Finance in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, T.; Cull, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses cross-country firm-level surveys to gauge access to financial services and the importance of financing constraints for African enterprises. The paper compares access to finance in Africa and other developing regions of the world, within Africa across countries, and across different groups of firms. It relates firms' access to finance to firm and banking system characteristi...

  9. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motivation for this article is partly traceable to the Pretoria High Court decision in Chinese Association of South Africa v Minister of Labour,3 in which the ... The notion of equality and non-discrimination is thought to strengthen the bonds .... show us that the original inhabitants of South Africa are the Khoi and San people,.

  10. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  11. Moravia in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Casini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Though his fiction is deeply linked to Rome and Italy, we cannot understand the cultural figure of Alberto Moravia (1907-1990, if we do not consider his experience as a traveller. In particular, there is no other Italian or European writer of his generation, who had such a tight connection with Africa, which Moravia used to visit almost every year from 1963 until 1987. He wrote three books on this continent. «I would have to go to Africa twenty, thirty years before: instead I went very late in my life, when I was fifty. I do not know why I didn’t. I regret it. For me, Africa is the most beautiful thing in the world». This paper reconstructs the reasons and the stages that brought Moravia to Africa in detail, it also focuses on his travels as a European citizen, who  starts his journey from the coasts to the “heart of the black continent", sometimes following  the footsteps of his favorite Africanist writers, such as Conrad, Rimbaud, Gide, Hemingway and Céline, but always pursuing his own question, looking for his own Africa, which is indeed connected to his deepest self. The movement to Africa has changed the Roman writer, as his last novels clearly show, that whereby include Africa becomes one of their major themes.

  12. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem; Macaulay-Adeyelure, O C

    2016-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics' invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of 'African bioethics,' which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for 'bioethics in Africa'. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics.

  13. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Sexton, V.S.; Msiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation

  14. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  15. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  16. NORTH AFRICA IN FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa has been firmly implanted in global headlines this year-often for all the wrong reasons.The world watches as political unrest,conflict and foreign intervention reap relentless media exposure.Both from a

  17. Climate strategy for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn

    1995-01-01

    1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...

  18. GREAT TREK INTO AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, to be held between November 2 and 5 in Beijing, Beijing Review reporter Li Li talks with South African Kobus van der Wath, the founder and Managing Director of The Beijing Axis, a consulting firm based in Beijing and Johannesburg that serves foreign organizations with a "China agenda," especially those from Africa. Van der Wath discussed China’s economic boom and its implications for the African continent

  19. EHDI Africa: advocating for infants with hearing loss in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Störbeck, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who happen to reside in Africa deserve the chance to develop according to their potential as much as their peers living in more affluent regions. This leaves a moral obligation to pursue ways of initiating, developing,and growing early hearing detection and intervention services in Africa. For these reasons, the first EHDI Africa international conference was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2007 (13-14 August). The theme was 'Building bridges in Africa: Early childhood development for children with hearing loss'. This special issue contains several reports from the EHDI Africa conference.

  20. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  1. Africa’s Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-15

    and consumers of oil in Africa; the top 15 oil suppliers to the United States; expected market value of West African crude oil production ; and a forecast of oil production in Africa from 1981 to 2019.

  2. The Africa Millimetre Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, M.; Müller, C.; Conway, J. E.; Deane, R.; Evans, R.; Falcke, H.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Goddi, C.; Klein Wolt, M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; MacLeod, G.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Roelofs, F.; Shen, Z. Q.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    It is believed that supermassive black holes are found in the centres of galaxies, including the Milky Way. Still, only indirect evidence has been gathered for the existence of these enigmatic objects that are predicted by the general theory of relativity. With the Event Horizon Telescope, a Very Long Baseline Interferometry network of millimetre-wave (radio) telescopes, it will be possible to directly image the 'shadow' of the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, Sgr A*. Although the Event Horizon Telescope utilises an extensive network of telescopes, there is a huge gap in the coverage of the u-v-plane for these observations across Africa. We discuss the benefits of adding the Africa Millimetre Telescope to the Event Horizon Telescope and present Mt. Gamsberg in Namibia as the best site for this new and first mm-wave telescope in Africa.

  3. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  4. Oral Literature in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, Ruth; Turin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ruth Finnegan’s Oral Literature in Africa was first published in 1970, and since then has been widely praised as one of the most important books in its field. Based on years of fieldwork, the study traces the history of storytelling across the continent of Africa. This revised edition makes Finnegan’s ground-breaking research available to the next generation of scholars. It includes a new introduction, additional images and an updated bibliography, as well as its original chapters on poetry, ...

  5. Oral Literature in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, Ruth; Turin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ruth Finnegan’s Oral Literature in Africa was first published in 1970, and since then has been widely praised as one of the most important books in its field. Based on years of fieldwork, the study traces the history of storytelling across the continent of Africa. This revised edition makes Finnegan’s ground-breaking research available to the next generation of scholars. It includes a new introduction, additional images and an updated bibliography, as well as its original chapters on poetry, ...

  6. Audiology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, De Wet

    2006-05-01

    Audiology in South Africa is an established profession facing the challenge of serving a diverse population in predominantly developing contexts. The profession has developed over the last half century from an adjunct to speech-language pathology into a profession in its own right. Several tertiary institutions offer undergraduate training in audiology with optional postgraduate qualifications. Institutions are continually adapting to a profession characterised by rapid change--evidenced even in the very composition of the profession itself. This article aims to provide an overview of the development and current status of audiology as a profession in South Africa.

  7. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  8. Marywood Librarians Teach in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Watson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians Leslie Christianson and Julie Watson from Marywood University have been working to educate Catholic nuns in Africa. Funded by a grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa (HESA project is a partnership between Marywood University and Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA in Nairobi, Kenya.

  9. Writing histories of contemporary Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2002-01-01

    This essay argues that historians need to engage with the history of contemporary Africa both as a way of throwing new light on Africa's more remote past and as a way of understanding the present. It considers how a new generation of works on Africa's contemporary history might be written. Most of

  10. Africa population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyoade, A.; Damen, J.C.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Kilama, B.; Omme, van G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa's population has grown extremely rapidly over the last fifty years from 289 million inhabitants in 1961 to more than 1 billion today. This is a growth rate of 350% in just half a century and the number of urban residents has increased even more quickly: from 65 million in 1960 to 460 million

  11. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  12. Out of Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Continent shows its stars and future potential in Beijing For a continent that hits the headlines most often for wars and famine, the Olympics offered Africa a chance to make the news for more positive reasons, and its athletes obliged with a host of outstanding achievements.

  13. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  14. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  15. Literacy in Francophone Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokora, Pascal D.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in francophone Africa, where literacy is still a privilege, is reviewed in terms of the complex linguistic situation, effects of population change, concepts and definitions of literacy, promotion of literacy in adult nonformal settings (e.g., African language literacy materials, multilingual settings). (23 references) (LB)

  16. democracy in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ideologies upon small states.2 In Africa, the 1963 Charter of the Organisation of African ... 1 These rights were invoked by African leaders in order to demand the ..... stage is the preparation of the Team's draft report; the third stage involves.

  17. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  18. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  19. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  20. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sis, though not directly linked with social class, due to it being an emerging factor in the spread of ... lack of logistics and financial resources of most governments for the exercise, possible political ... ing countries including Sub-Saharan Africa,.

  1. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city's downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company.In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city.

  2. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  3. Africa's Perspectives on China-Africa Relations and Forum on China-Africa Cooperation(FOCAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osita; C.Eze

    2009-01-01

    China is in Africa in a vigorous way,and doing business in several countries like Sudan,Congo DRC,Angola,South Africa,and Nigeria.In the short term,the relationship may appear to be mutually beneficial.This paper seeks to address the issue of Africa's perspectives on China-Africa Relations and the FOCAC and examine the concept of strategic partnerships,determine the state of China-Africa relations,examines FOCAC and draw conclusion as well as recommendation on possible ways and issues for future engageme...

  4. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  5. Chandra's Darkest Bright Star: not so Dark after All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2008-11-01

    The Chandra High Resolution camera (HRC) has obtained numerous short exposures of the ultraviolet (UV)-bright star Vega (α Lyrae; HD 172167: A0 V), to calibrate the response of the detector to out-of-band (non-X-ray) radiation. A new analysis uncovered a stronger "blue leak" in the imaging section (HRC-I) than reported in an earlier study of Vega based on a subset of the pointings. The higher count rate—a factor of nearly 2 above prelaunch estimates—raised the possibility that genuine coronal X-rays might lurk among the out-of-band events. Exploiting the broader point-spread function of the UV leak compared with soft X-rays identified an excess of counts centered on the target, technically at 3σ significance. A number of uncertainties, however, prevent a clear declaration of a Vegan corona. A more secure result would be within reach of a deep uninterrupted HRC-I pointing.

  6. Killing for the state: the darkest side of American nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dave; Federman, Cary

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this article is to bring to the attention of the international nursing community the discrepancy between a pervasive 'caring' nursing discourse and a most unethical nursing practice in the United States. In this article, we present a duality: the conflict in American prisons between nursing ethics and the killing machinery. The US penal system is a setting in which trained healthcare personnel practice the extermination of life. We look upon the sanitization of deathwork as an application of healthcare professionals' skills and knowledge and their appropriation by the state to serve its ends. A review of the states' death penalty statutes shows that healthcare workers are involved in the capital punishment process and shielded by American laws (and to a certain extent by professional boards through their inaction). We also argue that the law's language often masks that involvement; and explain how states further that duplicity behind legal formalisms. In considering the important role healthcare providers, namely nurses and physicians, play in administering death to the condemned, we assert that nurses and physicians are part of the states' penal machinery in America. Nurses and physicians (as carriers of scientific knowledge, and also as agents of care) are intrinsic to the American killing enterprise. Healthcare professionals who take part in execution protocols are state functionaries who approach the condemned body as angels of death: they constitute an extension of the state which exercises its sovereign power over captive prisoners.

  7. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  8. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  9. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  10. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  11. Unlocking Africa's Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Freemantle

    2011-01-01

    WHILE there are meaningful objections to the nature and structure of much of the new investment in African agriculture,it is dear that the introduction of new capital,skills and technology is an essential component in unlocking the continent's ultimate allure.Investments of $83 billion annually are said to be needed to elevate the developing world's agricultural sector.At least half of this amount is required in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone.

  12. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese enterprises generate jobs for Africans while exploring the vast potential of the continent Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city’s downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company. In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city. With a population of 900 million and

  13. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  14. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  15. Secondary Teaching Strategies on South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers learning activities on South Africa, which help students gain background information on South Africa's culture, history, and geography; examine United States foreign policy toward South Africa; conduct community research on United States involvement with South Africa; confront different life styles of individuals living in South Africa; and…

  16. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  17. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  18. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S.

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and underreported in Africa because of low awareness by health care providers, other prevalent febrile illnesses, and lack of diagnostic testing and systematic surveillance. Other hypotheses to explain low reported numbers of cases include cross-protection from other endemic flavivirus infections, genetic host factors protecting against infection or disease, and low vector competence and transmission efficiency. Population-based studies of febrile illness are needed to determine the epidemiology and true incidence of dengue in Africa. PMID:21801609

  19. Rewriting the Landform History of One of Africa's Three Largest Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Kalahari Basin in southern Africa - one of the largest basins in Africa, along with the Congo and Chad basins - has attracted attention since David Livingstone traveled through the area in the 1840s. It is a semiarid desert with a large freshwater swampland known as the Okavango Swamp (150 km radius). This prominent megafan (a fan with radii >100 km), with its fingers of dark green forests projecting into the dun colors of the dunes of the Kalahari semi-desert, has been well photographed by astronauts over the years. The study area in the northern Kalahari basin is centered on the Okavango megafan of northwest Botswana, whose swampland has become well known as an African wildlife preserve of importance to biology and tourism alike. The Okavango River is unusual because it has deposited not one but two megafans along its course: the Okavango megafan and the Cubango megafan. The Okavango megafan is one of only three well-known megafans in Africa. Megafans on Earth were once thought to be rare, but recent research has documented 68 in Africa alone. Eleven megafans, plus three more candidates, have been documented in the area immediately surrounding the Okavango feature. These 11 megafans occupy the flattest and smoothest terrains adjacent to the neighboring upland and stand out as the darkest areas in the roughness map of the area. Megafan terrains occupy at least 200,000 sq km of the study area. The roughness map shown is based on an algorithm used first on Mars to quantify topographic roughness. Research of Earth's flattest terrains is just beginning with the aid of such maps, and it appears that these terrains are analogous to the flattest regions of Mars. Implications: 1. The variability in depositional style in each subbasin may apply Africa-wide: rift megafan length is dominated by rift width, whereas Owambo subbasin megafans are probably controlled by upland basin size; Zambezi subbasin megafans appear more like foreland basin types, with the position of

  20. The historiography of Danish representations of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present....

  1. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  2. The historiography of Danish representations of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present.......Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present....

  3. Nutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  4. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  5. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  6. Initiatives in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T J; Middleberg, M I

    1986-03-01

    Since the 1st oil crisis in 1973, the economies of sub-Saharan Africa have barely kept pace with their burgeoning populations. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa give birth more often than women in any other region of the world, with an average of more than 6.5 live births each. The region's natural increase average 2.5% a year in the 1960s, 2.7% in the 1970s, and in the mid-1980s, it is 3.1% per annum--a rate that will double the regions population in 22 years. National leaders in Sub-Saharan Africa were slow to consider population policy as a key component of the social and economic development effort. The neglect of population issues is reflected in the limited scope of public or private family planning programs in the sub-continent. Donor countries and institutions play an important role in developing the information base by providing technical training to government staff, supporting research, and disseminating information to a broad spectrum of political actors. Some examples of policy reconsiderations in Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Niger are given. These countries are starting to give active consideration to population policies to reduce fertility and high rates of population growth by expanding family planning services, raising the age of marriage, improving the status of women, providing family-life education, and incorporating economic incentives for smaller families into the provision of social services. The highly centralized nature of African governments dictates that the acquiescence of the governmental elite must be obtained before any policy can take hold. Overall, high population growth rates in combination with a stagnating social and economic development effort throughout the region have provided the catalyst for a new look at Sub-Saharan Africa population policy. The ability of African nations to implement policies that reduce fertility is more open to question; no African nation has as yet done so, and the socioeconomics factors contributing to high

  7. Immunology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  8. Africa. Salvation or Despair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    ”, a change that was also expected and demanded by the international community. As a consequence of this change, South Africa is now trying to lead by example, trying to export particular values and norms to the rest of the continent, while at the same time carrying Africa’s banner on the international stage....... A state wanting to be recognized and perceived as a benign “peacemaker” cannot use military power in the same way as a pariah state. To cultivate a reputation as a benign power, it must use force in a way that is acceptable to its neighbours and the international community at large. The purpose...

  9. Managing organizational performance in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2012-01-01

    Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa......Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa...

  10. Readings in modernity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Geschiere; B. Meyer; P. Pels

    2008-01-01

    This book provides students of Africa with a guide to the bewildering variety of scholarly work on the issue of modernity in Africa, and to offer some tools for dealing with its intellectual paradoxes. Part One contains both analytical and historical examples of the genealogies of modernity in the A

  11. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...

  12. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  13. AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  14. Knowledge transfer to Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    For the second year running, a team from CERN comprising experts in the design and running of digital libraries has taken part in a workshop in Africa. The aim of the workshop, which was held in Morocco from 22 to 26 November 2010, was to pass on their expertise and help train librarians and IT engineers from five African countries.   Participants of the training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco).  Although digital libraries are rapidly expanding across the Globe, a large proportion of the professionals working in the field have not followed relevant training, which poses a real challenge. To help to remedy the situation and encourage the development of digital libraries in Africa, CERN and UNESCO organised a training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco) in November. "The success of the first CERN-UNESCO digital library school, which took place in Rwanda in 2009, encouraged...

  15. BRICS Regional Policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Deych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the BRICS as a whole and an analysis of each member’s policies in Africa. It exploresthe countries’ political and economic interests in Africa, the various patterns and strategies of each country’s cooperationwith Africa, and estimates the impact of BRICS aid and investment on the African economy and Africa’s development. TheBRICS countries have emerged as the new effective actors in the world arena. Their global economic weight and politicalinfluence continue to grow. Not only is the group focusing its attention on strengthening the internal ties of its members, but itis also focusing on assistance to Africa, as a way to implement the emerging powers efforts to change the existing world order.The BRICS is deepening its engagement with African countries, which gained great success in their development in recentyears. Its focus on Africa is determined by the important role of African resources and by the continent’s growing influencein the world economy and contemporary international relations. BRICS countries are major trade partners of Africa, andAfrica’s trade with BRICS members is growing faster than its trade with the traditional partners. Africa has become themain destination for BRICS development aid and investment. The BRICS is also focusing on African infrastructure. BRICScountries use soft power widely, through developing humanitarian ties with Africa, particularly in health care and education.The BRICS is also an active participant in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa. Members currently tend tocompete in Africa, but they are taking steps toward collaboration. The BRICS contributes much to the African economy. Itspresence has become important for the continent and receives a positive response there.

  16. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector. The article argues, among other ... Keywords: Turkey, Africa, Sustainable Development .... 25.03.2011). Following the First Ministerial Review Conference of Turkey-Africa ..... Such centres aim to contribute to the development of literature on Africa by ...

  17. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST...... and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial......, social and cross-cutting issues pertaining to the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis. We summarize key achievements made by CONTRAST, many of which are featured in this special issue of Acta Tropica. Together with an independent view put forth by an eminent schistosomiasis researcher...

  18. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  19. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Oyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs, open access to higher education (HE was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery, MOOCs place the developing countries at the centre of universal access to HE. This paper provides the strategy for MOOC implementation in the context of limited resources in Africa. The strategy is clustered under five baseline requirements: national accredited MOOC curriculum, electronic content development, development of an online and offline eLearning platform, establishment and funding of MOOC coordination units at public HEIs, and establishment of MOOC access hubs at strategic locations. Emerging from this paper is the insight that a new era of universal access to HE in Africa is achievable through MOOCs only if initial requirements are met by the respective governments.

  20. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  1. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  2. Engendering Economic Policy in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); A. Oduro (Amo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDespite Africa's relatively commendable growth performance since 2000, growth has not been accompanied by structural transformations. First, there has been little diversification from agriculture into industry, particularly manufacturing. Second, the poverty headcount and inequality rema

  3. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...... its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding...

  4. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  5. Famine Spreads in East Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crisis highlights deep-seated food security problems on the African continent Worsening famine in the Horn of Africa, which threatens the lives of millions in countries including Ethiopia, Djibouti,Kenya and Somalia,

  6. Erythrineae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Franklin Hennessy

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The two genera represented in the flora of southern Africa.  Erythrina L. and  Mucuna Adans. are revised. Keys to the indigenous species and the commonly cultivated exotic species are provided.

  7. Assessing China's Relations with Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... IMF to establish a formal financial arrangement designed to give the ..... with the construction of new foreign ministry buildings and stadiums in ..... Reilly, James, and Bates, Gill, 2007, 'The Tenuous Hold of China Inc. in Africa',.

  8. Psychiatric genetics in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pippa

    . Psychiatric genetic studies in South Africa seem to involve relatively low-cost methodologies and only a ... Xhosa population shows a significant genetic contribution from ...... Venter M, Warnich L. A pharmacogenetic study of CD4 recovery in.

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    aid, especially in the fields of geology and mines. [Text] [Maputo Domestic Service in Portuguese 0800 GMT 28 Mar 87 MB] 76662 28 POTENTIAL PRC... Bangladesh and follow, for the most part, differing sects and factions. [Question] The Islamic minorities in South Africa, like other Muslims in the...institutions. As you know, most Muslims and those who are called shaykhs immigrated to South Africa from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh . Most of them

  10. Non-Interference in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa must be left to solve its own internal problems RECENTLY social unrest has spread widely in Arab countries in North Africa and the Middle East,which led to military actions against the Libyan regime by NATO.In addition,under the support of the UN peacekeepers and French forces,the former president of Cote d’Ivoire was arrested and power transferred to

  11. Economic Statecraft: China in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    of oil by 2035, making China’s increased access to Africa’s oil of no strategic threat .23 China’s Investment in Africa While trade data is...assistance.”50 Although al Qaeda threatens China less than it does the United States, as Chinese influence and presence grows globally, this threat will...developing nations in Africa to incrementally adopt global labor and environmental standards; (3) eliminating protectionism of developed economies

  12. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  13. Young engineers of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available of human language technologies (HLT) in education; • Virtual/Augmented reality in education; • Gaming paradigms to support learning and educational content development; • Mobile learning environments; • E-learning solutions and platforms (using...-appropriate and sustainable technology-enhanced teaching and learning in South Africa and Africa, where the next generation is exposed to more career opportunities in the ICTs sector. In real terms YESA will focus on the interface between SET and ICTs. A national...

  14. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  15. South Africa in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  16. Optics development in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Buah-Bassuah, P K

    2002-01-01

    The case study of the Office of External Activities in Cape Coast, Ghana has turned out to be a successful story in promoting research and capacity building of young scientists. The total involvement of many organizations show how laudable the idea has been. This centre has come to serve as a place to solve scientific problems as well as problems of national interest. It is foreseen that its activities can be a means to congregate African scientists to solve common problems. I think the bold step taken by OEA and some organs of ICTP, Trieste, Italy, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Firenze, Italy has helped up and coming African scientists to come face to face with the challenges of Laser research. Such projects seem feasible and sustainable since experts in these areas can serve as contact persons in Africa to undertake common research using optical techniques. This project has made it possible to explore various areas in optics that can be used to solve proble...

  17. Nurturing talent in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The first African School of Physics draws to a close tomorrow, and I’m proud that CERN has been a part of it. From an initiative launched by Fermilab scientist Christine Darve, the African School of Physics has grown to involve institutes and universities from all over Europe and the United States.   It’s being hosted by South Africa’s National Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, at Stellenbosch, and has attracted 150 applicants from all over the continent and beyond for the 65 places available. That alone makes it a success, even before NITheP Director Frederik Scholtz uttered his words of welcome nearly three weeks ago.. When I show people the map of where CERN’s users come from, it’s gratifying to see it spanning the world, and in particular to see southern hemisphere countries starting to join the global particle physics family. Africa, however, remains notable more for the number of countries that are not involved than for those that ...

  18. Cardiomegaly in tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    The term "cardiomegaly" is found in 5-7% of chest X-ray film evaluations in tropical Africa. However, "cardiomegaly" is a descriptive term, devoid of any aetiological meaning. Therefore, providing information about the aetiological factors leading to heart enlargement in a group of Africans (Nigerians) was the purpose of this study. In the years 2002-2011, 170 subjects (aged 17-80 years, mean age 42 years) in whom "cardiomegaly" was revealed by chest radiographs were studied at the Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele. The patients underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and several appropriate laboratory tests. Arterial hypertension was found to be most frequently associated with heart enlargement (39.4%), followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (21.76%), endomyocardial fibrosis (14.1%), valvular defects (9.4%), cardiac enlargement in the course of sickle-cell anaemia (6.47%), and schistosomal cor pulmonale (3.52%). This study is a contribution to a better aetiological elucidation of "cardiomegaly" in the tropics and emphasizes the importance of arterial hypertension as one of its causative factors. The dire need for effective treatment of hypertensive patients becomes evident. A high prevalence of elevated blood pressure seems to reflect an impact of civilization-related factors on the African communities.

  19. [AIDS in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds.

  20. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  1. China-South Africa Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 24, the founding ceremony of the China-South Africa Friendship Association (CSAFA) was held in Beijing on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa.

  2. AN OVERVIEW OF CASSAVA IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited research and development activities on the crop in Africa until comparatively recently. ... several serious challenges facing cassava researchers in Africa today; key among these are the need to ..... on cas sava white flies in Colombia:.

  3. Journal of Social Development in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Social Development in Africa. ... The journal publishes analyses, findings and recommendations relating to social development in Africa, including .... of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

  4. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  5. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  6. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  7. China-Africa Seeking Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the context of today’s globalization,peace and stability will not prevail in the world unless they first materialize in Africa.This is the view of Liu Guijin,Special Representative of the Chinese Government for African Affairs.As long as the African continent is mired in pov- erty,wars and chaos,the world will not be able to embrace common prosperity,said Liu.He is calling for the international community to assist the continent in resolving its problems with concrete actions,an endeavor that requires the collaboration of all countries and regions, including those from Europe,China and Africa.Liu recently made these and other assessments on the China-Africa connection at a joint interview with CHINAFRICA reporter Wang Zhe and Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei.The main points follow:

  8. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  9. Overview of materials research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available publishes South Africa?s 10 Year Innovation Plan ? Grand Challenges: (A mechanism to create focus and develop a research agenda with specific national outcomes) 1. Farmer to Pharma value chain to strengthen the bio-economy; 2. Space science & technology... 2011 World production: ca. 1 100 000 tonnes per annum South Africa 30 % Australia 36 % Other 14 % Indonesia 9 % USA 11 % South Africa is the second largest producer in the world Less than 5 % beneficiated locally World Production...

  10. CPAFFC Delegation Visits South Africa And Namibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang; Ruimin

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of the South Africa-Chin a Friendship Association(SACFA)and the Erongo Region of Namibia,aCPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Feng Zuoku paid a visit last November.South Africa,known as the"Rainbow Nation",is the second largest economy in Africa.China is its largest trade partner,while South Africa is China’s largest regional trading partner.

  11. Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    in the same year, reached ZAR188 billion. Russia’s trade with its most important African partner is, in fact, the smallest of all of the BRIC ...Brazil, Russia, India, and China) coun- tries, the notional grouping of BRIC and South Africa, to be discussed in more detail.76 The growth in trade...AFRICA Russia is attracted by the notion of cooperation in Africa between countries making up the BRICS (Bra- zil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

  12. Petroleum geology of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.S. [ed.] [BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd., Jakarta (Indonesia); Moody, R.T.J. [ed.] [Moody-Sandman Associates, Kingston (United Kingdom); Clark-Lowes, D.D. [ed.] [University of London (United Kingdom). Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

    1998-12-31

    North Africa contains some 4% of the world`s remaining oil and gas reserves, and is now one of the most active exploration areas. This volume represents the first attempt at a compilation of the petroleum geology of North Africa, documenting a series of papers collected on the petroleum geology of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the western part of Egypt. The main objectives of this book are to increase the level of documentation towards that appropriate for such major petroleum provinces and to facilitate the application of analogues between North African countries and beyond. (author)

  13. Human plague occurrences in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences...... Africa and Madagascar. We show that public health concerns regarding the current plague situation are justified and that the disease should not be neglected, despite the sometimes questionability of the numbers of cases. We conclude that improving plague surveillance strategies is absolutely necessary...

  14. Homophobic Africa? Toward a more nuanced view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awondo, P.; Geschiere, P.; Reid, G.

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of homosexuality as a central issue in public debate in various parts of Africa has encouraged a stereotypical image of one homophobic Africa, often placed in opposition to a tolerant or depraved West. What is striking is that this image of Africa as homophobic is promoted by

  15. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  16. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the mos

  17. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  18. Defense and Development in Africa: Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Lexington Books, 1981. Arlinghaus, Bruce E., Military Development in Africa, Boulder: Westview Press, 1984. Arrighi , Giovanni, "International Corporations...Labor Aristocracies, and Economic Development in Tropical Africa," in G. Arrighi and J. Saul (eds.), Essays on the Political Economy of Africa, Monthly

  19. Homophobic Africa? Toward a more nuanced view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awondo, P.; Geschiere, P.; Reid, G.

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of homosexuality as a central issue in public debate in various parts of Africa has encouraged a stereotypical image of one homophobic Africa, often placed in opposition to a tolerant or depraved West. What is striking is that this image of Africa as homophobic is promoted by bo

  20. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  1. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  2. Mobile Africa : changing patterns of movement in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The case studies in this book on mobility in sub-Saharan Africa critically discuss dichotomous interpretations of mobility and reject the idea that migration indicates a breakdown in society. They adopt the approach that sedentary and mobile worlds converge and that mobility is part of the livelihoo

  3. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  4. Globalisation and Migration in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional causes of migration in Africa - conflicts, political oppression .... tions without wanting to return to their original places of residence. The decision ... activities and become the objects of pursuit by the security establishment of the ..... crime. The ubiquity of cellular phones and proliferation of cyber communica-.

  5. The Exceptional State in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    China's relations with African states have undergone significant changes in recent years. China has projected its relationship with Africa as one of equality and ‘mutual help’. Such perceptions of foreign policy stem from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the shared experience...

  6. Toward the "New South Africa."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Examines, in the light of political reforms in South Africa, the prime concerns of geographers. Discusses the future of the Bantustans; questions of land redistribution, tenure systems, production levels, and support systems; spatial economic policies; land and housing; and regional relations. Argues that, to realize its potential, southern Africa…

  7. FLOSSWorld Africa regional workshop agenda

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tucker, KC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available forward for FLOSS in Africa. FLOSSWorld is a world-wide impact study of free/libre and open source software. At Idlelo 2 collaborators will be sought to extend its reach across the continent. There are three research tracks: (1) Human capacity building...

  8. Reducing postpartum hemorrhage in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Lalonde, A

    2005-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This is being addressed by leading professional organizations, which point to the importance of a skilled attendant at birth. But they also emphasize that the active management of the third stage of labo...

  9. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter

    1996-01-01

    1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys natalen...

  10. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We ar

  11. TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICA - ANY NEWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, TS

    1994-01-01

    The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has be

  12. Regioinal Economic Integration in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martha_B_H

    being real. This article looks into the various factors that contributed to the .... rate of competition and higher prices to consumers which will ultimately lead to a ..... 51 Jenny Clover (2003), Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa, 12 African Security .... Heads of States and Governments to fast track the establishment of a Pan.

  13. TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICA - ANY NEWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, TS

    1994-01-01

    The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has be

  14. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  15. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  16. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  17. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  18. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  19. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Term Growth Advocated (David Rees; BUSINESS DAY, 25 Oct 85) 84 Millions Lost Due to Forex Loophole (Alan Sendzul; BUSINESS DAY, 23 Oct 85...SOUTH AFRICA MILLIONS LOST DUE TO FOREX LOOPHOLE • * Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in English 23 Oct 85 p 1 [Article by Alan Sendzul] [Text] SOUTH

  20. Peace Education in Postcolonial Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether efforts by donor agencies and Third World governments toward achieving basic education for all will lead to further development of peace education in Africa; whether the outcomes of the 1990 Education for All (EFA) conference in Thailand will promote positive peace; and whether the new EFA strategy will lead to a self-reliant…

  1. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  2. Threatened plants of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Lists are provided of 1 915 vascular plant taxa regarded to be either extinct or variously threatened in southern Africa, the region south of (but excluding) Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. These include 39 recently extinct taxa} 105 endangered...

  3. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  4. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  5. TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICA - ANY NEWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, TS

    1994-01-01

    The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has

  6. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  7. Golden South Africa,Great Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa in 2008,China is celebrating"South Africa Week"to com memorate.H.E.Dr.Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma,the minister of South Africa,and the delegation attended the series of activities in China."South Africa Week"got great success and more and more Chinese people focus on the beautiful and attractive country-South Africa.Dr.Ayanda Ntsaluba,the Director General in Foreign Affairs of South Africa shared his view on the bilateral relations and cooperation,and the development of South Africa with the iournalist of China's Foreign Trade magazine.

  8. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  9. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  10. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  11. Islamist Extremism in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    relations, and disregards many basic human rights , particularly for women. While Wahhabism does not on principle denounce other faiths, many Wahhabi...Islamic Foundation, for example, which had a large presence in refugee camps and supported many madrassas in East Africa, including some linked to Ansaar...often have poorly defined property rights , hindering economic opportunities and paving the way for occasional land seizures by the government or large

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-04

    the interest of the Angolans and the Portuguese that your country can and will play a truly positive role in restoring normality in Angola, which...Others are Mali, Sierra Leone, Camerouh, Mauri- tania , Congo and The Cen- tral Africa Republic. Mr. Azubedy said the conference would aim at...water officer, were also involved in getting the work done. This official said that cleaning off the airstrip was extra work for his office. Under

  13. Africa and Precambrian biological evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Knoll

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available African sedimentary rocks and their contained fossils have played a fundamental role in the unravelling of Precambrian biological history. Various lines of evidence including stromatolites, filamentous and coccoidal microfossils, stable isotope ratios, organic carbon distribution, and oxide facies iron formation suggest that a complex prokaryotic ecosystem fueled by photosynthesis, and perhaps including aerobic photoautotrophs, existed as early as 3 500 m.y. ago. The primary sources of data on early Archean life are rock sequences in southern Africa and Australia. The diversity of later Archean (ca. 2 700 m.y. communities is attested to by abundant and varied stromatolites found in Zimbabwe. The extensive growth and consolidation of continents that heralded the Proterozoic Eon had profound effects on the earth’s biota. Primary productivity must have increased substantially, resulting in the establishment of an 02-rich atmosphere, and, subsequently, the radiation of aerobic respirers. Southern African sequences provide critical evidence bearing on this crust/atmosphere/biota interaction; however, the best known microfossils of this age come from North America. Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks abound in Africa. Stromatolites from northwestern Africa have been well studied; however, microfossil occurrences remain but sketchily described. Contemporaneous sequences from Scandinavia and Australia document the initial radiation of eukaryotes in the planktonic realm, as well as a terminal Precambrian episode of extinction among plankters. Early heterotrophic protists are known from several continents. The Nama Group of South West Africa/Namibia contains important evidence of early invertebrates. In general, Precambrian evolution can be viewed as a series of increasingly elevated biological plateaus connected by steps marking relatively short periods of evolutionary innovation and radiation. With each step, communities have increased in complexity

  14. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-09

    of the National Bank of Angola; Comrade Francisco Manuel (Branel) as assistant provincial commissar of Lunda Norte; and Comrade Armando Ferramenta...Speaking at the same occasion, the Cuban ambassador to Zimbabwe, Comrade Alfonso Fraga , expressed the support for liberation movements in South Africa and...Namibia, and the Palestine Liberation organization. Comrade Fraga said Cuba will continue to keep its forces in Angola as long as the apartheid

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-07

    sources said they included: —Mr Johan Rupert, " crown prince" of the Rembrandt empire and son of Dr Anton Rupert. His name has been mentioned ever...South African physicists, engineers and technicians. This impressive scientific and technological achievement crowns 10 years of intense effort by...well as in the coal-fired power stations in South Africa. The mullite- zirconia ceramic material under development at the NIMR has an advantage in

  16. Megaconferences: view from Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available specifically to the following events: United Na- tions Water Conference in Mar del Plata (1977), Dublin Conference (1992), United Nations Confe- rence on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (1992), Bonn Consultation (2001), Jo- hannesburg Summit... based on first-hand experience. 12 Megaconferences: View from Southern Africa 251 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Mar del Plata, 1977 Dublin, 1992 Rio de Jane iro, 1992 Marrakech, 1997 The Hague, 2000 Bonn, 2001 Johannesburg, 2002 Japan...

  17. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  18. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-10

    devote their attention to the tasks of national reconstruction; this will benefit all of southern Africa. However, as for UNITA, this will have a...change in the Angolan patriots mentality; they are not interested in fighting their own brothers for the benefit of Russian interests in Angola. MPLA...addition, the sales tax on wines, spirits, cider and perry would be incorporated into excise duty, like other liquor products while the customs duty

  19. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Stirling ; THE CITIZEN, 15 Aug 86) .. 53 Rightwing Parties Meet in Pretoria (SAPA, 12 Aug 86) • • • • 54 BLACKS ANC’s Maharaj on Consolidating...Article by Tony Stirling ] [Text] Strong speculation exists in informed government circles in Pretoria that certain urban areas in South Africa which...Angola. Conservative estimates put the expenses Incurred by the Boers in Namibia because of the war at 1 million rand a day. This sky high war budget

  20. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  1. Assessing women empowerment in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development Progr...... empowerment measures and indicators should be sensitive to the context and values of those it seeks to assess rather than adopting abstract mappings that tend to reduce and universalise all women in all societies.......This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development...... Programme (UNDP) as a universal benchmark for assessing gender inequality. It has been highlighted that agency is a necessary component in the conceptualisation and realisation of women empowerment particularly in Africa. The article further demonstrates that the GEM has capitalist, elitist and Eurocentric...

  2. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  4. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  5. Christianity in Africa: a historical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson A Fatokun

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa, this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christianity elsewhere. Moreover, Christianity in Africa can be found almost everywhere on the continent and indigenous varieties of the tradition developed which allowed it to become as part of Africa as African traditional religions.

  6. Problems of youth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriuki, P

    1981-12-01

    Young people constitute a large and rapidly growing proportion of the population in most countries of Africa and in many parts of the world as a whole. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. Young people on the whole experience discomforting confusion, disquieting irritations and perplexities, and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in drug and alcohol use among youth leading to vandalism and disrespect toward their elders and authority. There also are teenage pregnancies and school dropouts. Illegal abortion is being practiced by many girls which sometime lead to premature death. Urbanization also has accentuated various kinds of evils and crimes. Modernization and western influences have helped to erode traditional Africa values. The family system has lost ground rapidly, and the indigenous systems of education have largely disappeared. The passing away of old Africa has contributed to laxity in morals. The current socioeconomic conditions in Africa block the progress of the Africa youth. Early marriages complicate matters for youth and increase the burdens of youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about fertility regulation methods all have helped to increase early childbearing. These are reinforced by African traditional values attached to childbearing. Furthermore, in traditional African society, the young people depended for guidance in behavior and personal relationships on some member of the family. This teaching was gradual and continued until the child was an adult. Today, the family has had to relinquish much of the responsibility of guiding youth on these concerns. Much of the task has been left to formal education and to chance. Problems relating to young people should be attacked at their roots. Such an effort should aim to inform, teach, educate, and orient youth so that they can face the reality of their sexual life. Family Life and Sex Education

  7. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  8. AFRICOM and Australian Military Engagement in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-30

    The Defence Update issued in 2003 (DU03) made further inroads towards the globalisation of Australia’s security. It acknowledged that some...interests. Since 2001, trade with Africa has grown 10.5% and Australia’s exports to Africa have grown by 54% in the same time frame.55 An area of...Australia’s merchandise exports and imports to Africa also achieved the highest yearly growth over five years.60 This result was also replicated by the

  9. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa A Monograph by MAJOR Timothy M. Bairstow United States Marine Corps School of...SUBTITLE Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ABSTRACT Amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) are typically regarded as a post-conflict processes. In South Africa AR2 occurred before

  10. Coaltrans South Africa. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: South Africa's place in the world market for coal; Asia's coal markets; Europe's coal markets; coal in the new South Africa; growing demand for South African coal?; South Africa's export infrastructure; the role for coal in the future of electricity generation; and producing the goods. Some of the papers consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs only.

  11. New Development in Sino-Africa Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jinfu

    2008-01-01

    Over the past five decades relations between Africa and China have stood the test of time and are currently thriving. Launched in 2000, the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation marked the beginning of a new stage in Sino-African ties. Sino-African relations are deepening and being defined in broader terms. Enhanced Sino-Africa relations will further solidify solidarity between developing countries and promote South-South cooperation.

  12. The New Presence of China in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western development aid model has failed, is looking for new forms of aid and development in Africa. China's economic success can partly be ascribed to the huge availability of cheap labour, which is primarily employed in exp...

  13. Chemistry for sustainable development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius); Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas (eds.) [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Faculty of Veterinary Science

    2013-07-01

    Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa' gives an insight into current Chemical research in Africa. It is edited and written by distinguished African scientists and includes contributions from Chemists from Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern, Central and Island state African Countries. The core themes embrace the most pressing issues of our time, including Environmental Chemistry, Renewable Energies, Health and Human Well-Being, Food and Nutrition, and Bioprospecting and Commercial Development. This book is invaluable for teaching and research institutes in Africa and worldwide, private sector entities dealing with natural products from Africa, as well as policy and decision-making bodies and non-governmental organizations.

  14. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  15. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  16. Health Inequality in South Africa: A Systematic Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-03

    Sep 3, 2012 ... inequalities, race, health in South Africa, health systems, .... gaps could be used oshape further research on health inequalities in .... 15 See : Statistics South Africa : July 2015, South Africa Average Monthly Gross Wage.

  17. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  18. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-29

    realism is all that is needed for all southern Africa to enter the open doors to a new era of stability, development, and growth. 76662 CS0: 3400/509...cream. In their bid to beat the rising cost of living, they are being forced to do without holidays, restaurants, cinema - going, clothes and liquor and...reduced spending on clothes, 46 percent don’t frequent the cinema as often as they used to and 44 percent say they have cut back on sweets and ice-cream

  19. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34kimbongue," with little or no nutritional value, the population wanders around the mountains in search of a tuber considered to be highly...Africa’s harvest and livestock yields are lower than the rest of the world’s—even lower than Zimbabwe’s—because extra competition for existing...PW he met his Moses." A surfer points out that had Mr Hendricksc been in a yacht or a boat and dipped’ his feet in the water at the same point

  20. International collaboration clusters in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Jonathan; Hook, Daniel; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Recent discussion about the increase in international research collaboration suggests a comprehensive global network centred around a group of core countries and driven by generic socio-economic factors where the global system influences all national and institutional outcomes. In counterpoint, we demonstrate that the collaboration pattern for countries in Africa is far from universal. Instead, it exhibits layers of internal clusters and external links that are explained not by monotypic global influences but by regional geography and, perhaps even more strongly, by history, culture and language. Analysis of these bottom-up, subjective, human factors is required in order to provide the fuller explanation useful for policy and management purposes.

  1. Governance of Fracking in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Corrigan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the environmental and ecological consequences of hydraulic fracturing have accompanied the shale boom in developed countries at the forefront of shale exploration and production. These environmental and ecological consequences may be of even greater concern in developing countries with less governance capacity. We present a conceptual framework that specifies several variables that are expected to contribute to sustainable hydraulic fracturing. We use the framework to characterize prospects for sustainable hydraulic fracturing in South Africa and Botswana. The framework and evidence clarifies the institutional capacity and institutional challenges confronting the sub-Saharan African countries as extraction of natural resources using hydraulic fracturing begins in earnest.

  2. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  3. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P E; Roux, V; Caumes, E; Donzel, M; Raoult, D

    1998-08-01

    African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma ticks, is an emerging rickettsiosis in southern Africa. Because of increased tourism to this area, several cases in tourists have been reported recently. We report 13 cases of R. africae infection diagnosed in France that occurred in competitors returning from an adventure race in South Africa and compare our data with previously reported findings. Most of our patients presented with fever, headache, multiple inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenopathies, but only 15.4% had a cutaneous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed either by isolation of R. africae from an eschar biopsy specimen or by serological methods, including cross-adsorption between R. africae and Rickettsia conorii. The purpose of this study was to raise physicians' awareness of R. africae infections in an attempt to facilitate the rapid diagnosis and treatment of imported African tick-bite fever in developed countries.

  4. American Business Should Stay in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger M.

    1978-01-01

    Some 350 American firms, with holdings worth approximately $1.7 billion, now operate in South Africa. American students want them to get out of the country. The author evaluates the net effects of such action, and considers how American corporations can improve the racial situation in South Africa. (Author/RK)

  5. Muffled Drums: The News Media in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachten, William A.

    This book examines the news media of modern Africa--newspapers, radio, television, news agencies, and magazines. The first half of the book presents a general overview of African news media, including the following topics: the context of Africa as related to the media, the background of each form of media, government involvement, the patterns of…

  6. Laser propulsion activity in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of laser propulsion experiments have been conducted in South Africa. The first, on the MLIS kilowatt CO2 laser at Pelindaba, gave a surprisingly good result but could not be repeated after the laser chain was dismantled when South Africa...

  7. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  8. China in Africa: The Human Rights Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Bennett (Clare); S. McCann (S.); B. Radley (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report examines the practical impact of Chinese investment on human rights in Africa, in order to assess how the positive effects of China in Africa can be maximised and how the negative effects – which have the potential to be particularly damaging in states

  9. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  10. The Flynn effect in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; Murphy, R.; van Eeden, R.

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa.

  11. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  12. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  13. Deafness in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyaga, Nassozi B.; Moores, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    A review of deaf education in sub-Saharan Africa notes the role of missionaries, especially Andrew Foster who established 31 schools and introduced total communication; deaf education in Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa; the growing acceptance of sign language; and the role of international disability organizations, especially the World…

  14. Deaf-Hearing Interchange in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses factors that have delayed the development of basic research on both sign language and the deaf community in South Africa and presents findings of a study conducted to determine effective sign language communication between deaf and hearing signers in South Africa, the SimCom project. (14 references) (GLR)

  15. The New Presence of China in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western developm

  16. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  17. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mainland region of Africa is Southern Africa because it is considered to be robust with an estimate of around 1700 tree species that are native and a couple 100 more that are alien, but have become accustomed to the natural environment; invading, penetrating and replacing vegetation.

  18. Tuberculosis case finding in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is one of the 22 tuberculosis (TB) high burden countries in the world according to the World Health Organisation. TB is the main cause of death in South Africa with TB mortality at 49 (95% CI 21-87) per 100,000 population in 2011. In 2011 TB prevalence was estimated to be 768 (95% CI

  19. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    been making efforts to boast agricultural productivity, crop yields remain very low. ..... The average agriculture growth rate in Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding. South Africa) .... ineffective and non-sustainable. ... can be produced by esterification of oils of animal, plant .... attracting investment, and thus stimulate R and D that will.

  20. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  1. Additional Miocene to Pleistocene rhinoceroses of Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to place on record data on fossil Rhinocerotidae from Africa not included in earlier papers. Material has turned up in Africa in great quantities over the last decade, much from beautifully calibrated sequences especially in Ethiopia and the Baringo area of Kenya.

  2. Sub Saharan Africa Food Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry

    2016-01-01

    Study of food value chains in East Africa as a preliminary study. The paper wishes to underline a few under-researched assumptions about esepcially protein deficiencies, allergies etc. to establish what enablers and constraints exist when trying to supply food from e.g. Europe to e.g. East Africa...

  3. South Africa:the Wonder Lies Waiting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "South Africa is truly a remarkable country and a wonderful holiday destination.It is a land that is synonymous with a rich historical heritage,magnificent natrural beauty,abundant wildlife and a unique spirit and energy that exudes from a multi-cultural nation of people who pride themselves in calling South Africa 'home'".

  4. Ordinary violence and social change in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouje, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Ordinary social violence, - i.e. recurrent mental or physical aggression occurring between closely related people - structures social relationships in Africa, and in the world. Studies of violence in Africa often refer to ethnic wars and explicit conflicts and do not enter the hidden domain of

  5. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  6. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  7. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  8. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  9. Does organized crime exist in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Shaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing international concern about the growth of organized crime in Africa. Important criminal organizations and professional criminals are present in Africa, but we argue that the term "organized crime" is not a very useful description of their activity, since what we are actually witn

  10. China's Investment in Africa's Banking Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The global financial crisis, whose effects have been most severe on the world's largest banks, has created a vacuum in banking sector in Africa by stalling investment from the traditional investor. The world's largest banks, brought to their knees by the crisis, and having had to be bailed out, are in no position to continue investing in the banking sector in Africa.

  11. China in Africa: The Human Rights Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Bennett (Clare); S. McCann (S.); B. Radley (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report examines the practical impact of Chinese investment on human rights in Africa, in order to assess how the positive effects of China in Africa can be maximised and how the negative effects – which have the potential to be particularly damaging in states that

  12. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  13. Dynamics of MODIS evapotranspiration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available dependent on rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in 4 climatically different regions of South Africa. Average ET in South Africa (2000–2012) was estimated to be 303 mm·a-1 or 481.4 x 109 m3·a1 (14% of PET and 67% of rainfall), mainly in the form...

  14. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  15. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward.

  16. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.

  17. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  18. [Health care insurance for Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, O P; Lindner, M E; van Esch, J P L; van Vugt, M; Rinke de Wit, T F

    2007-12-01

    Long-term substantial development aid has not prevented many African countries from being caught in a vicious circle in health care: the demand for care is high, but the overburdened public supply of low quality care is not aligned with this demand. The majority of Africans therefore pay for health care in cash, an expensive and least solidarity-based option. This article describes an innovative approach whereby supply and demand of health care can be better aligned, health care can be seen as a value chain and health insurance serves as the overarching mechanism. Providing premium subsidies for patients who seek health care through private, collective African health insurance schemes stimulates the demand side. The supply of care improves by investing in medical knowledge, administrative systems and health care infrastructure. This initiative comes from the Health Insurance Fund, a unique collaboration of public and private sectors. In 2006 the Fund received Euro 100 million from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs to implement insurance programmes in Africa. PharmAccess Foundation is the Fund's implementing partner and presents its first experiences in Africa.

  19. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Onapa, Ambrose W; Asio, Santa Maria

    2011-09-01

    Mansonella perstans is a vector-borne human filarial nematode, transmitted by tiny blood-sucking flies (biting midges). It is widespread in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and also occurs in parts of Central and South America. Despite the commonness of this parasite very few studies have been carried out on its epidemiology and on the morbidity resulting from it, and only few thorough drug trials have been conducted to look for effective and suitable drugs and drug regimens for treatment and control. Here, we review currently available knowledge on M. perstans infections in Africa, including documented aspects of biology, vectors, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, morbidity and treatment. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for more research on this widespread but greatly neglected infection in order to properly assess its public health significance and as a background for identifying and recommending optimal means and strategies for treatment and control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human origins: Out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  1. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  2. South Atlantic continental margins of Africa: a comparison of the tectonic vs climate interplay on the evolution of equatorial west Africa and SW Africa margins

    CERN Document Server

    Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie

    2005-01-01

    The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...

  3. Missionary Education in Colonial Africa: The Critique of Mary Kingsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Discussing missionary education in colonial Africa, Pearce examines the ideas of Mary Kingsley, one of the major influences on British thinking towards Africa from the late 1890's. Focusing attention on her educational views, Pearce states that she had influence on all areas of British policy in Africa, and especially West Africa. (GEA)

  4. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  5. Bringing physics training to Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…   Participants in the African School of Physics with CERN's John Ellis. “Attending a school like this is an opportunity no student should miss. This school unlocks one's mind and we are so exposed to many exciting things happening in the world of physics. It's just amazing!” says Suzan Phumudzo Bvumbi from the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Suzan is among the 50 students who have spent over three weeks this summer attending the second edition of the African School of Physics (ASP2012). The school was held in Kumasi, Ghana. "Hosting ASP2012 has given us the opportunity to demonstrate the capacity and resources avai...

  6. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  7. Successful Social Enterprises in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Karen Panum; Hansen, Michael W.

    As part of the greater focus on the role of firms and entrepreneurship in development, spotlight has recently fallen upon so-called ‘social enterprises’. Social enterprises are organizations that operate in the borderland between the for-profit and non-for-profit spheres. The inherent purpose...... of the poverty related development challenges endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, this paper presents six tales of social enterprises from the Kenyan BOP, who all have managed to pursue a social agenda while at the same time achieving commercial viability. While the cases contribute to the BOP literature...... significant value to the ongoing discussions in the social enterprise literature. Besides constituting important empirical evidence from the inadequately investigated area of social enterprises at the BOP, the cases provide basis for raising important conceptual issues related to the boundaries of social...

  8. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  9. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent...... with the predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions...

  10. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa. To navigate this site, please use the menu on the left. For the latest news and updates, check out our Google+ page. And if you want to contact us for questions, comments or any other reason, please...

  11. Review of Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling, and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Preben

    2012-01-01

    Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009).......Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009)....

  12. Atmospheric research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean: a South Africa-France bilateral collaborative programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available conference proceeding ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH IN SOUTHERN AFRICA AND INDIAN OCEAN : A SOUTH AFRICA – FRANCE BILATERAL COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMME V. Sivakumar1,2 and R. Delmas3 1 South Africa Coordinator, Department of Geography, Geoinformatics..., Universite de la Reunion, Saint Denis, La Reunion, France. svenkataraman@csir.co.za 1. INTRODUCTION In the present context of global changes, atmospheric and climatic research should be more organized in the framework of international...

  13. ferences on HIV/AIDS in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 oct. 2005 ... time the big number of AIDS deaths in Africa and in the world and the ... methods used in collecting epidemiological data and to urgently release ...... coordination des interventions, enfants, santé sexuelle et reproductive ...

  14. Advancing China's Multilateral Diplomacy in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Jianbo

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 21st century offers Africa and China many opportunities. African countries are committed to regional integration in order to achieve peace, stability and development, while China is accelerating its socialist modernization to achieve peaceful development and national rejuvenation.

  15. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a classification scheme for the visual classification of cyber attacks. Through the use of the scheme, the impact of various cyber attacks throughout the history of South Africa are investigated and classified. The goal...

  16. Journal of Food Technology in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa. ... nutrition, economic and environmental aspects of food processing technologies. ... advances in knowledge with special emphasis on concern and relevance to the food Industry in the African continent.

  17. The Military of the New South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South...... African Defence Force (SADF) during the apartheid era. The transition to peacemaker has imposed constraints on the use of force and required fundamental changes to the way military force is employed. South Africa’s transition has therefore transformed the international role of the SANDF. The destabilizing....... Introduction – Setting the Scene Chapter 2. Foreign Policy and Military Power in South Africa – framing the debate on RSA foreign policy in relation to Africa, Chapter 3. South Africa and the Concept of National Security Chapter 4. The SANDF: Capacity and Capabilities Chapter 5. Sorry Mr. Chairman, can we stop...

  18. South Africa - record exports defy market misery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.

    1999-03-01

    Dry cargo continues to form the backbone of South Africa`s commodities trades, comprising more than 70% of overall import and export activity. Despite economic stagnation in many global markets and poor prospects for any significant recovery in prices, most of South Africa`s dry bulk ports have experienced sustained tonnage levels in 1998, and are focusing on facility improvements to meet future growth expectation. Coal exports in 1998 increased by 2.8 mt to a record 66.7 mt. The main rise in exports was achieved by Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) but Durban`s BMA terminal and Portnet`s Dry Bulk Terminal or Richards Bay, and the upgraded Maputo Terminals at Mozambique also handled more trade. Expansion projects at RBCT are also mentioned. 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 photos.

  19. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  20. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  1. Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa: Submissions. Journal Home > About the ... cross-disciplinary journal that is published by the United States International University in Kenya. 2. The Journal welcomes articles from ...

  2. Africa's Failed Economic Development Trajectory: A Critique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is something wrong with economic development in Africa. This paper ... final section addresses the research question about whether there is something ..... Colombia. 98. 25. 3. Jamaica. 98. 18. 3. Viet Nam. 98. 17. 3. Nicaragua. 98. 28. 3.

  3. The State and Development in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-04-09

    Apr 9, 2008 ... ment in Africa and left legacies of authoritarianism, corruption and political instability. ..... The credibility of this position is further heightened by the ..... cultural forces of the current domination are too subtle to be perceived.

  4. Reconstructing African Democracies for Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Fayoyin

    corruption in the ruling party and the ambiguous role of observer missions and the media .... To contextualize current public perceptions of governance and human rights in Africa, .... In fact, ethnicity has become the credible indication that a.

  5. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual ... Dynamics of fresh produce marketing in small-scale irrigation schemes: challenges ... Analysis of media role in bridging the information gap for environmentally ...

  6. Hepatitis B in Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common cancer among men and third most common among women. ... and third most common cancer among females [5, 6 ]. Furthermore, the average age of HCC development in Africa is considerably .... muscle wasting. Investigations ...

  7. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  8. Charging for stormwater in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa using the Damage Avoidance Cost (DAC) approach. ..... property as a standard unit to determine the standard stormwater charge for residential properties of ..... Urban Design, 21 - 23 February 2012, Melbourne Cricket Ground.

  9. Africa Insight - Vol 35, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Adoption among Ghana\\'s SME Non-Traditional Exporters · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... South Africa and the IBSA Initiative: Constraints and Challenges · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 'Bathurst ... forecast a possibility of major shortage in basic energy foods in South ..... adaptation to cooler weather, and would enable.

  11. Environmental health hotspots in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The State of the Environment Report, the State of Air Report and the District Health Barometer Report for South Africa, as examples, give some indication of the status of environmental health outcomes, environmental conditions, implemented...

  12. Epidemiology of HIV in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Brian C. [Harvard Medical School, Baylor International AIDS Initiative, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)

  13. Making sense of violence in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    become the norm in many social contexts, and these seem to mirror the underlying structural ... and management of police since the transition to democracy. .... like South Africa's which is composed of a range of cultures and social networks.

  14. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  15. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one...

  16. Africa Ushering in a New Historical Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Africa, which comprises a significant number of developing countries, is an important force working for world peace and stability and global economic development. The African continent is rich in natural and human resources and potentials for development. For years, however, Africa gave people the impression that it was a poverty-stricken, backward land ravaged by successive wars and epidemic diseases. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there have been some

  17. Geography, institutions, and compared development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luis Vaz

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a significant improvement in the economic performance of some African countries. The resulting increased dispersion in income levels across Africa, combined with the pertinence of detecting regional role models renders an intra-African analysis more attractive. In this paper I estimate the respective contribution of institutions, geography, and policies in determining income levels in sub-Saharan Africa. I find that income per capita in this region can be explained to a...

  18. FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. De Agrela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a history teacher to Forms 4 and 5 (Standard 9 and 10, John Pampallis found that "a pressing need for a general textbook to cover the South African section of our syllabus" existed. Pampallis set out to document the history of South Africa and the fruits of his labour emerged in the form of his book Foundations of the New South Africa which is written from refreshingly different perspective.

  19. Europa e Africa - Anatomia di un incontro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at:  http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy of an enc...

  20. China & South Africa in Full Swing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China and South Africa will soon celebrate the 10th anniversary of their formal diplomatic relations establishment. On this special occasion, China's Foreign Trade conducted an interview with Mr. Alex Khumalo, the General Manager of Asia Pacific South Africa Chamber of Commerce (APSACC) Secretariat. Both countries have witnessed the growing friendship of two sides in the past decade, and more fruits are expected in the coming future.

  1. SOUTH AFRICA AT WAR, 1912-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Second Anglo-Boer War also put an end to the commando system that had been the core of military strength in South Africa. With the formation of the Union in 1910 it was realized that South Africa will have to provide its own defence. It was to be no easy task; seeing that the English and Afrikaans-speaking sections of the population had just concluded a bitter war which had left deep scars.

  2. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  3. SOGRA - Supporting Optimized GNSS Research in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0022 SOGRA – Supporting Optimized GNSS Research in Africa Rui M. Fernandes Universidade da Beira...DATES COVERED (From – To) 15 August 2009 – 8 December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SOGRA – Supporting Optimized GNSS Research in Africa 5a...University of Beira Interior) supported by EOARD (European Office of Aerospace Research & Development). The major initial investment concerning the

  4. Asia and Africa in the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Iakovlevich Belokrenitskii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The section examines the colonial history of Asia and Africa, as well as key periods and directions of colonization. The authors analyze the features of the colonial political systems, processes of power distribution, the relationships between colonies and metropolis. Particular attention is paid to the strengthening of Asia and Africa in the final period of colonialism, as well as the impact of the Second World War and a new system of international relations on the process of decolonization.

  5. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  6. In Brief: New atlas of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-07-01

    A newly revised atlas of Africa features more than 300 satellite images that show striking before and after photographs of environmental changes spanning about 35 years. Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment, compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), provides visual evidence of how development choices, population growth, climate change, and, in some cases, conflicts affect Africa, often negatively. The book includes photographs of shrinking glaciers on Mount Kilimanjaro as well as on Uganda's Rwenzori Mountains; deforestation along an expanding road system in the Congo; the drying up of Lake Chad; and the expansion of urban areas such as Cape Town, South Africa, and Dakar, Senegal. Satellite images also indicate some positive signs of environmental management, including action to stop overgrazing in a Tunisian national park, the effects of a management plan for a dam in Zambia that has helped restore seasonal flooding, and positive impacts of wetlands expansion around a national park in Mauritania. For more information, visit http://www.unep.org/dewa/africa/AfricaAtlas.

  7. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnams, Colleen M

    2017-03-01

    This review aims to summarize data published in the scientific literature and available on official websites on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in Africa. There is a paucity of published literature and evidence-based information on prenatal exposure to alcohol in the African continent and the majority of the continent's literature on FASD emanates from South Africa. A small number of scientific publications document FASD and drinking in pregnancy in other Sub-Saharan African countries and these findings provide evidence that FASD occurs across the continent. Further evidence shows that the world's highest reported rates of FASD occur in South Africa and that this confers a significant public health and neurodevelopmental disability burden on the region. There is an established body of epidemiological, diagnostic, neurobehavioral and neuroscientific knowledge from studies in South Africa. Universal and indicated case method preventions are effective in reducing maternal alcohol consumption in high-risk areas. Throughout Africa, a policy and service implementation gap exists that impedes translation of generated knowledge into effective prevention and intervention strategies. FASD is likely a widely occurring and largely unrecognized neurodevelopmental disability in Africa. A key future direction for global agencies and research partnerships is to collaboratively address evidence gaps and knowledge translation through scalable approaches and strategies that aim to ameliorate the burden of FASD in African and other countries.

  9. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  10. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  11. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  12. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  13. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  14. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  15. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  16. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  17. Neurosyphilis in Africa: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurological involvement is one of the most important clinical manifestations of syphilis and neurological disease occurs in both early and late syphilis. The impact of HIV co-infection on clinical neurosyphilis remains unclear. The highest prevalence of both syphilis and HIV is in Africa. Therefore it might be expected that neurosyphilis would be an important and not uncommon manifestation of syphilis in Africa and frequently occur in association with HIV co-infection; yet few data are available on neurosyphilis in Africa. The aim of this study is to review data on neurosyphilis in Africa since the onset of the HIV epidemic.We searched the literature for references on neurosyphilis in Africa for studies published between the 1st of January 1990 and 15th February 2017. We included case reports, case series, and retrospective and prospective cohort and case-control studies. We did not limit inclusion based on the diagnostic criteria used for neurosyphilis. For retrospective and prospective cohorts, we calculated the proportion of study participants who were diagnosed with neurosyphilis according to the individual study criteria. Depending on the study, we assessed the proportion of patients with syphilis found to have neurosyphilis, and the proportion of patients with neurological syndromes who had neurosyphilis. Due to heterogeneity of data no formal pooling of the data or meta-analysis was undertaken.Amongst patients presenting with a neurological syndrome, three studies of patients with meningitis were identified; neurosyphilis was consistently reported to cause approximately 3% of all cases. Three studies on stroke reported mixed findings but were limited due to the small number of patients undergoing CSF examination, whilst neurosyphilis continued to be reported as a common cause of dementia in studies from North Africa. Ten studies reported on cases of neurosyphilis amongst patients known to have syphilis. Studies from both North and

  18. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  19. Exploring the floristic diversity of tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosef, Marc S M; Dauby, Gilles; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; van der Burgt, Xander; Catarino, Luís; Damen, Theo; Deblauwe, Vincent; Dessein, Steven; Dransfield, John; Droissart, Vincent; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Engledow, Henry; Fadeur, Geoffrey; Figueira, Rui; Gereau, Roy E; Hardy, Olivier J; Harris, David J; de Heij, Janneke; Janssens, Steven; Klomberg, Yannick; Ley, Alexandra C; Mackinder, Barbara A; Meerts, Pierre; van de Poel, Jeike L; Sonké, Bonaventure; Stévart, Tariq; Stoffelen, Piet; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Sepulchre, Pierre; Zaiss, Rainer; Wieringa, Jan J; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2017-03-07

    Understanding the patterns of biodiversity distribution and what influences them is a fundamental pre-requisite for effective conservation and sustainable utilisation of biodiversity. Such knowledge is increasingly urgent as biodiversity responds to the ongoing effects of global climate change. Nowhere is this more acute than in species-rich tropical Africa, where so little is known about plant diversity and its distribution. In this paper, we use RAINBIO - one of the largest mega-databases of tropical African vascular plant species distributions ever compiled - to address questions about plant and growth form diversity across tropical Africa. The filtered RAINBIO dataset contains 609,776 georeferenced records representing 22,577 species. Growth form data are recorded for 97% of all species. Records are well distributed, but heterogeneous across the continent. Overall, tropical Africa remains poorly sampled. When using sampling units (SU) of 0.5°, just 21 reach appropriate collection density and sampling completeness, and the average number of records per species per SU is only 1.84. Species richness (observed and estimated) and endemism figures per country are provided. Benin, Cameroon, Gabon, Ivory Coast and Liberia appear as the botanically best-explored countries, but none are optimally explored. Forests in the region contain 15,387 vascular plant species, of which 3013 are trees, representing 5-7% of the estimated world's tropical tree flora. The central African forests have the highest endemism rate across Africa, with approximately 30% of species being endemic. The botanical exploration of tropical Africa is far from complete, underlining the need for intensified inventories and digitization. We propose priority target areas for future sampling efforts, mainly focused on Tanzania, Atlantic Central Africa and West Africa. The observed number of tree species for African forests is smaller than those estimated from global tree data, suggesting that a

  20. China-Africa: New Directions of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Ponomarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the policy of fifth generation of Chinese leadership with regard to African states. The article deals with the concept of “Chinese Dream”, which was first declared in Africa, an innovative model of international cooperation in the framework of the formation of “economic zone of the Silk Road”. The authors reveal three basic directions of cooperation - political, economic and humanitarian cooperation. Political cooperation is characterized by the activation of mutual visits at the highest level, the interaction in the framework of the UN General Assembly, participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Economic cooperation is characterized by the activation of bilateral trade, the transition to a “modernized version of” investment cooperation, implementation of the strategy of “going abroad” of Chinese products, imports of natural resources from Africa, creating jobs for the local population, financing of infrastructure projects, the transfer of labor-intensive industries in Africa. Humanitarian cooperation includes training program for Africa, the implementation of the Sino-African programs, technology partnerships, research and exchange, and the China-Africa Forum “Think Tank”. Cooperation in health care also plays an important role. The authors note that the new Chinese leadership declares transition to an upgraded version of the Sino-African cooperation.

  1. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denning A Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century.

  2. Air Quality Impact of Diffuse and Inefficient Combustion Emissions in Africa (DICE-Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Eloise A; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-10-04

    Anthropogenic pollution in Africa is dominated by diffuse and inefficient combustion sources, as electricity access is low and motorcycles and outdated cars proliferate. These sources are missing, out-of-date, or misrepresented in state-of-the-science emission inventories. We address these deficiencies with a detailed inventory of Diffuse and Inefficient Combustion Emissions in Africa (DICE-Africa) for 2006 and 2013. Fuelwood for energy is the largest emission source in DICE-Africa, but grows from 2006 to 2013 at a slower rate than charcoal production and use, and gasoline and diesel for motorcycles, cars, and generators. Only kerosene use and gas flaring decline. Increase in emissions from 2006 to 2013 in this work is consistent with trends in satellite observations of formaldehyde and NO2, but much slower than the explosive growth projected with a fuel consumption model. Seasonal biomass burning is considered a large pollution source in Africa, but we estimate comparable emissions of black carbon and higher emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from DICE-Africa. Nitrogen oxide (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) emissions are much lower than from biomass burning. We use GEOS-Chem to estimate that the largest contribution of DICE-Africa to annual mean surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is >5 μg m(-3) in populous Nigeria.

  3. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  4. Consultation liaison psychiatry in Africa – essential service or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the patient (longer hospital stays, delayed return to work or disability), as well as ... In Africa, many health professionals view mental illness as synonymous with ... expansion of successful medical-psychiatric care environments. In Africa, CL ...

  5. Application of the critical loads approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available continent; although sensitivity mapping has been performed for Africa and the rest of the world (Kuylerstierna et al, this conference). Actual sulphate and base cation deposition loads in Mpumalanga (formerly the Eastern Transvaal province of South Africa...

  6. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics and discourses of race. The brief narrative, which will also allude to situations in Apartheid South Africa, is meant to aid understanding...

  7. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  8. Rehabilitation design of flexible pavements in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a set of practical course notes on the Rehabilitation Design of flexible pavements in southern Africa based on extensive research by various researchers and / or practitioners in South Africa. The course is intended...

  9. Diversity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Eucalyptusin Africa and Madagascar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marc Ducousso; Robin Duponnois; Daniel Thoen; Yves Prin

    2012-01-01

      Use of the Australian genus Eucalyptusin short rotation plantations in Africa and Madagascar has developed over the last century to such an extent that it is becoming the most frequently planted genus in Africa...

  10. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  11. model hpv vaccine recommendations for sub-saharan africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer in ... prevalence of HPV is higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in other ..... Factors associated with student participation in a ... Europe: Results of the VENICE 2007 survey. Euro.

  12. China's Oil Companies Turn to Africa for Business Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ CNOOC Ltd completes oil acquisition in Africa CNOOC Ltd, China's third largest oil producer, has made a series fruitful achievements in expansion of its overseas business operation in Africa in the second quarter of this year.

  13. Climate change impacts on fisheries in West Africa: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impacts on fisheries in West Africa: implications for ... as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in previous global analyses. ... of the region through economics and food security of West Africa to climate change.

  14. How does climate change affect groundwater in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maserumule, R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a relatively small component of South Africa's water resources accounting for approximately 15% percent of South Africa's water consumption (DWAF 2002). Unfortunately, this statistic is overshadowed by the fact that close to 65...

  15. Preparing new principals in South Africa: the ACE: School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparing new principals in South Africa: the ACE: School Leadership Programme1. ... are to be successful in providing good learning opportunities for students, ... including South Africa, a teaching qualification and teaching experience are ...

  16. Tourist guides’ perceptions of cultural heritage tourism in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clinton David van der Merwe

    2016-01-01

    Heritage tourism is a fast growing niche of cultural tourism worldwide. In Africa, several countries, including South Africa, place great emphasis on the growth of heritage tourism because of its potential for local economic development...

  17. Recent Trends on TV White Space Deployments in Africa | Opawoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent Trends on TV White Space Deployments in Africa. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... In this paper, we presented the effects of Television White Space (TVWS) on digital divide in Africa. The trends in digital ...

  18. Gene Variant from Africa Linked to Black Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Gene Variant From Africa Linked to Black Obesity Study sees first biological pathway to weight gain ... identified an Africa-specific gene variant associated with obesity. The team found that about 1 percent of ...

  19. User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 37th WEDC International Conference, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2014 Sustainable Water and Sanitation services for all in a fast changing world User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa Ms L C. Duncker, South Africa Briefing...

  20. Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa. ... group'. as defined dUring apartheid in South Africa, represents a valid political concept ... is likely to ~sult in extensive \\ socio-economic and geographical migration that will ...

  1. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    , with a specific aim at the dissemination of knowledge in field of interaction design both in an academic context, as well as among practitioners. More specifically the paper discusses how interaction design knowledge can be disseminated in West Africa, particularly in Higher Education.......Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...

  2. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics. PMID:26378921

  3. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K Karikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.

  4. Military Social Work Thinking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. van Breda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.

  5. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  6. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  7. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Selvarani; Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the two provinces currently showing growth.

  8. Primary health care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, E

    1989-01-01

    Even though most countries have committed to primary health care (PHC), South Africa, a middle-income country, has an inadequate PHC system. The poor system has roots in the colonial period and apartheid reinforces this system. Race, class, and place of residence determine the type of health care individuals receive. South Africa falls far short of all 5 principles of PHC. Just 12% of the health budget goes to 40% of the population who live in the homelands which shows the inequitable distribution of health care resources and inadequate quality health care for all. Similarly, South Africa has not altered its communication and education techniques to improve preventive and promotive health services. It has not implemented any successful national campaigns such as a campaign against diarrhea deaths. South Africa does not make good use of available appropriate technology such as breast feeding, oral rehydration, refrigeration, and the ventilated improved pit latrine which lead to health for all. People in South Africa discuss community participation but it is not likely to occur without general political democracy. Some people have made local attempts at community participation but they tend to use inflexible means and request either cash or contributions in kind from people who have little. The elite in South Africa has not recognized the need to correct socioeconomic inequalities. The Population Development Plan Programme among white farmer-owners has showed some support for a multisectoral approach to improve health care, however. For example, it acknowledges that non-health-care interventions such as better salaries, literacy, and living conditions, lead to better health. The Department of National Health has discussed improved coordination of the budget to allow priority determination of national PHD and manpower plans. Nongovernmental organizations are beginning to use the PHC approach instead of the charitable approach.

  9. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Houghton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y−1 for the period 2000–2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y−1 and land use change (240 TgC y−1. Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000–2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y−1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y−1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y−1. The average amount of carbon (C emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US $ of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/$, close to the world average of 199 gC/$. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  10. Fungi and invasions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fungi are a major component of the functioning of all terrestrial ecosystems. Objectives: To increase awareness of fungi as drivers of ecosystem processes, including invasion biology. Method: Here, I reviewed the information available regarding fungal invasions of native ecosystems in South Africa in the context of the National Status Report on Biological Invasions. Results: Only seven fungal species are regulated as invaders (all category 1b under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA A&IS regulations. Four of these species are not yet known to occur in South Africa. Similarly, under the NEM:BA A&IS regulations, two of the four species listed as prohibited (i.e. not present in the country but which would pose a threat if introduced are already present in the country. The actual number of alien fungi in South Africa is much greater. A preliminary listing of alien fungal species is made, with a total of 9 pathogenic species known to attack indigenous plants, 11 saprotrophic species, 1 fish pathogen, 23 host-specific pathogens of listed alien terrestrial plants, 61 ectomycorrhizal species and 7 host-specific pathogens deliberately introduced as biological control agents. The majority of fungal species were introduced to South Africa most likely via the introduction of crop plants as passengers, although there are as yet very little details available on pathways of introduction into South Africa. Conclusion: For almost all aspects considered, it is concluded that there is simply not sufficient data to begin to understand the role and impact of fungal invasions in South Africa.

  11. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelein Meissner-Roloff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism – where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem

  12. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling.

  13. The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B.; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0’s sister clade, L1’6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by “mitochondrial Eve”) possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

  14. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rito

    Full Text Available The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve" possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  15. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  16. Common epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fenollar, Florence; Mouffok, Nadjet; Bassene, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Tall, Adama; Niangaly, Hamidou; Doumbo, Ogobara; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Znazen, Abir; Sarih, M'hammed; Ratmanov, Pavel; Richet, Herve; Ndiath, Mamadou O; Sokhna, Cheikh; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria in France, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa and to identify a common vector. Blood specimens from 3,122 febrile patients and from 500 nonfebrile persons were analyzed for R. felis and Plasmodium spp. We observed a significant linear trend (pAfrica also protects against rickettsioses; thus, empirical treatment strategies for febrile illness for travelers and residents in sub-Saharan Africa may require reevaluation.

  17. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  18. Elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa: possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Charles D; Homeida, Mamoun M; Hopkins, Adrian D; Lawrence, Joni C

    2012-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease found in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen, causes blindness and severe dermatological problems. In 1987, efforts to control this infection shifted from vector approaches to include the mass distribution of ivermectin - a drug donated by Merck & Co. for disease control in Africa and for disease elimination in the Americas. Currently, almost 25 years later, with the Americas being highly successful and now approaching elimination, new evidence points towards the possibility of successful elimination in Africa. We suggest several major changes in the programmatic approach that through focused goal-directed effort could achieve global elimination of onchocerciasis by 2025.

  19. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  20. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  1. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  2. The genus Waltheria in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Verdoorn

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Waltheria indica L., the only species of Waltheria represented in southern Africa, is revised. This species, which occurs throughout the tropics and substropics of the world, is found abundantly in the northern Cape, Swaziland, northern Natal, Transvaal and northwards through South West Africa/Namibia and Botswana. Thoughout its wide distribution the species is uniform. A scrutiny o f herbarium specimens revealed that what appeared as a distinct species or subspecies was without doubt an abnormality, probably caused by insect injury.

  3. Obama and US policy towards Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2017-01-01

    When Barack Obama came into office in January 2009, there were high expectations that he would change the policy towards Africa. It has not happened. Critics maintain that the current policy is not only a continuation of the policy of George W. Bush but has also become increasingly ‘militarized......’. The paper argues that it is not adequate to describe US Africa policy as having become ‘militarized’. It is too incoherent and too inconsistent to possibly describe it by such a term. The policy is much more country specific and case specific depending on the coalition trying to influence policy...

  4. Tele-education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice eMars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programmes. The aims of this study were i to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa ii describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N in South Africa and iii review the development of these programmes with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation.Method: a literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made.Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health. Despite initial attempts by the National Department of Health there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 hours of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education.Conclusions: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource

  5. MILITARY COUPS AND MILITARY REGIMES IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Growth of Military StatesAs late as 1961 the African image had not been tarnished to any great extent by the incidence of military coups. Indeed, a field study tour conducted in 1960- 1 - the year of independence as it has been called - to investigate the place of the armed forces in societies in Africa did not provide the evidence on which to forecast the eventual spate of coups. Togo was the first country in West Africa to experience a military coup when on 13 January 1963 Togolese soldiers...

  6. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    variables which are not available at a global scale and thus not incorporated in this study as well as its coarse resolution. An application of the models using climate hindcasts and projections ranging from 1980 to 2060 resulted in a strong decrease of burned area of ca. 20–25%. Since wildfires are an integral part of land use practices in Africa, their occurrence is an indicator of areas favourable for food production. In absence of other compensating land use changes, their projected decrease can hence be interpreted as a indicator for future loss of such areas.

  7. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  8. MNC reporting on CSR and conflict in Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in developing countries has received more attention. However, in this literature Africa is much less well represented than other regions, and existing studies about Africa have mainly focused on South Africa

  9. AfricaArray: aims, achievements and future activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available AfricaArray (www.africaarray.org) is a long-term programme to build geosciences capacity in Africa in support of the mineral, petroleum, groundwater and environmental sectors. It seeks to do this by establishing effective Africa-based education...

  10. MNC reporting on CSR and conflict in Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in developing countries has received more attention. However, in this literature Africa is much less well represented than other regions, and existing studies about Africa have mainly focused on South Africa

  11. Indicators to Monitor Deeper Regional Trade Integration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Stronger regional integration has been a policy priority in Africa for several decades. Countries in Africa have committed to a process of deeper integration, but have made little progress in implementing commitments and removing barriers. This report looks at the monitoring of regional integration in Africa and argues that more effective monitoring processes for existing integration arran...

  12. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of georeferen

  13. The H3Africa policy framework: negotiating fairness in genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Tindana, Paulina; Littler, Katherine; Ramsay, Michèle; Rotimi, Charles; Abayomi, Akin; Mulder, Nicola; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2015-03-01

    Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) research seeks to promote fair collaboration between scientists in Africa and those from elsewhere. Here, we outline how concerns over inequality and exploitation led to a policy framework that places a firm focus on African leadership and capacity building as guiding principles for African genomics research.

  14. New Principals in Africa: Preparation, Induction and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tony; Oduro, George K. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the challenges facing new principals in Africa. Design/methodology/approach: Based on recent research and literature, the paper analyses the experience of principals and proposes an induction model for principalship in Africa. Findings: School principals in Africa face a daunting challenge. They often work in…

  15. Investor perception towards small medium enterprises investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboah, J.; White, B.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine investor perceptions towards investing in SMEs in Africa. Data was collected via an online survey sent to investors on the Venture Capital for Africa (VC4Africa) platform. The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to determine the degree of agreement among

  16. Investor perception towards small medium enterprises investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboah, J.; White, B.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine investor perceptions towards investing in SMEs in Africa. Data was collected via an online survey sent to investors on the Venture Capital for Africa (VC4Africa) platform. The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to determine the degree of agreement among investo

  17. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of georeferen

  18. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Early gas stripping as the origin of the darkest galaxies in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Mastropietro, C; Wadsley, J

    2007-02-15

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  20. Breakthrough Capability for the NASA Astrophysics Explorer Program: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Joseph P.; Garvin, James B.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Stephen R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mission architecture designed to substantially increase the science capability of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO proposers working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a 13 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to 13X increased photometric sensitivity and 160X increased observing speed relative to a Sun- Earth L2, Earth-trailing, or Earth orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has strong applicability to SMD Planetary Science community-proposed missions. SEP is a stated flight demonstration priority for NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This new mission architecture for astrophysics Explorers enables an attractive realization of joint goals for OCT and SMD with wide applicability across SMD science disciplines.

  1. The Darkest Hour Before Dawn: Contributions to Cosmic Reionisation from Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hongwan; Zavala, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation or decay could have a significant impact on the ionisation and thermal history of the universe. In this paper, we study the potential contribution of dark matter annihilation ($s$-wave- or $p$-wave-dominated) or decay to cosmic reionisation, via the production of electrons, positrons and photons. We map out the possible perturbations to the ionisation and thermal histories of the universe due to dark matter processes, over a broad range of velocity-averaged annihilation cross-sections/decay lifetimes and dark matter masses. We have employed recent numerical studies of the efficiency with which annihilation/decay products induce heating and ionization in the intergalactic medium, and in this work extended them down to a redshift of $1+z = 4$ for two different reionisation scenarios. We also improve on earlier studies by using the results of detailed structure formation models of dark matter haloes and subhaloes that are consistent with up-to-date $N$-body simulations, with estimates on...

  2. Early Gas Stripping as the Origin of the Darkest Galaxies in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich, ETH /Zurich U.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /KICP, Chicago; Mastropietro, Chiara; /Munich U. Observ.; Wadsley, James; /McMaster U.

    2007-02-28

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  3. Invest in Africa!——2007 Africa Business and Investment Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was held in November last year, Africa, this beautiful and amazing land has attracted more and more attention and interests from the Chinese people and enterprises.That vast and fertile continent does not only boast of breath-holding natural sightseeing, mysterious and historical ventures and legends, but also is a virgin land full of opportunities with investment and cooperation.

  4. Biodiversity intactness score for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Biggs, R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's new Biodiversity Act requires the development of a national framework for the integrated management of biodiversity in the country. The act also requires regular monitoring and reporting of the status of biodiversity. We apply a new...

  5. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  6. Reasons for doctor migration from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research: Reasons for doctor migration from South Africa. 211. Vol 51 No 3 ... The aim of the study was to investigate the profile of South African qualified ..... They proposed that giving loans to medical students which could be cancelled by the .... Contagion among Physicians who Care for HIV Patients. Fam Med ...

  7. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  8. Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) Year Report 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, G.H.; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) supports African SME agrifood companies in growing their business. An AAA member companies can enhance knowledge, skills and expertise, and get support in accessing finance and markets. By the end of 2014, AAA had 200 members in five countries: Tanzania, Kenya,

  9. Urban agriculture in Africa : a bibliographical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obudho, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This bibliography is a listing of all materials that have ever been published or written on the subject of urban agriculture in Africa up to 1998. It records all books, chapters in books, discussion and conference papers, periodical literature and all types of academic theses, dissertations and unpu

  10. Slavery, migration and contemporary bondage in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirk, J.; Vigneswaran, D.

    2013-01-01

    Slavery in Africa is commonly associated with the distant past: images of maritime slavery in the Gold Coast, Biafra, Angola and Zanzibar together with the horrors of the 'Middle Passage' to the Americas. However, widespread evidence of human trafficking, wartime enslavement and other forms of bonda

  11. Africa: from voluntary principles to binding standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Jaksa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A continent-wide Convention to protect IDPs in Africa couldsoon be adopted by the African Union. If sufficiently robustand aligned closely with the Guiding Principles, it would senda powerful signal about Africa’s determination to addressIDP issues.

  12. Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materu, Peter; Righetti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on degree-granting tertiary institutions. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints.…

  13. Soft Power and Smart Power in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Robert Kagan asserts, France, Germany, and the rest of Europe have been gravitating to the United States of late not simply due to soft power, but in...Africa and the World World public opinion numbers for the United States have suffered over the past several years, and even a political neophyte would

  14. Skin diseases among schoolchildren in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, Adriaan Anne

    2012-01-01

    Many skin diseases among schoolchildren in sub-Sahara Africa cause disturbing complaints like itch and pain and several of them are contagious.This high prevalence causes a major public health problem.Although in several countries and also in our studies skin diseases present in large numbers, they

  15. Developmental Regimes in Africa synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, D.; Dietz, A.J.; Golooba-Mutebi, F.; Fuady, A.H.; Henley, D.; Kelsall, T.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Donge, van J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Many African countries have experienced sustained economic growth, but few have achieved the type of structural change, driven by rising productivity, that has transformed mass living standards in parts of Asia. In the Developmental Regimes in Africa Synthesis Report, editor David Booth examines how

  16. making extractive investments work for africa's development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    strategy that combines trade inducements, increased investment flows, aid for infrastructure and ... mineral resource sector and other sectors of the economy through beneficiation ... 5 UNECA (n 2). 6 Market Trading Info, “State of Qatar – Economic Review”. .... the opportunity for Africa's expanding labour force to engage in.

  17. Africa Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection of lessons about the geography, languages, and social issues of several African countries is intended for use with students in grades 6-12. The collection contains five lesson plans: (1) "Africa Physically" (Mark Stahl); (2) "Comparisons of Education in Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Oklahoma" (Rita Geiger) (Handout…

  18. Population mobility in Africa : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.W.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Til, van K.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although there is an abundant literature on migration in sub-Saharan Africa and mobility on the continent seems to be increasing, it is difficult to fully understand the complex processes underlying the phenomenon. This is partly related to problems with definitions and partly to a lack of reliable

  19. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  20. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  1. Evaluating Health Care Financing Reforms in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Africa is on a steady economic growth path. Over the last decade, most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries outperformed European and North-American countries’ growth rates, as shown in Figure 1. A number of SSA countries are among the fastest growing economies

  2. Africa: Irregular Warfare on the Dark Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    labor, bonded labor, debt bondage and involuntary servitude among migrant laborers, involuntary domestic servitude, forced child labor, and sex traf...Africa.” In addition, they contributed peacekeepers, sent doctors, and have cancelled $10 billion in bilateral debts . However, they are also willing to

  3. South Africa, 2004: Power, Passion, Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although the education system in post-apartheid South Africa has its share of serious challenges, the accompanying reforms carried out are inspiring as the ASCD Board of Directors and staff discovered when they visited the country in October 2004. The visit was organized around the theme of the 2005 ASCD Annual Conference: "Voices of Education:…

  4. UROLOGY IN AFRICA AND THE INTERNET

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Urology, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of Natal, Durban,. South Africa .... any colleague in the world with the price of a local phone call. .... unrealistic dream but is a reality which can be achieved via ...

  5. Entertainment Films and Video in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Louise

    The film industry in Africa began in 1963. Since then, development has been slow because of funding problems and political restrictions. Television is available to only a fraction of the population and imported programming represents almost one-half of the programming. However, there are some successful African produced television programs. The…

  6. West Africa's deepwater future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, James; Williams, Stewart

    2005-07-01

    The article surveys the development in the petroleum activities in Africa particularly in the dominating nations Angola ad Nigeria. Economic and social aspects are mentioned as well as the necessity of deepwater exploitation as the resources in more shallow waters become depleted.

  7. Social entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera-Santos, M.; Holt, D.; Littlewood, D.; Kolk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Responding to calls for a better understanding of the relationship between social enterprises and their environments, this article focuses on contextual influences on social entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa. We identify four predominantly African contextual dimensions, i.e., acute poverty,

  8. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    Britain's race for Africa continues to draw significant scholarly interest. Traditionally, studies have focused on well-documented figures such as explorers, missionaries and capitalists. Working against the trend, this is the first book to concentrate solely on the role of engineers. It analyses...

  9. Southern Africa - a giant natural photochemical reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diab, RD

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The analogy of a ‘giant natural photochemical reactor’ is extended in this paper to the central and southern African tropics, where tropospheric ozone enhancement occurs over a vast geographical area from the Congo to South Africa, and over a long...

  10. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    with the predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions...... of the unified growth theory....

  11. Eastern Africa: mapping the politics of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, G; Lanegran, K

    1991-01-01

    The political constraints slowing the battle against AIDS in Africa are getting AIDS on the public agenda, integrating the international community into the AIDS policy-making agenda and cultural barriers in national AIDS strategies. Policy making in most Africa is bureaucratic rather than democratic, so whether AIDS is a government priority depends largely on perception of AIDS risk by the leaders. In Zambia and Uganda, AIDS is a concern because it affects the ethnic group or family in power, while in Tanzania and Kenya, AIDS is associated with minority or "high risk" groups. The domination of AIDS agenda setting within nations in Africa by international donors and non-governmental organizations is a problem, made more severely severed by sensitivity of Africans who perceive research as a foreign effort to prove that AIDS originated there. Foreign domination is also detrimental because it prevents localities from becoming committed to AIDS interventions. Cultural barriers against effective interventions are similar to those in Western countries: AIDS is seen as a disease of shame affecting immoral people. In addition, the prevalent concept of fatalism defeats the Western insistence on intervention and strategies. Furthermore, women who are largely dependent on men cannot insist on preventive behavior, not do they have organizations in place to protect their rights. Finally, the concepts of behavioralism, and learning new behaviors for person-centered reasons, are foreign to much of Africa.

  12. Bibliography on marine pollution in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The South African Committee in Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) has been requested to compile a comprehensive bibliography on marine biology in South Africa. It is hoped that it will appear in 1977. SANCOR has made funds available on its 1976 budget...

  13. Africa's wars of liberation : some historiographical reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Konings, de P.; Binsbergen, van W.; Hesseling, G.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which scholars have considered African wars of liberation. Firstly, the author considers some of the general assumptions which have been commonly applied to African history since the middle of the twentieth century when academic historical writing on Africa began, a

  14. phobia and women's sport in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africans across the divides of race, class, gender and geography. The argument for using sport to foster social cohesion in South Africa rests on two ...... 'There's got to be a man in there': Reading intersections between gender, race and ...

  15. China-Africa Friendship Evening Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Africa Friendship Evening, during which the press release of the TV Series Road of Friendship, jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the Chinese-African People’s Friendship Association and the Beijing Television Station was held in

  16. THE FIRST NATO MISSION TO AFRICA: DARFUR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    North America and Europe with treaty agreement to assist each other on the ... This article surveys NATO as a trans-regional actor in Africa, from April 2005 ... Europe Meeting (ASEM), the Asia-Pacific Cooperation (APEC) and the ASEAN- ..... A Test for EU-NATO Strategic Partnership (London: ISIS, June 2005), Review no.

  17. Developmental Regimes in Africa synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, D.; Dietz, A.J.; Golooba-Mutebi, F.; Fuady, A.H.; Henley, D.; Kelsall, T.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Donge, van J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Many African countries have experienced sustained economic growth, but few have achieved the type of structural change, driven by rising productivity, that has transformed mass living standards in parts of Asia. In the Developmental Regimes in Africa Synthesis Report, editor David Booth examines how

  18. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); Spearman, C.W. (C Wendy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  19. Africa Insight - Vol 38, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Archives > Vol 38, No 3 (2008) ... The impact of sport on nation building: A Critical Analysis of South Africa and the 2010 FIFA World ... Sport tourism: comparing participant profiles and impact of three one-day events in South ...

  20. School Governance in the New South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tony; Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses early experiences of school governing bodies in South Africa. Examines governing bodies' powers to set fees, resulting impact on resources for different types of schools, and implications for equity and equality. Explores governing bodies' admission policies and how this led to school populations differentiated by class and race. (CAJ)

  1. SECURITY EDUCATION IN AFRICA: PATTERNS AND PROSPECTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esterhuyse

    national policies are more important than size and wealth, and this suggests that smaller states like ... development aid have done little good and much harm.1 The .... officer candidate schools require classroom work that reflects critical thinking and .... Given the general patterns of security education in Africa, what are the.

  2. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethnicity also influences perception of the emotions of others. In South Africa .... consciousness, orientation, memory, tempo, intelligence, mode of thinking ... Gender. Male. 58,0. Female. 42,0. Education. None. 7,1. Grades 1 – 4. 21,4. Grades 5 – 7. 34,7 ... stressed the significance of social support system which is reportedly ...

  3. managing africa's natural resource endowments: new dispensations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    what Africa needs is an approach with a good fit to local realities, and an enhancement of ... power.5 This is a particular problem for resource-rich African economies which do not ... challenges of the natural resource sector.13 Thus, negotiating the curse ..... from one of three sources: (1) commercial tax evasion, trade mis-.

  4. South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    This volume of trade is now almost on par with Africa's exports to the United. States and the .... of a level, 'free trade' playing field, shorn of European and US protectionism, can nevertheless ..... Opportunities or Hidden Threats', in. S. Buhlungu ...

  5. Melioidosis in traveler from Africa to Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosini, María I; Quereda, Carmen; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro; Núñez-Murga, María; Cantón, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions.

  6. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling la

  7. Malarone-donation programme in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloland, P B; Kazembe, P N; Watkins, W M; Doumbo, O K; Nwanyanwu, O C; Ruebush, T K

    1997-11-29

    Glaxo Wellcome announced in November 1996 its intent to donate up to 1 million treatment courses per year of its new antimalarial drug, Malarone, to countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, where malaria is endemic. Because the effectiveness of the small number of available antimalarial drugs is threatened by the emergence of drug resistance, the advantages of introduction of this new drug to a given area should be given careful consideration. Chloroquine, for example, is nearing the end of its effectiveness as a first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in many areas of East and Central Africa. The lifespan of its replacement, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, is likely to be even shorter given its long half-life and the ease with which resistance-conferring mutations occur. In Southeast Asia and the Amazon basin of South America, where multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious problem, the advantages of Malarone introduction clearly outweigh any disadvantages. In sub-Saharan Africa, the premature distribution and increasing use of artemisinins may jeopardize their long-term effectiveness, however. Another factor complicating decisions to introduce Malarone is its required 3-day course of treatment, necessitating hospitalization if compliance is to be ensured. The donation project gives patients in developing countries access to an expensive drug that would otherwise be unavailable. Time must be taken, however, to fully debate the project's pros and cons, resolve inherent logistic problems, and establish guidelines for Malarone use in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA'S WESTERN AND EASTERN COASTS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    1998-10-21

    Oct 21, 1998 ... military, must consequently remain a leading role-player in conflict ... South Africa is likely to be one of the main role-players in the operational ..... expected of the SANDF to be ready for any regional or continental security.

  9. Academic Dissent and Apartheid in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Pierre J.

    1977-01-01

    The English language universities in South Africa have a long record of opposition to the policy of apartheid, whereas the Afrikaans-language universities have been intellectual bastions of apartheid. This article discusses the nature and implications of recent signs of political dissidence within the Afrikaans-language universities. (Author/JM)

  10. Elections and Social Conflict in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    democratic process will be allowed to take its course. In countries that lack these traits , elections have often led to violence. In the Democratic...participation. While elections are COUNTRY ELECTION DATE DEATHS Kenya December, 2007 1502 South Africa April, 1994 239 Nigeria April, 2007 226 Cote

  11. Measuring rural welfare in colonial Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, De Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This study develops a new approach to reconstruct rural living standards in a historical

  12. Relative Deprivation in Contemporary South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgryn, Ans E. M.; Bornman, Elirea

    1996-01-01

    Identifies relative deprivation as a subjective feeling of discontent based on a belief that one is getting less than one feels entitled to. Investigates the relationship between relative deprivation, ethnic identification, and racial attitudes in South Africa. Discusses the connections between these beliefs and recent sociopolitical changes. (MJP)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available South African greenhouse gas emissions contributed about 1.2% to the global increase in the greenhouse effect in 1988. South Africa generated trace gases with a radiation absorption potential over a 20-year period equivalent to 534 million tons...

  14. Africa's elephants and rhinos: Flagships in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, D

    1987-11-01

    Despite extensive conservation measures over the last two decades, populations of elephants and rhinos in Africa continue to decline. The plight of the black rhino is especially acute. Poaching for rhino horn and ivory, rather than habitat loss, remains the principal threat to these species. The only long-term hope may lie in the effective protection of small, isolated populations.

  15. Hydrometeorological Research in South Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are of great concern, as they are closely linked to the wellbeing of humankind. Sophisticated hydrological prediction tools are required to assess climatic and hydrometeorological conditions, as they impact the sustainability of water resources as well as water availability. Research and data collection activities from multi-hydrometeorological sensors (e.g., gauges, radars, satellites form the basis for quantifying the impact of extreme episodes along the hydrologic phases that manifest in terms of the magnitude, duration and frequency of floods, droughts and other hydrometeorological hazards that affect water resources management. A number of hydrometeorological research activities have been reported in the literature by various researchers and research groups globally. This contribution presents (a a review of the hydrometeorology resource landscape in South Africa; (b an analysis of the hydrometeorology services and products in South Africa; (c a review of the hydrometeorological research that has been conducted in South Africa for the last four decades; and (d highlights on some of the challenges facing the sustained advancement of research in hydrometeorology in South Africa.

  16. Population mobility in Africa : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.W.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Til, van K.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although there is an abundant literature on migration in sub-Saharan Africa and mobility on the continent seems to be increasing, it is difficult to fully understand the complex processes underlying the phenomenon. This is partly related to problems with definitions and partly to a lack of reliable

  17. Urban agriculture in Africa : a bibliographical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obudho, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This bibliography is a listing of all materials that have ever been published or written on the subject of urban agriculture in Africa up to 1998. It records all books, chapters in books, discussion and conference papers, periodical literature and all types of academic theses, dissertations and

  18. Aging in Africa: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree

    2008-06-01

    My goal in this article is to analyze gerontological discourses in Africa using articles in this collection as a spring board. The broad intention is to explore the possible areas of intersection between research in African aging and other social science disciplines such as history, politics and linguistics as a way of demonstrating how gerontology may contribute to scholarship in other disciplines.

  19. Evaluating Health Care Financing Reforms in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Africa is on a steady economic growth path. Over the last decade, most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries outperformed European and North-American countries’ growth rates, as shown in Figure 1. A number of SSA countries are among the fastest growing economies in the wo

  20. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  1. Environmental Problems in Africa: A Theological Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Climate change is a global environmental problem and while a ... of climate change. In addition, the impact of the pollution caused ... they are eating, from the air they are breathing, and .... is essential to review ecological policy in. Africa and ...

  2. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  3. Skin diseases among schoolchildren in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, Adriaan Anne

    2012-01-01

    Many skin diseases among schoolchildren in sub-Sahara Africa cause disturbing complaints like itch and pain and several of them are contagious.This high prevalence causes a major public health problem.Although in several countries and also in our studies skin diseases present in large numbers, they

  4. China's Outward Direct Investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; de Haan, Jakob; Qian, Xingwang; Yu, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The empirical determinants of China's outward direct investment (ODI) in Africa are examined using an officially approved ODI dataset and a relatively new OECDIMF format ODI dataset. China's ODI is found responding to the canonical economic determinants that include the market seeking motive, the ri

  5. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  6. [Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S; Junod, A

    1998-01-01

    We now have a better knowledge of the specific features of depression in sub-Saharan Africa. Anthropologically speaking, the Western model is irrelevant. Depression in sub-Saharan Africa involves the relationship of the subject to himself or others in a mode specific to African cultures. Ignoring this fact can lead to simplistic ethnocentrism. From a clinical standpoint, depressive illness characterized by somatic manifestations, delusions of persecution, and anxiety are increasingly uncommon. As African societies modernize, these traditional forms are being gradually supplanted by states with symptoms and prognoses more like those observed in industrialized countries. Hybrid depressive syndromes are now the most widespread. Epidemiologically the notion widely held only a few decades ago that depression is a rare occurrence in Africa has now been dispelled. Many studies have been conducted to determine the exact incidence, age distribution, and sex ratio but more precise data is still needed. This investigation will require improvement in screening and diagnostic methods which must be not only suitable for clinical use but also adaptable to local conditions. This is also true with regard to management which has the same goals as anywhere else in the world. Treatment facilities are different in urban and rural areas but care is often dispensed in unconventional settings and may be combined with traditional methods. Drug availability is limited by problems involving supply and cost. This explains why electro-convulsive therapy which was introduced into sub-Saharan Africa long ago still plays a major role in the treatment of depression.

  7. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  8. Food and environmental policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, M R; Biswas, A K

    1986-08-01

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

  9. Africa's wars of liberation : some historiographical reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Konings, de P.; Binsbergen, van W.; Hesseling, G.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which scholars have considered African wars of liberation. Firstly, the author considers some of the general assumptions which have been commonly applied to African history since the middle of the twentieth century when academic historical writing on Africa began, a

  10. Environmental research perspectives in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystem Programmes

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available for the period under review, such as a detailed study of the processes of eutrophication in Hartbeespoort Dam, the development of principles for bushveld management, the theory and practice of large mammal management in Africa and the measurement of quality...

  11. Land reform in Africa : lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Naerssen, A.L.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' pa

  12. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling

  13. Trade unions and democratisation in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In writings about the role of trade unions in the democratization process in Africa one can distinguish a pessimistic and an optimistic school. However, recent research presents a more complex picture. In this chapter the author has selected three case studies for an in-depth comparative analysis: Z

  14. R-HPDC in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of semi-solid metal forming and in particular rheo-high pressure die casting at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in South Africa is discussed. Processing flexibility is demonstrated on the Al-Si-Mg, Al-Mg-Si, Al...

  15. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  16. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  17. Seismotectonics and crustal deformation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2016-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events, and harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures, seismic anisotropy tomography and gravity anomaly, into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies obtained from the analysis of late Quaternary faulting and geodetic data will serve as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map will be useful for the seismic hazard assessment and earthquake risk mitigation for significant infrastructures and their socio-economic implications in Africa. The constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of this map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014, now extended to 2016).

  18. South Africa. Weather and Climate. Section 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Althoiiugh tli htIi ghest iiea t dIally inns htint toiitpe rtt im rs tittititotiirigi ittin Illt i the ptolakr reginits. Vor exsam ple. tilt oer Ili sti m tr...Sicuth Africa Is Icnfluenicced Icy grademits which (ofteni accoccpaccy muigraitory low-pressure day- tcc -day chianiges li the dist ribuiti cci surface

  19. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  20. China-Africa Trade Enjoys Solid Foundation and Promising Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China-Africa Trade Corridor was formed in the 1950s, but trade between the two sides wasn't prosperous until the year 2000.Economic cooperation between China and Africa has a long history.Trade between China and Africa registered only USS12.1 million in 1950, and just over USS1 billion in the 1980s.The China-Africa Cooperation Forum was established in 2000, opening a new chapter in the history of China-Africa economic and trade relations.

  1. Cardiomyopathy in Africa: heredity versus environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Somers, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Unlike other parts of the world in which cardiomyopathy is rare, heart muscle disease is endemic in Africa. The major forms of cardiomyopathy in Africa are dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF). Whereas DCM is a major cause of heart failure throughout the continent, EMF is restricted to the tropical regions of East, Central, and West Africa. Although epidemiological studies are lacking, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy seem to have characteristics similar to those of other populations elsewhere in the world. Recent advances in the genetic analysis of DCM in other parts of the world indicate that it is a genetically heterogeneous disorder in which some cases have a Mendelian cause and others have a non-genetic or multifactorial cause. This heterogeneous pattern of inheritance has been confirmed in small studies that have been conducted so far in Africa. The advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection and its association with cardiomyopathy has emphasised the role of inflammatory agents in the pathogenesis of DCM. By contrast with DCM in which some cases have major genetic contributions, there is scanty evidence for the role of genetic factors in the aetiology of EMF. Although the pathogenesis of EMF is not fully understood, it appears that the conditioning factor may be geography (in its widest sense, to include climate and socio-economic status), the triggering factor may be an as yet unidentified infective agent, and the perpetuating factor may be eosinophilia. There is a need for renewed effort to identify genetic and non-genetic factors in EMF and other forms of heart muscle disease that are prevalent on the continent of Africa.

  2. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  3. [Inequalities in access to care in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society.

  4. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  5. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [The role of female veterinarians in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, K K

    2000-01-01

    While the number of female veterinary students has reached figures as over 80% in the Netherlands and other European countries, the number of female veterinary students in Africa is also changing but still at a slower pace. Still nowadays, according to UNICEF, two-thirds of primary school age children, denied their right to basic education, are girls. In addition, especially in rural areas in Africa, there are only few secondary schools, so that children, either have to travel over large distances on a daily basis or have to live away from their families. As girls, already from an early age play an important role in the daily household routine, they are often not allowed to leave for schooling. There used to be less than 10 veterinary faculties in Africa during the first half of the 20th century. These faculties were located in South Africa, Sudan, Egypt and Nigeria. For many years, African veterinarians were also trained in western countries (UK, France, USA) or in former communist countries (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary Eastern Germany, Cuba) depending on the existence of historic or political links. A long stay abroad made it more difficult for female students, especially for those with children. Still nowadays, female veterinarians in Africa are mostly working for the veterinary departments mainly in the urban areas. Another area where many female veterinarians can be found are governmental diagnostic and research laboratories as well as training institutions such as veterinary faculties or agricultural colleges. Generally the salaries at these institutions are very low and therefore their male colleagues have gradually shifted to work in the private sector with more competitive salaries (private clinics, sector pharmaceutical companies, development projects, (agricultural) banks, etc). As still in most societies, women tend to follow their husbands, most female veterinarians are bound to find employment where their husbands are based. In addition, as most

  7. Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, R.; McDougall, N. [Robertson Research International Ltd., Llandudno, Conwy (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of features considered significant in the exploration and development of Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa. Information is derived from a review of literature on the Lower Palaeozoic successions of North Africa, combined with outcrop observations from the Anti Atlas mountains of Morocco. The focus of the exploration-oriented part of the review is on identification of potential traps other than two-way structural dip closure. Stratigraphic elements described include depositional models of reservoir facies, tectonic unconformities and possible eustatic unconformities. Cases of established or potential trapping by post-depositional faulting by diagenesis and by hydrodynamic flow are examined. Development-related topics highlighted include the impact on reservoir matrix quality of burial diagenesis and of palaeo-weathering at the Hercynian unconformity. Other issues discussed which additionally affect producibility from the reservoir matrix include tectonic fracturing, palaeotopography and unloading fracturing at the Hercynian unconformity, and induced fracturing within the present stress regimes. (author)

  8. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  9. The foreign debt problem of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Decoodt

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign debt problem of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, although an important obstacle against economic growth, is not the region's major economic problem. The creditors are less concerned about the relative small debt figures of SSA because of the lower risks for the equilibrium of the financial system. But from the debtors' viewpoint, the debt situation is possibly even more critical in low-income Africa than in the richer major debtor countries. SSA has a predominance of official creditors with the best obtainable credit terms. Notwithstanding these good terms, SSA is so poor that it has difficulties with fulfilling its debt service. There is no single solution for the African debt crisis. Anyway the official creditors have to adopt a more flexible attitude. The debtor countries have also to accept their own responsibility in the solutions of the problem.

  10. Climate Warming: Is There Evidence in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Carcel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the temperature time series across several locations in Africa. In particular, we focus on three countries, South Africa, Kenya, and Côte d’Ivoire, examining the monthly averaged temperatures from three weather stations at different locations in each country. We examine the presence of deterministic trends in the series in order to check if the hypothesis of warming trends for these countries holds; however, instead of using conventional approaches based on stationary I(0 errors, we allow for fractional integration, which seems to be a more plausible approach in this context. Our results indicate that temperatures have only significantly increased during the last 30 years for the case of Kenya.

  11. Discrepancies in data reporting for rabies, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Louis H

    2013-04-01

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies-endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible.

  12. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  13. Modelling price determination in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moolman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been faced with high inflation rates since the early 1970s. Despite continued monetary discipline the inflation target has not yet been met, highlighting South Africa’s price-vulnerability as a small open emerging economy and raising questions about the efficiency of monetary policy. The objectives of this paper are: (i to analyse the influence of monetary policy on inflation in the small open emerging economy of South Africa, (ii to highlight the channels other than monetary policy through which inflation can be influenced (iii to analyse the influence of international prices and the exchange rate on inflation, (iv to determine the role of the labour market on inflation, especially through wage-push dynamics and (v to determine the role of demand-pull factors on inflation.

  14. The metabolic syndrome in Africa: Current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Christian I

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to earlier thoughts, metabolic syndrome is no longer rare in Africa. The prevalence is increasing, and it tends to increase with age. This increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the continent is thought to be due to departure from traditional African to western lifestyles. In Africa, it is not limited to adults but is also becoming common among the young ones. Obesity and dyslipidemia seem to be the most common occurring components. While obesity appears more common in females, hypertension tends to be more predominant in males. Insulin resistance has remained the key underlying pathophysiology. Though pharmacologic agents are available to treat the different components of the syndrome, prevention is still possible by reverting back to the traditional African way of life.

  15. Asia in the New Distribution of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Mora

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have developed at a considerable rate over the recent decades. The economic figures and political interests are testimony to a new distribution of influences on the Dark Continent, insomuch as the powerful nations along the Asiatic shore are now competing with both the former colonial mother counties and the United States. Indeed, if the economic weight of Africa’s market is weak world-wide, this does not make it unattractive from a strategic point of view for those Asiatic countries looking for international prestige or resources for their growing economies. This rapprochement, motivated by political reasons also, seems exemplified by the growing presence of major economies like Japan and China - as well as those aspirations of the middle-sized powers like South Korea and Malaysia - in the international issues concerning sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Biosedimentology of Quaternary stromatolites in intertropical Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, J.

    Mineralizations of microbial origin constitute a non-negligeable part of Quaternary limestones in intertropical Africa. Stromatolites have colonized a wide range of environments corresponding to different hydroclimatic situations: travertines in fluviatile environments, oncolites in flood plains, encrustations in sebkha areas and shorelines of deep, fresh water lakes. The developed morphologies represent a complete catalogue of the microbial carbonated mineralizations: oncolites, chemneys, pool-rim dams, biocherms, planar or cylindrical encrustations. The building organisms may be either pure bacterial colonies (hydrothermal and lacustrine environments), cyanophyte associations (fluviatile and lacustrine environments) or complex microbial biocoenoses. Stromatolites have recorded the hydrologic, climatic and sedimentologic evolution of the continental environment in intertropical Africa for the past 240 000 years.

  17. Cholera: a continuous epidemic in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, A; Patric, K

    2002-06-01

    Cholera continues to plague many parts of the world, but has largely been concentrated in Africa, which contributes more than 80% of the total cases worldwide. Natural disasters, like the 2000 floods in Mozambique and the volcanic eruption in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2002, generally lead to new outbreaks of the disease. The refugee problem in many countries throughout the world also causes potential threats for disease outbreaks. Case fatality rates are high, and we are not anywhere near curbing new cholera epidemics, especially in Africa. It is thus imperative to renew discussions about the nature of this deadly disease, its treatment, measures for prevention and control, modes of transmission, its physical, social and economic impact, and potential solutions.

  18. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVEDFOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Ssekyewa, Charles; Halberg, Niels

    . This was concluded in an UNEP-UNCTAD CBTF report from 2008 exploring the potentials of organic farming in Africa. In this report, it was furthermore concluded that organic and near-organic agricultural methods and technologies are ideally suited for many poor, marginalized smallholder farmers in Africa, that organic...... farming builds on and stimulates the formation of human, social, financial, natural and physical capital, and that the recent rise in food and fuel prices highlight the importance of making agricultural production less energy and external input dependent. Since organic farming is not directly...... and specifically supported by agricultural policy in most African countries, and sometimes actively hindered, an effort to establish and support an enabling policy environment must be done. At a one-day workshop on the 22nd May 2009 in Kampala in relation to the First African organic conference, the findings...

  19. Chinese Investment BuoysAfrica's Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua News Agency,athough Africa is a diverse continent,containing a variety of countries and cultures,the representatives of African countries do have one thing in common:their desire to attract Chinese investment.“We look forward to Chinese enterprises'investments.Chinese investment helps us to fund the construction of transportation and medical infrastructure,” Bernadette Artivor,executive director of the Namibia Investment Center,said on September 8.Artivor made the remark at the High-Level Symposium for China-Africa Investment and Cooperation,an event held as part of the 15th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) which opened in southeast Chinas coastal city of Xiamen.

  20. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  1. AIDS in Africa: misinformation and disinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konotey-Ahulu, F I

    1987-07-25

    Relying on his tour of 16 sub-Saharan countries, the author judges the extent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa on a scale from grade I (not much of a problem) to grade V (a catastrophe). In his assessment, AIDS is a problem (grade II) in only 5, possibly 6, countries where it has occurred. In no country is the AIDS problem consistently grade III (a great problem), nor ever grade IV (an extremely great problem), and in none can it be called a catastrophe (grade V). In Kenya, for instance, contrary to widespread rumors, the author rates AIDS in 1987 as grade I. Journalistic hyperbole has proved very expensive in that Africans overseas have experienced racial abuse and tourism has unjustly suffered. Tension seems to have developed between white doctors working in Africa, with externally funded research in danger of being halted in several countries.

  2. Greenhouse effect and its impact on Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suliman, M. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    Changes that may occur in Africa as a result of global warming are outlined. They include changes to agriculture, water resources, and in sea level and as a result of CO{sub 2} fertilization. The global problem is outlined, and solutions are considered such as the use of non-carbon fuels and increasing carbon sinks. The economic implications for third world countries, of global warming are discussed, together with policy responses. Agro-forestry is suggested as a way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem of food insecurity is mentioned and the Sudan is taken as an example. The report ends with recommendations to limit the greenhouse effect and reduce the impact it could have on Africa. 17 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  4. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost.

  5. Labor Markets in South Africa During Apartheid

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that international political pressure and domestic civil unrest in the mid-1970s and 1980s brought an end to apartheid in South Africa. I show that, prior to these events, labor market pressure in the late 1960s/early 1970s caused a dramatic unraveling of apartheid in the workplace. Increased educational attainment among whites reduced resistance to opening semi-skilled jobs to Africans. This institutional change reflected white economic preferences rather than a rel...

  6. A Chinese Kungfu Master in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    For over 20 years,Di Guoyong has taught daily martial arts classes in Beijing’s Zizhuyuan (Purple Bamboo) Park.This wellknown figure in the city’s martial arts circles also introduced wushu (literally meaning martial arts) to Cameroon in the late 1980s. Recently,Di sat down with ChinAfrica reporter to talk about his experiences teaching Chinese martial arts in Cameroon.

  7. Remote Control Research in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Trefon, Theodore; Cogels, Serge

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how a project being implemented in peri-urban central Africa is coordinated from an office in Brussels. After an overview that addresses the conceptual challenges of defining ‘peri-urban’ and the question of why these social spaces are important from a development perspective, the article outlines ‘remote control research’ step-by-step: (i) conceptualisation, (ii) identification and recruitment of local experts, (iii) selection of research sites, (iv) the process of form...

  8. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  9. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  10. Discarded Victory - North Africa, 1940-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    service regulars who were exceedingly well-trained. The 7t’ Armored Division had been led by MG Percy Hobart, a premier armor officer, prior to the...Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1960), 21. 4 W.G.F. Jackson , The Battle for North Africa, 1940-43 (New York: Mason/Charter, 1975), 104-105. 5...Warfare in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1940-1945 (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1993), 5. 11 Jackson , 10. 12 Macksey, 23. 13 Alistair Home

  11. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) may soon sign an agreement with the Colombian government to build a plant in Colombia for the mass production of the malaria vaccine SPf66. SPf66 consists of a combination of synthetic peptides. It will eventually be available in Africa, where 90% of all recorded malaria cases occur each year. 1 million of the 1.5-3 million malaria-related deaths each year also occur in Africa. Many of these deaths take place in children. The indirect costs of malaria in Africa is expected to increase from $800 million to $1.8 billion between 1987 and the end of 1995. Based on findings from the various clinical trials in Colombia, Thailand, The Gambia, and Tanzania, WHO's director of Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) claims that, if SPf66 can reduce the malaria incidence rate by 50% and thereby also the malaria-related death rate, the lives of 500,000 children in Africa would be spared. TDR will meet in mid-1996 to sort through all the SPf66 findings and then develop a policy for further development or production and use of SPf66. The price of each SPf66 vaccination should be around $5, comparable with the higher range of costs of other vaccines provided by WHO's Expanded Program of Immunization and UNICEF. At the 1992 WHO summit in Amsterdam, the president of the Congo called for the international community to join forces to eliminate malaria. When it was first tested on humans, in Colombia, the protection rate of SPf66 ranged from 22% to 77%, with the best results among the young and the very old. It has not caused any harmful side effects.

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa Report No. 2807.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-08

    to Africa). There had been a period after the Ethiopian revolution, and the eclipse of the Emperor Haile Selassie , whose gno- mic figure had...Chairman Mengistu Haile Marian, at the opening session of the three-day silver jubilee celebration of the United Nations Econo- mic Commission for...The OATUU warmly hailed the Revolutionary Government of Socialist Ethiopia for the support it continues to give to the liberation struggle in South

  13. Precolonial institutions and deforestation in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.10.030 We find that local institutions inherited from the precolonial era continue to play an important role in natural resource governance in Africa. Using satellite image data, we find a significant and robust relationship between deforestation and precolonial succession rules of local leaders (local chiefs). In particular, we find that those precolonial ar...

  14. The Dilemma of Food in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    The need therefore is most urgent for African governments to reexamine their food and agricultural policies to tumble them provide more food for their growing population. Encouragement of large and Medium scale commercial farming, land reform, environmental management, reduction of population growth, improvement in storage and transport facilities as well as pursue political stability and a cessation of the violent conflicts that have characterized the continent, will reduce the food problem in Africa.

  15. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  16. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  17. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  18. International Conference on Sustainable Energy for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences will organize an International Conference on Sustainable Energy for Africa. This three-day conference will take place from 23 until 25 October 2017 at the Palais des Académies in Brussels. Papers and posters dealing with various themes related to the issue will be presented by academics and representatives of the industrial world. More information will soon be available on the website of the Academy: www.kaowarsom.be.

  19. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  20. The Truth About the Chinese in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie Pistorius

    2011-01-01

    I work in the socio-political and economic space in dealing with BRICS and other frontier and emerging markets' engagement in Africa.My focus is on large commercial and industrial.deals,especially high-level dialogue,as well as small-and-medium trading initiatives … in all,capturing the opportunity and growth story that is Africa today.I find I have to constantly defend the fundamentals that underpin the Chinese deals,their trade and political interactions.Yet as I am by no means an apologist,I do however want to briefly untangle just a modicum of the blatantly false and baseless arguments against the Chinese in Africa.This debate would require a book in itself,and there is no better one than the acclaimed Professor Brautigam's The Dragon's Gift in which expertly and stoically debunks the many myths so liberally and limply salted with hot-blooded ire by the masses against the emerging giant.

  1. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.

  2. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  3. [Pheochromocytoma in Africa: rarity, gravity and ectopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, E H

    2001-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is one of the main curable etiologies of high blood pressure, although its diagnosis and therapeutic management can be problematical: an incorrect diagnosis or inappropriate treatment may lead to fatal complications. This disease was exceptionally uncommon in the 1950s, and 30 years later about 30 cases had been reported; however, since 1981 there has been a progressive increase in the incidence of pheochromocytoma (48 documented cases in Africa). In Africa, this disease has two particular characteristics: the gravity of the clinical symptoms, mainly due to the physiological and pharmacological effects of catecholamines which as a result of this disease are stored and liberated at very high rates; and the ectopic site in a number of cases. To facilitate the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma improved clinical investigation is therefore advocated, but the necessary medical equipment is not always available in Africa. On this continent, the ectopic factor confirms the observations made in the early 1980s, and should be taken into consideration in the diagnosis and management of this disease.

  4. Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Stephen D; Zibrowius, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    We describe and figure the 20 species of stylasterid hydrozoans known from South Africa. These consist of seven new species, six range extensions, and seven species previously known from South African. Most of the specimens reported resulted from expeditions of the Pieter Faure (1898-1903) and Meiring Naude (1975-1987), and are deposited primarily in the South African Museum (Cape Town). A replacement name (Errina australis) is proposed for the junior homonym Errina hicksoni Cairns, 1991. A brief history of species discovery of the South African stylasterids is presented. The new morphological term dactyloglossa is introrduced to define a baffle-like structure found in dactylopores of some species. Of the 20 South African species, 12 (60%) are not yet known outside that area. Three patterns of distribution were noted: species confined to the tropical region of South Africa, those found in both the tropical and warm temperate regions of S. Africa, and those found only in the warm temperate regions, three in the latter group sharing their distribution with cold temperate southern South America and two with warm temperate New Zealand, representing a circum-southern temperate distribution.

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology.

  6. Democracy and Elections in Africa: Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Teshome

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the democratization process in Africa in general and the multi-party elections in particular. The decolonization process in Africa (1960s and 1970s, which was known as the “first liberation” completed by the emergence of many, new independent African countries. In most of the newly liberated countries the political parties that led the anti-colonial struggle established one-party domination after independence. The rapid democratization process (“second liberation” in Africa began in the first half of the 1990s, particularly with Benin’s multiparty election in 1991. In this period, multi-party elections had taken place in most of African countries. These transitions led to “limited” democracies, characterized by a lack of liberal freedoms, low levels of popular involvement (except at election times, narrow range of civil liberties and the concentration of political power in the hands of small elite groups. Holding an election is a milestone, but it is not the key to Africa’s democratic legitimacy. Many elections in the African region have failed to meet the internationally accepted standards for free and fair elections. Though Africa’s record on free and fair elections is mixed, at present, most of Africans have embraced elections as indispensable mechanism for determining their future course.

  7. Culture and genetic screening in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-12-01

    Africa is a continent in transition amidst a revival of cultural practices. Over previous years the continent was robbed of the benefits of medical advances by unfounded cultural practices surrounding its cultural heritage. In a fast moving field like genetic screening, discussions of social and policy aspects frequently need to take place at an early stage to avoid the dilemma encountered by Western medicine. This paper, examines the potential challenges to genetic screening in Africa. It discusses how cultural practices may affect genetic screening. It views genomics science as a culture which is trying to diffuse into another one. It argues that understanding the existing culture will help the diffusion process. The paper emphasizes the importance of genetic screening for Africa, by assessing the current level of burden of diseases in the continent and shows its role in reducing disease prevalence. The paper identifies and discusses the cultural challenges that are likely to confront genetic screening on the continent, such as the worldview, rituals and taboos, polygyny, culture of son preference and so on. It also discusses cultural practices that may promote the science such as inheritance practices, spouse selection practices and naming patterns. Factors driving the cultural challenges are identified and discussed, such as socialization process, patriarchy, gender, belief system and so on. Finally, the paper discusses the way forward and highlights the ethical considerations of doing genetic screening on the continent. However, the paper also recognizes that African culture is not monolithic and therefore makes a case for exceptions.

  8. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meierding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

  9. Conservation strategies for Africa's large mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J

    2001-01-01

    Africa's large mammals are conserved for their aesthetic, scientific and economic values. Many of these species face a gloomy future precipitated by a combination of factors directly and indirectly influenced by the activities of man, including habitat loss, overexploitation, poor management of designated protected areas, and the vulnerability of small isolated populations. Africa's designated protected areas and biodiversity hotspots are also under threat, highlighting the importance of embracing community participation to address accelerating poverty and malnutrition. Innovative strategies are required for the conservation of Africa's mammals, such as the integration of a wide range of species in the production landscape, including the farming community. Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) have been established with the combined objectives of conserving biodiversity, creating new jobs in the tourism and wildlife industry, and promoting a culture of peace. These areas extend far beyond traditional national parks, providing opportunities for integrating large mammals into sustainable land-use practices, at the same time as addressing some of the continent's more pressing socioeconomic needs. Research on African mammals will inevitably have to change direction to accommodate the growing threats and changed circumstances. Priorities will include the identification of corridors associated with TFCA establishment, the determination of the economic value of certain species in consumptive use programmes, research on contraception as a management option in restricted areas, and further work on the indirect use value of species. There will also be worthwhile opportunities to be pursued with ex situ conservation programmes, but these need to be focussed more efficiently.

  10. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-10-23

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems "outside the system." Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa.

  11. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun

    to as the GW-A Toolbox, will be developed, implemented and validated for a series of geo-information products over a number of representative pilot sites in North, West, Central and East Africa. The GW-A toolbox unifies proven and stable open source software into a single graphical user interface......Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... actors involved in the implementation of the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands in Africa with EO methods and tools to better assess the conditions of wetlands under their areas of jurisdiction/study, and to better monitor their trends over time. To this end, an open source wetland observing system, referred...

  12. Radio and the educational needs of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmyne, A T

    1985-01-01

    Democratization of education is the first priority need as defined by African Ministers of Education and economic planners and voiced at a conference held in Zimbabwe in 1982. This democratization depends principally on the spread and maintenance of the education delivery system. The traditional mechanisms of education, mainly schools, are structurally incapable of carrying out the task of democratization. Education of the scale and type required by Africa cannot be realized through and in the classroom alone. Radio, 1 of Africa's great wasted resources, was enthusiastically hailed by African governments at independence as a powerful instrument for education both in its broadest and more limited sense. It was the perfect medium for an impoverished, disadvantaged continent. National development plans have consistently provided for improvement of the broadcasting transmission infrastructure. Most African countries currently are able to distribute radio programs to over 90% of their populations and at least 7 countries have 100% radio coverage. A total solution to the once most difficult problem of reception facilities is now within reach. From the results of many educational radio projects around the world and other studies, it is now generally accepted that, particularly in situations where educational radio does not imply the creation of separate networks of production and transmission facilities, much higher cost effectiveness over traditional classroom teaching can be graranteed. It is also clearly established that the cost effectiveness of radio in education can be as high as 5 times that of television. Reviewing a list of some 23 projects which have been labeled as educational radio projects in Africa over the past 2 decades, only 5 can be identified as having successfully fulfilled their objectives or as being in process of doing so. This is not an impressive score. Experience with the 5 truly successul projects indicates that it is not only a particular type

  13. Education and Indigenous Knowledge in Africa: Traditional Bonesetting and Orthopaedic Medicine in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanya, Chika A.

    The underlying philosophy of education in contemporary Africa has been established to be alien, and detached from the indigenous knowledge of the people. Modern day formal education in sub-Saharan Africa came about, for the most part, as a result of missionary activities and colonial efforts of Europe. The education bequeathed to Africa was, therefore, fundamentally European in paradigm and lacking in authenticity. The end of colonialism across sub-Saharan Africa did not herald any tangible transformation in the curriculum of study. Education in Africa is still dependent on foreign input for sustainability, thereby stifling research, creativity and innovation. Sustainable development is founded on indigenous knowledge. When such grassroots knowledge assumes the foundation of learning, home-grown development is easily fostered in all sectors of a national economy. In the field of medicine, indigenous knowledge of healing has been considered unscientific by western biomedical practitioners. Since the days of the missionaries, many Africans have considered indigenous medicine to be fetish; the Christian converts would not be associated with its practice and patronage. However, traditional bonesetting has been proven to be highly efficacious with little supernatural content, it continues to attract huge patronage from Africans, cutting across social and religious boundaries. This study attempts an exploration of the disconnect between indigenous knowledge, practices and learning, on the one hand, and formal education in Africa, on the other. With a focus on traditional bonesetting, the study seeks to determine why that branch of indigenous medicine attracts huge patronage, but is granted very little recognition by modern orthopaedic medical education.

  14. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4

  15. Contemporary ethical challenges in industrial psychological testing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Phil. (Industrial Psychology) Psychometric testing in South Africa faces many challenges at present. Among these challenges is the fact that many individuals utilising psychometric tests are not professionally registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The key objective of this qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the contemporary ethical challenges in psychometric testing in South Africa. A total of ten industrial psychologists participated in the...

  16. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Lassa fever in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mylne, AQ; Pigott, DM; Longbottom, J; Shearer, F; Duda, KA; Messina, JP; Weiss, DJ; Moyes, CL; Golding, N; Hay, SI

    2015-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic illness responsible for disease outbreaks across West Africa. It is a zoonosis, with the primary reservoir species identified as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. The host is distributed across sub-Saharan Africa while the virus' range appears to be restricted to West Africa. The majority of infections result from interactions between the animal reservoir and human populations, although secondary transmission between humans can o...

  17. Globalization, Regionalization and Information-Communication Convergence of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vlatka Bilas; Sanja Franc

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is characterized by many accomplishments of the world economy: from regional trade agreements proliferation to the acceptance of international standards. One way of integrating Africa into globalization trends is through regional integrations. However, Africa's dependence upon its colonial leaders has not reflected well on the process of regional integration. Regionalism in Africa was led by public sector organizations and it was done without the public support and the support o...

  18. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available . Introduction According to the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) there are in excess of 3000 pesticide products approved for use in South Africa.1 Pesticides are important to crop management because they contribute... on the spatial distribution of the crops to which they are applied. The Census of Agriculture Provincial Statistics performed by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) in 200223 was used to estimate the spatial distribution of crop production in South Africa...

  19. Vanguard or vandals: youth, politics and conflict in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.; Kessel,, D

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains a range of original studies on the controversial role of youth in politics, conflicts and rebellious movements in Africa. A common aim of the studies is to try and explain why patterns of generational conflict and violent response among younger age groups in Africa are showing such a remarkably uneven spread across the continent. An introduction by Jon Abbink (Being young in Africa: the politics of despair and renewal) is follwed by three parts: 1. Historical perspectives...

  20. Intra-Africa agricultural trade: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Daya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to