WorldWideScience

Sample records for dangerous match paradoxical

  1. The obesity paradox in stable chronic heart failure does not persist after matching for indicators of disease severity and confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Nelles, Manfred; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A; Remppis, B Andrew

    2009-12-01

    To verify whether controlling for indicators of disease severity and confounders represents a solution to the obesity paradox in chronic heart failure (CHF). From a cohort of 1790 patients, we formed 230 nested matched triplets by individually matching patients with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) (Group 3), BMI 20-24.9 k/m(2) (Group 1) and BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (Group 2), according to NT-proBNP, age, sex, and NYHA class (triplet = one matched patient from each group). Although in the pre-matching cohort, BMI group was a significant univariable prognostic indicator, it did not retain significance [heart rate (HR): 0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-1.05, chi(2): 1.67] when controlled for group propensities as covariates. Furthermore, in the matched cohort, 1-year mortality and 3-year mortality did not differ significantly. Here, BMI again failed to reach statistical significance for prognosis, either as a continuous or categorical variable, whether crude or adjusted. This result was confirmed in the patients not selected for matching. NT-proBNP, however, remained statistically significant (log(NT-proBNP): HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13-1.97, chi(2): 7.82) after multivariable adjustment. The obesity paradox does not appear to persist in a matched setting with respect to indicators of disease severity and other confounders. NT-proBNP remains an independent prognostic indicator of adverse outcome irrespective of obesity status.

  2. The nuclear paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this work it is discussed the nuclear paradox. One side, the nuclear power is important for technological development, on the other hand, it has been frequently questioned by society. It is pointed out as well, that many other factors are more dangerous to man such as environment polution. (A.C.A.S.)

  3. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...... of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy...

  4. Radwaste paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Paradox Basin is one of the places where the US Department of Energy is looking for a site for a deep-mined repository for high-level radioactive waste. This seems appropriately symbolic because the geologic disposal problem has increasingly taken on the aspect of a political and technical conundrum, replete with real or seeming contradictions and paradoxes. A central paradox is that, while the concept of sequestering long-lived wastes in mined repositories is attractive intuitively, the very efforts made to confirm the suitability of particular rock formations give rise to further uncertainties. The new law contemplates repository construction will start as early as 1989. Experience so far at the several sites suggests that the technical and political questions tend to proliferate rather than diminish as more becomes known about the geology and hydrology. The following sites were discussed: the Hanford basalt; the Nevada tuff; and salt beds and salt domes (Utah, Texas, Mississippi). (DP)

  5. What Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Robin; Zundel, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates the relationship between paradox and the logical typing of classes and members. Class-based thinking affords efficiency in communication and the progressive, additive development of knowledge, but also creates fissures, shortcuts, truncations, and delimitations that gene......This chapter investigates the relationship between paradox and the logical typing of classes and members. Class-based thinking affords efficiency in communication and the progressive, additive development of knowledge, but also creates fissures, shortcuts, truncations, and delimitations...... that emphasizes interconnectedness and interdependency, which Gregory Bateson calls “grace”: the successful integration of smaller with wider arcs of awareness. This is developed here into a method for studying organizational phenomena using the example of an organizational routine, arguing that this may be one...

  6. Headaches - danger signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs ... and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  8. Is the EPR paradox really a paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Tartaglia, A.

    1998-01-01

    The EPR paradox and the meaning of the Bell inequality are discussed. It is shown that considering the quantum objects as carrying with them ''instruction kits'' telling them what to do when meeting a measurement apparatus any paradox disappears. In this view the quantum state is characterized by the prescribed behaviour rather than by the specific value a parameter assumes as a result of an interaction.

  9. Tachyons and causal paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maund, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Although the existence of tachyons is not ruled out by special relativity, it appears that causal paradoxes will arise if there are tachyons. The usual solutions to these paradoxes employ some form of the reinterpretation principle. In this paper it is argued first that, the principle is incoherent, second, that even if it is not, some causal paradoxes remain, and third, the most plausible ''solution,'' which appeals to boundary conditions of the universe, will conflict with special relativity

  10. Mathematical fallacies and paradoxes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunch, Bryan

    1982-01-01

    Stimulating, thought-provoking analysis of the most interesting intellectual inconsistencies in mathematics, physics, and language, including being led astray by algebra (De Morgan's paradox). 1982 edition.

  11. Tachyons without paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrowes, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    Tachyon paradoxes, including causality paradoxes, have persisted within tachyon theories and left little hope for the existence of observable tachyons. A way is presented to solve the causality paradoxes, along with two other paradoxes, by the introduction of an absolute frame of reference in which a tachyon effect may never precede its cause. Relativity for ordinary matter is unaffected by this, even if the tachyons couple to ordinary particles. Violations of the principle of relativity due to the absolute frame would appear only in the case of free tachyons

  12. Generalized Hardy's Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Han; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Su, Hong-Yi; Pati, Arun Kumar; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Here, we present the most general framework for n -particle Hardy's paradoxes, which include Hardy's original one and Cereceda's extension as special cases. Remarkably, for any n ≥3 , we demonstrate that there always exist generalized paradoxes (with the success probability as high as 1 /2n -1) that are stronger than the previous ones in showing the conflict of quantum mechanics with local realism. An experimental proposal to observe the stronger paradox is also presented for the case of three qubits. Furthermore, from these paradoxes we can construct the most general Hardy's inequalities, which enable us to detect Bell's nonlocality for more quantum states.

  13. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Sala, J.

    2000-01-01

    We present a fatal case of intracranial air embolism produced by the passage of intravenous air to the arteries owing to the existence of a patent foremen ovale associated with pulmonary hypertension, which permitted a right-left shunt (paradoxical embolism). The pathophysiological mechanisms of pneumcephalus and paradoxical embolism are discussed and the pertinent literature is reviewed. (Author) 6 refs

  14. Electromagnetic reaction paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, H.

    1984-01-01

    Alternative explanations for free-electron diamagnetism appear paradoxical and inconsistent with the reactive induction properties of magnetic materials. It is shown that the paradox can be eliminated by a generalized definition of the magnetic field with interesting spin-off consequences, including a justification for the anomalous doubling of the positron's effective mass in a free-electron environment

  15. Paradoxes in probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eckhardt, William

    2013-01-01

    Paradoxes provide a vehicle for exposing misinterpretations and misapplications of accepted principles. This book discusses seven paradoxes surrounding probability theory.  Some remain the focus of controversy; others have allegedly been solved, however the accepted solutions are demonstrably incorrect. Each paradox is shown to rest on one or more fallacies.  Instead of the esoteric, idiosyncratic, and untested methods that have been brought to bear on these problems, the book invokes uncontroversial probability principles, acceptable both to frequentists and subjectivists. The philosophical disputation inspired by these paradoxes is shown to be misguided and unnecessary; for instance, startling claims concerning human destiny and the nature of reality are directly related to fallacious reasoning in a betting paradox, and a problem analyzed in philosophy journals is resolved by means of a computer program.

  16. The Statistical Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, C.

    2008. 4. A practical example is then given of how the SEH works numerically. Each of the ten random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value as given by Dole (1964) and a standard deviation of 10% is assumed. The conclusion is that the average number of habitable planets in the Galaxy should be around 100 million ±200 million, and the average distance in between any two nearby habitable planets should be about 88 light years ±40 light years. 5. The SEH results are matched against the results of the Statistical Drake Equation from reference 4. As expected, the number of currently communicating ET civilizations in the Galaxy turns out to be much smaller than the number of habitable planets (about 10,000 against 100 million, i.e. one ET civilization out of 10,000 habitable planets). The average distance between any two nearby habitable planets is much smaller that the average distance between any two neighbouring ET civilizations: 88 light years vs. 2000 light years, respectively. This means an ET average distance about 20 times higher than the average distance between any pair of adjacent habitable planets. 6. Finally, a statistical model of the Fermi Paradox is derived by applying the above results to the coral expansion model of Galactic colonization. The symbolic manipulator "Macsyma" is used to solve these difficult equations. A new random variable Tcol, representing the time needed to colonize a new planet is introduced, which follows the lognormal distribution, Then the new quotient random variable Tcol/D is studied and its probability density function is derived by Macsyma. Finally a linear transformation of random variables yields the overall time TGalaxy needed to colonize the whole Galaxy. We believe that our mathematical work in deriving this STATISTICAL Fermi Paradox is highly innovative and fruitful for the future.

  17. Quantum Quasi-Paradoxes and Quantum Sorites Paradoxes

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, F

    1997-01-01

    There can be generated many paradoxes or quasi-paradoxes that may occur from the combination of quantum and non-quantum worlds in physics. Even the passage from the micro-cosmos to the macro-cosmos, and reciprocally, can generate unsolved questions or counter-intuitive ideas. We define a quasi-paradox as a statement which has a prima facie self-contradictory support or an explicit contradiction, but which is not completely proven as a paradox. We present herein four elementary quantum quasi-paradoxes and their corresponding quantum Sorites paradoxes, which form a class of quantum quasi-paradoxes.

  18. Quantum Quasi-Paradoxes and Quantum Sorites Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available There can be generated many paradoxes or quasi-paradoxes that may occur from the combination of quantum and non-quantum worlds in physics. Even the passage from the micro-cosmos to the macro-cosmos, and reciprocally, can generate unsolved questions or counter-intuitive ideas. We define a quasi-paradox as a statement which has a prima facie self-contradictory support or an explicit contradiction, but which is not completely proven as a paradox. We present herein four elementary quantum quasi-paradoxes and their corresponding quantum Sorites paradoxes, which form a class of quantum quasi-paradoxes.

  19. Paradoxes in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Schulze, Pernille; Larsen, Mette Vinther

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how paradoxes unfold in management practices and how moments of relational dialogic, self-reflexive learning can transform these paradoxes into new understandings of the complexities of organizing and management. We work with paradox, not as a label...... to explore ‘the flux of reality from within’ with the managers. We therefore draw on Bakhtin’s ideas regarding ongoing centripetal (monologic) and centrifugal (dialogic) forces of language and aim to demonstrate how working with language and the awareness of the embodied embedded practices at the same time...

  20. The Simpson's paradox unraveled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernán, Miguel A; Clayton, David; Keiding, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background In a famous article, Simpson described a hypothetical data example that led to apparently paradoxical results. Methods We make the causal structure of Simpson’s example explicit. Results We show how the paradox disappears when the statistical analysis is appropriately guided by subject......-matter knowledge. We also review previous explanations of Simpson’s paradox that attributed it to two distinct phenomena: confounding and non-collapsibility. Conclusion Analytical errors may occur when the problem is stripped of its causal context and analyzed merely in statistical terms....

  1. The core paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  2. An American Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the paradox that while Americans generally identify themselves as environmentalists, they show little willingness to voluntarily restrain their behavior or to support specific fiscal policies that would result in increased levels of environmental protection. I explore the role of values in the explanation of this paradox, and discuss some of the difficulties involved in studying values and their role in human behavior

  3. Man Is a Paradox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂娟

    2009-01-01

    In the poem "Always", the author Pablo Neruda employs the first person narration to incisively reveal the paradoxical traits in human nature by exploring man in relation to love. "I" play a role shifting from a calm narrator to a furious one, and the last recovering to a mild one, which offers a multiple visual angle to observe humanity. In sum, by means of continuous changes of my inner feelings in the poem, Pablo Neruda reveals the paradoxical humanity .

  4. Extending Cantor Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The inconsistencies involved in the foundation of set theory were invariably caused by infinity and self-reference; and only with the opportune axiomatic restrictions could them be obviated. Throughout history, both concepts have proved to be an exhaustible source of paradoxes and contradictions. It seems therefore legitimate to pose some questions concerning their formal consistency. This is just the objective of this paper. Starting from an extension of Cantor's paradox that suggests the in...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ...

  8. The quercetin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boots, Agnes W.; Li, Hui; Schins, Roel P.F.; Duffin, Rodger; Heemskerk, Johan W.M.; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Free radical scavenging antioxidants, such as quercetin, are chemically converted into oxidation products when they protect against free radicals. The main oxidation product of quercetin, however, displays a high reactivity towards thiols, which can lead to the loss of protein function. The quercetin paradox is that in the process of offering protection, quercetin is converted into a potential toxic product. In the present study, this paradox is evaluated using rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells. It was found that quercetin efficiently protects against H 2 O 2 -induced DNA damage in RLE cells, but this damage is swapped for a reduction in GSH level, an increase in LDH leakage as well as an increase of the cytosolic free calcium concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first study that indicates that the quercetin paradox, i.e. the exchange of damage caused by quercetin and its metabolites, also occurs in living lung cells. Following depletion of GSH in the cells by BSO pre-treatment, this quercetin paradox becomes more pronounced, confirming that the formation of thiol reactive quercetin metabolites is involved in the quercetin paradox. The quercetin paradox in living cells implies that the anti-oxidant directs oxidative damage selectively to thiol arylation. Apparently, the potential toxicity of metabolites formed during the actual antioxidant activity of free radical scavengers should be considered in antioxidant supplementation

  9. The plutonium danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, W. de

    1983-01-01

    Nobody can ignore the fact that plutonium is potentially very dangerous and the greatest danger concerning it lies in the spreading of nuclear weapons via nuclear energy programmes. The following seven different attitudes towards this problem are presented and discussed: 1) There is no connection between peaceful and military applications; 2) The problem cannot be prevented; 3) A technical solution must be found; 4) plutonium must be totally inaccessible to countries involved in acquiring nuclear weapons; 5) The use of plutonium for energy production should only occur in one multinational centre; 6) Dogmas in the nuclear industry must be enfeebled; 7) All developments in this area should stop. (C.F.)

  10. Dangers of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Hallahmi, B

    1985-12-01

    Beliefs, myths, and literary expressions of men's fear of female genitals are reviewed. Both clinical evidence and folklore provide evidence that men imagine female genitals not only as a source of pleasure and attraction, but also as a source of danger in a very physical sense. The vagina dentata myth has many versions, including some modern ones, and its message is always the same: an awesome danger emanating from a woman's body. The prevalence of such feelings in folklore and in literature is noted.

  11. Managing operational paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.; Baker, K.; Thurber, J.

    1992-01-01

    The economic, regulatory, and social environment of commercial nuclear power has changed dramatically in the last 10 yr. In addition to the increased regulatory pressure resulting from the Three Mile Island incident and other factors, nuclear utilities have experienced increasing financial pressure from state public utility commissions and investors. To successfully manage nuclear power plants in today's environment requires different skills and strategies than were required 10 yr ago. External pressures on the utility and plant organization have created a series of operational paradoxes unmatched in the history of commercial nuclear power. This paper is based on a synthesis of findings and observations from a series of studies conducted by the authors over the past 10 yr. The authors identify a series of specific paradoxes facing managers of nuclear power plants and suggest several strategies for managing these paradoxes

  12. Black Hole Paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals. (paper)

  13. Paradoxical embolism: computed tomography demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, J.; Hayward, M.

    2001-01-01

    Paradoxical emboli are rare and often presumptively diagnosed. A case of paradoxical embolism, in which both the arterial and venous emboli were documented on CT, is described. While paradoxical emboli are not infrequently diagnosed clinically on a presumptive basis, it is rare to document them with imaging such as CT which, in the present case, confirmed the diagnosis. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  17. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  18. The happiness paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Johan; Gonçalves, Bruno; Leemput, van de Ingrid; Ruan, Guangchen

    2017-01-01

    Most individuals in social networks experience a so-called Friendship Paradox: they are less popular than their friends on average. This effect may explain recent findings that widespread social network media use leads to reduced happiness. However the relation between popularity and happiness is

  19. Paradoxes of unstable electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.; Zeldovich, Ya.B.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that electron is unstable - when it is consistent with the vanishing mass of the photon- leads to a number of paradoxical statements. The lifetime of the electron is determined by emission of a huge number of longitudinal photons and exponentially depends on the amount of emitted energy. This suggests to discuss searches for charge nonconservation in experiments with high energy particles

  20. The Paradox of Analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I will show that there is a type of analogical reasoning that instantiates a pattern of reasoning in confirmation theory that is considered at best paradoxical and at worst fatal to the entire syntactical approach to confirmation and explanation. However, I hope to elaborate conditions under which this is a sound (although not necessarily strong method of reasoning.

  1. Adiposopathy and Obesity Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriyanti Rafi Sukmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia and major cardiovascular diseases (CVD. CONTENT: Adiposity may cause adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomic and functional abnormalities, termed adiposopathy (adipose-opathy or "sick fat," that result in endocrine and immune derangements. Adiposopathy may directly contribute to CVD through pericardiac and perivascular effects on the myocardium and blood vessels. Adiposopathy may also indirectly contribute to CVD through promoting or worsening major CVD risk factors such as T2DM, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese people with established CVD, including hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease, have a better prognosis compared with nonoverweight/nonobese patients. These paradoxical findings are made less paradoxical when the pathogenic potential of excessive body fat is assessed based on adipose tissue dysfunction rather than simply on increased fat mass alone. SUMMARY: Adiposopathy is defined as pathological adipose tissue function that may be promoted and exacerbated by fat accumulation (adiposity and sedentary lifestyle in genetically susceptible patients. Adiposopathy is a root cause of some of the most common metabolic diseases observed in clinical practice, including T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia. KEYWORDS: adiposopathy, adiposity, obesity paradox, adipocyte dysfunction, adipose hypertrophy, adipose hyperplasia.

  2. New physics and paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Spuy, E.

    1983-01-01

    Conflict between the finite and infinite in theoretical physics often results in paradox. By measuring phenomena for which such conflict exists, physicists may be able to discover in each case the basis of the conflict and thus may eventually reformulate physical laws

  3. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  4. The Hydrostatic Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alpha E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an example demonstrating the quantitative resolution of the hydrostatic paradox which is the realization that the force due to fluid pressure on the bottom of a vessel can be considerably greater or considerably less than the weight of the fluid in the vessel. (JRH)

  5. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  6. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  7. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  8. The Paradoxes of Liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    2011-01-01

    Jakob Vestergaard has produced one of the most telling analyses of the international financial architecture by deploying a broadly Foucauldian framework that invokes a novel description of neo-liberal governance, one organized around discipline, conditional exceptions and the pursuit of a ‘proper...... economy’. This review both welcomes but challenges some of Vestergaard's analysis. In so doing it explores further the paradoxes of liberalism and the fate of sovereignty in the current international context....

  9. Introduction, Copyright's Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Netanel, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court famously labeled copyright “the engine of free expression” because it provides a vital economic incentive for much of the literature, commentary, music, art, and film that makes up our public discourse. Yet today’s greatly expanded copyright law often does the opposite—it can be used to quash news reporting, political commentary, church dissent, historical scholarship, cultural critique, and artistic expression. In Copyright’s Paradox, Neil Weinstock ...

  10. Paradoxes of maternal mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, C W

    1991-02-01

    It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child.

  11. Paradoxes and Innovation in Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Amy E.; Lewis, Marianne W.; Barton, Sid

    2016-01-01

    thinkers are more likely to manage these tensions and fuel innovative behavior. Leveraging family business and organizational paradox literatures, this multi-stage exploratory study develops measures of paradoxical tensions and paradoxical thinking in family firms, and tests these propositions. Findings...... indicate that paradoxical tensions may stymie innovative behavior, but that leaders' paradoxical thinking is positively related to innovative behavior....

  12. Dangers of peace journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of mission shared by some peace journalists is a dangerous attitude. All journalists can do to give peace a chance is to serve as mediators, helping conflict parties overcome the competitive misperceptions and societal beliefs that fuel conflict. If peace journalists try to promote and impose their own solutions, however, frustration is inevitable and will finally result in the search for an evildoer who can be made responsible. Thus by involving themselves in conflicts, journalists can become unintentional agents of conflict escalation.

  13. Dangerous goods emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a general overview of the State of Western Australia including: the legal framework of the Dangerous Goods and Emergency response management scenarios (which consist mainly of fuel products such as LP gas); particular problems unique to the Western Australian environment; what has been done to overcome those problems. Western Australia has an area of about two and a half million square kilometers. The demography of the State is such that the population is concentrated in the south-west corner of the State with isolated pockets, mainly associated with mineral development but also associated with agriculture, scattered throughout the State

  14. Dangers of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental pollution is ever increasing. Protection of the environment must not be neglected for economic reasons. Damage to health due to environmental effects is hard to determine epidemiologically as there are nearly always several causes to consider at the same time. Still, the increase in environmental pollution results in increased damage to humans, animals, and plants. The many dangers to health can be illustrated by the example of energy demand and the different ways to meet it. It is highly necessary to create environmental laws which aim at a reduction of environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  15. Einstein and the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Einstein was the first to discuss and resolve the 'twin paradox', which in 1905 he did not consider paradoxical and treated as a consequence of lack of simultaneity. He maintained this view until at least 1914. However, in 1918 Einstein brought forward arguments about accelerated frames of reference that tended to overshadow his initial resolution. His earlier arguments were gradually rediscovered during the subsequent controversy about this 'paradox'

  16. Comment on the extinct paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.M.

    1983-11-01

    The extinction paradox is a contradiction between geometrical optics results which predict that at high frequencies the scattering cross section of an object should equal its geometrical cross section and rigorous scattering theory which shows that at high frequencies the scattering cross section approaches twice the geometrical cross section of the object. Confusion about the reason for this paradox persists today even though the nature of the paradox was correctly identified many years ago by Brillouin. The resolution of the paradox is restated and illustrated with an example, and then the implications to the interpretation of scattering cross sections are identified

  17. Simpson's Paradox, Lord's Paradox, and Suppression Effects are the same phenomenon – the reversal paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnell David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses three statistical paradoxes that pervade epidemiological research: Simpson's paradox, Lord's paradox, and suppression. These paradoxes have important implications for the interpretation of evidence from observational studies. This article uses hypothetical scenarios to illustrate how the three paradoxes are different manifestations of one phenomenon – the reversal paradox – depending on whether the outcome and explanatory variables are categorical, continuous or a combination of both; this renders the issues and remedies for any one to be similar for all three. Although the three statistical paradoxes occur in different types of variables, they share the same characteristic: the association between two variables can be reversed, diminished, or enhanced when another variable is statistically controlled for. Understanding the concepts and theory behind these paradoxes provides insights into some controversial or contradictory research findings. These paradoxes show that prior knowledge and underlying causal theory play an important role in the statistical modelling of epidemiological data, where incorrect use of statistical models might produce consistent, replicable, yet erroneous results.

  18. The Teacher's Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilyquist, J. Gary

    1998-06-01

    New findings suggest that the way in which schools conduct their business is blocking our educational system from improving at a rate required to meet society's needs. A ground theory developed by exploring six organizational dimensions: external and internal environment cultures, leadership, strategy, structure, and results, verified the existence of the teacher's paradox. Implications suggest educational reformers must rethink approaches to school improvement by work within cultural boundaries. The forth coming book, "Are schools really like this?" presents "The Balance Alignment Model and Theory" to improve our schools using system thinking.

  19. Dangers and Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha Maria; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    to ‘hard’ illegal drugs; and, finally, the pro-drug position, characteristic of drug users with low risk perceptions and high pleasure-orientation. We use the focus group interviews to demonstrate how youths occupying these differing positions argue for and against drugs and which risks and pleasures......This is a study of young people’s conceptions of illegal drug use as dangerous and/or pleasurable and an analysis of the relationship between attitudes to drugs, drinking, friends’ reported drug use and own experience with drug use and drinking. The article applies a mixed methods approach using...... both survey data and focus group interviews. The main statistical method is Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), which constructs a social space of young people’s attitudes to drugs and drug experiences relationally. We identify four interrelated positions on illegal drug use among 17 to 19-year...

  20. Danger, hazard, risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.

    1992-01-01

    The real conditions covered by technical safety studies are described better by the term 'risk' instead of such qualitative terms as 'danger' or 'hazard'. 'Risk' incorporates not only the type of damage, the onset of damage, the probability of damage occurring, but also the extent of damage. In reliability and safety engineering, a probabilistic safety analysis is able to describe a plant most comprehensively by these three elements: What can happen? How frequently will it occur? What are the impacts to be taken into account? PSA is meaningful not only when applied to such technical areas in which there is a risk potential; the holistic analytical process optimizes any kind of system and plant in terms of availability and technical safety. (orig.) [de

  1. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. The Clinical Prediction of Dangerousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    8217 8 ings. Szasz (1963) has argued persuasively that clinical predictions of future dangerous behavior are unfairly focused on the mentally ill...Persons labeled paranoid, Szasz states, are readily commitable, while highly dangerous drunken drivers are not. Indeed, dangerousness such as that...Psychology, 31, 492-494. Szasz , T. (1963). Law, liberty and psychiatry. New York: Macmillan. Taft, R. (1955). The ability to judge people. Psychological

  3. PFP dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khojandi, J.

    1996-01-01

    This document establishes the minimum training requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) personnel who are responsible for management of dangerous waste. The training plan outlines training requirements for handling of solid dangerous waste during generator accumulation and liquid dangerous waste during treatment and storage operations. The implementation of this training plan will ensure the PFP facility compliance with the training plan requirements of Dangerous Waste Regulation. Chapter 173-303-330. Washington Administrative Code (WAC). The requirements for such compliance is described in Section 11.0 of WHC-CM-7-5 Environmental Compliance Manual

  4. The social dominance paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer Louise; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Heyes, Cecilia M; Cools, Roshan

    2014-12-01

    Dominant individuals report high levels of self-sufficiency, self-esteem, and authoritarianism. The lay stereotype suggests that such individuals ignore information from others, preferring to make their own choices. However, the nonhuman animal literature presents a conflicting view, suggesting that dominant individuals are avid social learners, whereas subordinates focus on learning from private experience. Whether dominant humans are best characterized by the lay stereotype or the animal view is currently unknown. Here, we present a "social dominance paradox": using self-report scales and computerized tasks, we demonstrate that socially dominant people explicitly value independence, but, paradoxically, in a complex decision-making task, they show an enhanced reliance (relative to subordinate individuals) on social learning. More specifically, socially dominant people employed a strategy of copying other agents when the agents' responses had a history of being correct. However, in humans, two subtypes of dominance have been identified: aggressive and social. Aggressively dominant individuals, who are as likely to "get their own way" as socially dominant individuals but who do so through the use of aggressive or Machiavellian tactics, did not use social information, even when it was beneficial to do so. This paper presents the first study of dominance and social learning in humans and challenges the lay stereotype in which all dominant individuals ignore others' views. The more subtle perspective we offer could have important implications for decision making in both the boardroom and the classroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Paradox of Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon

    2014-01-01

    To innovate, firms often need to draw from, and collaborate with, a large number of actors from outside their organization. At the same time, firms need also to be focused on capturing the returns from their innovative ideas. This gives rise to a paradox of openness—the creation of innovations of...... or collaborate with competitors. We explore the implications of these findings for the literature on open innovation and innovation strategy.......To innovate, firms often need to draw from, and collaborate with, a large number of actors from outside their organization. At the same time, firms need also to be focused on capturing the returns from their innovative ideas. This gives rise to a paradox of openness—the creation of innovations...... often requires openness, but the commercialization of innovations requires protection. Based on econometric analysis of data from a UK innovation survey, we find a concave relationship between firms’ breadth of external search and formal collaboration for innovation, and the strength of the firms...

  6. A dangerous mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year old woman was admitted for fatigue and arm paresthesias with Trousseau sign. Her medical history included thyroidectomy and hypercholesterolemia recently treated with simvastatin. Laboratory tests showed severe hypokalemia and hypocalcemia, severe increase in muscle enzymes, metabolic alkalosis; low plasma renin activity, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone, normal free thyroxine, increased parathyroid hormone, decreased vitamin D3; alterations in electrolyte urinary excretion, cortisol and aldosterone were excluded. Hypothesizing a statin-related myopathy, simvastatin was suspended; the patient reported use of laxatives containing licorice. Electrolytes normalized with intravenous supplementation. Among many biochemical alterations, none stands out as a major cause for muscular and electrolyte disorders. All co-factors are inter-connected, starting with statin-induced myopathy, worsened by hypothyroidism, secondary hyperaldosteronism and vitamin D deficiency, leading to hypocalcemia and hypokalemia, perpetrating muscular and electrolyte disorders. The importance of considering clinical conditions as a whole emerges with multiple co-factors involved. Another issue concerns herbal products and their potential dangerous effects.

  7. Mimesis, fiction, paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Lavocat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Les théories contemporaines de la fiction, comme les poétiques de la Renaissance, privilégient une conception de la mimesis fondée sur la vraisemblance : la démonstration du profit cognitif et moral de la fiction passe toujours par une définition de l’imitation (de quelque façon qu’on la définisse fondée sur la rationalité. L’auteur de cet article examine tout d’abord le statut des contradictions et de l’impossible chez quelques théoriciens actuels (principalement J.-M. Schaeffer, M.-L. Ryan, L. Doležel et poéticiens du 16e siècle (L. Castelvetro et F. Patrizi. Sont ensuite étudiées la forme et la fonction que prend l’impossible dans trois fictions narratives de la Renaissance. L’hypothèse majeure qui est défendue est que ces paradoxes permettent de penser le non-existant, dans la continuité de la scolastique médiévale et en relation avec une problématique religieuse, sérieuse ou parodique. Par là même, et en raison de leur auto-référentialité constitutive, les paradoxes inscrivent dans la fiction une réflexion sur elle-même qui n’a rien d’une apologie. La pensée de la fiction s’articule en définitive de façon bien différente dans les théories et dans les fictions elles-mêmes.Like Renaissance poetics, contemporary theories of fiction do favour a conception of mimesis based on likelihood. In order to underscore the benefits of fiction, in terms of cognition or ethics, both ancient and present-day authors usually identify imitation (however this is understood as a kind of rationality. The aim of this article is to question the status of contradictions and impossibilities, first in current theories of fiction (J-M Schaeffer, M.-L. Ryan, L. Doležel, then in two sixteenth century comments of Aristotle (by L. Castelvetro and F. Patrizi. In the following steps, forms and functions of the impossible are studied in three narratives of the Renaissance. The main hypothesis here is the following: in

  8. Paradoxes in aerohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yershin, Shakhbaz A

    2017-01-01

    This book, on the general topic of hydroaerodynamics, investigates a number of exciting applications in this field, addressing specifically issues that allow seemingly paradoxical issues to be dealt with. The first part is devoted to the study of channel flows, in particular the lateral flow of a viscous and viscous-plastic liquid in a ring channel formed by coaxial cylinders. Specifically, the problem of dissipation of mechanical energy in channel flows of highly viscous liquids is addressed and solved. Furthermore, the mechanism leading to hydrodynamic erosion in intra-field pipelines (known as "channelized effect") is identified. Subsequently, a theory for channel flows with mass transfer through porous walls is developed. In the second part, viscous liquid free flows (jets) are investigated. In particular, a dispersion law for turbulent flow is derived and the existence of dynamic invariance in wake flows of variable density is demonstrated. The third part presents new insights from both theoretical and e...

  9. Paradox in CSR Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Jokela, Paivi

    2017-01-01

    legitimacy. Balancing between the two goals depends on the nature of governance, management and organizational structure, which ensures its effectiveness in practice. We argue that ambidexterity is possible when firm’s ownership and management realizes CSR philosophy, which typically optimizes both social...... process because it would take into account the multiple stakeholders expectations. MNE subsidiary therefore should develop a governance mechanism that is compatible to the complex organizational and ownership structure across the global operations and supporting ROS mechanism. Developing compatible......Despite extensive corporate responsibility activities (CSR), MNE Subsidiaries often fail to meet stakeholders expectations; not only that they often violate laws, regulations, thus the paradoxical conditions arise from the simultaneous application of CSR and the violations of institutional...

  10. The Scenario Planning Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    planning paradox. Contributing fresh theory supposedly attends to the “dismal” state of theory, while contributing new typologies purportedly helps bring order to methodological chaos. Repeated over time, the contribution strategy breaks down. Effort to resolve the theoretical and methodological issue......, foundational theoretical perspective in futures studies. Perceived chaos gives way to typologies, which, as they mount, contribute to the chaos they were meant to resolve. The end result, intended by no one, is that theory remains dismal and methods remain chaotic. This direction for the field is indefensible......For more than a decade, futures studies scholars have prefaced scholarly contributions by repeating the claim that there is insufficient theory to support chaotic scenario methodology. The strategy is formulaic, and the net effect is a curious one, which the authors refer to as the scenario...

  11. Is Yin-Yang Superior for Paradox Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The paper debunks Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang is superior to any other cognitive frames or logical systems for paradox research. The purpose of this paper is to alert the Chinese indigenous management researchers to the danger of Chinese exceptionalism and over-confidence. Design...... of cultural exceptionalism and ethnocentrism can make cross-cultural communication and interaction smoother. Originality/value This paper is a rigorous critique on the “Yin-Yang being superior” assertion of Peter P. Li....

  12. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  13. New paradoxes in intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to research on risky choice, the traditional analysis of intertemporal choice takes the view that an individual behaves so as to maximize the discounted sum of all future utilities. The well-known Allais paradox contradicts the fundamental postulates of maximizing the expected value or utility of a risky option. We describe a violation of the law of diminishing marginal utility as well as an intertemporal version of the Allais paradox.

  14. Consciousness and the "Causal Paradox"

    OpenAIRE

    Velmans, Max

    1996-01-01

    Viewed from a first-person perspective consciousness appears to be necessary for complex, novel human activity - but viewed from a third-person perspective consciousness appears to play no role in the activity of brains, producing a "causal paradox". To resolve this paradox one needs to distinguish consciousness of processing from consciousness accompanying processing or causing processing. Accounts of consciousness/brain causal interactions switch between first- and third-person perspectives...

  15. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  16. Quantum paradoxes and physical reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Merwe, Alwyn (Denver Univ., CO (USA). Dept. of Physics) (ed.); Selleri, Franco (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1990-01-01

    This book is devoted to the most fundamental themes of quantum physics: acausality, wave-particle duality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, and so on. These are matters of growing interest for physicists. Several paradoxes have plagued quantum physics since its beginnings, the easiest of which to solve are the paradoxes of completeness (Schroedinger's cat, Wigner's friend, de Broglie's box, etc.). At a deeper level is the paradox of wave-particle duality whose solution probably requires the Einstein-de Broglie picture of atomic systems. The most difficult of them all is the EPR paradox (incompatibility between local realism and quantum theory). The book shows that experimental research can, in principle, solve paradoxes such as EPR and wave-particle duality but that the experiments performed on Bell-type inequalities have instead left the conceptual situation fundamentally unmodified. For a fair understanding of the Einstein-de Broglie and of the Bohr-Heisenberg ideas, an 'internal' lecture of physics is not enough. Such 'external' elements as individual biographies, history of culture, and philosophical preconceptions prove also to be important. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  17. Quantum paradoxes and physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, Alwyn; Selleri, Franco

    1990-01-01

    This book is devoted to the most fundamental themes of quantum physics: acausality, wave-particle duality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, and so on. These are matters of growing interest for physicists. Several paradoxes have plagued quantum physics since its beginnings, the easiest of which to solve are the paradoxes of completeness (Schroedinger's cat, Wigner's friend, de Broglie's box, etc.). At a deeper level is the paradox of wave-particle duality whose solution probably requires the Einstein-de Broglie picture of atomic systems. The most difficult of them all is the EPR paradox (incompatibility between local realism and quantum theory). The book shows that experimental research can, in principle, solve paradoxes such as EPR and wave-particle duality but that the experiments performed on Bell-type inequalities have instead left the conceptual situation fundamentally unmodified. For a fair understanding of the Einstein-de Broglie and of the Bohr-Heisenberg ideas, an 'internal' lecture of physics is not enough. Such 'external' elements as individual biographies, history of culture, and philosophical preconceptions prove also to be important. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Paradoxes of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnay László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates two possible critical arguments following the pictorial turn. The first is formulated within ocularcentrism, the dominance of sight, and starts with the right to visibility as a general principle that governs today’s digital culture but gets twisted in special cases like the Auschwitz photos of the Shoa, the Abu Ghraib prison videos, or recently the website called Yolocaust. The second is conceived outside the visual culture and is meant to vindicate the other senses vis-à-vis the eyes. However, the argument is truncated here only to highlight the boomerang effect of the other senses: haptic vision. It is the case of visual perception when (a there is a lack of things to see and (b indeterminate synaesthesia: when vision intensifies the other senses in the embodied viewer. The two arguments converge upon a dialectic of the visible and the imaginable, which is formulated here as two paradoxes that the discussed examples transcend. By enforcing visibility at all costs where there is hardly anything recognizable to see, they lead to two diverging results. On the one hand, the meaning of “image” is extended toward the unimaginable, the traumatic experience, on the other hand, it is extended toward the invisible, the encounter with the radical Other.

  19. Paradoxical consequences of prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sana; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    2013-08-01

    Explanations based in attribution theory claim that strong external controls such as parental restrictiveness and punishment undermine moral internalization. In contrast, 3 studies provide evidence that parental punishment does socialize morality, but of a particular sort: a morality focused on prohibitions (i.e., proscriptive orientation) rather than positive obligations (i.e., prescriptive orientation). Study 1 found young adults' accounts of parental restrictiveness and punishment activated their sensitivity to prohibitions and predicted a proscriptive orientation. Consistent with the greater potency of temptations for proscriptively oriented children, as well as past research linking shame to proscriptive morality, Study 2 found that restrictive parenting was also associated with greater suppression of temptations. Finally, Studies 3A and 3B found that suppressing these immoral thoughts is paradoxically harder for those with strong proscriptive orientations; more specifically, priming a proscriptive (versus prescriptive) orientation and inducing mental suppression of "immoral" thoughts led to the most ego depletion for those with restrictive parents. Overall, individuals who had restrictive parents had the lowest self-regulatory ability to resist their "immoral" temptations after prohibitions were activated. In contrast to common attributional explanations, these studies suggest that harsh external control by parents does not undercut moral socialization but rather undermines individuals' ability to resist temptation.

  20. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  1. [The paradox of motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaidou, N G

    1990-08-01

    All Sahelian countries are working to define their population policies. A population policy document avoids dispersion and duplication. It opens the path to efficiency. It makes it easier to achieve governmental socioeconomic objectives. Various recent population-related meetings have at least two points in common: they aim to overstep and improve a given situation and are at the same time some examples of implementing the Ndjamena action program, adopted in January 1989. All these population-centered actions return to the problem of adolescent fertility--a poignant problem. Adolescent pregnancy is a major source of family and social break-ups. This paradox of motherhood makes a violent storm burst in the skies ordinarily serene with joy and hope. It is an enemy perverse to economic development and social progress. Adolescent motherhood is a phenomenon which complicates and aggravates population problems and is taboo to the point it is still imperceptible, unknown. It is a problem of premier importance in the Sahel. Pregnancy strikes a woman so very unprepared for motherhood and its demands. It risks the life of a being which is preparing itself to enter the world. Adolescent pregnancy has equally tragic health effects: poorly performed underground abortions and maternal and infant deaths. Adolescent fertility is a burning problem regardless of the perspective (demographic, economic, social, or health). In Sahelian countries, one is beginning to be interested in and to speak about it. It will be necessary to search for solutions. Schools must be a top target for all activities aiming to check adolescent fertility. The emphasis must be on information, education, and responsibility of girls, boys, teachers, and parents. Education and training are of capital importance for socioeconomic development of the Sahel. All activities implemented in the education sector should include a large place for family life education in pregnancy prevention.

  2. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  3. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads to a f...... cross-disciplinary research and in the collective use of different kinds of scientific expertise, and thereby make society better able to solve complex, real-world problems.......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...

  4. DANGEROUS AND HYPNOTIC DRUG ACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, William M.

    1961-01-01

    It is unprofessional conduct within the meaning of the Medical Practice Act to prescribe a dangerous drug without either a medical examination by a physician or other medical indications. Dangerous and hypnotic drugs are specifically defined by both state and federal law and distribution is strictly regulated. A physician may administer to his own patients such amounts of dangerous drugs as are necessary for the immediate needs of the patient. The physician may obtain such needed amounts of these drugs by an order placed with a pharmacist marked “for administration to immediate needs of patients.” A licensed physician may also prescribe dangerous and hypnotic drugs for patients and such prescriptions may be refilled on the specific authorization of the physician. A physician who dispenses dangerous and hypnotic drugs to patients must obtain a hypnotic drug license; he must use specific purchase orders when purchasing; the drugs must be labeled in the manner provided by law; and all records of sale shall be open to inspection by authorized officers of the law and kept for three years. By the Principles of Medical Ethics physicians are bound to limit the source of their professional income to medical services actually rendered. Recent decisions of the Judicial Council answer questions concerning a physician's interest in a corporation which purchases, packages and sells medicines under a corporate name. Also answered are questions as to the measures that exist to prevent physicians from abusing the privilege of owning a pharmacy, and whether a physician can ethically rent space in a building owned by him to a pharmacist with a percentage of the income of the pharmacy as rental. The public welfare of California and the nation as determined by legislation strictly regulates the distribution of dangerous drugs. It is in the best interest of the medical profession and its patients that these laws be understood and carefully observed. PMID:13784776

  5. 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this storage unit, including the Part A included with this document, is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings. The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 0) was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency on July 31, 1989. Revision 1, addressing Washington State Department of Ecology review comments made on Revision 0 dated November 21, 1989, and March 23, 1990, was submitted on June 22, 1990. This submittal, Revision 2, addresses Washington State Department of Ecology review comments made on Revision 1, dated June 22, 1990, August 30, 1990, December 18, 1990, and July 8, 1991

  6. Are low radiation doses Dangerous?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lima, O.; Cornejo, N.

    1996-01-01

    In the last few years the answers to this questions has been affirmative as well as negative from a radiation protection point of view low doses of ionizing radiation potentially constitute an agent causing stochasting effects. A lineal relation without threshold is assumed between dose and probability of occurrence of these effects . Arguments against the danger of probability of occurrence of these effects. Arguments again the danger of low dose radiation are reflected in concepts such as Hormesis and adaptive response, which are phenomena that being studied at present

  7. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  8. Container for shipping dangerous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  9. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...

  10. Mechanical Paradox: The Uphill Roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Emilio; Cortes-Poza, D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse in detail the dynamics of a mechanical system which is a rigid body with the geometry of a double cone. This double cone is apparently able to spontaneously roll uphill along inclined rails. The experiment has been known for some centuries, and because of its peculiar behaviour, it has been named "mechanical paradox". Although this…

  11. The Paradox of Modern Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The Paradox of Suffering in modern western Culture In non-western cultures and pre-modern western cultures suffering is considered the normal state of life. Corrispondingly the suffering of oneself and that of other people form a central focus to most religions, their practices and philosophies...

  12. Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2007-01-01

    Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…

  13. The Banach-Tarski paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Wagon, Stan

    1985-01-01

    The Banach-Tarski paradox is a most striking mathematical construction: it asserts that a solid ball may be taken apart into finitely many pieces that can be rearranged using rigid motions to form a ball twice as large as the original. This volume explore

  14. The Paradox of Painful Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuts, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Many of the most popular genres of narrative art are designed to elicit negative emotions: emotions that are experienced as painful or involving some degree of pain, which people generally avoid in their daily lives. Traditionally, the question of why people seek out such experiences of painful art has been presented as the paradox of tragedy, and…

  15. On Johnson's Paradox: Hypothesis Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Clyde E.

    1975-01-01

    When H. M. Johnson argued that all inductive reasoning is based on the fallacy of affirming the consequent and cannot therefore establish the 'truth' of scientific hypotheses, he posed a paradox for strict empiricists. Author examined Johnson's argument. (Editor/RK)

  16. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; van den Berg, Henk; Kylin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities. Discussion Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction. Conclusions There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives. PMID:21245017

  17. The Paradox of Precaution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, Gotthard [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Technikfolgeabschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS), Karlsruhe (Germany)], e-mail: bechmann@itas.fzk.de

    2009-12-15

    The precautionary principle cannot rid itself of risk. In the area of precaution it re-emerges as the risk of precaution. This is due to the fact that precaution is a disposition of the future which can only be decided in the medium of probability/lack of probability. With this type of calculation, we take advantage of the uncertainty of the future and at the same time our own uncertainty to make decisions in the present that can be confirmed or refuted by future states of the present. We will never reach the safe side since the future as future is inherently uncertain. If we take this realisation as a basis, we see that precaution does not mean creating a future free of risk or danger, but that the precautionary principle is a meta-rule how this basic uncertainty can be, and is, processed communicatively, i.e. at the societal level. On this topic a number of remarks: - There are no apodeictic judgements possible with respect to issues of the future, in particular when these are possible catastrophes. Whoever operates in such cases with true assertions disqualifies himself. As we know, this has ruined the political reputation of scientific experts. - We must further do without consensus on principles or on the priority of certain values. Negotiations on decisions must be formulated and understood in a way that they are compatible with a disagreement on principle. Current coordination is then more important than correspondence in the cognitive and evaluative foundations of the assessment of future. - Communication itself is better set up not as communicative action in the sense of Habermas, but on the contrary as strategic action under conditions of uncertainty, that is we have to stay aware that debates related to the future are social constructions and not true statements. - All in all, the demand for 'participation' should be downplayed in favour of strengthening the right to information in order to able to develop the largest possible number of

  18. The Paradox of Precaution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, Gotthard

    2009-12-01

    The precautionary principle cannot rid itself of risk. In the area of precaution it re-emerges as the risk of precaution. This is due to the fact that precaution is a disposition of the future which can only be decided in the medium of probability/lack of probability. With this type of calculation, we take advantage of the uncertainty of the future and at the same time our own uncertainty to make decisions in the present that can be confirmed or refuted by future states of the present. We will never reach the safe side since the future as future is inherently uncertain. If we take this realisation as a basis, we see that precaution does not mean creating a future free of risk or danger, but that the precautionary principle is a meta-rule how this basic uncertainty can be, and is, processed communicatively, i.e. at the societal level. On this topic a number of remarks: - There are no apodeictic judgements possible with respect to issues of the future, in particular when these are possible catastrophes. Whoever operates in such cases with true assertions disqualifies himself. As we know, this has ruined the political reputation of scientific experts. - We must further do without consensus on principles or on the priority of certain values. Negotiations on decisions must be formulated and understood in a way that they are compatible with a disagreement on principle. Current coordination is then more important than correspondence in the cognitive and evaluative foundations of the assessment of future. - Communication itself is better set up not as communicative action in the sense of Habermas, but on the contrary as strategic action under conditions of uncertainty, that is we have to stay aware that debates related to the future are social constructions and not true statements. - All in all, the demand for 'participation' should be downplayed in favour of strengthening the right to information in order to able to develop the largest possible number of constructs. - The

  19. The Paradox of Precaution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, Gotthard (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Technikfolgeabschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS), Karlsruhe (Germany)), e-mail: bechmann@itas.fzk.de

    2009-12-15

    The precautionary principle cannot rid itself of risk. In the area of precaution it re-emerges as the risk of precaution. This is due to the fact that precaution is a disposition of the future which can only be decided in the medium of probability/lack of probability. With this type of calculation, we take advantage of the uncertainty of the future and at the same time our own uncertainty to make decisions in the present that can be confirmed or refuted by future states of the present. We will never reach the safe side since the future as future is inherently uncertain. If we take this realisation as a basis, we see that precaution does not mean creating a future free of risk or danger, but that the precautionary principle is a meta-rule how this basic uncertainty can be, and is, processed communicatively, i.e. at the societal level. On this topic a number of remarks: - There are no apodeictic judgements possible with respect to issues of the future, in particular when these are possible catastrophes. Whoever operates in such cases with true assertions disqualifies himself. As we know, this has ruined the political reputation of scientific experts. - We must further do without consensus on principles or on the priority of certain values. Negotiations on decisions must be formulated and understood in a way that they are compatible with a disagreement on principle. Current coordination is then more important than correspondence in the cognitive and evaluative foundations of the assessment of future. - Communication itself is better set up not as communicative action in the sense of Habermas, but on the contrary as strategic action under conditions of uncertainty, that is we have to stay aware that debates related to the future are social constructions and not true statements. - All in all, the demand for 'participation' should be downplayed in favour of strengthening the right to information in order to able to develop the largest possible number of

  20. The Paradox of Precaution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, Gotthard [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Technikfolgeabschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The precautionary principle cannot rid itself of risk. In the area of precaution it re-emerges as the risk of precaution. This is due to the fact that precaution is a disposition of the future which can only be decided in the medium of probability/lack of probability. With this type of calculation, we take advantage of the uncertainty of the future and at the same time our own uncertainty to make decisions in the present that can be confirmed or refuted by future states of the present. We will never reach the safe side since the future as future is inherently uncertain. If we take this realisation as a basis, we see that precaution does not mean creating a future free of risk or danger, but that the precautionary principle is a meta-rule how this basic uncertainty can be, and is, processed communicatively, i.e. at the societal level. On this topic a number of remarks: - There are no apodeictic judgements possible with respect to issues of the future, in particular when these are possible catastrophes. Whoever operates in such cases with true assertions disqualifies himself. As we know, this has ruined the political reputation of scientific experts. - We must further do without consensus on principles or on the priority of certain values. Negotiations on decisions must be formulated and understood in a way that they are compatible with a disagreement on principle. Current coordination is then more important than correspondence in the cognitive and evaluative foundations of the assessment of future. - Communication itself is better set up not as communicative action in the sense of Habermas, but on the contrary as strategic action under conditions of uncertainty, that is we have to stay aware that debates related to the future are social constructions and not true statements. - All in all, the demand for 'participation' should be downplayed in favour of strengthening the right to information in order to able to develop the largest possible number of constructs. - The

  1. knowledge about obstetric danger signs among preg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    about knowledge level of pregnant women on obstetric danger signs. The objective of this .... ple size formula for estimating a single population proportion with the ..... subjects mentioned vaginal bleeding as danger sign during pregnancy ...

  2. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  3. The nature of quantum paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarozzi, G.; Van der Merwe, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of Quantum Paradoxes provides an exhaustive general view of the most recent studies and research carried out by Italian scientists and philosophers of science in the field of the foundations of quantum physics, employing a critical stance and an alternative to the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation. During the last twenty years the Italians have produced a remarkable amount of work on the quantum-mechanical theory of measurement, the interpretation of the wave-function, the axiomatization of quantum formalism, Bell-type theorems and realistic local theories, thus creating one of the most advanced contributions to the problems of understanding Nature and clarifying the origin of the quantum paradoxes. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. Klein paradox and vacuum polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, T.

    1977-01-01

    This contribution reviews some of the methods which can be used when studying quantum fields in a given stationary classical external field. The attention is mainly directed towards cases where real pair creation can occur in such a stationary background. The paradigm of this situation is the Klein paradox. This paradox is best approached by the introduction of some energy diagrams whose direct extension to black holes physics has proven to be very useful. Finally processes of real pair creation around a Kerr-Newman (charged and rotating) black hole and their feedback on the geometry are briefly discussed. It is also shown how the Hawking process can be recovered in this approach. (Auth.)

  5. Illustrations of the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide a more intuitive understanding of the twin paradox, several illustrations of this are presented. In one of these, each of the twins is equipped with a lamp whose monochromatic light can be observed by the other. In other illustrations the travelling twin uses an Einstein train instead of a space ship, all the cars of the train and all stations along the route of the train being equipped with clocks. (author)

  6. Mechanical paradox: the uphill roller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Emilio; Cortes-Poza, D

    2011-01-01

    We analyse in detail the dynamics of a mechanical system which is a rigid body with the geometry of a double cone. This double cone is apparently able to spontaneously roll uphill along inclined rails. The experiment has been known for some centuries, and because of its peculiar behaviour, it has been named 'mechanical paradox'. Although this instrument is well known today, we have not found in the literature a dynamical study like the one we are presenting. A deeper analysis of this mechanical object will allow us to go further than explaining the apparent paradox in the system; it will show interesting features of the dynamics that are not evident or intuitive. In this work, we follow a complete study of the geometry, the kinematic variables and the Lagrangian dynamics of the problem for any set of the angular parameters and initial values, and obtain as a result a full description of the dynamic variables of this mechanical device. In addition to studying the dynamics of the system with the angles that yield the typical paradoxical behaviour, we study carefully what we call the constant potential geometry regime, where the centre of mass maintains its height, and found in this particular case some features of the dynamics which are not common in rolling objects. We believe that this work can offer the student good material to review some fundamental concepts of analytical mechanics.

  7. Reinterpretaion of the friendship paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingcheng; Wu, Jianliang

    The friendship paradox (FP) is a sociological phenomenon stating that most people have fewer friends than their friends do. It is to say that in a social network, the number of friends that most individuals have is smaller than the average number of friends of friends. This has been verified by Feld. We call this interpreting method mean value version. But is it the best choice to portray the paradox? In this paper, we propose a probability method to reinterpret this paradox, and we illustrate that the explanation using our method is more persuasive. An individual satisfies the FP if his (her) randomly chosen friend has more friends than him (her) with probability not less than 1/2. Comparing the ratios of nodes satisfying the FP in networks, rp, we can see that the probability version is stronger than the mean value version in real networks both online and offline. We also show some results about the effects of several parameters on rp in random network models. Most importantly, rp is a quadratic polynomial of the power law exponent γ in Price model, and rp is higher when the average clustering coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.5 in Petter-Beom (PB) model. The introduction of the probability method to FP can shed light on understanding the network structure in complex networks especially in social networks.

  8. A Paradox within the Time Value of Money: A Critical Thinking Exercise for Finance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Charles J.; Rich, Steven P.; Rose, John T.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a paradox within the time value of money (TVM), namely, that the interest-principal sequence embedded in the payment stream of an amortized loan is exactly the opposite of the interest-principal sequence implicit in the present value of a matching annuity. We examine this inverse sequence, both mathematically and intuitively,…

  9. Multisetting Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox provides an all-versus-nothing test for the quantum nonlocality. In most of the GHZ paradoxes known so far each observer is allowed to measure only two alternative observables. Here we present a general construction for GHZ paradoxes in which each observer measures more than two observables given that the system is prepared in the n -qudit GHZ state. By doing so we are able to construct a multisetting GHZ paradox for the n -qubit GHZ state, with n being arbitrary, which is genuine n -partite; i.e., no GHZ paradox exists when restricted to a subset of a number of observers for a given set of Mermin observables. Our result fills up the gap of the absence of a genuine GHZ paradox for the GHZ state of an even number of qubits, especially the four-qubit GHZ state as used in GHZ's original proposal.

  10. Policy on synthetic biology: deliberation, probability, and the precautionary paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher; Nardini, Cecilia

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a cutting-edge area of research that holds the promise of unprecedented health benefits. However, in tandem with these large prospective benefits, synthetic biology projects entail a risk of catastrophic consequences whose severity may exceed that of most ordinary human undertakings. This is due to the peculiar nature of synthetic biology as a 'threshold technology' which opens doors to opportunities and applications that are essentially unpredictable. Fears about these potentially unstoppable consequences have led to declarations from civil society groups calling for the use of a precautionary principle to regulate the field. Moreover, the principle is prevalent in law and international agreements. Despite widespread political recognition of a need for caution, the precautionary principle has been extensively criticized as a guide for regulatory policy. We examine a central objection to the principle: that its application entails crippling inaction and incoherence, since whatever action one takes there is always a chance that some highly improbable cataclysm will occur. In response to this difficulty, which we call the 'precautionary paradox,' we outline a deliberative means for arriving at threshold of probability below which potential dangers can be disregarded. In addition, we describe a Bayesian mechanism with which to assign probabilities to harmful outcomes. We argue that these steps resolve the paradox. The rehabilitated PP can thus provide a viable policy option to confront the uncharted waters of synthetic biology research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  12. Five paradox on energy system management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Five paradox are detailed on energy management: internationalization of energy questions but always regional management is present, short term problems must be solved but without forgetting long term problems in environment, the third paradox is : we have time but we are in a hurry, we have reserves but ten, twenty or thirty years are necessary to adapt our energy system; the fourth paradox is : we cannot manage energy by managing only energy, for example : finances system development and environment importance. The last and fifth paradox is : the market, yes, but state too, as regulative force

  13. The three-box paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravon, Tamar; Vaidman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    The classical three-box paradox of Kirkpatrick (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 4891) is compared to the original quantum three-box paradox of Aharonov and Vaidman (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 2315). It is argued that the quantum three-box experiment is a 'quantum paradox' in the sense that it is an example of a classical task which cannot be accomplished using classical means, but can be accomplished using quantum devices. It is shown that Kirkpatrick's card game is analogous to a different game with a particle in three boxes which does not contain paradoxical features

  14. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.

  15. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  17. The MedDRA paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Gary H

    2008-11-06

    MedDRA (the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology) is a controlled vocabulary widely used as a medical coding scheme. However, MedDRA's characterization of its structural hierarchy exhibits some confusing and paradoxical features. The goal of this paper is to examine these features, determine whether there is a coherent view of the MedDRA hierarchy that emerges, and explore what lessons are to be learned from this for using MedDRA and similar terminologies in a broad medical informatics context that includes relations among multiple disparate terminologies, thesauri, and ontologies.

  18. A Note on Faraday Paradoxes

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, Bernhard; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The validity of the flux rule to determine the electromotive force in a cycle, epsilon = -d Phi/dt, has been the subject of a large amount of controversy since the beginning of electrical technology. Although most authors reach correct conclusions for a class of problems called Faraday paradoxes, the arguments that are used vary and often rely on ad-hoc physical reasoning. A didactic and insightful treatment should be based solely on Maxwell's equations, the constitutive laws, and a detailed study of the mathematics involved.

  19. A Krein quantization approach to Klein paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payandeh, Farrin; Fathi, Mohsen; Mohammad Pur, Toradj; Moghaddam, Zahra Gh.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we first introduce the famous Klein paradox. Afterwards by proposing the Krein quantization approach and taking the negative modes into account, we will show that the expected and exact current densities could be achieved without confronting any paradox. (authors)

  20. The clock paradox as a cosmological problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, K.Y.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the clock paradox is discussed within the framework of the general theory of relativity. It is shown that in general the aging asymmetry exists. It is also argued that the clock paradox, according to Mach's principle, is essentially a cosmological problem. (author)

  1. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  2. Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno paradoxes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Continuous observation of a time independent projection operator is known to prevent change of state (the quantum Zeno paradox). We discuss the recent result that generic continuous measurement of time dependent projection operators will in fact ensure change of state: an anti-Zeno paradox.

  3. Family Fathers Lost in Theatre Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Annelis

    2008-01-01

    Diderot's influence on theatre is well known through The Paradox of Acting (Paradoxe sur le comédien). However, Diderot also wrote a few drames bourgeois, among which is The Family Father (Le Père de famille), which still in Diderot's days was edited in Copenhagen in French, and which in Danish...

  4. A Paradoxical Approach to Vocational Indecision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a case study in which a paradoxical intervention was effectively used in treating a vocationally indecisive college student and his overly involved father. The quality of the father-son interaction improved as the student's anxiety decreased. Implications for the use of paradox in other situations are discussed. (Author/JAC)

  5. Virtue Acquisition: The Paradox of Striving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelian-inspired accounts of virtue acquisition stress guided practice and habituated action to develop virtue. This emphasis on action can lead to the "paradox of striving". The paradox occurs when we try too hard to act well and thereby spoil our efforts. I identify four forms of striving--forcing, impulsivity, overthinking, and…

  6. New Paradoxes of Risky Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 25 years, prospect theory and its successor, cumulative prospect theory, replaced expected utility as the dominant descriptive theories of risky decision making. Although these models account for the original Allais paradoxes, 11 new paradoxes show where prospect theories lead to self-contradiction or systematic false predictions.…

  7. Yule-Simpson's Paradox in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Heather Honore; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2010-01-01

    Yule (1903) and Simpson (1951) described a statistical paradox that occurs when data is aggregated. In such situations, aggregated data may reveal a trend that directly contrasts those of sub-groups trends. In fact, the aggregate data trends may even be opposite in direction of sub-group trends. To reveal Yule-Simpson's paradox (YSP)-type…

  8. Contralateral paradoxical response to chemotherapy in tuberculous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pleural effusions may occur as a complication of primary tuberculosis or an established pulmonary or extrapulmonary infection. New formation or expansion of a tuberculous lesion during chemotherapy is referred to as paradoxical response. Paradoxical response has been described to occur weeks or months after starting ...

  9. [Five paradoxes in health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear danger and nuclear history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the books Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years written by McGeorge Bundy, and War and Peace in the Nuclear Age written by John Newhouse. A history of political decisions on weapon development is given, along with a what if analysis of other options. The lesson of these two books is that it has proved considerably easier to live with nuclear weapons and the Soviet Union than anyone expected forty years ago. It is all the easier if arms control issues, based on worst case analyses, are kept in their place, which is firmly in the background of the overall conduct of foreign policy

  11. Paradoxical Behavior of Granger Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Annette; Battaglia, Demian; Gail, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Granger causality is a standard tool for the description of directed interaction of network components and is popular in many scientific fields including econometrics, neuroscience and climate science. For time series that can be modeled as bivariate auto-regressive processes we analytically derive an expression for spectrally decomposed Granger Causality (SDGC) and show that this quantity depends only on two out of four groups of model parameters. Then we present examples of such processes whose SDGC expose paradoxical behavior in the sense that causality is high for frequency ranges with low spectral power. For avoiding misinterpretations of Granger causality analysis we propose to complement it by partial spectral analysis. Our findings are illustrated by an example from brain electrophysiology. Finally, we draw implications for the conventional definition of Granger causality. Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Goettingen

  12. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  13. Paradoxes unbounded: Practising community making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Maginess

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this paper is a discussion of the paradoxes contained in definitionsof the word 'community' and deliberately foregrounds and makes problematicconflicting meanings before arguing for a third definition and practice of community.This third definition and practice celebrates and even transcends contradictions withinan active learning model of education in the community, aimed at tackling inequalityand prejudice. The second section offers an autocritical narrative account of aneducation in the community project that illustrates how such a practice of communitymaking can be achieved within an educational framework in which pupil is teacher andteacher is pupil and in which an imaginative, creative approach is deployed toconstruct a community making practice. The paper draws on understandings fromcommunity development, inclusive and creative education, emancipatory actionresearch, postcolonial and post-structuralist theory.

  14. Conjunct rotation: Codman's paradox revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian I; Fradet, Laetitia; Rettig, Oliver

    2009-05-01

    This contribution mathematically formalizes Codman's idea of conjunct rotation, a term he used in 1934 to describe a paradoxical phenomenon arising from a closed-loop arm movement. Real (axial) rotation is distinguished from conjunct rotation. For characterizing the latter, the idea of reference vector fields is developed to define the neutral axial position of the humerus for any given orientation of its long axis. This concept largely avoids typical coordinate singularities arising from decomposition of 3D joint motion and therefore can be used for postural (axial) assessment of the shoulder joint both clinically and in sports science in almost the complete accessible range of motion. The concept, even though algebraic rather complex, might help to get an easier and more intuitive understanding of axial rotation of the shoulder in complex movements present in daily life and in sports.

  15. Paradoxical aortic stenosis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Rita; Teixeira, Rogério; Vieira, Maria João; Gonçalves, Lino

    2017-04-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is a complex systemic valvular and vascular disease with a high prevalence in developed countries. The new entity "paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis" refers to cases in which patients have severe AS based on assessment of aortic valve area (AVA) (≤1 cm 2 ) or indexed AVA (≤0.6 cm 2 /m 2 ), but paradoxically have a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) and a low stroke volume index (≤35 ml/m 2 ), despite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%). A search was carried out in the PubMed database on paradoxical AS for the period 2007-2014. A total of 57 articles were included for this review. The prevalence of paradoxical AS ranged from 3% to 35% of the population with severe degenerative AS. It was more frequent in females and in older patients. Paradoxical AS was associated with characteristic left ventricular remodeling as well as an increase in systemic arterial stiffness. It was noted that there may be errors and inaccuracies in the calculation of AVA by the continuity equation, which could erroneously suggest the paradoxical phenotype. There are new diagnostic methods to facilitate the study of AS, such as aortic valve calcium score, valvuloarterial impedance and the longitudinal mechanics of the left ventricle. With regard to its natural history, it is not clear whether paradoxical AS corresponds to an advance stage of the disease or if paradoxical AS patients have a distinct phenotype with specific characteristics. Valve replacement, either surgical or percutaneous, may be indicated in patients with severe and symptomatic paradoxical AS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  17. Optical tweezers and paradoxes in electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Robert N C; Nieminen, Timo A; Heckenberg, Norman R; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2011-01-01

    The widespread application of optical forces and torques has contributed to renewed interest in the fundamentals of the electromagnetic force and torque, including long-standing paradoxes such as the Abraham–Minkowski controversy and the angular momentum density of a circularly polarized plane wave. We discuss the relationship between these electromagnetic paradoxes and optical tweezers. In particular, consideration of possible optical tweezers experiments to attempt to resolve these paradoxes strongly suggests that they are beyond experimental resolution, yielding identical observable results in all cases

  18. Bosonic analog of the Klein paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R. E.; Ware, M. R.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2010-01-01

    The standard Klein paradox describes how an incoming electron scatters off a supercritical electrostatic barrier that is so strong that it can generate electron-positron pairs. This fermionic system has been widely discussed in textbooks to illustrate some of the discrepancies between quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretical descriptions for the pair creation process. We compare the fermionic dynamics with that of the corresponding bosonic system. We point out that the direct counterpart of the Pauli exclusion principle (the central mechanism to resolve the fermionic Klein paradox) is stimulated emission, which leads to the resolution of the analogous bosonic paradox.

  19. Second Parrondo's Paradox in Scale Free Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Toyota, Norihito

    2012-01-01

    Parrondo's paradox occurs in sequences of games in which a winning expectation value of a payoff may be obtained by playing two games in a random order, even though each game in the sequence may be lost when played individually.Several variations of Parrondo's games apparently with the same paradoxical property have been introduced by G.P. Harmer and D. Abbott; history dependence, one dimensional line, two dimensional lattice and so on. I have shown that Parrondo's paradox does not occur in s...

  20. The Merger Paradox and R&D

    OpenAIRE

    MIYAGIWA, Kaz; WAN, Jiangyun(Yunyun)

    2015-01-01

    The merger paradox is revisited in the presence of cost-reducing R&D in Cournot oligopoly. Two cases are found, in which merger is profitable without satisfying the 80-percent threshold requirement of Salant et al (1983).

  1. New loophole for the EPR paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Feldmann, Michel

    1999-01-01

    We exhibit a classical model free from any paradox which exactly simulates the spin EPR test. We conclude that Bell's inequality violation is a strictly classical phenomenon, contrary to a general belief.

  2. six six six paradox : [luuletused] / Triin Tasuja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tasuja, Triin

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: six six six paradox ; cat stevens ; "vahel tundub, et mu ümber..." ; sääse ; Salaalaealised ; kolkalapsed ; longin mööda lumiseid tänavaid ; punkrock dekadents ; "Igast kirjaneitsist..." ; "mina olengi see saikochick..."

  3. Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for school leadership: A case study of two South African high schools. ... South African Journal of Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  4. Spin entanglement, decoherence and Bohm's EPR paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; Drummond, P. D.; Bachor, H. A.; Reid, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain criteria for entanglement and the EPR paradox for spin-entangled particles and analyse the effects of decoherence caused by absorption and state purity errors. For a two qubit photonic state, entanglement can occur for all transmission efficiencies. In this case, the state preparation purity must be above a threshold value. However, Bohm's spin EPR paradox can be achieved only above a critical level of loss. We calculate a required efficiency of 58%, which appears achievable with cu...

  5. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by M. Rosenzweig in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-p...

  6. Reducing Future International Chemical and Biological Dangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Patricia Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foley, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15 - year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers . In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future . This report offers a hi gh level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.

  7. The Paradox of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sardoč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the idea of equal opportunities is based on the assertion that all individuals competing for an advantaged social position should have equal opportunities, i.e., that each and every one of them should have fair opportunities to achieve a particular goal. Despite the fact that equal opportunities is one of the basic mechanisms for a just distribution of advantageous social positions, the idea of fair equality of opportunity remains divided between different competing political projects, e.g., egalitarian liberalism, libertarian political theory, multiculturalism, etc. This paper examines two basic dimensions of equal opportunities to which existing conceptions fail to offer a unanimous answer, i.e., a the issue of fairness and b the issue of the currency of fairness. The concluding part of this paper presents two basic paradoxes that determine both the direction of the discussion as well as the possible solutions to the achievement of fair equal opportunities as part of any process for competing for advantageous social positions.

  8. Unveiling the Mobile Learning Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A mobile learning paradox exists in Australian healthcare settings. Although it is increasingly acknowledged that timely, easy, and convenient access to health information using mobile learning technologies can enhance care and improve patient outcomes, currently there is an inability for nurses to access information at the point of care. Rapid growth in the use of mobile technology has created challenges for learning and teaching in the workplace. Easy access to educational resources via mobile devices challenges traditional strategies of knowledge and skill acquisition. Redesign of learning and teaching in the undergraduate curriculum and the development of policies to support the use of mobile learning at point of care is overdue. This study explored mobile learning opportunities used by clinical supervisors in tertiary and community-based facilities in two Australian States. Individual, organisation and systems level governance were sub-themes of professionalism that emerged as the main theme and impacts on learning and teaching in situ in healthcare environments. It is imperative healthcare work redesign includes learning and teaching that supports professional identity formation of students during work integrated learning.

  9. The obesity paradox and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassio, Angelo; Idolazzi, Luca; Rossini, Maurizio; Gatti, Davide; Adami, Giovanni; Giollo, Alessandro; Viapiana, Ombretta

    2018-06-01

    Overweight and obesity according to the definition of the WHO are considered as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Studies comparing fracture incidence in obese and non-obese individuals have demonstrated that obesity, defined on the basis of body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of fracture at some sites but seems to be protective at others. The results of the studies are influenced by the distribution of BMI in the population studied; for example, in cohorts with a low prevalence of obesity, a predilection for certain fracture sites in obese individuals becomes difficult to detect, whereas, in populations with a high prevalence of obesity, previously unreported associations may emerge. Furthermore, obesity can bring with itself many complications (Type 2 diabetes mellitus, vitamin D deficiency, and motor disability) which, in the long run, can have a definite influence in terms of overall risk and quality of life, as well. This is a narrative review focusing on the relationship between bone metabolism and overweight/obesity and dealing with the fundamental dilemma of a disease (obesity) apparently associated with improved values of bone mineral density, part of a complicated relationship which revolves around obesity called "the obesity paradox".

  10. A fire danger rating system for Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Burgan; Francis M. Fujioka; George H. Hirata

    1974-01-01

    Extremes in rainfall on the Hawaiian Islands make it difficult to judge forest fire danger conditions. The use of an automatic data collection and computer processing system helps to monitor the problem.

  11. Antiparticle in Light of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Klein Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Guang-jiong; Guan, Hong; Zhou, Weimin; Yan, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The original version of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and the Klein paradox of Klein-Gordon (KG) equation are discussed to show the necessity of existence of antiparticle with its wavefunction being fixed unambiguously. No concept of "hole" is needed.

  12. Use of informed consent with therapeutic paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, M M

    1992-01-01

    Debate persists in the literature and among clinicians about the ethical appropriateness of paradoxical interventions. It has been suggested that informed consent with therapeutic paradox would alleviate ethical concerns of deception, manipulation, harm to the client, and withholding of information from the client in therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore health care consumer reactions to the benefits and risks of therapeutic paradox as stated in a consent for treatment form. The study explored the responses of 32 medical patients to a hypothetical consent for treatment form for therapeutic paradox. Data were collected in a brief semistructured interview after subjects read the hypothetical consent form. Utilizing a case study, the investigator then offered an example of a successful paradoxical intervention and additional subject comments were solicited. Content analysis of the responses was made. Health care consumers had mixed responses to the consent form. While the consent form served as an obstacle for some consumers, many were willing to sign the consent form and accept treatment even though they had internal reservations and questions. Appropriateness of the consent form format is discussed.

  13. Three Paradoxes of the Future Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Pivovarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the issue of predicting the future. While creating the future image of the mankind as a whole, and Russia in particular, extrapolated some 50 or 100 years ahead, such cultural forms as religion, philosophy, education and art make their significant impact. However, philosophy plays a special role of critical methodology in coordinating the futurological efforts. It works as a tuning fork that tunes up the orchestra of various sciences and other forms of social consciousness. Being dialectical, philosophers find out and analyze the contradictions – paradoxes, antinomies, and aporias - involved in such activities as prophesizing, prognosticating, predicting and foreseeing. On the basis of the retrospective analysis, the author considers the most significant paradoxes facing the futurologists engaged in predicting the general course of historic events; the paradoxes being denoted as follows: the antinomy of academic ignorance, paradox of newness and paradox of an emergent effect. The analysis results in conclusion that the large-scale, long-term «scientific predictions of the future», claiming to be the truth and pretending for historical value and accuracy, are impossible or at least doubtful. Nevertheless, global prognoses are highly valued, widely discussed and always in demand in society due to the purposeful human intellect. 

  14. Three Paradoxes of the Future Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Pivovarov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the issue of predicting the future. While creating the future image of the mankind as a whole, and Russia in particular, extrapolated some 50 or 100 years ahead, such cultural forms as religion, philosophy, education and art make their significant impact. However, philosophy plays a special role of critical methodology in coordinating the futurological efforts. It works as a tuning fork that tunes up the orchestra of various sciences and other forms of social consciousness. Being dialectical, philosophers find out and analyze the contradictions – paradoxes, antinomies, and aporias - involved in such activities as prophesizing, prognosticating, predicting and foreseeing. On the basis of the retrospective analysis, the author considers the most significant paradoxes facing the futurologists engaged in predicting the general course of historic events; the paradoxes being denoted as follows: the antinomy of academic ignorance, paradox of newness and paradox of an emergent effect. The analysis results in conclusion that the large-scale, long-term «scientific predictions of the future», claiming to be the truth and pretending for historical value and accuracy, are impossible or at least doubtful. Nevertheless, global prognoses are highly valued, widely discussed and always in demand in society due to the purposeful human intellect. 

  15. Reasonable Plurality and Moral Education. New Perspectives on Old Paradoxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Salmerón Castro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This article faces an old paradox of moral education: the apparently logical impossibility of choosing the transmission of agreed-upon values and the autonomous exercise of reason. The author takes an epistemological position in which human learning is considered the result of an interaction of individual developmental processes and the acquisition of knowledge. She assumes knowledge as a category subjected to criteria of truth, and this, as preceded by an agreement concerning values. She states that transmission of the community consensus is not only inevitable, but is essential to the development of the autonomous deliberative game and to the exercise of critical intelligence as well. However, she warns us against a possible danger: the mere transmission of accepted principles and values may place moral education under a heterogeneous direction of conduct. Educators should, by all means, avoid such a risk. She suggests seeking a reasonable plurality as a means of transmitting agreed-upon values. The notion of reasonable plurality derives from a feature assigned to John Rawls’ concept of “overlapping consensus”.

  16. Spin entanglement, decoherence and Bohm's EPR paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, E G; Drummond, P D; Bachor, H A; Reid, M D

    2009-10-12

    We obtain criteria for entanglement and the EPR paradox for spin-entangled particles and analyse the effects of decoherence caused by absorption and state purity errors. For a two qubit photonic state, entanglement can occur for all transmission efficiencies. In this case, the state preparation purity must be above a threshold value. However, Bohm's spin EPR paradox can be achieved only above a critical level of loss. We calculate a required efficiency of 58%, which appears achievable with current quantum optical technologies. For a macroscopic number of particles prepared in a correlated state, spin entanglement and the EPR paradox can be demonstrated using our criteria for efficiencies eta > 1/3 and eta > 2/3 respectively. This indicates a surprising insensitivity to loss decoherence, in a macroscopic system of ultra-cold atoms or photons.

  17. The Lindley paradox in optical interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauri, Camillo; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The so-called Lindley paradox is a counterintuitive statistical effect where the Bayesian and frequentist approaches to hypothesis testing give radically different answers, depending on the choice of the prior distribution. In this paper we address the occurrence of the Lindley paradox in optical interferometry and discuss its implications for high-precision measurements. In particular, we focus on phase estimation by Mach–Zehnder interferometers and show how to mitigate the conflict between the two approaches by using suitable priors. - Highlights: • We address the occurence of Lindley paradox in interferometry and discuss its implications for high-precision measurements. • We show how to mitigate the conflict between Bayesian and frequentist approach to interferometry using suitable priors. • Our results apply to calibration of homodyne detectors for quantum tomography.

  18. Thermoeconomic diagnosis and entropy generation paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigthorsson, Oskar; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In the entropy generation paradox, the entropy generation number, as a function of heat exchanger effectiveness, counter-intuitively approaches zero in two limits symmetrically from a single maximum. In thermoeconomic diagnosis, namely in the characteristic curve method, the exergy destruction...... to the entropy generation paradox, as a decreased heat exchanger effectiveness (as in the case of an operation anomaly in the component) can counter-intuitively result in decreased exergy destruction rate of the component. Therefore, along with an improper selection of independent variables, the heat exchanger...... increases in case of an operation anomaly in a component. The normalised exergy destruction rate as the dependent variable therefore resolves the relation of the characteristic curve method with the entropy generation paradox....

  19. Nietzsche et les paradoxes de la force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud François

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to this paper, the Nietzschean notion of force actually consists of a number of paradoxes, which I seek to formulate through the philosophical problems they pose. These paradoxes revolve around this fundamental paradox: on the one hand, force is able to rise and fall, but precisely how could such an increase and such a decrease be designed, as far as only what is given once for all can accept quantitative determinations? I come to draw two methods to answer this question (contrariety between two positive forces, reactivity of one force against the other, which suggest two ways of posing the biological and medical problems today, related to the notions of health and disease, in the scope of which Nietzsche has encountered it.

  20. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and measurement of quantum system

    OpenAIRE

    Kladko, Konstantin

    1999-01-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is considered in a relation to a measurement of an arbitrary quantum system . It is shown that the EPR paradox always appears in a gedanken experiment with two successively joined measuring devices.

  1. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  2. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  3. The integrate model of emotion, thinking and self regulation: an application to the "paradox of aging".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Gatt, Justine M; Hatch, Ainslie; Palmer, Donna M; Nagy, Marie; Rennie, Christopher; Cooper, Nicholas J; Morris, Charlotte; Grieve, Stuart; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Schofield, Peter; Clark, C Richard; Gordon, Evian; Arns, Martijn; Paul, Robert H

    2008-09-01

    This study was undertaken using the INTEGRATE Model of brain organization, which is based on a temporal continuum of emotion, thinking and self regulation. In this model, the key organizing principle of self adaption is the motivation to minimize danger and maximize reward. This principle drives brain organization across a temporal continuum spanning milliseconds to seconds, minutes and hours. The INTEGRATE Model comprises three distinct processes across this continuum. Emotion is defined by automatic action tendencies triggered by signals that are significant due to their relevance to minimizing danger-maximizing reward (such as abrupt, high contrast stimuli). Thinking represents cognitive functions and feelings that rely on brain and body feedback emerging from around 200 ms post-stimulus onwards. Self regulation is the modulation of emotion, thinking and feeling over time, according to more abstract adaptions to minimize danger-maximize reward. Here, we examined the impact of dispositional factors, age and genetic variation, on this temporal continuum. Brain Resource methodology provided a standardized platform for acquiring genetic, brain and behavioral data in the same 1000 healthy subjects. Results showed a "paradox" of declining function in the "thinking" time scale over the lifespan (6 to 80+ years), but a corresponding preservation or even increase in automatic functions of "emotion" and "self regulation". This paradox was paralleled by a greater loss of grey matter in cortical association areas (assessed using MRI) over age, but a relative preservation of subcortical grey matter. Genetic polymorphisms associated with both healthy function and susceptibility to disorder (including the BDNFVal(66)Met, COMTVal(158/108)Met, MAOA and DRD4 tandem repeat and 5HTT-LPR polymorphisms) made specific contributions to emotion, thinking and self regulatory functions, which also varied according to age.

  4. Perception of social cues of danger in autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R Zürcher

    Full Text Available Intuitive grasping of the meaning of subtle social cues is particularly affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Despite their relevance in social communication, the effect of averted gaze in fearful faces in conveying a signal of environmental threat has not been investigated using real face stimuli in adults with ASD. Here, using functional MRI, we show that briefly presented fearful faces with averted gaze, previously shown to be a strong communicative signal of environmental danger, produce different patterns of brain activation than fearful faces with direct gaze in a group of 26 normally intelligent adults with ASD compared with 26 matched controls. While implicit cue of threat produces brain activation in attention, emotion processing and mental state attribution networks in controls, this effect is absent in individuals with ASD. Instead, individuals with ASD show activation in the subcortical face-processing system in response to direct eye contact. An effect of differences in looking behavior was excluded in a separate eye tracking experiment. Our data suggest that individuals with ASD are more sensitive to direct eye contact than to social signals of danger conveyed by averted fearful gaze.

  5. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  6. Another paradox involving the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Recently a paradox has been posed that appears to challenge the second law of thermodynamics in a plasma blackbody environment [D. P. Sheehan, Phys. Plasmas 2, 1893 (1995)]. In this paper another, related paradox is posed in an unmagnetized Q plasma. Laboratory experiments simulating some necessary conditions for the paradoxical system corroborate theoretical predictions and fail to resolve the paradox in favor of the second law. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Public Danger of Ecological Crime: Criminological Aspect​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Natalya I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the characteristics of public danger of ecological crime. Specific features that distinguish it from other types of criminality are analyzed. Identified and justified are such features of environmental crime as an increased level of public danger, a wider range of victims, the continuing and deferred nature of the negative consequences, their transboundary nature, the irreversibility of the consequences, causing significant harm to the economic interests of the state, expressed in the withdrawal from the legal turnover of huge amounts of valuable natural resources. On the basis of the conducted research the author suggests wide use of the integrated criminological approach to studying the public danger of environmental crime taking into account its quantitative and qualitative characteristics.

  8. Dangerous arachnids-Fake news or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Tobias J; Herzig, Volker

    2017-11-01

    The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans. This review therefore provides an overview of the current literature on verified bites and stings from spiders and scorpions with the aim of assessing their potential danger for human health. As a guideline, we also provide a list of those arachnid genera that we consider as potentially dangerous, which includes 10 spider and 11 scorpion genera. The arachnid genera classified as dangerous comprise less than a quarter of all extant scorpion species and only 0.5% of all spiders species, with the actual number most likely being much lower than that, as not all species in those genera might turn out to pose an actual threat for humans. In conclusion, we found that only a small percentage of scorpions and a minute percentage of all spiders can be considered as potentially dangerous to humans. While in some countries of origin the high incidence of envenomations by dangerous arachnids can result in a serious problem to the health system, we assessed the risk that the same species pose when kept as pets under controlled maintenance conditions as significantly lower. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An operational system of fire danger rating over Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel M.; DaCamara, Carlos C.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    A methodology is presented to assess fire danger based on the probability of exceedance of prescribed thresholds of daily released energy. The procedure is developed and tested over Mediterranean Europe, defined by latitude circles of 35 and 45°N and meridians of 10°W and 27.5°E, for the period 2010-2016. The procedure involves estimating the so-called static and daily probabilities of exceedance. For a given point, the static probability is estimated by the ratio of the number of daily fire occurrences releasing energy above a given threshold to the total number of occurrences inside a cell centred at the point. The daily probability of exceedance which takes into account meteorological factors by means of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is in turn estimated based on a Generalized Pareto distribution with static probability and FWI as covariates of the scale parameter. The rationale of the procedure is that small fires, assessed by the static probability, have a weak dependence on weather, whereas the larger fires strongly depend on concurrent meteorological conditions. It is shown that observed frequencies of exceedance over the study area for the period 2010-2016 match with the estimated values of probability based on the developed models for static and daily probabilities of exceedance. Some (small) variability is however found between different years suggesting that refinements can be made in future works by using a larger sample to further increase the robustness of the method. The developed methodology presents the advantage of evaluating fire danger with the same criteria for all the study area, making it a good parameter to harmonize fire danger forecasts and forest management studies. Research was performed within the framework of EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF). Part of methods developed and results obtained are on the basis of the platform supported by The Navigator Company that is currently providing

  10. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  11. Matching Students to Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Trifunovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the problem of matching students to schools by using different matching mechanisms. This market is specific since public schools are free and the price mechanism cannot be used to determine the optimal allocation of children in schools. Therefore, it is necessary to use different matching algorithms that mimic the market mechanism and enable us to determine the core of the cooperative game. In this paper, we will determine that it is possible to apply cooperative game theory in matching problems. This review paper is based on illustrative examples aiming to compare matching algorithms in terms of the incentive compatibility, stability and efficiency of the matching. In this paper we will present some specific problems that may occur in matching, such as improving the quality of schools, favoring minority students, the limited length of the list of preferences and generating strict priorities from weak priorities.

  12. Micro-Macro Paradoxes of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i det såkaldte micro-macro paradox fra Aids-Efficiency litteraturen og argumenterer for, at en tilsvarende problemstilling bør inddrages i vurderingen af f.eks. de beskæftigelsesmæssige konsekvenser af entrepreneuriel virksomhed. Den påviser også i en gennemgang af litteratur...

  13. Art's Pedagogical Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Nadine M.

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to conversations concerning art education futures through engaging alternative relations between art, education, and democracy that mobilize education as art projects associated with the "pedagogical turn" as sites of liminality and paradox. An analysis of the art project, Pedagogical Factory, is used to outline…

  14. An alternative resolution to the Mansuripur paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Francis

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 an article published online by the journal Science declared that the paradox proposed by Masud Mansuripur was resolved. This paradox concerns a point charge-Amperian magnetic dipole system as seen in a frame of reference where they are at rest and one in which they are moving. In the latter frame an electric dipole appears on the magnetic dipole. A torque is then exerted upon the electric dipole by the point charge, a torque that is not observed in the at-rest frame. Mansuripur points out this violates the relativity principle and suggests the Lorentz force responsible for the torque be replaced by the Einstein-Laub force. The resolution of the paradox reported by Science, based on numerous papers in the physics literature, preserves the Lorentz force but depends on the concept of hidden momentum. Here I propose a different resolution based on the overlooked fact that the charge-magnetic dipole system contains linear and angular electromagnetic field momentum. The time rate of change of the field angular-momentum in the frame through which the system is moving cancels that due to the charge-electric dipole interaction. From this point of view hidden momentum is not needed in the resolution of the paradox.

  15. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics

  16. Paradoxical psychotherapy in a case of transvestism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, M J

    1987-09-01

    Paradoxical psychotherapy succeeded in removing the compulsive element and reducing the guilt attached to transvestism in a male transvestite patient. Cross-dressing at home became acceptable to him and the temptation to cross-dress in public ended. Data suggested three independent motivational systems in this patient.

  17. Political Animals: The Paradox of Ecofeminist Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, Catriona

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the paradox between the careful work of rigorous political analysis and philosophy and a desire for mystery and the experience of awe and wildness that demands putting aside careful reasoning and the sensing of nature in an altogether different way. (LZ)

  18. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  19. Embracing uncertainties: The paradox of environmental education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a pair of binoculars which I have used to scan the last two years that I have been studying environmental education, the focus being on the research I did on Theatre for Development for environmental education in formal education. The paper aims to bring into view some on the paradoxes of doing ...

  20. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessing, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.)

  1. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessing, G [Atominst. der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Zeilinger, A [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)

    1991-07-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.).

  2. A new explanation of the extinction paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.J.; Sorensen, C.M.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a new explanation for the extinction paradox and shows that the canonical explanations are incorrect. This paradox refers to the large size limit of a particle's extinction cross section. It is called a paradox because the geometrical optics approximation, which should be valid in this limit, predicts a cross section that is half of the true value. The new explanation is achieved by formulating the scattered wave in terms of an integral over the particle's surface where the seemingly unrelated Ewald-Oseen theorem appears in the formulation. By expressing the cross section in terms of this surface integral, the Ewald-Oseen theorem is analytically connected to the cross section. Several illustrations are used to reveal the significance of this connection: The paradox is seen to be a consequence of the requirement that the incident wave be canceled within the particle by secondary radiation from its own internal field. Following this, the canonical explanations are examined to reveal serious problems. In the process, the same asymptotic extinction behavior is shown to occur for small highly refractive dielectric particles, and thus is not just a large particle size or small wavelength effect as is often stated. The traditional explanations cannot account for this behavior while the new one actually predicts it. All in all, this work constitutes a fundamental reworking of 60 years of accepted understanding for the cause of the asymptotic behavior of the extinction cross section.

  3. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    The celebrated arguments of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen claiming that quantum mechanics cannot be a complete theory are reviewed. Recent research climaxed by Bell's theorem shows that Einstein's locality or ''no telepathy'' postulate conflicts with quantum theory. It adds a new dimension to the paradox by catapulting the problem from the domain of metaphysics into that of experimental physics. (auth.)

  4. On a paradox of probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.I.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Costa de Beauregard's proposal concerning physical retrocausality has been shown to fail on two crucial points. However, it is argued that his proposal still merits serious attention. The argument arises from showing that his proposal reveals a paradox involving relations between conditional probabilities, statistical correlations and reciprocal causalities of the type exhibited by cooperative dynamics in physical systems. 4 refs. (Author)

  5. An alternative resolution to the Mansuripur paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, Francis

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 an article published online by the journal Science declared that the paradox proposed by Masud Mansuripur was resolved. This paradox concerns a point charge-Amperian magnetic dipole system as seen in a frame of reference where they are at rest and one in which they are moving. In the latter frame an electric dipole appears on the magnetic dipole. A torque is then exerted upon the electric dipole by the point charge, a torque that is not observed in the at-rest frame. Mansuripur points out this violates the relativity principle and suggests the Lorentz force responsible for the torque be replaced by the Einstein–Laub force. The resolution of the paradox reported by Science, based on numerous papers in the physics literature, preserves the Lorentz force but depends on the concept of hidden momentum. Here I propose a different resolution based on the overlooked fact that the charge-magnetic dipole system contains linear and angular electromagnetic field momentum. The time rate of change of the field angular–momentum in the frame through which the system is moving cancels that due to the charge-electric dipole interaction. From this point of view hidden momentum is not needed in the resolution of the paradox. (paper)

  6. Keep away from danger: Dangerous objects in dynamic and static situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena eAnelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroscience studies have shown that objects observation evokes specific affordances (i.e., action possibilities and motor responses. Recent findings provide evidence that even dangerous objects can modulate the motor system evoking aversive affordances. This sounds intriguing since so far the majority of behavioral, brain imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies with painful and dangerous stimuli strictly concerned the domain of pain, excepted for evidence suggesting sensitivity to objects’ affordances when neutral objects are located in participants’ peripersonal space. This study investigates whether the observation of a neutral or dangerous object in a static or dynamic situation differently influences motor responses, and the time-course of the dangerous objects’ processing. In three experiments we manipulated: object dangerousness (neutral vs. dangerous; object category (artifact vs. natural; manual response typology (press vs. release a key; object presentation (Experiment 1: dynamic, Experiments 2 and 3: static; object movement direction (Experiment 1: away vs. toward the participant or size (Experiments 2 and 3: big vs. normal vs. small. The task required participants to decide whether the object was an artifact or a natural object, by pressing or releasing one key. Results showed a facilitation for neutral over dangerous objects in the static situation, probably due to an affordance effect. Instead, in the dynamic condition responses were modulated by the object movement direction, with a dynamic affordance effect of neutral objects and an escape-avoidance effect of dangerous objects (neutral objects were processed faster when they moved toward-approached the participant, whereas dangerous objects were processed faster when they moved away from the participant. Moreover, static stimuli influenced the manual response typology. These data indicate the emergence of dynamic affordance and escaping

  7. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  8. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  9. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  10. The principles of measuring forest fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne

    1936-01-01

    Research in fire danger measurement was commenced in 1922 at the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station of the U. S. Forest Service, with headquarters at Missoula, Mont. Since then investigations have been made concerning ( 1) what to measure, (2) how to measure, and ( 3) field use of these measurements. In all cases the laboratory or restricted...

  11. Securing the dangerous UN convoys in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Albrecht, Peter; Ravnkilde, Signe Cold

    2017-01-01

    It has proven particularly challenging for the UN stabilization mission in Mali (MINUSMA) to transport fuel, food and water to military camps in Sector North on the frontline of the mission. Convoy escorts drain the UN mission of resources and is one of its most dangerous tasks, mainly carried ou...

  12. Hierarchy of controls applied to dangerous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Too often, measures to control workers’ exposure to dangerous substances are taken on an ‘ad-hoc’ basis. Existing processes, procedures and routines are taken for granted, and ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions are installed. In many cases, one relies on the use of personal protective equipment. This may lead

  13. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinology Products, warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  14. Transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Lacroix, Didier; Amundsen, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    A paper which describes the work of an OECD research group. The group has suggested a grouping of dangerous materials, a quantitative risk assessment model and a decision support model which should allow tunnel operators to determine if a given material should be allowed throug a given tunnel...

  15. The Dangers of Aestheticism in Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Ruby

    1981-01-01

    Prompted by Immanuel Kant's analysis of the nature and operations of the imagination in his "Critique of the Aesthetical Judgment," this article points out the danger of encouraging imagination-borne aesthetical judgments and explanatory hypotheses. Concludes that understanding requires submission to more stringent standards of objectivity and to…

  16. Augustine on the Dangers of Friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawar, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The philosophers of antiquity had much to say about the place of friendship in the good life and its role in helping us live virtuously. Augustine is unusual in giving substantial attention to the dangers of friendship and its potential to serve as an obstacle (rather than an aid) to virtue. Despite

  17. Inherent Dangers in Orogenital Sex During Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coitus and cunnilingus during pregnancy are generally safe; whereas orogenital sex involving vaginal air insufflations can be very dangerous, causing even the death of the women. We carried out a search of case reports and reviews concerning air embolism during pregnancy due to orogenital sex. Physicians ...

  18. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constitutents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 Appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  19. The wind energy in danger in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The law project of march 2005, concerning the energy policy in France is dangerous for the wind power development. The new regulation favor the big installations in order to protect the environment. In fact this decision will limit the wind turbines installations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  1. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discu...

  2. Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys in southern Colorado, United States. These airborne geophysical surveys provide high-resolution and spatially comprehensive datasets characterizing the resistivity structure of the shallow subsurface of each survey region, accompanied by magnetic-field information over matching areas. These data were collected to provide insight into the distribution of groundwater brine in the Paradox Valley, the extent of clay aquitards in the San Luis Valley, and to improve our understanding of the geologic framework for both regions. This report describes these contracted surveys and releases digital data supplied under contract to the USGS.

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.C.

    1994-04-01

    This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification

  4. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2015-06-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by Rosenzweig [1971] in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number H formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including H. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number H. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on H) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. The so-called instability of the predator-prey system is characterized by the existence of a stable limit cycle in the phase plane, which gets closer and closer to the predator axis and prey axis. Due to random environmental perturbations, this can lead to extinction. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite-dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can

  5. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  6. Ontology Matching Across Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of

  7. Liability in maritime transport of dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, H.

    1985-01-01

    The first part contains a description of national liability standards for maritime transport in the French, English, US-American and West German legislation. This is followed up by a detailed review of the existing international agreements. The book is rounded off by a critical evaluation of the presently held discussion and suggested solutions on the problems of liability in the maritime transport of dangerous goods other than mineral oil. The author takes a close look at the 'Entwurf eines Internationalen Uebereinkommens ueber die Haftung und den Schadenersatz bei der Befoerderung schaedlicher und gefaehrlicher Stoffe auf See' ('draft of an international agreement on liability and compensation for damage in maritime transport of noxious and dangerous goods') in the version of May 23, 1983, which was discussed on an international diplomat's conference in London without however, yielding any concrete results. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Toxic or dangerous substances present construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Alvarado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is the elaboration of a guide which could be used as a support and consultation concerning the topic of safety in the construction, specifically in the area of the use and managing of material and dangerous substances; considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of the common construction materials represent for the health. The gathered information is the result of the review of bibliographical material, the visits to public institutions at national level and to international offices which representation in our country, this way as a work of field and of study of the national market, among others. Besides important consult through the Internet checking many sites of interest with the finality of getting more updated information as possible, like that as the consultation to professionals and workers related to the construction area. (Author) [es

  9. The house economist and the eating paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen C

    2002-04-01

    An important observation of the experiments of George Collier is that animals normally prefer to maintain their body weight by eating a large number of small meals each day. However, as the effort to obtain access to food increases, the animals adapt by changing to a schedule of eating a small number of large meals each day. A strong implication of this is that there is a hidden cost to eating large meals, and this is the basis of the eating paradox that states that although food is a necessary commodity, the act of ingesting it poses certain metabolic problems for animals. Experiments on cephalic insulin secretion, conditioned insulin secretion and meal feeding are discussed to make the point that the economy demonstrated by rats in Collier's paradigm is dictated in part by predictions of the eating paradox. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Un théoricien paradoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Dubois

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Professeur de littérature française à Paris-VIII et psychanalyste, Pierre Bayard a publié en quinze ans une dizaine d’ouvrages critiques dans la collection « Paradoxe » des éditions de Minuit. À croire que cette collection a été créée à sa seule intention tant chacun de ses livres inverse radicalement un principe bien établi et pousse le paradoxe jusqu’à ses ultimes conséquences, voire jusqu’à l’absurde. L’exemple le plus flagrant est ce Comment parler des livres que l’on n’a pas lus ?, qui, ...

  11. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  12. A history of the Allais paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelom, Floris

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the history of the Allais paradox, and shows that underneath the many discussions of the various protagonists lay different, irreconcilable epistemological positions. Savage, like his mentor von Neumann and similar to economist Friedman, worked from an epistemology of generalized characterizations. Allais, on the other hand, like economists Samuelson and Baumol, started from an epistemology of exact descriptions in which every axiom was an empirical claim that could be refuted directly by observations. As a result, the two sides failed to find a common ground. Only a few decades later was the now so-called Allais paradox rediscovered as an important precursor when a new behavioural economic subdiscipline started to adopt the epistemology of exact descriptions and its accompanying falsifications of rational choice theory.

  13. Rotating model for the equivalence principle paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    An idealized system is described in which two inertial frames rotate relative to one another. When a (scalar) dipole is locally at rest in one frame, a paradox arises as to whether or not it will radiate. Fluxes of energy and angular momentum and the time development of the system are discussed. Resolution of the paradox involves several unusual features, including (i) radiation by an unmoving charge, an effect discussed by Chitre, Price, and Sandberg, (ii) different power seen by relatively accelerated inertial observers, and (iii) radiation reaction due to gravitational backscattering of radiation, in agreement with the work of C. and B. DeWitt. These results are obtained, for the most part, without the complications of curved space--time

  14. Problems and paradoxes of the Lifshitz theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimchitskaya, G L

    2009-01-01

    The problems and paradoxes of the Lifshitz theory in application to real dielectric and semiconductor materials are reviewed. It is shown that the inclusion of drift current of conduction electrons into the model of dielectric response results in contradictions with both thermodynamics and experimental data of different experimental groups. Physical reasons why the problems and paradoxes arise are analyzed and found to be connected with the violation of basic applicability condition of the Lifshitz theory, the thermal equilibrium. A recent alternative approach to the resolution of the problems based on the inclusion of screening effects and diffusion current is considered and demonstrated to be thermodynamically and experimentally inconsistent. It is argued that the inclusion of the diffusion current leads to an even deeper violation of thermal equilibrium. Phenomenologically, the Lifshitz theory with role of drift and diffusion currents neglected is shown to be free of problems and in agreement with both thermodynamics and all available experimental data.

  15. The Klein paradox: a new treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truebenbacher, E

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac equation requires a treatment of the step potential that differs fundamentally from the traditional treatment, because the Dirac plane waves, besides momentum and spin, are characterized by a quantum number with the physical meaning of sign of charge. Since the Hermitean operator corresponding to this quantum number does not commute with the step potential, the time displacement parameter used in the ansatz of the stationary state does not have the physical meaning of energy. Therefore there are no paradoxal values of the ‘energy’. The new solution of the Dirac equation with a step potential is obtained. This solution, again, allows for phenomena of the Klein paradox type, but in addition it contains a positron amplitude localized at the threshold point of the step potential. (paper)

  16. The eight paradoxes of nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1977-01-01

    As it now develops, the nuclear debate is essentially characterized by its technical, mythical and polemical fields. Due to the interrelation between these three characteristics, paradox tends to multiply, either on the requesters for information side or from those who answer it. As many problems the people or organizations, such as E.D.F. for example, have to cope with as there are parties in this debate. These different paradoxes are analyzed together with some means which permits a suitable answer to be found. To conclude it is noted that if the nuclear fear is mostly imaginary passional, irrational, the problem is not to ignore these characteristics but to 'give them a statute' [fr

  17. Klein paradox in the Breit equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.; Turski, A.; Rzewuski, J.

    1979-01-01

    We demonstrate that in the Breit equation with a central potential V(r) having the property V(r 0 )=E there appears a Klein paradox at r=r 0 . This phenomenon, besides the previously found Klein paradox at r→infinite appearing if V(r)→infinite at r→infinite, seems to indicate that in the Breit equation valid in the single-particle theory the sea of particle-antiparticle pairs is not well separated from the considered two-body configuration. We conjecture that both phenomena should be absent from the Salpeter equation which is consistent with the hole theory. We prove this conjecture in the limit of m( 1 )→infinite and m( 2 )→infinite, where we neglect the terms approx. 1/m( 1 ) and 1/m( 2 ). (orig./WL) [de

  18. Some human performance paradoxes of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Misenta, R.

    1980-01-01

    Roughly once a year, an abnormal situation with emergency potential may suddenly break the calm monotony of nuclear-power plant operation. The operating crew, perhaps under-stimulated by monitoring largely automatic processes, may then be expected to make correct inferences and decisions about complex phenomena. However, under stress, the operators may resort to using their 'best-learned responses', inappropriate to the real situation. Recent events at Three Mile Island prompted a variety of suggestions intended to improve operator performance, eg higher qualifications, more pay, or enhanced status. The authors stress the paradoxes of nuclear operation, conclude that some 'intuitively obvious' suggestions might have the opposite effect to that intended, and explore the possibility of introducing frequent, realistic emergency drills. Even this approach raises paradoxes - perhaps the role of the operator should be eliminated, or redefined to allow less human intervention in emergencies. (author)

  19. MODELING PARADOXES IN NOVICE AND EXPERT DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorst, Kees; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2011-01-01

    In their ICED09 paper ‘Problem formulation as a discursive activity’, the authors have used an extensive educational case study to explore a framework for describing design as a discursive activity, centered around the paradoxical nature of the problem situation. The ‘working definition’ for para......In their ICED09 paper ‘Problem formulation as a discursive activity’, the authors have used an extensive educational case study to explore a framework for describing design as a discursive activity, centered around the paradoxical nature of the problem situation. The ‘working definition...... at play in a design situation, and extract themes that can lead to reformulation of the problem as well as the creation of innovative solutions. This behaviour is compared to the ways of working of novice designers (students) in the original case study....

  20. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  1. A Paraconsistentist Approach to Chisholm's Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Esteban Coniglio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Logics of Deontic (InConsistency (LDI’s can be considered as the deontic counterpart of the paraconsistent logics known as Logics of Formal (InConsistency. This paper introduces and studies new LDI’s and other paraconsistent deontic logics with different properties: systems tolerant to contradictory obligations; systems in which contradictory obligations trivialize; and a bimodal paraconsistent deontic logic combining the features of previous systems. These logics are used to analyze the well-known Chisholm’s paradox, taking profit of the fact that, besides contradictory obligations do not trivialize in LDI’s, several logical dependencies of classical logic are blocked in the context of LDI’s, allowing to dissolve the paradox.

  2. Adaptationism fails to resolve Fermi's paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Milan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting problems in the nascent discipline of astrobiology is more than half-century old Fermi's paradox: why, considering extraordinary young age of Earth and the Solar System in the Galactic context, don't we perceive much older intelligent communities or signposts of their activity? In spite of a vigorous research activity in recent years, especially bolstered by successes of astrobiology in finding extrasolar planets and extremophiles, this problem (also known as the "Great Silence" or "astrosociological" paradox remains as open as ever. In a previous paper, we have discussed a particular evolutionary solution suggested by Karl Schroeder based on the currently dominant evolutionary doctrine of adaptationism. Here, we extend that discussion with emphasis on the problems such a solution is bound to face, and conclude that it is ultimately quite unlikely. .

  3. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report is part of a dangerous waste permit application for the storage of wastes from the Purex process at Hanford. Appendices are presented on the following: construction drawings; HSW-5638, specifications for disposal facility for failed equipment, Project CA-1513-A; HWS-8262, specification for Purex equipment disposal, Project CGC 964; storage tunnel checklist; classification of residual tank heels in Purex storage tunnels; emergency plan for Purex facility; training course descriptions; and the Purex storage tunnels engineering study

  4. Two Paradoxes in Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FENG, Ge; PENG, Jing; TU, Dongke; ZHENG, Julia Z.; FENG, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    Summary Regression is one of the favorite tools in applied statistics. However, misuse and misinterpretation of results from regression analysis are common in biomedical research. In this paper we use statistical theory and simulation studies to clarify some paradoxes around this popular statistical method. In particular, we show that a widely used model selection procedure employed in many publications in top medical journals is wrong. Formal procedures based on solid statistical theory should be used in model selection. PMID:28638214

  5. Elevation in brain temperature during paradoxical sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, H; Sawyer, C H

    1965-11-12

    During ordinary sleep, the temperature of the rabbit brain tended to drop, but during paradoxical sleep it rose sharply 0.1 degrees to 0.4 degrees C, a greater elevation than was observed during arousal. Changes in body temperature generally did not parallel the alterations in brain temperature. Shifts of direct-current potential in the brain are basically independent of the changes in brain temperature.

  6. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, H. M.; Jones, S. J.; Doherty, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schrodinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict ...

  7. Seventy Years of the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the fact that statistical predictions of quantum theory (QT) can only be tested if large amount of data is available a claim has been made that QT provides the most complete description of an individual physical system. Einstein's opposition to this claim and the paradox he presented in the article written together with Podolsky and Rosen in 1935 inspired generations of physicists in their quest for better understanding of QT. Seventy years after EPR article it is clear that witho...

  8. Time symmetry and the Einstein paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa de Beauregard, O.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristic difference between the paleoquantal calculation (addition of partial probabilities) and the neoquantal one (addition of partial amplitudes) for the correlation of photon polarizations in cascade transitions is derived in terms of elementary trigonometry. This deliberate use of simple formulae aims at a transparent rendering of the change in paradigm required by the so-called EPR paradox (which is truly the 1927 Einstein paradox), namely that 1) the two photons do not possess polarizations of their own when leaving the source C, but borrow one later, when interacting with the analysers L and N; 2) the die is thus not cast at C, but later, at L and N; 3) the correlation between the measurements at L and N is tied through C, in their common past. The tight connection between this ''Einstein nonseparability'' and the nonlocality in Feynman's ''theory of positrons'' is demonstrated through an analysis of the e + e - annihilation into two photons. Thus the Einstein paradox corresponds, in the ''new wavelike probability calculus'', to the Loschmid and Zermelo sort of paradox in the old probability calculus. That is, it contrasts the intrinsic time symmetry existing at the elementary level to the factlike macroscopic time asymmetry. The discussion deliberately by-passes the hidden-variable problem, the model in this being Einstein's by-passing of the mechanical aether when proposing special relativity. It is believed today, like in 1905, the problem is tayloring the wording after the (operationally good) mathematics. Moreover, that the change in paradigm, which is needed, comes through a victory of formalism over modelism. (author)

  9. The vacuum friction paradox and related puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Sonnleitner, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    The frequency of light emitted by a moving source is shifted by a factor proportional to its velocity. We find that this Doppler shift requires the existence of a paradoxical effect: that a moving atom radiating in otherwise empty space feels a net or average force acing against its direction motion and proportional in magnitude to is speed. Yet there is no preferred rest frame, either in relativity or in Newtonian mechanics, so how can there be a vacuum friction force?

  10. The Strategic Paradox of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    United States claimed to have met online.9 And in 2010, Facebook claimed over 500 million users, which would make the social networking service the...service culture, or occupational specialty. One drawback with social networks concerns the protection of individual privacy. Facebook , for...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE STRATEGIC PARADOX OF SOCIAL NETWORKS BY COLONEL ROBERT COTE United States Marine Corps

  11. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  12. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...

  13. Laying the ghost of twin paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Someone's true age is not written in his ID, but in his biomarkers. Aging process is not caused by time passing, but by thermodynamically laws. Entropy, extent of metabolic reaction, and temperature are Lorentz invariant, so these facts make twin paradox impossible because there is no way for one twin to age slower than the other even if the time in his frame is dilated. Entropy is the function of state, not time. So as much as standard thermodynamics concerns, the path between two points in space is equivalent to the path between two states. Whether the point B is reached by moving faster using the longer way (with time dilatation, or slower by using shortcut (without time dilatation, the state of the system after completing the road should be the same. This is supported by the fact that when two twins reach the same space-time point (point B in which the state parameters are the same. If we use entropy as an age parameter, then both twins have the same entropy value and are exactly the same biological age. Therefore, the twin paradox is a logical mistake based on wrong first premise. Bergson symmetry is not necessary any more to explain the impossibility of twin paradox.

  14. Scientific progress despite irreproducibility: A seeming paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffrin, Richard M; Börner, Katy; Stigler, Stephen M

    2018-03-13

    It appears paradoxical that science is producing outstanding new results and theories at a rapid rate at the same time that researchers are identifying serious problems in the practice of science that cause many reports to be irreproducible and invalid. Certainly, the practice of science needs to be improved, and scientists are now pursuing this goal. However, in this perspective, we argue that this seeming paradox is not new, has always been part of the way science works, and likely will remain so. We first introduce the paradox. We then review a wide range of challenges that appear to make scientific success difficult. Next, we describe the factors that make science work-in the past, present, and presumably also in the future. We then suggest that remedies for the present practice of science need to be applied selectively so as not to slow progress and illustrate with a few examples. We conclude with arguments that communication of science needs to emphasize not just problems but the enormous successes and benefits that science has brought and is now bringing to all elements of modern society.

  15. Disability reconsidered: the paradox of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Susan E; Sharby, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to explore models of disability from the perspective of the academic discipline of disability studies (DS), (2) to consider the paradox of improving functional capacities while valuing disability as diversity, (3) to identify how physical therapy's use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) disablement model intersects with various disability models, and (4) to apply this broader understanding of disability to physical therapist practice, education, and research. The DS literature has been critical of rehabilitation professionals, particularly targeting the medical model of disability. In contrast, advocates for a social model of disability recognize disability as diversity. It is paradoxical for physical therapy to simultaneously work to ameliorate disability while celebrating it as diversity. The ICF biopsychosocial disablement model offers a mechanism to practice within this paradox and suggests that it is no longer sufficient to conceptualize disability as a purely individual matter that requires attention in isolation from the impact of the larger society.

  16. Identifying Quantum Structures in the Ellsberg Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Tapia, Jocelyn

    2014-10-01

    Empirical evidence has confirmed that quantum effects occur frequently also outside the microscopic domain, while quantum structures satisfactorily model various situations in several areas of science, including biological, cognitive and social processes. In this paper, we elaborate a quantum mechanical model which faithfully describes the Ellsberg paradox in economics, showing that the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics is capable to represent the ambiguity present in this kind of situations, because of the presence of contextuality. Then, we analyze the data collected in a concrete experiment we performed on the Ellsberg paradox and work out a complete representation of them in complex Hilbert space. We prove that the presence of quantum structure is genuine, that is, interference and superposition in a complex Hilbert space are really necessary to describe the conceptual situation presented by Ellsberg. Moreover, our approach sheds light on `ambiguity laden' decision processes in economics and decision theory, and allows to deal with different Ellsberg-type generalizations, e.g., the Machina paradox.

  17. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  18. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  19. Fermi's paradox: The last challenge for copernicanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review Fermi's paradox (or the 'Great Silence' problem, not only arguably the oldest and crucial problem for the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI, but also a conundrum of profound scientific, philosophical and cultural importance. By a simple analysis of observation selection effects, the correct resolution of Fermi's paradox is certain to tell us something about the future of humanity. Already more than three quarters of century old puzzle and a quarter of century since the last major review paper in the field by G. David Brin has generated many ingenious discussions and hypotheses. We analyze the often tacit methodological assumptions built in various answers to this puzzle and attempt a new classification of the numerous solutions proposed in an already huge literature on the subject. Finally, we consider the ramifications of various classes of hypotheses for the practical SETI projects. Somewhat paradoxically, it seems that the class of (neocatastrophic hypotheses gives, on the balance, the strongest justification to optimism regarding our current and near-future SETI efforts.

  20. Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using momentum- and position-entangled photons from spontaneous parametric down conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, John C; Bennink, Ryan S; Bentley, Sean J; Boyd, R W

    2004-05-28

    We report on a momentum-position realization of the EPR paradox using direct detection in the near and far fields of the photons emitted by collinear type-II phase-matched parametric down conversion. Using this approach we achieved a measured two-photon momentum-position variance product of 0.01 variant Planck's over 2pi (2), which dramatically violates the bounds for the EPR and separability criteria.

  1. Paradoxical response to dexamethasone and spontaneous hypocortisolism in Cushing's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Anurag R; Sarathi, Vijaya; Bandgar, Tushar R; Shah, Nalini S

    2013-01-01

    Paradoxical response to dexamethasone and spontaneous development of hypocortisolism are rare features of Cushing's disease. We report a 13-year-old boy with Cushing's disease owing to a pituitary macroadenoma. On initial evaluation, he had partial suppression of serum cortisol by dexamethasone. He developed transient hypocortisolism after first adenomectomy, but the disease recurred after 1 year. Repeat evaluation showed recurrent hypercortisolism and paradoxical response to dexamethasone. He underwent second surgery and, postoperatively, hypercostisolism persisted even after 2 years of surgery. Repeat evaluations after 8 years of second surgery revealed persistent hypocortisolism despite residual tumour of same size and similar plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. We have also shown that the paradoxical increase in serum cortisol was preceded by a paradoxical increase in ACTH. The paradoxical response persisted despite hypocortisolism. This patient with Cushing's disease had two very rare features: paradoxical response to dexamethasone and spontaneous development of hypocortisolism. PMID:23365169

  2. The Oxygen Paradox, the French Paradox, and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Joanna M S; Cillard, Josiane; Friguet, Bertrand; Cadenas, Enrique; Cadet, Jean; Cayce, Rachael; Fishmann, Andrew; Liao, David; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Derbré, Frédéric; Rébillard, Amélie; Burstein, Steven; Hirsch, Etienne; Kloner, Robert A; Jakowec, Michael; Petzinger, Giselle; Sauce, Delphine; Sennlaub, Florian; Limon, Isabelle; Ursini, Fulvio; Maiorino, Matilde; Economides, Christina; Pike, Christian J; Cohen, Pinchas; Salvayre, Anne Negre; Halliday, Matthew R; Lundquist, Adam J; Jakowec, Nicolaus A; Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima; Mericskay, Mathias; Mariani, Jean; Li, Zhenlin; Huang, David; Grant, Ellsworth; Forman, Henry J; Finch, Caleb E; Sun, Patrick Y; Pomatto, Laura C D; Agbulut, Onnik; Warburton, David; Neri, Christian; Rouis, Mustapha; Cillard, Pierre; Capeau, Jacqueline; Rosenbaum, Jean; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2017-12-01

    A paradox is a seemingly absurd or impossible concept, proposition, or theory that is often difficult to understand or explain, sometimes apparently self-contradictory, and yet ultimately correct or true. How is it possible, for example, that oxygen "a toxic environmental poison" could be also indispensable for life (Beckman and Ames Physiol Rev 78(2):547-81, 1998; Stadtman and Berlett Chem Res Toxicol 10(5):485-94, 1997)?: the so-called Oxygen Paradox (Davies and Ursini 1995; Davies Biochem Soc Symp 61:1-31, 1995). How can French people apparently disregard the rule that high dietary intakes of cholesterol and saturated fats (e.g., cheese and paté) will result in an early death from cardiovascular diseases (Renaud and de Lorgeril Lancet 339(8808):1523-6, 1992; Catalgol et al. Front Pharmacol 3:141, 2012; Eisenberg et al. Nat Med 22(12):1428-1438, 2016)?: the so-called, French Paradox. Doubtless, the truth is not a duality and epistemological bias probably generates apparently self-contradictory conclusions. Perhaps nowhere in biology are there so many apparently contradictory views, and even experimental results, affecting human physiology and pathology as in the fields of free radicals and oxidative stress, antioxidants, foods and drinks, and dietary recommendations; this is particularly true when issues such as disease-susceptibility or avoidance, "healthspan," "lifespan," and ageing are involved. Consider, for example, the apparently paradoxical observation that treatment with low doses of a substance that is toxic at high concentrations may actually induce transient adaptations that protect against a subsequent exposure to the same (or similar) toxin. This particular paradox is now mechanistically explained as "Adaptive Homeostasis" (Davies Mol Asp Med 49:1-7, 2016; Pomatto et al. 2017a; Lomeli et al. Clin Sci (Lond) 131(21):2573-2599, 2017; Pomatto and Davies 2017); the non-damaging process by which an apparent toxicant can activate biological signal

  3. Temperature relaxation and the Kapitza boundary resistance paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Alec Maassen van den; Dekker, H.

    1994-01-01

    The calculation of the Kapitza boundary resistance between dissimilar harmonic solids has since long (Little [Can. J. Phys. 37, 334 (1959)]) suffered from a paradox: this resistance erroneously tends to a finite value in the limit of identical solids. We resolve this paradox by calculating temperature differences in the final heat-transporting state, rather than with respect to the initial state of local equilibrium. For a one-dimensional model we thus derive an exact, paradox-free formula fo...

  4. On Hardy's paradox, weak measurements, and multitasking diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meglicki, Zdzislaw

    2011-01-01

    We discuss Hardy's paradox and weak measurements by using multitasking diagrams, which are introduced to illustrate the progress of quantum probabilities through the double interferometer system. We explain how Hardy's paradox is avoided and elaborate on the outcome of weak measurements in this context. -- Highlights: → Hardy's paradox explained and eliminated. → Weak measurements: what is really measured? → Multitasking diagrams: introduced and used to discuss quantum mechanical processes.

  5. A Dichotomic Analysis of the Surprise Examination Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschi, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dichotomic analysis of the surprise examination paradox. In section 1, I analyse the surprise notion in detail. I introduce then in section 2, the distinction between a monist and dichotomic analysis of the paradox. I also present there a dichotomy leading to distinguish two basically and structurally different versions of the paradox, respectively based on a conjoint and a disjoint definition of the surprise. In section 3, I describe the solution to SEP corresponding to...

  6. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  7. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  8. Data Matching Imputation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMIS dataset is a flat file record of the matching of several data set collections. Primarily it consists of VTRs, dealer records, Observer data in conjunction...

  9. Paradox in a non-linear capacitated transportation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahiya Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a paradox in fixed charge capacitated transportation problem where the objective function is the sum of two linear fractional functions consisting of variables costs and fixed charges respectively. A paradox arises when the transportation problem admits of an objective function value which is lower than the optimal objective function value, by transporting larger quantities of goods over the same route. A sufficient condition for the existence of a paradox is established. Paradoxical range of flow is obtained for any given flow in which the corresponding objective function value is less than the optimum value of the given transportation problem. Numerical illustration is included in support of theory.

  10. Magnetic safety matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, J.; Lindberg, M.; Greggas, A.; Jylhävuori, N.; Norrgrann, H.; Lill, J. O.

    2017-07-01

    In addition to the main ingredients; sulfur, potassium chlorate and carbon, ordinary safety matches contain various dyes, glues etc, giving the head of the match an even texture and appealing color. Among the common reddish-brown matches there are several types, which after ignition can be attracted by a strong magnet. Before ignition the match head is generally not attracted by the magnet. An elemental analysis based on proton-induced x-ray emission was performed to single out iron as the element responsible for the observed magnetism. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for identifying the various types of iron-compounds, present before and after ignition, responsible for the macroscopic magnetism: Fe2O3 before and Fe3O4 after. The reaction was verified by mixing the main chemicals in the match-head with Fe2O3 in glue and mounting the mixture on a match stick. The ash residue after igniting the mixture was magnetic.

  11. Nuclear weapons, a danger for our world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This report is about an exhibition about the danger of the increasing amount of nuclear-weapons and was presented in the occasion of the second special meeting of the UN General Assembly (1982). This report describes the causes of a nuclear-war and analyses the causes of the bomb-drop of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as well as possible causes of a bombing of New York City and long-term-consequences of nuclear radiation. Furthermore it lists problems with a higher priority than the armament of nuclear-arms. (kancsar)

  12. A dangerous movie? Hollywood does psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R; Silverman, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    After the appearance of David Cronenberg's film A Dangerous Method in 2011, dealing with the relationships of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein, Dr. Donald Ferrell published: A Dangerous Method, A Film Directed by David Cronenberg: An Extended Review (Ferrell 2012) in the Journal of Religion and Health. Upon its publication, Dr. Ferrell's article was nominated for a Gradiva Award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. On November 1, 2013, the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society held its annual conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Dr. Billie Pivnick, a member at large of the Board of Directors of the APCS and also on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Religion and Health, persuaded the 2013 Conference Program Committee that Cronenberg's film would make an interesting subject for discussion for conference participants. To that end, Dr. Pivnick invited Dr. Ferrell, C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Dr. Steven Reisner, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, and Dr. Martin Silverman, Training and Supervising Analyst and Supervising Child Analyst at the Institute for Psychoanalytic Education, NYU College of Medicine, Training and Supervising Analyst at the Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis of New Jersey, and Associate Editor of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly to serve as panel members to discuss: A Dangerous Movie? Hollywood does Psychoanalysis. Presentations on Cronenberg's film and the early history of psychoanalysis were given by Drs. Ferrell and Reisner, followed by a response to their presentations by Dr. Silverman. Dr. Pivnick chaired the session. The articles presented here were given originally at the APCS conference by Dr. Ferrell and Dr. Silverman. Dr. Reisner declined the invitation to submit his presentation for publication. Dr. Silverman's remarks were based not only on the presentation given by Dr. Ferrell at the session on A Dangerous Movie?, but also on his close and

  13. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  14. Latent palmprint matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  15. Paradox Lost? No, Paradox Found! Reply to Tomasello and Akhtar (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigles, Letitia R.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the posited paradox between infancy and toddlerhood language was not eliminated by Tomasello and Akhtar's appeal to infants' robust statistical learning abilities. Maintains that scrutiny of their studies supports the resolution that abstracting linguistic form is easy for infants and that toddlers find it difficult to integrate…

  16. Seventy Years of the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2006-11-01

    In spite of the fact that statistical predictions of quantum theory (QT) can only be tested if large amount of data is available a claim has been made that QT provides the most complete description of an individual physical system. Einstein's opposition to this claim and the paradox he presented in the article written together with Podolsky and Rosen in 1935 inspired generations of physicists in their quest for better understanding of QT. Seventy years after EPR article it is clear that without deep understanding of the character and limitations of QT one may not hope to find a meaningful unified theory of all physical interactions, manipulate qubits or construct a quantum computer.. In this paper we present shortly the EPR paper, the discussion, which followed it and Bell inequalities (BI). To avoid various paradoxes we advocate purely statistical contextual interpretation (PSC) of QT. According to PSC a state vector is not an attribute of a single electron, photon, trapped ion or quantum dot. A value of an observable assigned to a physical system has only a meaning in a context of a particular physical experiment PSC does not provide any mental space-time picture of sub phenomena. The EPR paradox is avoided because the reduction of the state vector in the measurement process is a passage from a description of the whole ensemble of the experimental results to a particular sub-ensemble of these results. We show that the violation of BI is neither a proof of the completeness of QT nor of its non-locality. Therefore we rephrase the EPR question and ask whether QT is "predictably "complete or in other words does it provide the complete description of experimental data. To test the "predictable completeness" it is not necessary to perform additional experiments it is sufficient to analyze more in detail the existing experimental data by using various non-parametric purity tests and other specific statistical tools invented to study the fine structure the time-series.

  17. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-08-25

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis.

  18. The paradox of strategic environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidstrup, Morten, E-mail: bidstrup@plan.aau.dk; Hansen, Anne Merrild, E-mail: merrild@plan.aau.dk

    2014-07-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that can facilitate sustainable development and improve decision-making by introducing environmental concern early in planning processes. However, various international studies conclude that current planning practice is not taking full advantage of the tool, and we therefore define the paradox of SEA as the methodological ambiguity of non-strategic SEA. This article explores causality through at three-step case study on aggregates extraction planning in Denmark, which consists of a document analysis; a questionnaire survey and follow-up communication with key planners. Though the environmental reports on one hand largely lack strategic considerations, practitioners express an inherent will for strategy and reveal that their SEAs in fact have been an integrated part of the planning process. Institutional context is found to be the most significant barrier for a strategy and this suggests that non-strategic planning setups can prove more important than non-strategic planning in SEA practice. Planners may try to execute strategy within the confinements of SEA-restricted planning contexts; however, such efforts can be overlooked if evaluated by a narrow criterion for strategy formation. Consequently, the paradox may also spark from challenged documentation. These findings contribute to the common understanding of SEA quality; however, further research is needed on how to communicate and influence the strategic options which arguably remain inside non-strategic planning realities. - Highlights: • International studies conclude that SEAs are not strategic. = The paradox of SEA. • Even on the highest managerial level, some contexts do not leave room for strategy. • Non-strategic SEA can derive from challenged documentation. • Descriptive and emergent strategy formation can, in practice, be deemed non-strategic.

  19. The paradox of strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidstrup, Morten; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2014-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that can facilitate sustainable development and improve decision-making by introducing environmental concern early in planning processes. However, various international studies conclude that current planning practice is not taking full advantage of the tool, and we therefore define the paradox of SEA as the methodological ambiguity of non-strategic SEA. This article explores causality through at three-step case study on aggregates extraction planning in Denmark, which consists of a document analysis; a questionnaire survey and follow-up communication with key planners. Though the environmental reports on one hand largely lack strategic considerations, practitioners express an inherent will for strategy and reveal that their SEAs in fact have been an integrated part of the planning process. Institutional context is found to be the most significant barrier for a strategy and this suggests that non-strategic planning setups can prove more important than non-strategic planning in SEA practice. Planners may try to execute strategy within the confinements of SEA-restricted planning contexts; however, such efforts can be overlooked if evaluated by a narrow criterion for strategy formation. Consequently, the paradox may also spark from challenged documentation. These findings contribute to the common understanding of SEA quality; however, further research is needed on how to communicate and influence the strategic options which arguably remain inside non-strategic planning realities. - Highlights: • International studies conclude that SEAs are not strategic. = The paradox of SEA. • Even on the highest managerial level, some contexts do not leave room for strategy. • Non-strategic SEA can derive from challenged documentation. • Descriptive and emergent strategy formation can, in practice, be deemed non-strategic

  20. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  1. Humanitarian Appeal and the Paradox of Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    politicization. Some say that humanitarianism is in crisis. This article examines the development of humanitarian advertising through analysis of 124 newspaper ads published in the period from 1970 to 2005. Using a discourse analytical approach which combines institution analysis with multimodal text analysis...... organizations to external demands, in terms of their choice of beneficiaries for public attention and in terms of the symbolic relations they set up between donors and beneficiaries. It is argued that this development is associated with a paradox of power and results in humanitarian organizations surrendering...

  2. Source independence and the EPR paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the lines of action between the photon pairs resulting from a positronium decay are not necessarily in line with the original positronium atom. It is also shown why this 'source-independent' effect is not normally observed, although it is observable in principle. Moreover our initial concerns and some conclusions as they bear on the theory of measurement in quantum mechanics are discussed. Source-independence is shown to give a satisfactory response to a special form of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox involving pairs of position measurements. It also leads to a nonlocal relationship between position measurements that depends on the width of the position detectors

  3. Time, physics, and the paradoxes of continuity

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, D A

    2003-01-01

    A recent article in this journal proposes a radical reformulation of classical and quantum dynamics based on a perceived deficiency in current definitions of time. The argument is incorrect but the errors highlight aspects of the foundations of mathematics and physics that are commonly confused and misunderstood. For this reason, the article provides an important and heuristic opportunity to reexamine the types of time and non-standard analysis. This paper will discuss the differences between physical time and experiential time and explain how an expanded system of real analysis containing infinitesimals can resolve the paradoxes of continuity without sacrificing the modern edifice of mathematical physics.

  4. Visualizing Statistical Mix Effects and Simpson's Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Zan; Wattenberg, Martin

    2014-12-01

    We discuss how "mix effects" can surprise users of visualizations and potentially lead them to incorrect conclusions. This statistical issue (also known as "omitted variable bias" or, in extreme cases, as "Simpson's paradox") is widespread and can affect any visualization in which the quantity of interest is an aggregated value such as a weighted sum or average. Our first contribution is to document how mix effects can be a serious issue for visualizations, and we analyze how mix effects can cause problems in a variety of popular visualization techniques, from bar charts to treemaps. Our second contribution is a new technique, the "comet chart," that is meant to ameliorate some of these issues.

  5. O paradoxo de Chalmers Chalmers' paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leal-Toledo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O Argumento dos Zumbis proposto por Chalmers, ao contrário de defender o dualismo, bane as qualia para um "mundo" onde elas não podem influenciar o julgamento que fazemos sobre nós mesmos. Por este motivo, pelo próprio argumento, podemos ser um zumbi e não saber. A isso Chalmers chamou de The Paradox of Phenomenal Judgment. O problema é que ele aceita tal paradoxo como parte de sua própria teoria. No entanto, este movimento filosófico não é aceitável e este paradoxo mina a teoria de Chalmers por dentro mostrando que o argumento dos zumbis é, na verdade, um argumento contra o dualismo. Chalmers tenta resolver este problema com uma série de argumentos que tem como base o fato de que a consciência é um bruto explanandum indubitável. No entanto, tal tentativa fracassa por uma série de razões que mostram que mesmo se ele estivesse correto, ainda poderíamos ser um zumbi e não saber.The Zombie Argument proposed by Chalmers, instead of working as a defense of dualism, banishes qualia to a 'world' where they cannot influence our judgments about ourselves. For this reason, according to the argument itself, we may be all zombies and not know it. This is what Chalmers called The Paradox of Phenomenal Judgment. The problem is that he accepts this paradox as part of his theory. This philosophical move, however, is not acceptable, for the paradox undermines Chalmers' theory, by showing that the zombie argument is, actually, an argument against dualism. Chalmers tries to solve this problem with many arguments based on the status of consciousness as brute indubitable explanandum. However, this attempt is a failure by a series of reasons showing that, even if he were right, we could still be zombies and not know it.

  6. Jamaican family structure: the paradox of normalcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechesnay, M

    1986-06-01

    The relationship between basic research, theory, and clinical work with families is conceptualized during a discussion of Jamaican family structure and the application of change theory to a clinical case of depression in a Jamaican woman. It was found that three types of family structure are prevalent in Jamaica. The European ideal of a patriarchal-patrifocal structure creates problems for working-class Jamaicans. General system theory provides support for a different model. Change theory is applied to resolve the paradox created by the European model.

  7. Paradox of integration-A computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    The paradoxical aspect of integration of a social group has been highlighted by Blau (1964). During the integration process, the group members simultaneously compete for social status and play the role of the audience. Here we show that when the competition prevails over the desire of approval, a sharp transition breaks all friendly relations. However, as was described by Blau, people with high status are inclined to bother more with acceptance of others; this is achieved by praising others and revealing her/his own weak points. In our model, this action smooths the transition and improves interpersonal relations.

  8. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial.

  10. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  11. The Neutrosophic Logic View to Schrodinger's Cat Paradox, Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Smarandache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses Neutrosophic logic view to Schrodinger's cat paradox. We argue that this paradox involves some degree of indeterminacy (unknown which Neutrosophic logic can take into consideration, whereas other methods including Fuzzy logic cannot. To make this proposition clear, we revisit our previous paper by offering an illustration using modified coin tossing problem, known as Parrondo's game.

  12. Navigating Instructional Dialectics: Empirical Exploration of Paradox in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Blair; Rudick, C. Kyle; Kerssen-Griep, Jeff; Golsan, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Navigating contradiction represents an integral part of the teaching process. While educational literature has discussed the paradoxes that teachers experience in the classroom, minimal empirical research has analyzed the strategies teachers employ to address these paradoxes. Using relational dialectics as a theoretical framework for understanding…

  13. Proper-time quantum-mechanics and the Klein paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaller, B.

    1981-01-01

    Scattering at high potential-steps is treated in the framework of relativistic proper-time theory. No paradox arises in contrast to Dirac's wavemechanics (''Klein's paradox''); pair creation may happen with a certain probability and may be described as a scattering process with ordinary quantum-mechanical methods. (author)

  14. Killing Mosquitoes and Keeping Practice: Teacher Education as Sustaining Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, David Lee

    2013-01-01

    The moral and ethical charge of teaching and teacher education includes sustaining equanimity and paradox, and maintaining poise amongst contradicting policies and interests. This paper draws upon the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching to address some paradoxes in education and teacher preparation. Specifically, the article looks at four chapters of the…

  15. The paradoxes of the interaction-free measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidman, L.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    2001-01-01

    Interaction-free measurements introduced by Elitzur and Vaidman (1993) allow finding infinitely fragile objects without destroying them. Paradoxical features of these and related measurements are discussed. The resolution of the paradoxes in the framework of the Many-Worlds Interpretation is proposed. (orig.)

  16. Temperature relaxation at the Kapitza-boundary-resistance paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, A.; Dekker, H.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation of the Kapitza boundary resistance between dissimilar harmonic solids has for a long time [W. A. Little, Can. J. Phys. 37, 334 (1959)] presented a paradox: this resistance erroneously tends to a finite value in the limit of identical solids. We resolve this paradox by calculating

  17. Galileo's kinematical paradox and the role of resistive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, C E; Soares, V; Tort, A C

    2014-01-01

    We discuss Galileo's kinematical ‘paradox’ taking into account the effects of sliding friction and of resistive forces proportional to velocity. We show that sliding friction eliminates the paradox but still allows for very simple synchronous curves. Perhaps surprisingly, Galileo's paradox is preserved when the resistive force is proportional to velocity. (paper)

  18. A paradox in the global description of the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Freivogel, Ben [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We use an argument by Page to exhibit a paradox in the global description of the multiverse: the overwhelming majority of observers arise from quantum fluctuations and not by conventional evolution. Unless we are extremely atypical, this contradicts observation. The paradox does not arise in the local description of the multiverse, but similar arguments yield interesting constraints on the maximum lifetime of metastable vacua.

  19. A paradox in the global description of the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben

    2007-01-01

    We use an argument by Page to exhibit a paradox in the global description of the multiverse: the overwhelming majority of observers arise from quantum fluctuations and not by conventional evolution. Unless we are extremely atypical, this contradicts observation. The paradox does not arise in the local description of the multiverse, but similar arguments yield interesting constraints on the maximum lifetime of metastable vacua

  20. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  1. Bolzano's Approach to the Paradoxes of Infinity: Implications for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegg, Guillermina

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze excerpts of "Paradoxes of the Infinite", the posthumous work of Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848), in order to show that Georg Cantor's (1845-1918) approach to the problem of defining actual mathematical infinity is not the most natural. In fact, Bolzano's approach to the paradoxes of infinity is more intuitive, while remaining…

  2. A Simple Explanation of the Classic Hydrostatic Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the…

  3. An Applet for the Investigation of Simpson's Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, Kady; Symanzik, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an applet that facilitates investigation of Simpson's Paradox in the context of a number of real and hypothetical data sets. The applet builds on the Baker-Kramer graphical representation for Simpson's Paradox. The implementation and use of the applet are explained. This is followed by a description of how the applet has…

  4. Simpson's paradox in psychological science: a practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievit, R.A.; Frankenhuis, W.E.; Waldorp, L.J.; Borsboom, D.

    2013-01-01

    The direction of an association at the population-level may be reversed within the subgroups comprising that population—a striking observation called Simpson's paradox. When facing this pattern, psychologists often view it as anomalous. Here, we argue that Simpson's paradox is more common than

  5. The matchmaking paradox: a statistical explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Sokolov, Igor M

    2010-01-01

    Medical surveys regarding the number of heterosexual partners per person yield different female and male averages-a result which, from a physical standpoint, is impossible. In this paper we term this puzzle the 'matchmaking paradox', and establish a statistical model explaining it. We consider a bipartite graph with N male and N female nodes (N >> 1), and B bonds connecting them (B >> 1). Each node is associated a random 'attractiveness level', and the bonds connect to the nodes randomly-with probabilities which are proportionate to the nodes' attractiveness levels. The population's average bonds-per-nodes B/N is estimated via a sample average calculated from a survey of size n (n >> 1). A comprehensive statistical analysis of this model is carried out, asserting that (i) the sample average well estimates the population average if and only if the attractiveness levels possess a finite mean; (ii) if the attractiveness levels are governed by a 'fat-tailed' probability law then the sample average displays wild fluctuations and strong skew-thus providing a statistical explanation to the matchmaking paradox.

  6. Parenting paradox: parenting after infant loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria

    2011-10-01

    to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is there really a Green Paradox?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, F. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Withagen, C. [VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The Green Paradox states that, in the absence of a tax on CO2 emissions, subsidizing a renewable backstop such as solar or wind energy brings forward the date at which fossil fuels become exhausted and consequently global warming is aggravated. We shed light on this issue by solving a model of depletion of non-renewable fossil fuels followed by a switch to a renewable backstop, paying attention to timing of the switch and the amount of fossil fuels remaining unexploited. We show that the Green Paradox occurs for relatively expensive but clean backstops (such as solar or wind), but does not occur if the backstop is sufficiently cheap relative to marginal global warming damages (e.g., nuclear energy) as then it is attractive to leave fossil fuels unexploited and thus limit CO2 emissions. We show that, without a CO2 tax, subsidizing the backstop might enhance welfare. If the backstop is relatively dirty and cheap (e.g., coal), there might be a period with simultaneous use of the non-renewable and renewable fuels. If the backstop is very dirty compared to oil or gas (e.g., tar sands), there is no simultaneous use. The optimum policy requires an initially rising CO2 tax followed by a gradually declining CO2 tax once the dirty backstop has been introduced. We also discuss the potential for limit pricing when the non-renewable resource is owned by a monopolist.

  8. Is there really a Green Paradox?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Ploeg, F.; Withagen, C.

    2009-02-01

    The Green Paradox states that, in the absence of a tax on CO2 emissions, subsidizing a renewable backstop such as solar or wind energy brings forward the date at which fossil fuels become exhausted and consequently global warming is aggravated. We shed light on this issue by solving a model of depletion of non-renewable fossil fuels followed by a switch to a renewable backstop, paying attention to timing of the switch and the amount of fossil fuels remaining unexploited. We show that the Green Paradox occurs for relatively expensive but clean backstops (such as solar or wind), but does not occur if the backstop is sufficiently cheap relative to marginal global warming damages (e.g., nuclear energy) as then it is attractive to leave fossil fuels unexploited and thus limit CO2 emissions. We show that, without a CO2 tax, subsidizing the backstop might enhance welfare. If the backstop is relatively dirty and cheap (e.g., coal), there might be a period with simultaneous use of the non-renewable and renewable fuels. If the backstop is very dirty compared to oil or gas (e.g., tar sands), there is no simultaneous use. The optimum policy requires an initially rising CO2 tax followed by a gradually declining CO2 tax once the dirty backstop has been introduced. We also discuss the potential for limit pricing when the non-renewable resource is owned by a monopolist.

  9. Fermi's Paradox - The Last Challenge For Copernicanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We review Fermi's paradox (or the "Great Silence" problem, not only arguably the oldest and crucial problem for the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI, but also a conundrum of profound scientific, philosophical and cultural importance. By a simple analysis of observation selection effects, the correct resolution of Fermi's paradox is certain to tell us something about the future of humanity. Already more than three quarters of century old puzzle -- and a quarter of century since the last major review paper in the field by G. David Brin -- has generated many ingenious discussions and hypotheses. We analyze the often tacit methodological assumptions built in various answers to this puzzle and attempt a new classification of the numerous solutions proposed in an already huge literatureon the subject. Finally, we consider the ramifications of variousclasses of hypotheses for the practical SETI projects. Somewhatparadoxically, it seems that the class of (neocatastrophichypotheses gives, on the balance, the strongest justification tooptimism regarding our current and near-future SETI efforts.

  10. Perspectives on the quantum Zeno paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itano, Wayne M.

    2009-11-01

    As of October 2006, there were approximately 535 citations to the seminal 1977 paper of Misra and Sudarshan that pointed out the quantum Zeno paradox (more often called the quantum Zeno effect). In simple terms, the quantum Zeno effect refers to a slowing down of the evolution of a quantum state in the limit that the state is observed continuously. There has been much disagreement as to how the quantum Zeno effect should be defined and as to whether it is really a paradox, requiring new physics, or merely a consequence of "ordinary" quantum mechanics. The experiment of Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger, and Wineland, published in 1990, has been cited around 347 times and seems to be the one most often called a demonstration of the quantum Zeno effect. Given that there is disagreement as to what the quantum Zeno effect is, there naturally is disagreement as to whether that experiment demonstrated the quantum Zeno effect. Some differing perspectives regarding the quantum Zeno effect and what would constitute an experimental demonstration are discussed.

  11. Perspectives on the quantum Zeno paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Wayne M

    2009-01-01

    As of October 2006, there were approximately 535 citations to the seminal 1977 paper of Misra and Sudarshan that pointed out the quantum Zeno paradox (more often called the quantum Zeno effect). In simple terms, the quantum Zeno effect refers to a slowing down of the evolution of a quantum state in the limit that the state is observed continuously. There has been much disagreement as to how the quantum Zeno effect should be defined and as to whether it is really a paradox, requiring new physics, or merely a consequence of 'ordinary' quantum mechanics. The experiment of Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger, and Wineland, published in 1990, has been cited around 347 times and seems to be the one most often called a demonstration of the quantum Zeno effect. Given that there is disagreement as to what the quantum Zeno effect is, there naturally is disagreement as to whether that experiment demonstrated the quantum Zeno effect. Some differing perspectives regarding the quantum Zeno effect and what would constitute an experimental demonstration are discussed.

  12. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  13. Paradox, reprimand and extinction in adults with mental handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, V E; Chamove, A S

    1991-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of paradoxical directives, levels of challenging behaviour during 2 weeks of paradox, reprimand and extinction were compared with baseline levels in four adults with mental handicaps attending a day centre. Paradox was the most effective procedure for reducing the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour by an average of over 70% by the end of 2 weeks and up to 90% in certain subjects; extinction was least effective. Paradox was most effective with more defiant subjects, when staff rated treatment success as low, when improvement using extinction and reprimand was poorest, and in reducing aggressive behaviour. The present authors suggest the overjustification effect offers an explanation for the effects of paradox.

  14. Unveiling consumer's privacy paradox behaviour in an economic exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiwalla, Luvai F; Li, Xiao-Bai

    2016-01-01

    Privacy paradox is of great interest to IS researchers and firms gathering personal information. It has been studied from social, behavioural, and economic perspectives independently. However, prior research has not examined the degrees of influence these perspectives contribute to the privacy paradox problem. We combine both economic and behavioural perspectives in our study of the privacy paradox with a price valuation of personal information through an economic experiment combined with a behavioural study on privacy paradox. Our goal is to reveal more insights on the privacy paradox through economic valuation on personal information. Results indicate that general privacy concerns or individual disclosure concerns do not have a significant influence on the price valuation of personal information. Instead, prior disclosure behaviour in specific scenario, like with healthcare providers or social networks, is a better indicator of consumer price valuations.

  15. Metabolic features of the cell danger response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental

  16. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs. 5.35 Section 5.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction...

  17. Dewey Concentration Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Giving students a chance to associate numbers with subjects can be useful in speeding their location of desired print or nonprint materials and helping students feel independent when browsing. A matching game for helping students learn the Dewey numbers is presented. Instructions for the library media specialist or teacher, instructions for…

  18. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  19. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  20. Polytypic pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern matching problem can be informally specified as follows: given a pattern and a text, find all occurrences of the pattern in the text. The pattern and the text may both be lists, or they may both be trees, or they may both be multi-dimensional arrays, etc. This paper describes a general

  1. Is Matching Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  2. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    developed a new automated algorithm for matching supernovae to their host galaxies. Their work builds on currently existing algorithms and makes use of information about the nearby galaxies, accounts for the uncertainty of the match, and even includes a machine learning component to improve the matching accuracy.Gupta and collaborators test their matching algorithm on catalogs of galaxies and simulated supernova events to quantify how well the algorithm is able to accurately recover the true hosts.Successful MatchingThe matching algorithms accuracy (purity) as a function of the true supernova-host separation, the supernova redshift, the true hosts brightness, and the true hosts size. [Gupta et al. 2016]The authors find that when the basic algorithm is run on catalog data, it matches supernovae to their hosts with 91% accuracy. Including the machine learning component, which is run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy of the matching to 97%.The encouraging results of this work which was intended as a proof of concept suggest that methods similar to this could prove very practical for tackling future survey data. And the method explored here has use beyond matching just supernovae to their host galaxies: it could also be applied to other extragalactic transients, such as gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, or electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave detections.CitationRavi R. Gupta et al 2016 AJ 152 154. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/154

  3. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  4. Nuclear danger in the modern world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulejmenov, O.O.

    2000-01-01

    It is noted, that nowadays a nuclear danger proceeds from nuclear depositions of countries having own nuclear weapons. Since Kazakhstan is one of the first country in the world which fulfilled regulations of Lisbon Protocol and liquidated own nuclear potential, author regards that Kazakhstan have moral right for initiating process of attachment to Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty by countries having nuclear weapon. Now for Kazakhstan there are urgent problems: financing of post-conversion processes; re-cultivation of territory contaminated by residuals from nuclear weapons test; rehabilitation of population health, damaged from test of mass destruction weapon. Scientists of Kazakhstan estimated damage from nuclear test on Kazakstan territory in 10 billion dollars. It is necessary international efforts of all public organizations of the world for all world sites. One of the financing source could be means from reduction of nuclear arms production

  5. Interaction with the dirty, dangerous, and dull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyer, Clint; Husøy, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the forms of prototyping and evaluation. For example, we might assume a stable and safe physical environment, or that if something doesn’t work, it is an annoyance rather than a life-or-death situation. In our work, we have explored quite a different context: that of an oil and gas facility, where work......The environments for which interaction designers design tend to be rather benign: the office, the home. The settings are familiar to us, identifiable and relatable, often places we’ve experienced firsthand. A host of assumptions are implicit in these settings that affect the style of design inquiry...... is at times dirty, dangerous, and dull. We describe how we approached design for this unfamiliar environment and outline some of our concepts. In our general program of research, we are exploring new, yet “close to market” artifacts and systems for use in oil and gas, potentially for productization....

  6. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains ''umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit

  7. Dangerous enemy in Estonian garden soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersell, V.; Mottus, V.; Taeht, K.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is thoroughly discussed in the article. Its generation and the heath risks it can cause. The distribution of radon in the soil is analysed (one soil lithotype at a time (kBq/m)). The measurements received on different surveyed sites are compared to the standards allowed for the construction works. There is also the link between lung cancer cases and radon's radiance and incense/smoking. The North of Estonia is the pearl of Estonia landscape. The sea being near, beautiful seaside views attract people and inspire them to build their houses in this kind of surroundings. However, these areas are natural danger sources, as the percentage of radon concentration in the soil is often high or very high. South Estonia also has a lot of spectacular places with high concentration of radon in the soil [et

  8. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  9. Cold Climate Structural Fire Danger Rating System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Monika Metallinou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, fires kill 300,000 people every year. The fire season is usually recognized to be in the warmer periods of the year. Recent research has, however, demonstrated that the colder season also has major challenges regarding severe fires, especially in inhabited (heated wood-based structures in cold-climate areas. Knowledge about the effect of dry cellulose-based materials on fire development, indoor and outdoor, is a motivation for monitoring possible changes in potential fire behavior and associated fire risk. The effect of wind in spreading fires to neighboring structures points towards using weather forecasts as information on potential fire spread behavior. As modern weather forecasts include temperature and relative humidity predictions, there may already be sufficient information available to develop a structural fire danger rating system. Such a system may include the following steps: (1 Record weather forecasts and actual temperature and relative humidity inside and outside selected structures; (2 Develop a meteorology-data-based model to predict indoor relative humidity levels; (3 Perform controlled drying chamber experiments involving typical hygroscopic fire fuel; (4 Compare the results to the recorded values in selected structures; and (5 Develop the risk model involving the results from drying chamber experiments, weather forecasts, and separation between structures. Knowledge about the structures at risk and their use is also important. The benefits of an automated fire danger rating system would be that the society can better plan for potentially severe cold-climate fires and thereby limit the negative impacts of such fires.

  10. From the BMI paradox to the obesity paradox: the obesity-mortality association in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, A S; Oikonomou, E K; Antoniades, C; Tousoulis, D

    2016-10-01

    Despite a strong association between body weight and mortality in the general population, clinical evidence suggests better clinical outcome of overweight or obese individuals with established coronary heart disease. This finding has been termed the 'obesity paradox', but its existence remains a point of debate, because it is mostly observed when body mass index (BMI) is used to define obesity. Inherent limitations of BMI as an index of adiposity, as well as methodological biases and the presence of confounding factors, may account for the observed findings of clinical studies. In this review, our aim is to present the data that support the presence of a BMI paradox in coronary heart disease and then explore whether next to a BMI paradox a true obesity paradox exists as well. We conclude by attempting to link the obesity paradox notion to available translational research data supporting a 'healthy', protective adipose tissue phenotype. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  11. Dangerous Animals Capture and Maintain Attention in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Michael J. Penkunas; Michael L. Platt; Richard G. Coss

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous an...

  12. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  13. Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Ages & Stages ...

  14. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA) [fr

  15. Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.

  16. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  17. Educating geographers in an era of the anthropocene: paradoxical natures - paradoxical cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2015-01-01

    Geographical imaginations are vital to make sense of challenges to sustainability which are produced and distributed across scale. Yet, a number of studies find that geography has been reluctant to integrate sustainability issues in its curricula. Geography is particularly interesting and can con...... of this finding is significant across disciplines. Thus, scholars and students should learn to go beyond the geopolitics of education in order to transcend the paradoxical-culture-natures identified...

  18. Simpson’s Paradox in Psychological Science: A Practical Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier eKievit

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The direction of an association at the population-level may be reversed within the subgroups comprising that population—a striking observation called Simpson’s paradox. When facing this pattern, psychologists often view it as anomalous. Here, we argue that Simpson’s paradox is more common than conventionally thought, and typically results in incorrect interpretations – potentially with harmful consequences. We support this claim by drawing on empirical results from cognitive neuroscience, behavior genetics, psychopathology, personality psychology, educational psychology, intelligence research, and simulation studies. We show that Simpson’s Paradox is most likely to occur when inferences are drawn across different levels of explanation (e.g., from populations to subgroups, or subgroups to individuals. We propose a set of statistical markers indicative of the paradox, and offer psychometric solutions for dealing with the paradox when encountered—including a toolbox in R for detecting Simpson’s Paradox. We show that explicit modeling of situations in which the paradox might occur not only prevents incorrect interpretations of data, but also results in a deeper understanding of what data tell us about the world.

  19. The periodontal pain paradox: Difficulty on pain assesment in dental patients (The periodontal pain paradox hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In daily dental practice, the majority of patients’ main complaints are related to pain. Most patients assume that all pains inside the oral cavity originated from the tooth. One particular case is thermal sensitivity; sometimes patients were being able to point the site of pain, although there is neither visible caries nor secondary caries in dental radiograph. In this case, gingival recession and dentin hypersensitivity are first to be treated to eliminate the pain. If these treatments failed, pain may misdiagnose as pulpal inflammation and lead to unnecessary root canal treatment. Study in pain during periodontal instrumentation of plaque-related periodontitis revealed that the majority of patients feel pain and discomfort during probing and scaling. It seems obvious because an inflammation, either acute or chronic is related to a lowered pain threshold. However, in contrast, in this case report, patient suffered from chronic gingivitis and thermal sensitivity experienced a relative pain-free sensation during probing and scaling. Lowered pain threshold which accompanied by a blunted pain perception upon periodontal instrumentation is proposed to be termed as the periodontal pain paradox. The objective of this study is to reveal the possibility of certain factors in periodontal inflammation which may involved in the periodontal pain paradox hypothesis. Patient with thermal hypersensitivity who was conducted probing and scaling, after the relative pain-free instrumentation, thermal hypersensitivity rapidly disappeared. Based on the successful periodontal treatment, it is concluded that chronic gingivitis may modulate periodontal pain perception which termed as periodontal pain paradox

  20. Cosmic time dilation: The clock paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2004-01-01

    The relativistic time dilation is reviewed in a cosmological context. We show that a clock or twin paradox does not arise if cosmic time is properly taken into account. The receding galaxy background provides a unique frame of reference, and the proper times of geodesic as well as accelerated observers can be linked to the universal cosmic time parameter. This suggests to compare the proper time differentials of the respective observers by determining their state of motion in the galaxy grid. In this way, each observer can figure out whether his proper time is dilated or contracted relative to any other. In particular one can come to unambiguous conclusions on the aging of uniformly moving observers, without reference to asymmetries in measurement procedures or accelerations they may have undergone

  1. Paradoxes and Opportunities in Logistic Outsourcing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica Stojanović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, very few logistic trends have caught the attention of academics and practitioners to the same extent as outsourcing. A comprehensive literature review reveals two reasons for this continual topicality. The problem complexity and the business environment dynamics – including an interaction with other main trends in logistics and modern supply chains – both led to a permanent literature gap, indicating the need to explore some new aspects of logistics outsourcing (LO. In this paper, a new LO research perspective has been explored by identifying some weaknesses in the main LO research streams and related common viewpoints which led to six ‘logistics outsourcing research paradoxes’. Each of these paradoxes is briefly described and their links with research streams and common views on LO discussed. Finally, the nature of some known opportunities for further research is better explained and some overlooked research opportunities are highlighted.

  2. Twin paradox in de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boblest, Sebastian; Wunner, Guenter; Mueller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The 'twin paradox' of special relativity offers the possibility of making interstellar flights within a lifetime. For very long journeys with velocities close to the speed of light, however, we have to take into account the expansion of the universe. Inspired by the work of Rindler on hyperbolic motion in curved spacetime, we study the worldline of a uniformly accelerated observer in de Sitter spacetime and the communication between the travelling observer and an observer at rest. This paper is intended to give graduate students who are familiar with special relativity and have some basic experience of general relativity a deeper insight into accelerated motion in general relativity, into the relationship between the proper times of different observers and the propagation of light signals between them, and into the use of compactification to describe the global structure of a relativistic model.

  3. HIV As Trojan Exosome: Immunological Paradox Explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, James E K

    2017-01-01

    The HIV pandemic is still a major global challenge, despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs. An effective vaccine would be the ideal approach to bringing the pandemic to an end. However, developing an effective HIV vaccine has proven to be an elusive goal. Three major human HIV vaccine trials revealed a strong trend toward greater risk of infection among vaccine recipients versus controls. A similar observation was made in a macaque SIV vaccine study. The mechanism explaining this phenomenon is not known. Here, a model is presented that may explain the troubling results of vaccine studies and an immunological paradox of HIV pathogenesis: preferential infection of HIV-specific T cells. The central hypothesis of this perspective is that as "Trojan exosomes" HIV particles can directly activate HIV-specific T cells enhancing their susceptibility to infection. Understanding the biology of HIV as an exosome may provide insights that enable novel approaches to vaccine development.

  4. [Euthanasia and the paradoxes of autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2008-01-01

    The principle of respect for autonomy has proved very useful for bioethical arguments in favor of euthanasia. However unquestionable its theoretical efficacy, countless aporiae can be raised when conducting a detailed analysis of this concept, probably checkmating it. Based on such considerations, this paper investigates the principle of autonomy, starting with its origins in Greek and Christian traditions, and then charting some of its developments in Western cultures through to its modern formulation, a legacy of Immanuel Kant. The main paradoxes of this concept are then presented in the fields of philosophy, biology, psychoanalysis and politics, expounding several of the theoretical difficulties to be faced in order to make its applicability possible within the scope of decisions relating to the termination of life.

  5. Aging and communication in the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wolf, David A

    2016-01-01

    The twin paradox of the special theory of relativity has given rize to a large body of literature discussing its implications. In its standard form, the traveler changes velocity only at the destination of the trip, so that he appears to perceive an improbably instantaneous and non-continuous change in age of the stationary twin. In this work, a smooth velocity/acceleration profile is used that allows the abrupt velocity-change case as a limit. All gravitational effects are ignored in this treatment. Aside from mutual perception of simultaneous clock times in an accelerating frame, constant communication of clock times between the twins by means of (digital) light signals is shown to be possible, in principle if not in practice. (paper)

  6. Partial Actions, Paradoxicality and Topological full Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarparo, Eduardo

    uniform Roe algebra is finite. In Article C, we analyze the C*-algebra generated by the Koopman representation of a topological full group, showing, in particular, that it is not AF andhas real rank zero. We also prove that if G is a finitely generated, elementary amenable group, and C*(G) has real rank......We study how paradoxicality properties affect the way groups partially acton topological spaces and C*-algebras. We also investigate the real rank zero and AF properties for certain classes of group C*-algebras. Specifically, in article A, we characterize supramenable groups in terms of existence...... of invariant probability measures for partial actions on compact Hausdorff spaces and existence of tracial states on partial crossed products. These characterizations show that, in general, one cannot decompose a partial crossed product of a C*-algebra by a semidirect product of groups as two iterated...

  7. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Paradoxical Cannabis Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Marie Figueroa-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-established antiemetic properties of marijuana, there has been increasing evidence of a paradoxical effect in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, given rise to a new and underrecognized clinical entity called the Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Reported cases in the medical literature have established a series of patients exhibiting a classical triad of symptoms: cyclic vomiting, chronic marijuana use, and compulsive bathing. We present a case of a 29-year-old man whose clinical presentation strongly correlates with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Despite a diagnosis of exclusion, this syndrome should be considered plausible in the setting of a patient with recurrent intractable vomiting and a strong history of cannabis use as presented in this case.

  8. Explaining mutualism variation: a new evolutionary paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-02-01

    The paradox of mutualism is typically framed as the persistence of interspecific cooperation, despite the potential advantages of cheating. Thus, mutualism research has tended to focus on stabilizing mechanisms that prevent the invasion of low-quality partners. These mechanisms alone cannot explain the persistence of variation for partner quality observed in nature, leaving a large gap in our understanding of how mutualisms evolve. Studying partner quality variation is necessary for applying genetically explicit models to predict evolution in natural populations, a necessary step for understanding the origins of mutualisms as well as their ongoing dynamics. An evolutionary genetic approach, which is focused on naturally occurring mutualist variation, can potentially synthesize the currently disconnected fields of mutualism evolution and coevolutionary genetics. We outline explanations for the maintenance of genetic variation for mutualism and suggest approaches necessary to address them. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupczynski, M

    2016-01-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are

  10. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, M.

    2016-03-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are produced

  11. A "refugee paradox" for substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    Few, if any, studies have systematically examined the link between nativity and substance use disorders (SUD) among refugees using national samples. As such, it remains uncertain if the "immigrant paradox" for substance use can be extended to include refugees in the United States. Employing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examine the lifetime prevalence of SUDs among refugees (n=428) in contrast with non-refugee immigrants (n=4955) and native-born Americans (n=29,267). We also examine the impact of gender and refugee duration on the relationship between nativity, refugee status, and SUDs. Refugees were between 3 and 6 times less likely than native-born Americans meet criteria for all SUDs examined, and significantly less likely than non-refugee immigrants to meet criteria for alcohol (AOR=0.44, 95% CI=0.41-0.47), cocaine (AOR=0.54, 95% CI=0.50-0.59), hallucinogen (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.58-0.74), and opioid/heroin (AOR=0.62, 95% CI=0.58-0.66) use disorders. The refugee-SUD link was significantly moderated by gender. Duration as a refugee was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorder and decreased risk of cannabis and illicit drug use disorders. Study findings provide evidence in support of a "refugee paradox" for SUDs among adults in the United States. Refugees are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to meet criteria for all SUDs examined and, albeit with weaker effects, significantly less likely than non-refugee immigrants to meet criteria for a variety of SUDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The paradoxes of the consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Il’In

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two characteristic of the consumer society of the paradox. The first is expressed in the contradiction between the desire for himself by exposure to high consumer standards and constraints of a financial nature. Specifics of consumer culture requires to make demonstrative waste of money, even if it is associated with financial resources. Demonstrative waste of money exercise by savings on invisible to others spheres of life, as “message” on the status becomes more important need than the satisfaction of these needs. The relationship between income and consumption does not seem unambiguous. Updated trend of the sense of consumption goods, pseudoconsumerism, realizing the need to seem - one of fictitious needs, which in practice translates into implementation of strategy is symbolic of deception. There is a “fictitious second order”, which is not associated with the symbolic meaning of a certain good, and with the symbolic meaning of goods, which is not cash, but is missing. Consumption has shifted imitating under the consumption of performance, consumption of simulacrum and virtuality. The dichotomy of “to have or to be” in this case is replaced by the dichotomy of “to have or to pass” and, in turn, “to pass or to be”. The second paradox is expressed in cultivating the desire to emphasize with consumption individuality that goes away when the practice becomes mass. Standardization is carried out under the rhetoric about elitism. The samples on offer as elitist, their attractiveness ascribe to itself the masses. It’s elitist by material unavailable to most people, but the mass by the desire of many people to be attached to them. Characteristic of a consumer society fashion consciously orients a select minority, but the underlying basis remains unconscious orientation to universality. Fashion stimulating consumption standards and to the implementation of individual choice, which constrained by these

  13. Paradoxical embolism: Experiences from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our treatment experiences and the follow-up data of patients with paradoxical embolism (PDE. Methods: The clinical characteristics, management, and follow-up data of all included patients who were diagnosed with PDE at Fuwai Hospital from January 1994 to October 2015 were recorded. Results: Twelve patients were included; all had a pulmonary embolism, and 8 had deep venous thrombosis. The artery embolisms involved the cerebral artery (7 patients, renal artery (2 patients, mesentery artery (2 patients, popliteal artery (1 patient, descending aorta thrombus (1 patient, and thrombus-straddled patent foramen ovale (PFO (1 patient. PFO was found in 3 cases. One patient underwent thrombectomy and PFO closure; Six patients received thrombolysis; and 3 patients were implanted with a vena cava filter. Long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was recommended for each patient. One patient died from ventricular fibrillation despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Eleven patients were discharged with improvements. No late mortality occurred in 8 patients with a complete follow-up of 10.6–17.7 years. One had a recurrent deep venous thrombosis. No patient had a recurrent pulmonary or arterial embolism. Two patients changed their treatment from warfarin to aspirin; others remained on warfarin. Only 1 case had an occasional gum bleeding. Conclusions: PDE treatment including thrombolysis, anticoagulation, and embolectomy should be individualized. We recommend long-term anticoagulation therapy to prevent the recurrence of PDE, especially to those with an intracardiac communication or persistent risk factors for re-thrombosis. Keywords: Paradoxical embolism, Pulmonary embolism, Deep venous thrombosis, Patent foramen ovale

  14. Simpson's paradox: A statistician's case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kevin H; Brown, Nathan J; Pelecanos, Anita; Brown, Anthony Ft

    2018-02-26

    Gender equality and workforce diversity has recently been in the forefront of College discussions. Reasons for the difference between various groups may not be as they initially appeared. The results of comparing the outcome between two groups can sometimes be confounded and even reversed by an unrecognised third variable. This concept is known as Simpson's Paradox, and is illustrated here using a renowned case study on potential gender bias for acceptance to Graduate School at the University of California, Berkeley.  The investigation showed that males were 1.8 times more likely to be admitted to Graduate School than females in 1973. Initially it appeared that women were discriminated against in the selection process. However, when admissions were re-examined at individual Departments of the School, admission tended to be better for women than men in four of six Departments. This contradiction or paradox tells us that the association between admission and gender was dependent upon on Department.  The confounding effect of Department was defined by two characteristics. Firstly, a strong association between Department and admission: some Departments admitted much smaller percentages of applicants than others. Secondly, a strong association between Department and gender: females tended to apply to Departments with lower admission rates.  The explanation of differences between groups can be multifactorial. A search for possible confounders will assist in this understanding. This could apply whenever two groups initially appear to differ, but on closer analysis this difference is either unfounded, or even reversed by reference to a third, confounding variable. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. Linear optics implementation of weak values in Hardy's paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnert, S.E.; Payne, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    We propose an experimental setup for the implementation of weak measurements in the context of the gedanken experiment known as Hardy's paradox. As Aharonov et al. [Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, Phys. Lett. A301, 130 (2002)] showed, these weak values form a language with which the paradox can be resolved. Our analysis shows that this language is indeed consistent and experimentally testable. It also reveals exactly how a combination of weak values can give rise to an apparently paradoxical result

  16. On the Mathematics of the Jeffreys-Lindley Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Cristiano; Walker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the well known Jeffreys-Lindley paradox. In a Bayesian set up, the so-called paradox arises when a point null hypothesis is tested and an objective prior is sought for the alternative hypothesis. In particular, the posterior for the null hypothesis tends to one when the uncertainty, i.e. the variance, for the parameter value goes to infinity. We argue that the appropriate way to deal with the paradox is to use simple mathematics, and that any philosophical argumen...

  17. Women's understanding of the "Nice guy paradox": a phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.A. The Nice Guy Paradox is a provocative perception that is commonly expressed within society and the mass media. According to this perception, nice guys are less successful in their relationships with women than other men. The Nice Guy Paradox causes much frustration and confusion for self-proclaimed nice guys. In addition, the implications of this perception may negatively influence the way in which men relate to women. For instance, the Nice Guy Paradox implies that if men want to be ...

  18. Linear perspective and framing in the vista paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    The vista paradox is the illusion in which an object seen through a frame appears to shrink in apparent size as the observer approaches the frame. In four studies, we tested the effect of framing and fixating on the target object. The first two studies assessed the vista paradox in a large scale...... inserted within five frames differing in size. In the fourth study linear perspective was added to the images. The results showed that both frame size and linear perspective cues were critical factors for the vista paradox illusion....

  19. Practices in the danger culture of late industrial society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, Arie; Motet, Gilles; Bieder, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    The chapter replaces the question of risk control by one about how we handle danger in our societies and realize a measure of safety. Ongoing practices in a framework of ‘danger cultures’ are the key. The case of environmental and health inspection and the intersecting ‘social worlds’ involved, are

  20. Dangerous Animals Capture and Maintain Attention in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions. We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors. We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans.

  1. Dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Penkunas, Michael J; Platt, Michael L; Coss, Richard G

    2014-05-28

    Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors) as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target) among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors). We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans.

  2. The dangers of the plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altner, G.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.

    1979-01-01

    The fast breeder is a critical point in the energy discussion which is even more controversial than other points before: Will modern industrial society submit to the constraints of a plutonium economy or will it have the power and the courage required for the alternative of a more human technology. The fast breeder can produce tons and tons of plutonium, a new energy source; this is an argument frequently presented in view of the limited uranium reserves. At the same time, plutonium is one of the most dangerous poisons, and its radiation endangers lives even at amounts as small as one-millionth of one gramme. This means that technical and political safeguards must be intensified, which in turn will result in just the 'nuclear dictatorship' which is beginning to show up at the horizon already today. In this book, committed journalists and scientists present their arguments to show that the price to be paid for this kind of progress would be two high. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  4. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  5. The Medawar Lecture 1998 is science dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2005-06-29

    The idea that science is dangerous is deeply embedded in our culture, particularly in literature, yet science provides the best way of understanding the world. Science is not the same as technology. In contrast to technology, reliable scientific knowledge is value-free and has no moral or ethical value. Scientists are not responsible for the technological applications of science; the very nature of science is that it is not possible to predict what will be discovered or how these discoveries could be applied. The obligation of scientists is to make public both any social implications of their work and its technological applications. A rare case of immoral science was eugenics. The image of Frankenstein has been turned by the media into genetic pornography, but neither cloning nor stem cells or gene therapy raise new ethical issues. There are no areas of research that are so socially sensitive that research into them should be proscribed. We have to rely on the many institutions of a democratic society: parliament, a free and vigorous press, affected groups and the scientists themselves. That is why programmes for the public understanding of science are so important. Alas, we still do not know how best to do this.

  6. The cell phone : a dangerous driving distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlay, J. [Alberta Motor Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ure, D. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Shell Canada demands that workers do not operate telecommunication systems while operating a motor vehicle for company business, with the exception of short acknowledgment conversations. This power point presentation advised of the dangers of using cell phones while driving. Cell phone use while driving is considered to be mentally demanding as well as contributing to slower reaction times to hazards and reducing driving field of view. Research has indicated that drivers visualize an image of the person being spoken to, in addition to thinking about issues being discussed. Statistics from the United Kingdom reveal that drivers engaged in cell phone conversations are 4 times more likely to crash than other drivers, and take risks comparable to alcohol impaired driving, as well as showing significantly poorer driving performance. Various types of driver distractions were presented. A comparison between radio and cell phones was presented. It was suggested that drivers should not take a phone call while driving alone, and in an emergency, should pull off the road to receive or send phone calls. It was also suggested that callers should ask if a person is driving, and end a conversation if they suspect the person is driving. tabs, figs.

  7. 242-A evaporator dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is a waste management unit within the Hanford Facility that consists of process vessels and support systems for heating, evaporating, and condensing double-shell tank (DST) waste generated by Hanford Site operations. Operation of the 242-A Evaporator serves to reduce the volume of waste solutions within the DSTs that do not self-boil, while separating inorganic and radionuclide constituents from organic constituents. This operation reduces the number of underground DSTs required for waste storage and also makes the mixed waste more suitable for future treatment and disposal (i.e., grouting and vitrification). The 242-A Evaporator receives mixed-waste streams from the DSTs that contain organic and inorganic constituents and radionuclides. The waste is a dangerous waste (DW) because of corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity characteristics, and is an extremely hazardous waste (EHW) as a result of toxicity (state criteria only), carcinogenicity, and persistence under the state mixture rule. The waste also contains spent nonhalogenated solvents

  8. Matching with transfer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Alvarez, R.; Velasco, V.R.; Garcia-Moliner, F.; Rodriguez-Coppola, H.

    1987-10-01

    An ABC configuration - which corresponds to various systems of physical interest, such as a barrier or a quantum well - is studied by combining a surface Green function matching analysis of the entire system with a description of the intermediate (B) region in terms of a transfer matrix in the sense of Mora et al. (1985). This hybrid approach proves very useful when it is very difficult to construct the corresponding Green function G B . An application is made to the calculation of quantised subband levels in a parabolic quantum well. Further possibilities of extension of this approach are pointed out. (author). 27 refs, 1 tab

  9. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  10. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  11. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Ending the myth of the St Petersburg Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vivian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas Bernoulli suggested the St Petersburg game, nearly 300 years ago, which is widely believed to produce a paradox in decision theory. This belief stems from a long standing mathematical error in the original calculation of the expected value of the game. This article argues that, in addition to the mathematical error, there are also methodological considerations which gave rise to the paradox. This article explains these considerations and why because of the modern computer, the same considerations, when correctly applied, also demonstrate that no paradox exists. Because of the longstanding belief that a paradox exists it is unlikely the mere mathematical correction will end the myth. The article explains why it is the methodological correction which will dispel the myth.

  13. Pervasive Technologies and the Paradoxes of Multimodal Digital Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Petroni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary societies are greatly challenged by paradoxes in all facets of life. Digital communication encodes and produces meaning by making use of these contradictory relations. In this contribution, three digital paradoxes will be presented. The first paradox is grounded in the process of remediation in digital settings which mirrors a contradictory double logic. Digital culture, in fact, wants both to multiply its media and to eliminate all traces of mediation. The second antinomy has its origins in the new concept of linguistic entropy: a structured information disorder that is regulated by usability and multimodality. In accordance with the second paradox, the third one stems from further processes that are framing, a multimodal resource, and linking, a hypertextual resource.

  14. Paradoxical perception of surfaces in the Shepard tabletop illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    The Shepard tabletop illusion, consisting of different perspective embeddings of two identical parallelograms as tabletops, affords a profound difference in their perceived surface shapes. My analysis reveals three further paradoxical aspects of this illusion, in addition to its susceptibility to the ‘inverse perspective illusion’ of the implied orthographic perspective of the table images. These novel aspects of the illusion are: a paradoxical slant of the tabletops, a paradoxical lack of perceived depth, and a paradoxical distortion of the length of the rear legs. The construction of the illusion resembles scenes found in ancient Chinese scroll paintings, and an analysis of the source of the third effect shows that the interpretation in terms of surfaces can account for the difference in treatment of the filled-in versus open forms in the Chinese painting from more than 1000 years ago. PMID:23145230

  15. Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradoxes from qudit graph states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia; Oh, C H

    2013-03-08

    One fascinating way of revealing quantum nonlocality is the all-versus-nothing test due to Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger (GHZ) known as the GHZ paradox. So far genuine multipartite and multilevel GHZ paradoxes are known to exist only in systems containing an odd number of particles. Here we shall construct GHZ paradoxes for an arbitrary number (greater than 3) of particles with the help of qudit graph states on a special kind of graphs, called GHZ graphs. Furthermore, based on the GHZ paradox arising from a GHZ graph, we derive a Bell inequality with two d-outcome observables for each observer, whose maximal violation attained by the corresponding graph state, and a Kochen-Specker inequality testing the quantum contextuality in a state-independent fashion.

  17. One-Piece Faraday Generator: A Paradoxical Experiment from 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, M. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment based on Faraday's one-piece generator, where the rotating disk is replaced by a cylindrical permanent magnet. Explains the apparent paradox that an observer in an inertial frame could measure his absolute velocity. (GA)

  18. A Zeno-like paradox in linear interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.

    1998-01-01

    The so-called Zeno-like paradox of infinite regressions and progressions connected by light cones, typical to particle dynamics of direct-interaction (ADD) theory, is examined for linear AAD interaction. It is shown that the paradox is resolved via convenient evaluating integral expressions which determine conserved quantities of Lorentz group to exhibit integral-free forms. As a result the formalism is also permitted to emerge the field confinement as one of substantial properties of linear interaction. (author)

  19. The klein paradox as a many particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongaarts, P.J.M.; Ruijsenaars, S.N.M.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematically rigorous analysis of the Klein paradox is given in the many-particle formulation of the Dirac theory. This paradox was meant as an example demonstrating the negative energy problems of the single particle Dirac equation. However, it is shown that this problem does not disappear in the second quantized version of the Dirac theory. It corresponds with a situation which cannot be described properly within the framework of a field theory with an external potential

  20. On the present status of the Klein Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wergeland, H.

    1980-01-01

    Klein's paradox is a solution of Dirac's equation which implies that electrons may penetrate an electrostatic potential barrier even when their kinetic energy is lower than the barrier. Since the barrier is infinitely broad this is not a case of tunneling. A number of treatments of the paradox, by Sauter, Hylleraas, Jenssen and others are discussed, and the Boundary Value Problem is treated at some length. Examples are presented with an infinitely broad barrier and with a barrier of finite breadth. (JIW)

  1. "Paradox fikce" a emoce ve sportovních filmech

    OpenAIRE

    Sýkora, Matěj

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the paradox of fiction and emotion of recipients of sports films. The work is divided into four main chapters. The first two aim to define the key terms fiction (the fictional world) and emotion. The third chapter briefly summarizes the most important theories dealing with the paradox of fiction (Radford and Weston, Walton, etc.) and offers an outline of a possible solution to the problem following neurobiological explorations of Antonio Damasio and selected co...

  2. Moving towards a geocentric, polycultural theory of organizational paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, J.; Lewis, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This paper comments on “Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the east” (Li, 2016), which provides an indigenous Chinese perspective on organizational paradox. Li introduces Yin-Yang balancing as an epistemological system that can help scholars examine and practitioners manage paradoxes. In this commentary, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the merits of Yin-Yang balancing and how this approach and other indigenous theories might enrich organizatio...

  3. Governance and Developing Asia: Concepts, Measurements, Determinants, and Paradoxes

    OpenAIRE

    Quibria, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a considerable volume of literature on governance and its role in economic and social development of a country. This paper provides a critical review of the literature. This review brings into the open a number of serious conceptual, measurement, and data issues as well as the existence of an Asian governance paradox - i.e., a general disjunction between growth and governance in most Asian economies. This paradox seems to suggest that much of the curren...

  4. Extensitivity of entropy and modern form of Gibbs paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home, D.; Sengupta, S.

    1981-01-01

    The extensivity property of entropy is clarified in the light of a critical examination of the entropy formula based on quantum statistics and the relevant thermodynamic requirement. The modern form of the Gibbs paradox, related to the discontinuous jump in entropy due to identity or non-identity of particles, is critically investigated. Qualitative framework of a new resolution of this paradox, which analyses the general effect of distinction mark on the Hamiltonian of a system of identical particles, is outlined. (author)

  5. The Schroedinger's paradox and the tranformation of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitsakis, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Schroedinger's paradox is analysed, as an illustration of certain weaknesses of the Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics and of the limits of the quantum-mechanical description of phenomena. A realistic approach of the paradox indicates the necessity of a theory that would permit not only the calculation of probabilities, but also the description of physical processes, as taking place in space and time

  6. Paradoxical response to dexamethasone and spontaneous hypocortisolism in Cushing's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lila, Anurag R; Sarathi, Vijaya; Bandgar, Tushar R; Shah, Nalini S

    2013-01-01

    Paradoxical response to dexamethasone and spontaneous development of hypocortisolism are rare features of Cushing's disease. We report a 13-year-old boy with Cushing's disease owing to a pituitary macroadenoma. On initial evaluation, he had partial suppression of serum cortisol by dexamethasone. He developed transient hypocortisolism after first adenomectomy, but the disease recurred after 1 year. Repeat evaluation showed recurrent hypercortisolism and paradoxical response to dexamethasone. H...

  7. The relationship of dangerous driving with traffic offenses: A study on an adapted measure of dangerous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Dragoş; Sârbescu, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Using data from three different samples and more than 1000 participants, the current study examines differences in dangerous driving in terms of age, gender, professional driving, as well as the relationship of dangerous driving with behavioral indicators (mileage) and criteria (traffic offenses). The study uses an adapted (Romanian) version of the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI, Dula and Ballard, 2003) and also reports data on the psychometric characteristics of this measure. Findings suggest that the Romanian version of the DDDI has sound psychometric properties. Dangerous driving is higher in males and occasional drivers, is not correlated with mileage and is significantly related with speeding as a traffic offense, both self-reported and objectively measured. The utility of predictive models including dangerous driving is not very large: logistic regression models have a significant fit to the data, but their misclassification rate (especially in terms of sensitivity) is unacceptable high. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about

  9. THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS RADON DANGER MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chunikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is the major contributor to the background exposure of the population. In the world practice, the radon risk or radon potential mapping are used for the radon dose assessment.The aim of this work was a radon danger mapping of the Republic of Belarus to assess the radiation situation and determine the radon hazard critical areas.Materials and methods: The mapping is based on measured values of radon volume activity in the living rooms of different buildings on the territory of the six regions of the Republic of Belarus. We have performed more than 4000 measurements. Integral track radon radiometers based on the polymer Kodak LR-115 film were used to evaluate radon volume activity. Exposure time ranged from 90 to 120 days. The cartogram was built with using the MAPINFO software package.Results: The low levels of radon concentrations were determined in the Brest and Gomel regions, as well as in the southern districts of Minsk and south-western districts of the Mogilev region. The high levels radon concentrations were determined in some districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno regions, as well as in the north-eastern districts of the Mogilev region. About 2–5 times nonuniformity of radon distribution in settlements of the Republic was observed. The radon hazard critical areas with radon concentrations in the range of 200–400 Bq/m3 were found in some districts of the Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev regions.Conclusions: The radon risk map of the Republic of Belarus gives the possibility to estimate the existing radiation risk. Taking into account the low efficiency of countermeasures long after the Chernobyl accident, it is necessary to increase the level of radiation protection through the radon mitigation activities or to change the radon normative documents.

  10. Kinetics of matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, T A; Gallistel, C R

    1994-01-01

    Rats responded on concurrent variable interval schedules of brain stimulation reward in 2-trial sessions. Between trials, there was a 16-fold reversal in the relative rate of reward. In successive, narrow time windows, the authors compared the ratio of the times spent on the 2 levers to the ratio of the rewards received. Time-allocation ratios tracked wide, random fluctuations in the reward ratio. The adjustment to the midsession reversal in relative rate of reward was largely completed within 1 interreward interval on the leaner schedule. Both results were unaffected by a 16-fold change in the combined rates of reward. The large, rapid, scale-invariant shifts in time-allocation ratios that underlie matching behavior imply that the subjective relative rate of reward can be determined by a very few of the most recent interreward intervals and that this estimate can directly determine the ratio of the expected stay durations.

  11. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  12. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  13. Evaluation of non radiation dangerous in multipurpose reactor GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwarto, S.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential non irradiation dangerous in RSG-GAS included of : the fire dangerous, the chemical hazard and gas dangerous have been performed to evaluate its potential on causing the accident and evaluate the performance of the equipment to protect the accident. Evaluate the performance of the equipment to protect to accident . Evaluate to the fire dangerous performed by identified the potential dangerous of fire at each rooms and evaluate the performance of each equipment included of dry powder fire extinguishing system, hydrant system, fire detectors and alarm system. Evaluation to the chemical hazard and gas dangerous performed by identified the number and it's the management of chemical hazard in the chemical storage and laboratory. The result of evaluation included of data of the fire dangerous potential class and the performance of its equipment in each room in RSG-GAS and the data of the number and the management system of the chemical hazard and gas in chemical storage and chemical laboratory. From this evaluation it is concluded that the equipment of fire system are available to protect against the accident and the chemical hazard and gas potential are relating small, and has been managed properly

  14. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity...... is relatively high. Interestingly, when capacity is in an intermediate range, price matching benefits only the small firm but does not affect the large firm in any way. Therefore, one has to consider capacity seriously when evaluating if price matching is anti-competitive. If the firms choose their capacities...... simultaneously before pricing decisions, then the effect of price matching is either pro-competitive or ambiguous. We show that if the cost of capacity is high, then price matching can only (weakly) decrease the market price. On the other hand, if the cost of capacity is low, then the effect of price matching...

  15. Middle ground approach to paradox: Within- and between-culture examination of the creative benefits of paradoxical frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela K-Y; Liou, Shyhnan; Miron-Spektor, Ella; Koh, Brandon; Chan, David; Eisenberg, Roni; Schneider, Iris

    2018-03-01

    Thriving in increasingly complex and ambiguous environments requires creativity and the capability to reconcile conflicting demands. Recent evidence with Western samples has suggested that paradoxical frames, or mental templates that encourage individuals to recognize and embrace contradictions, could produce creative benefits. We extended the timely, but understudied, topic by studying the nuances of for whom and why creative advantages of paradoxical frames emerge. We suggest that people endorsing a middle ground approach are less likely to scrutinize conflict and reconcile with integrative solutions, thus receiving less creative benefits of paradoxical frames. Five studies that examined individual and cultural differences in middle ground endorsement support our theory. Study 1 found that paradoxical frames increased creativity, but failed to replicate that experienced conflict mediated the relationship in a Taiwanese sample. In both within- and between-culture analysis, we showed that the creative advantages of thinking paradoxically and experiencing conflict emerged among individuals who endorse lower (vs. higher) levels of middle ground (Study 2) and among Israelis whose culture predominantly endorses middle ground strategy less, but not among Singaporeans whose culture predominantly endorses middle ground more (Study 3). Study 4 further demonstrated the causal role of middle ground in the paradox-conflict-creativity link. To answer "why," Study 5 situationally induced integrative complex thinking that sets distinctions and forms syntheses among contradictory elements, and found that low endorsers of middle ground performed more creatively when they engaged integrative complex thinking to cope with paradoxes. This program of studies offers important insights on harnessing paradoxical experiences to catalyze creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Rural Tanzanian women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the danger signs of obstetric complications is the essential first step in accepting appropriate and timely referral to obstetric and newborn care. The objectives of this study were to assess women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications and to identify associated factors in a rural district in Tanzania. Methods A total of 1118 women who had been pregnant in the past two years were interviewed. A list of medically recognized potentially life threatening obstetric signs was obtained from the responses given. Chi- square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with awareness of obstetric danger signs. Results More than 98% of the women attended antenatal care at least once. Half of the women knew at least one obstetric danger sign. The percentage of women who knew at least one danger sign during pregnancy was 26%, during delivery 23% and after delivery 40%. Few women knew three or more danger signs. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis having secondary education or more increased the likelihood of awareness of obstetric danger signs six-fold (OR = 5.8; 95% CI: 1.8–19 in comparison with no education at all. The likelihood to have more awareness increased significantly by increasing age of the mother, number of deliveries, number of antenatal visits, whether the delivery took place at a health institution and whether the mother was informed of having a risks/complications during antenatal care. Conclusion Women had low awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications. We recommend the following in order to increase awareness of danger signs of obstetrical complications: to improve quality of counseling and involving other family members in antenatal and postnatal care, to use radio messages and educational sessions targeting the whole community and to intensify

  17. The paradox of transmission system value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.Z.; Feldman, R.D.; Charnetzki, P.

    1995-01-01

    The central importance of utility strategic planning with respect to transmission systems has developed as a result of the passage of the Energy Policy Act and the rapid emergence of the era of open grid access. As a consequence, utilities have had to redefine transmission as being more than a cost center managed with reliability as the principal focus and regulated on a rate of return basis. Transmission must now be managed with a view to protection of customers, where possible, and to revenue maximization, both through pricing strategy and through operations. This shift has been compounded by the pressures being thrust upon utilities by regulators or being fomented by competitors to unbundle transmission and distribution from generation. This paper explores how the value of the transmission system can be viewed from the vantage points of different organizations (utilities, regulators, customers, independent generators, etc.). The paper addresses the uncertain and apparently paradoxical nature of transmission system value as it will be impacted by the possible alternative future structures of the electric power industry. Lastly, this paper suggests the strategic possibilities for utilities that this uncertainty presents

  18. Aristotle vs. Plato: The Balkans' Paradoxical Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Michalopoulos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As it occurred in West, Aristotle’s thought was in Byzantium the main organon of philosophical meditation within the frame of the Christian Faith. Nonetheless, from the ninth century on it was a revival of Platonism that took place – of Neo-Platonism at the beginning and of Platonism itself at the end. The Church, initially indifferent, became suspicious only when, at the turning of the fourteenth to the fifteenth century, the Platonism seemed to engender somewhat a latent paganism; but the Patriarchate was not then able to fight that tendency. So only after the 1453 capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans, Gennadius Scholarius managed to root out from the Greek lands Platonism and its crypto-pagan extension. Be that as it may; the main paradox of the Balkan history is that in the early seventeenth century some leading Greek scholars endorsed the materialist interpretation of Aristotle’s thought – as it was taught in the University of Padua by Cesare Cremonini; and as a corollary this materialistic philosophical system began being taught in both Constantinople and Athens. It was that very way that the Enlightenment took birth in the Balkans – and somehow became a State ideology - long before its prevalence in France. And of course all this had as a result a turn toward Physics and Chemistry with far-reaching consequences

  19. First evidence for "The backup plan paradox".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Christopher M; Freund, Alexandra M

    2017-08-01

    This research is a first test of the backup plan paradox. We hypothesized that investing in a backup plan may facilitate the conditions that it was developed to address: Plan A's insufficiency. Five studies provide initial, primarily correlative support for the undermining effect of investing in a backup plan. Study 1 (n= 160) demonstrated that the more participants perceived they had invested in developing a backup plan (preparing a "crib sheet"), the more likely they were to use it, although greater investments were unrelated to backup plan utility. Studies 2-4 used a simulated negotiation task. Study 2 (n = 247) demonstrated that when goal-relevant resources are limited, investing in developing backup plans and perceiving them as highly instrumental can decrease goal performance through the indirect effect of increased means replacing. Study 3 (n = 248) replicated this effect when goal-relevant resources were plentiful. Study 4 (n = 204) used an experimental variant of the simulated negotiation task and demonstrated that simply having a backup plan is not detrimental, but perceiving backup plans to be highly instrumental decreased goal performance, again through the indirect effect of increased means replacing. Study 5 (n = 160) replicated findings from Studies 1-4 using a lab-based motor task (throwing a ball). Together, these results provide first evidence that backup plans can introduce costs that may jeopardize goal performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Paradox of Leisure in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Shrira, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Numerous studies have shown that involvement in leisure activity has a significant impact on older adults’ physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being. This study explores whether the association between leisure involvement and well-being in later life changes over time. Method. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Growth curve models were applied to examine whether leisure moderated change in quality of life (QoL) over time among 7,875 retirees aged 60 and older. Results. Findings indicated that the association between leisure and QoL increased with time, as nonactive respondents displayed a decline in QoL over time, whereas those with high levels of leisure involvement showed an increase. Findings remained significant after controlling for sociodemographics, health, and cognitive functioning. Discussion. Results indicated that the significance of leisure to well-being increases throughout the later life course, and that leisure may act as a resource for resilience in old age. They also pointed out a paradoxical situation in which the older seniors, who may benefit from leisure involvement more than their younger peers, are precisely the ones who face the greater number of constraints to beneficial use of leisure. PMID:25315158

  1. Marketing human organs: the autonomy paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P A; Thomasma, D C; Daar, A S

    1996-03-01

    The severe shortage of organs for transplantation and the continual reluctance of the public to voluntarily donate has prompted consideration of alternative strategies for organ procurement. This paper explores the development of market approaches for procuring human organs for transplantation and considers the social and moral implications of organ donation as both a "gift of life" and a "commodity exchange." The problematic and paradoxical articulation of individual autonomy in relation to property rights and marketing human body parts is addressed. We argue that beliefs about proprietorship over human body parts and the capacity to provide consent for organ donation are culturally constructed. We contend that the political and economic framework of biomedicine, in western and non-western nations, influences access to transplantation technology and shapes the form and development of specific market approaches. Finally, we suggest that marketing approaches for organ procurement are and will be negotiated within cultural parameters constrained by several factors: beliefs about the physical body and personhood, religious traditions, economic conditions, and the availability of technological resources.

  2. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Paradox Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Paradox Basin located in the southeastern part of Utah. Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Permian Basin in Texas and Gulf Interior Region salt domes in Louisiana and Mississippi) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homogeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptual design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  3. [Dream in the land of paradoxical sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pire, E; Herman, G; Cambron, L; Maquet, P; Poirrier, R

    2008-01-01

    Paradoxical sleep (PS or REM sleep) is traditionally a matter for neurophysiology, a science of the brain. Dream is associated with neuropsychology and sciences of the mind. The relationships between sleep and dream are better understood in the light of new methodologies in both domains, particularly those of basic neurosciences which elucidate the mechanisms underlying SP and functional imaging techniques. Data from these approaches are placed here in the perspective of rather old clinical observations in human cerebral lesions and in the phylogeny of vertebrates, in order to support a theory of dream. Dreams may be seen as a living marker of a cognitivo-emotional process, called here "eidictic process", involving posterior brain and limbic structures, keeping up during wakefulness, but subjected, at that time, to the leading role of a cognitivo-rational process, called here "thought process". The last one is of instrumental origin in human beings. It involves prefrontal cortices (executive tasks) and frontal/parietal cortices (attention) in the brain. Some clinical implications of the theory are illustrated.

  4. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Paradox Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Meyer, D.; Case, J.B.; Coons, W.E.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Paradox Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Paraodx Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal components used in the shaft seal system are concrete bulkheads interspersed with highly compacted bentonite-rich earth fill. In the repository-level tunnels and rooms, the principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Paradox Basin Cycle 6 salt, analyses indictate that this process will require approximately 300 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 140 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary

  5. Spatial competition with intermediated matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.; Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial competition in commission fees between two match makers. These match makers serve as middlemen between buyers and sellers who are located uniformly on a circle. The profits of the match makers are determined by their respective market sizes. A limited willingness to

  6. Top of the Most Dangerous Food Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Zaslavskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the rating of the risk of infection by food parasites, which was published the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food Agriculture Organisation in 2014, cryptosporidiosis is on the 5th place. It is a parasitic protozoan disease, belongs to the genus Cryptosporidium type Apicomplexa. About 20 species of Cryptosporidium are revealed and known now. The incubation period of cryptosporidiosis lasts from 4 to 14 days. The main and most typical clinical manifestation of the disease — a profuse watery diarrhea, as well as clinically possible cryptosporidiosis of the biliary tract and broncho-pulmonary (respiratory cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis diagnosis is based on laboratory studies of faeces (in vivo and pathological material (posthumously, taking into account epizootic, clinical and postmortem data. Causal treatment is not developed. But it is possible to control the diarrhea caused by this infection. Specific preventive management of cryptosporidiosis is not developed. Personal hygiene measures are necessary. The 6th most dangerous food parasitosis is Entamoeba histolytica. This intestinal protozoa disease is characterized by ulcerative lesions of the colon, chronic protracted course with the risk of the formation of abscesses in the liver and various organs. The causative agent of ame­biasis — Entamoeba histolytica — belongs to the genus Entamoeba, family Entamoebidae, the simplest type — Protozoa. According to the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee (1970, there are three clinical forms of amebiasis: intestinal, extra-intestinal and skin. Diagnostic microscopy of the native smears of fresh feces in saline solution and smears stained with Lugol’s solution is carried out. In the presence of clinical signs of intestinal amebiasis and negative results of parasitological studies, serological tests are used based on the detection of specific antibodies against Entamoeba. There are several groups of drugs for

  7. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, H.; Berg, van den H.; Kylin, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective: We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT

  8. Quantum Bayesian networks with application to games displaying Parrondo's paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Michael

    Bayesian networks and their accompanying graphical models are widely used for prediction and analysis across many disciplines. We will reformulate these in terms of linear maps. This reformulation will suggest a natural extension, which we will show is equivalent to standard textbook quantum mechanics. Therefore, this extension will be termed quantum. However, the term quantum should not be taken to imply this extension is necessarily only of utility in situations traditionally thought of as in the domain of quantum mechanics. In principle, it may be employed in any modelling situation, say forecasting the weather or the stock market---it is up to experiment to determine if this extension is useful in practice. Even restricting to the domain of quantum mechanics, with this new formulation the advantages of Bayesian networks can be maintained for models incorporating quantum and mixed classical-quantum behavior. The use of these will be illustrated by various basic examples. Parrondo's paradox refers to the situation where two, multi-round games with a fixed winning criteria, both with probability greater than one-half for one player to win, are combined. Using a possibly biased coin to determine the rule to employ for each round, paradoxically, the previously losing player now wins the combined game with probabilitygreater than one-half. Using the extended Bayesian networks, we will formulate and analyze classical observed, classical hidden, and quantum versions of a game that displays this paradox, finding bounds for the discrepancy from naive expectations for the occurrence of the paradox. A quantum paradox inspired by Parrondo's paradox will also be analyzed. We will prove a bound for the discrepancy from naive expectations for this paradox as well. Games involving quantum walks that achieve this bound will be presented.

  9. Organizations must match assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The unprofitable state of the Canadian oil industry, the adverse economic environment, the difficulty of finding capital, and the diminishing resources of conventional lighter crude oil make it necessary for Canadian oil companies to match their organizations and their financing to their assets. This is illustrated according to the experience of Saskoil, a Saskatchewan oil and gas company. An increasing production of oil and natural gas, and an increasing amount of new oil production as heavy oil, led to organizational changes such as the purchase of an asphalt plant to provide the company with downstream experience, establishing a working group to explore and develop heavy oil resources, and forming a company to manage non-core assets. The latter company, Pasqua Resources, manages assets such as small properties and ownership interests in order to increase the operating efficiency of Saskoil. Pasqua provides Saskoil with a corporate and organizational vehicle to accommodate partnerships and joint venture capital invested in property purchase opportunities, and to manage any of Saskoil's divestiture activities

  10. male knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has been unacceptably high over the ... In addition to this, the autonomy of pregnant women to access health care is ... practices concerning antenatal care, knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy and ...

  11. Regulations concerning marine transport and storage of dangerous things (abridged)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shows the Ordinances No.84 (1967) and No.30 (1957) of the Ministry of transport. The Ordinance No.84 has been published in detail elsewhere. The provisions concerning shipping transport and storage of dangerous substances deal with isolation of each dangerous substance, method for loading (cleaning of container, etc.), certificate for ship for transporting dangerous substances, renewal of certificate for ship for transporting dangerous substances, return of certificate, fee (for renewal and reissue of certificate), definition of terms, type of radioactive cargo (L-type cargo, A-type cargo, BM-type cargo, BU type cargo), transport of radioactive substances, type of fissionable cargo (Type I, Type II and Type III), confirmation of safety concerning radioactive cargo (conformity to standards, inspection, approval, etc.), limit of cargo volume, transport index, marking (type of cargo), confirmation of safety of transport, inspection of contamination, notice of transport, special measures, inspection of cargo (radioactive substances), requirements for container and package, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Ways out of danger. Wege aus der Gefahr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, E

    1981-01-01

    The volume divides into five sections: ways out of danger; pressure leading into danger; what might save us, and will it grow to become effective; tedious paths out of danger; companions out of danger. The author puts the question whether the true art of politics will be restored. He shows that by reducing politics to mere crisis management we shall not be enabled to overcome the serious problems of the eighties. He points out future possibilities by making clear the chances and misdevelopments of energy policy, of foreign, development and defence policy. The political experience of recent years, the new approach showing different needs and ways of life should be taken seriously as hopeful signs and ought to be reflected in politics again.

  13. Danger Signals Activating the Immune Response after Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hirsiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that resembles the host response during sepsis. The inflammatory response following trauma comprises various systems of the human body which are cross-linked with each other within a highly complex network of inflammation. Endogenous danger signals (danger-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs; alarmins as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs play a crucial role in the initiation of the immune response. With popularization of the “danger theory,” numerous DAMPs and PAMPs and their corresponding pathogen-recognition receptors have been identified. In this paper, we highlight the role of the DAMPs high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1, interleukin-1α (IL-1α, and interleukin-33 (IL-33 as unique dual-function mediators as well as mitochondrial danger signals released upon cellular trauma and necrosis.

  14. An exploratory study of international tourists' perception of danger in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... gender, group composition and time of day have an influence on the perception of ... relatively safe, the differences in perceived danger between the three ...

  15. Sentencing dangerous offenders: policy and practice in the Crown Court

    OpenAIRE

    Henham, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Crown Courts' use of protective sentencing powers under s.80(2)(b), s.85, and s.109 of 2000 Act and whether preference for s.85 reflects fundamental flaw in leaving determination of "dangerousness" to judiciary.

  16. 8. knowledge and perception of women towards danger signs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Sometimes a pregnant woman may experience signs and symptoms which signal danger. ... order to raise women's awareness and enable them to seek care when they .... midwifery students graduate with the skills to teach women and ...

  17. Designing HIGH-COST medicine: hospital surveys, health planning, and the paradox of progressive reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Barbara Bridgman

    2010-02-01

    Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas' hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs.

  18. Modelling human behaviours and reactions under dangerous environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions...

  19. Overcoming negative tendencies concerning public attitude to potentially dangerous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.; Shmelev, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Moscow Scientific industrial Association RADON is an enterprise with potentially dangerous technology. RADON fulfils the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from Moscow region. The inhabitants of this region consider it, and that is true, to be essentially dangerous. We understood, that it is necessary to change the situation and give the public the true information about RADON's activity. For this purpose 4 years ago we developed a new Department, the Department or External Relations

  20. The Economic Side Effects of Dangerous Drug Announcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Dranove, David; Olsen, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Immediately prior to the passage of the 1962 Food and Drug Administration Amendments, there were a number of drugs recalled from markets worldwide. Announcements about the dangerous side effects of these drugs were associated with lower-share prices for their manufacturers and the industry as a whole. We perform several analyses to sort out alternative explanations for the observed declines. We find that dangerous drug announcements had no effect on the sales of other drugs and didn't affect ...

  1. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  2. Resolving the paradox of suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    When humans engage in commercial (totally probabilistic) gambling they are making suboptimal choices because the return is generally less than the investment. This review (a) examines the literature on pigeon suboptimal choice, (b) describes the conditions under which it occurs, (c) identifies the mechanisms that appear to be responsible for the effect, and (d) suggests that similar processes may be able to account for analogous suboptimal choice when humans engage in commercial gambling. Pigeons show suboptimal choice when they choose between 1 alternative that 20% of the time provides them with a signal that they will always get fed or 80% of the time with a signal that they will not get fed (overall 20% reinforcement) and a second alternative that 100% of the time provides them with a signal that they will get fed 50% of the time (overall 50% reinforcement). The pigeons' strong preference for the suboptimal choice was investigated in a series of experiments that found the preference for the suboptimal alternative was determined by the value of the signal that predicted reinforcement, rather its frequency and that the frequency of the signal that predicted nonreinforcement had little effect on the suboptimal choice. Paradoxically, this account makes the prediction that pigeons will be indifferent between an alternative that 50% of the time provides a fully predictive stimulus for reinforcement and an alternative that 100% of the time provides a fully predictive stimulus for reinforcement. The similarities and differences of this suboptimal choice task to human gambling are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Embolia paradojal inminente Impending paradoxical embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Veltri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de un trombo venoso atrapado en un defecto interauricular e insinuándose en las cavidades izquierdas configura una forma extremadamente inusual de enfermedad tromboembólica denominada embolia paradojal inminente. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 71 años, sometido 10 días antes a adenomectomía prostática, que consultó por disnea y mareos. Se le diagnosticó tromboembolismo pulmonar bilateral por tomografía axial computada helicoidal. Se lo anticoaguló con heparina sódica y se le realizó un ecocardiograma transesofágico que mostró un trombo que atravesaba el foramen oval y se alojaba en la aurícula izquierda. No presentaba signos clínicos de embolización sistémica. Se realizó la embolectomía quirúrgica y cierre del defecto auricular. El paciente falleció.An intracardiac thrombus traversing a patent foramen ovale is a very infrequent but potentially catastrophic complication of the thromboembolic disease. It is named "impending paradoxical embolism". We report the case of a 71 year old Caucasian male warded in ten days after a prostatectomy because of bilateral pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis was confirmed by HCT scan and the patient received anticoagulation with heparin. A transesophageal ecocardiogram disclosed a thrombus traversing foramen ovale into the left atrium. Surgical embolectomy was performed, but the patient died shortly after surgery.

  4. The heterosexual singles scene: putting danger into pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, R; Rosenthal, D; Moore, S

    1996-06-01

    The juxtaposition of pleasure and danger has engaged many feminist theorists and researchers in the field of sexuality. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the ambiguous and complex relationship between 'pleasure', 'danger' and contemporary feminist theory. In doing so, it offers an understanding of the ways in which the categories of pleasure and danger operate within the discourses of heterosexuality to construct perceptions of risk in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from a study of the sexual attitudes and practices of 112 sexually-active, single, heterosexual adults (58 men and 54 women), aged 20 to 40 years (mean = 27 years) who agreed to be interviewed when approached at night-clubs and public "singles' bars around Melbourne, Australia. The qualitative analysis presented here is consistent with a poststructuralist feminism. First, we discuss how sexuality cannot be cast solely as pleasurable or dangerous. Second, we demonstrate how heterosexualized notions of pleasure and danger operate to provide misperceptions of risk from HIV/AIDS transmission. Third, we identify the ways in which the logic of identity functions to obscure risk within the discourse of heterosexuality, and finally we attempt to forge new ways of practising pleasure which disrupt heterosexist discourses and allow for pleasures which incorporate danger.

  5. Paradoxical effect of spatially homogenous transparent fields on simultaneous contrast illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Erica; Shapiro, Arthur G

    2014-04-01

    In simultaneous brightness contrast (SBC) demonstrations, identical mid-luminance disks appear different from each other when one is placed on a black background while the other is placed on a white background. The strength of SBC effects can be enhanced by placing a semi-transparent layer on top of the display (Meyer's effect). Here, we try to separate the causes of Meyer's effect by placing a spatially homogenous transparent layer over a standard SBC display, and systematically varying the transmission level (alpha=0, clear; alpha=1, opaque) and color (black, gray, white) of the semi-transparent layer. Spatially homogenous transparent layers, which lack spatial cues, cannot be unambiguously interpreted as transparent fields. We measure SBC strength with both matching and ranking procedures. Paradoxically, with black layers, increasing alpha level weakens SBC when measured with a ranking procedure (no Meyer's effect) and strengthens SBC when measured with a matching procedure (Meyer's effect). With white and gray layers, neither procedure produces Meyer's effect. We account for the differences between white and black layers by positing that the visual system separates luminance from contrast. The results suggest that observers attend to different information in the matching and ranking procedures.

  6. DOE Matching Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-01-01

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University

  7. Where Was Everybody? Olaf Stapledon and the Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, S.

    In 1948 Olaf Stapledon gave an address to the BIS in which he summarised his vision of mankind's cosmic future: `One can imagine some sort of cosmical community of worlds ...' One might ask, however, since the universe is vastly older than mankind, why races on other worlds have not already built such a community. This is a `Fermi Paradox' question. The Paradox is based on the observation that there has been time for extraterrestrial intelligence to arise and colonise the Galaxy many times over, yet we see no sign of such endeavours. In this paper Stapledon's novels are retrospectively analysed from the point of view of the Fermi Paradox. In Last and First Men (1930) humanity is forever isolated because life and mind are rare in the Galaxy, and interstellar distances are too large ever to be traversed. These are classic candidate Fermi `solutions'. The `solution' implicit in Star Maker (1937) might be criticised in that it posits that humanity lives at a special epoch, with the cosmically transforming development of interstellar travel occurring a `mere' ten billion years after mankind, in a universe supposedly ~200bn years old. Stapledon died in 1950, the year the Paradox was formulated, and was probably unaware of the Paradox. However to apply retrospectively Fermi thinking to Stapledon's cosmologies is to gain a new insight into the author's philosophy.

  8. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  9. Probability matching and strategy availability

    OpenAIRE

    J. Koehler, Derek; Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2010-01-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought...

  10. An Incentive Theory of Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alessio J. G.; Merkl, Christian; Snower, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the labour market matching process by distinguishing its two component stages: the contact stage, in which job searchers make contact with employers and the selection stage, in which they decide whether to match. We construct a theoretical model explaining two-sided selection through microeconomic incentives. Firms face adjustment costs in responding to heterogeneous variations in the characteristics of workers and jobs. Matches and separations are described through firms'...

  11. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in single pairs of images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Eric; Denis, Séverine; Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Devaux, Fabrice

    2015-10-05

    Spatially entangled twin photons provide a test of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox in its original form of position (image plane) versus impulsion (Fourier plane). We show that recording a single pair of images in each plane is sufficient to safely demonstrate an EPR paradox. On each pair of images, we have retrieved the fluctuations by subtracting the fitted deterministic intensity shape and then have obtained an intercorrelation peak with a sufficient signal to noise ratio to safely distinguish this peak from random fluctuations. A 95% confidence interval has been determined, confirming a high degree of paradox whatever the considered single pairs. Last, we have verified that the value of the variance of the difference between twin images is always below the quantum (poissonian) limit, in order to ensure the particle character of the demonstration. Our demonstration shows that a single image pattern can reveal the quantum and non-local behavior of light.

  12. A paradox for traffic dynamics in complex networks with ATIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jianfeng; Gao Ziyou

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we study the statistical properties of traffic (e.g., vehicles) dynamics in complex networks, by introducing advanced transportation information systems (ATIS). The ATIS can provide the information of traffic flow pattern throughout the network and have an obvious effect on path routing strategy for such vehicles equipped with ATIS. The ATIS can be described by the understanding of link cost functions. Different indices such as efficiency and system total cost are discussed in depth. It is found that, for random networks (scale-free networks), the efficiency is effectively improved (decreased) if ATIS is properly equipped; however the system total cost is largely increased (decreased). It indicates that there exists a paradox between the efficiency and system total cost in complex networks. Furthermore, we report the simulation results by considering different kinds of link cost functions, and the paradox is recovered. Finally, we extend our traffic model, and also find the existence of the paradox

  13. Bernstein's paradox of entangled quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, A V; Chirkin, A S

    2013-01-01

    Bernstein's classical paradox of a regular colored-faced tetrahedron, while designed to illustrate the subtleties of probability theory, is strongly flawed in being asymmetric. Faces of tetrahedron are nonequivalent: three of them are single-colored, and one is many-colored. Therefore, even prior to formal calculations, a strong suspicion as to the independence of the color resulting statistics arises. Not so with entangled quantum states. In the schematic solutions proposed, while photon detection channels are completely symmetric and equivalent, the events that occur in them turn out to be statistically dependent, making the Bernstein paradox even more impressive due to the unusual behavior of quantum particles not obeying classical laws. As an illustrative example of the probability paradox, Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger multiqubit states are considered. (methodological notes)

  14. Paradoxes in virtual team knowledge communication and trust building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Braad

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proposal presents paradoxes within current trust and knowledge management literatures as a lens for understanding challenges in virtual teams working across organisational and geographic boundaries. By exposing contradictions within current virtual team research, the author proposes...... a need for a different, multi-level, multi-theoretical approach to virtual team research in order to overcome the paradoxes. A moderate constructionist research position building on Critical Realism is proposed. To situate the project within current literatures, trust, knowledge management and virtual...... team literatures are reviewed. These are used to support the paradoxes used as a lens for understanding. A research design is presented building on interviews, documentary analysis and observations analysed using Social Network Analysis and James Gee’s framework for discourse analysis. Finally...

  15. Traversing boundaries: thrombus in transit with paradoxical embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Miriyala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old male is diagnosed with paradoxical embolus after he presented with concurrent deep vein thrombosis, stroke, and multiple arterial emboli in the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO. Paradoxical embolus requires the passage of a thrombus from the venous into the arterial circulation through a right-to-left shunt leading to systemic embolism. But, despite the high incidence of PFO (27.3% across all age groups by autopsy, paradoxical embolism (PDE is uncommon, representing <2% of all arterial emboli. We present a case report where a thrombus has been directly observed passing through the PFO during an echocardiogram study; thus, clearly delineating the true cause of multiple thromboemboli and stoke in our patient. Subsequent Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE also interestingly showed the thrombus in transit in the aorta and pulmonary artery.

  16. The Colombian Left: A Paradoxical Past; A Promising Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bergquist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the paradoxical history of the left in Colombia: how and why one of the weakest lefts in Latin America brought about the strongest and most lasting Marxist insurrection in the hemisphere in the decades following the Cuban Revolution. The article argues that the terms of this paradox are related, that the historic weakness of the left partly explains the force and longevity of revolutionary guerrillas, and that said paradox helps clarify not only the failure of several attempts to achieve a negotiated settlement of the armed conflict, but also the negative vote in the October 2016 plebiscite. Finally, it envisions a more promising future for the country’s left, provided that a lasting peace is consolidated.

  17. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment.

  18. Dangerous and severe personality disorder: an ethical concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Sally

    2005-04-01

    Most clinicians and mental health practitioners are reluctant to work with people with dangerous and severe personality disorders because they believe there is nothing that mental health services can offer. Dangerous and severe personality disorder also signals a diagnosis which is problematic morally. Moral philosophy has not found an adequate way of dealing with personality disorders. This paper explores the question: What makes a person morally responsible for his actions and what is a legitimate mitigating factor? How do psychiatric nurses working with this client group understand the awful things some clients do? What concepts do they need, if they are to know how to explain and how to react? It is suggested that dangerous and severe personality disorder is best regarded as a moral category, framed in terms of goodness, badness, obligation and other ethical concepts. It seems plausible that in important ways the dangerous and severe personality disordered client does not understand morality or understands it differently. The peculiar position of the dangerous and severe personality disordered individual in our system of moral responsibility stems from his apparent inability to see the importance of the interests of others. It might be more helpful to regard personality disordered clients as we do children: partially but not fully reasonable for their actions. We might regard the dangerous and severe personality disordered client responsible for those actions which he most clearly understands, such as causing others physical pain, but not for those with which he is only superficially engaged, such as causing emotional pain. The paper concludes by suggesting that the dangerous and severe personality disordered individual does not fit easily into any conventional moral category, be it criminal, patient, animal or child, and thus an assessment of his moral accountability must take into consideration his special circumstances.

  19. On Aerts' overlooked solution to the EPR paradox

    OpenAIRE

    de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli

    2018-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox was enunciated in 1935 and since then it has made a lot of ink flow. Being a subtle result, it has also been largely misunderstood. Indeed, if questioned about its solution, many physicists will still affirm today that the paradox has been solved by the Bell-test experimental results, which have shown that entangled states are real. However, this remains a wrong view, as the validity of the EPR ex-absurdum reasoning is independent from the Bell-test e...

  20. The Obesity Paradox: A Misleading Term That Should Be Abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Katherine M; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-04-01

    The term "obesity paradox" is a figure of speech, not a scientific term. The term has no precise definition and has been used to describe numerous observations that have little in common other than the finding of an association of obesity with a favorable outcome. The terminology has led to misunderstandings among researchers and the public alike. It's time for authors and editors to abandon the use of this term. Simply labeling counterintuitive findings as the "obesity paradox" adds no value. Unexpected findings should not be viewed negatively; such findings can lead to new knowledge, better treatments, and scientific advances. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  1. The dissolver paradox as a coupled fast-thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.F.; Webb, P.S.

    1993-05-01

    The dissolver paradox is treated as coupled fast-thermal reactors. Each reactor is sub-critical but the coupling is sufficient to form a critical system. The practical importance of the system occurs when the fast system by itself is mass limited and the thermal system by itself is volume limited. Numerous 1D calculations have been made to calculate the neutron multiplication parameters of the separate fast and thermal systems that occur in the dissolver paradox. A model has been developed to describe the coupling between the systems. Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNP code have tested the model

  2. R and D Policies, Carbon Tax and Green Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Neubauer, Mauricio; Grimaud, Andre; Rouge, Luc

    2016-01-01

    We study an economy in which a final good is produced by two sectors. One uses a non-renewable and polluting resource, the other a renewable and clean resource. A specific type of research is associated with each sector. The public authorities levy a carbon tax and simultaneously subsidise both research sectors. We study the impact of such a policy scheme on the rate of resource extraction and emissions. In the clean sector, the research subsidy and the carbon tax have opposite effects. If the tax creates a green paradox, the subsidy moderates it; if the tax slows resource extraction, then the subsidy generates a green paradox

  3. Resolving the Innovation Diffusion Paradox in Mobile App Stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Bingqing; Tan, Chee-Wee; Wang, Weiquan

    2017-01-01

    to the abundance of apps and multitudinous promotional information. To this end, this study proposes branding as a strategy to tackle the innovation diffusion paradox. Specifically, we construct a research model that posits consumers’ brand awareness as an antecedent affecting their brand association and quality......The growing number of apps released on a daily basis has contributed to an innovation diffusion paradox whereby the frequency and intensity by which innovations are crowdsourced are stymieing their own diffusion. In mobile app stores, consumers are often constrained in their selection due...

  4. Testing the Transivity Explanation of the Allais Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a two-dimensional version of a standard common consequence experiment to test the intransitivity explanation of Allais-paradox-type violations of expected utility theory. We compare the common consequence effect of two choice problems differing only with respect to whether...... intransitivity as an explanation of the Allais Paradox. The question whether violations of expected utility are mainly due to intransitivity or to violation of independence is important since it is exactly on this issue the main new decision theories differ...

  5. Differing types of cellular phone conversations and dangerous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Chris S; Martin, Benjamin A; Fox, Russell T; Leonard, Robin L

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between cell phone conversation type and dangerous driving behaviors. It was hypothesized that more emotional phone conversations engaged in while driving would produce greater frequencies of dangerous driving behaviors in a simulated environment than more mundane conversation or no phone conversation at all. Participants were semi-randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) no call, (2) mundane call, and, (3) emotional call. While driving in a simulated environment, participants in the experimental groups received a phone call from a research confederate who either engaged them in innocuous conversation (mundane call) or arguing the opposite position of a deeply held belief of the participant (emotional call). Participants in the no call and mundane call groups differed significantly only on percent time spent speeding and center line crossings, though the mundane call group consistently engaged in more of all dangerous driving behaviors than did the no call participants. Participants in the emotional call group engaged in significantly more dangerous driving behaviors than participants in both the no call and mundane call groups, with the exception of traffic light infractions, where there were no significant group differences. Though there is need for replication, the authors concluded that whereas talking on a cell phone while driving is risky to begin with, having emotionally intense conversations is considerably more dangerous. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulations concerning marine transport and storage of dangerous things (abridged)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    When the dangerous things of different classes or items are loaded on a same ship, they shall be separated mutually according to the specified standards. Containers shall be cleaned well before loading dangerous things. When there is the danger of heating, gasification, corrosion and other critical physical or chemical processes by the mutual action of the dangerous things of different items or dangerous things and other goods, they must not be loaded in a same container. Basic terms are defined, such as radioactive transported goods, fissile transported goods and exclusive loading. Radioactive transported goods are classified into types of L, A, BM and BU, and fissile transported goods into 3 kinds. Each type of these goods is defined in size and radioactivity. When the makers of radioactive transported goods pack radioactive materials into the transported goods of type BM or BU, they shall get before shipment the confirmation of the Minister of Transport concerning the standard to which these goods conform. The maximum radiation dose rate must not exceed 200 milli-rem an hour on the surface and 10 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from the surfaces of containers loaded with radioactive transported goods. Signs, the limit of shipment and other related matters are prescribed in detail. (Okada, K.)

  7. Regulations concerning marine transport and storage of dangerous things (abridged)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    When the dangerous things of different classes or items are loaded on a same ship, they shall be separated mutually according to the specified standards. Containers shall be cleaned well before loading dangerous things. When there is the danger of heating, gasification, corrosion and other critical physical or chemical processes by the mutual action of the dangerous things of different items or dangerous things and other goods, they must not be loaded in a same container. Basic terms are defined, such as radioactive transported goods, fissile transported goods and exclusive loading. Radioactive transported goods are classified into types of L, A, BM and BU, and fissile transported goods into 3 kinds. Each type of these goods is defined in size and radioactivity. When the makers of radioactive transported goods pack radioactive materials into the transported goods of type BM or BU, they shall get before shipment the confirmation of the Minister of Transport concerning the standard to which these goods conform. The maximum radiation dose rate must not exceed 200 milli-rem an hour on the surface and 10 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from the surfaces of containers loaded with radioactive transported goods. Signs, the limit of shipment and other related matters are prescribed in detail. (Kubozono, M.)

  8. DOE Matching Grant Program; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-01-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided$50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of$50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The$100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network

  9. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  10. Platform pricing in matching markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, M.; van Cayseele, P.; Willekens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of monopoly platform pricing accounting for two pertinent features of matching markets. 1) The trading process is characterized by search and matching frictions implying limits to positive cross-side network effects and the presence of own-side congestion.

  11. Statistical methods for history matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent

    Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history m...

  12. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  13. Separating models, ideas, and data to avoid a paradox : Rejoinder to Humphry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, K.; Emons, W.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a rejoinder to Humphry’s (2013) comment on Sijtsma (2012). Sijtsma argued that the Rasch paradox does not exist but Humphry replies that the Rasch paradox can occur provided the measurement procedure is precise enough. The rejoinder argues that the debates about the Rasch paradox

  14. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  15. Efficient line matching with homography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Dai, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to line matching based on homography. The basic idea is to use cheaply obtainable matched points to boost the similarity between two images. Two types of homography method, which are estimated by direct linear transformation, transform images and extract their similar parts, laying a foundation for the use of optical flow tracking. The merit of the similarity is that rapid matching can be achieved by regionalizing line segments and local searching. For multiple homography estimation that can perform better than one global homography, we introduced the rank-one modification method of singular value decomposition to reduce the computation cost. The proposed approach results in point-to-point matches, which can be utilized with state-of-the-art point-match-based structures from motion (SfM) frameworks seamlessly. The outstanding performance and feasible robustness of our approach are demonstrated in this paper.

  16. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating a...

  17. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug includes...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has... protective device for any lighting circuit that is in a gas-dangerous space must open each conductor of the...

  19. The match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Joshua; Meylan, César; Varley, Matthew C; Cronin, John

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer players utilising GPS, using full-match and rolling period analyses. Longitudinal study. Elite female soccer players (n=45) from the same national team were observed during 55 international fixtures across 5 years (2012-2016). Data was analysed using a custom built MS Excel spreadsheet as full-matches and using a rolling 5-min analysis period, for all players who played 90-min matches (files=172). Variation was examined using co-efficient of variation and 90% confidence limits, calculated following log transformation. Total distance per minute exhibited the smallest variation when both the full-match and peak 5-min running periods were examined (CV=6.8-7.2%). Sprint-efforts were the most variable during a full-match (CV=53%), whilst high-speed running per minute exhibited the greatest variation in the post-peak 5-min period (CV=143%). Peak running periods were observed as slightly more variable than full-match analyses, with the post-peak period very-highly variable. Variability of accelerations (CV=17%) and Player Load (CV=14%) was lower than that of high-speed actions. Positional differences were also present, with centre backs exhibiting the greatest variation in high-speed movements (CV=41-65%). Practitioners and researchers should account for within player variability when examining match performances. Identification of peak running periods should be used to assist worst case scenarios. Whilst micro-sensor technology should be further examined as to its viable use within match-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EMPLOYING SENSOR NETWORK TO GUIDE FIREFIGHTERS IN DANGEROUS AREA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt...... itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...

  1. The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1978 (Statutory Instrument 1543, 25 October 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Rules supersede the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rule of 1965 as amended by the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules of 1968 and 1972. The Rules now define 'dangerous goods' by reference to goods classified as dangerous for carriage by sea as well as any other goods whose properties might be dangerous it they were carried by sea. This classification is based on that of the 1978 Report of the Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods of the Department of Trade, and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code published by the Intergovernmental Maritime consultative Organisation. (NEA) [fr

  2. The potential predictability of fire danger provided by ECMWF forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), is currently being developed in the framework of the Copernicus Emergency Management Services to monitor and forecast fire danger in Europe. The system provides timely information to civil protection authorities in 38 nations across Europe and mostly concentrates on flagging regions which might be at high danger of spontaneous ignition due to persistent drought. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting system. The global system's potential predictability is assessed using re-analysis fields as weather forcings. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) provides 11 years of observed burned areas from satellite measurements and is used as a validation dataset. The fire indices implemented are good predictors to highlight dangerous conditions. High values are correlated with observed fire and low values correspond to non observed events. A more quantitative skill evaluation was performed using the Extremal Dependency Index which is a skill score specifically designed for rare events. It revealed that the three indices were more skilful on a global scale than the random forecast to detect large fires. The performance peaks in the boreal forests, in the Mediterranean, the Amazon rain-forests and southeast Asia. The skill-scores were then aggregated at country level to reveal which nations could potentiallty benefit from the system information in aid of decision making and fire control support. Overall we found that fire danger modelling based on weather forecasts, can provide reasonable predictability over large parts of the global landmass.

  3. Globalization and Religion in Historical Perspective: A Paradoxical Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke M. Herrington

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religion has long been a driving force in the process of globalization. This idea is not controversial or novel thinking, nor is it meant to be. However, the dominant reasoning on the subject of globalization, expressed by authors like Thomas Friedman, places economics at the center of analysis, skewing focus from the ideational factors at work in this process. By expanding the definition of globalization to accommodate ideational factors and cultural exchange, religion’s agency in the process can be enabled. Interestingly, the story of religion and globalization is in some ways the history of globalization, but it is riddled with paradoxes, including the agent-opponent paradox, the subject of this article. Religion and globalization have a co-constitutive relationship, but religious actors are both agents of globalization and principals in its backlash. While some actors might benefit from a mutually reinforcing relationship with globalization, others are marginalized in some way or another, so it is necessary to expose the links and wedges that allow for such a paradox. To that end, the concepts of globalization and religious actors must be defined, and the history of the agent-opponent paradox, from the Buddhists of the Silk Road to the Jubilee campaign of 2000, must be elucidated.

  4. Design principles of paradoxical signaling in the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval

    A widespread feature of cell-cell signaling systems is paradoxical pleiotropy: the same secreted signaling molecule can induce opposite effects in the responding cells. For example, the cytokine IL-2 can promote proliferation and death of T-cells. The role of such paradoxical signaling remains unclear. We suggest that this mechanism provides homeostatic concentration of cells, independent of initial conditions. The crux of the paradoxical mechanism is the combination of a positive and a negative feedback loops creating two stable states - an OFF state and an ON state. Experimentally, we found that CD4 + cells grown in culture with a 30-fold difference in initial concentrations reached a homeostatic concentration nearly independent of initial cell levels (ON-state). Below an initial threshold, cell density decayed to extinction (OFF-state). Mathematical modeling explained the observed cell and cytokine dynamics and predicted conditions that shifted cell fate from homeostasis to the OFF-state. We suggest that paradoxical signaling provides cell circuits with specific dynamical features that are robust to environmental perturbations.

  5. The paradoxical path towards the memorable guest experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio, Luigi; Madsen, Jan Halberg

    This paper examines the design of hospitality and tourism experiences staged for international tourists in the emerging Italian destination Campi Flegrei on the Bay of Naples. In particular, this case focuses on the paradox that Campi Flegrei (CF) hospitality providers around the Lake Avernus face...... in the conceptualisation of the guest experience in the context of a non-DMO governed destination....

  6. Which matrices are immune against the transportation paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deineko, Vladimir G.; Klinz, Bettina; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We characterize the m×n cost matrices of the transportation problem for which there exist supplies and demands such that the transportation paradox arises. Our characterization is fairly simple and can be verified within O(mn) computational steps. Moreover, we discuss the corresponding question for

  7. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  8. Managing Coopetition in Supplier Networks : A Paradox Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam; Sydow, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Scholars in the field of supply chain management have started to embrace the idea of simultaneous cooperation and competition (“coopetition”) in supplier networks but have mainly looked at coopetition from a structural perspective. In this paper, we complement the structural view with a paradox

  9. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    The St. Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St. Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St. Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial "seed" value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the median heuristic , strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St. Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St. Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  10. Climate policy and nonrenewable resources : The green paradox and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that well-intended climate policies–including carbon taxes and subsidies for renewable energy – might not accomplish what policy makers intend. Hans-Werner Sinn has described a "green paradox," arguing that these policies could hasten global warming by encouraging owners

  11. TilE PARADOX OF PEDAGOGY TRANSPOSITION: Learning From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A belief that a pedagogy developed and proven in one context may generalize or exist comfortably in other ... the new context. Further, paradox can be observed in the facilitation process ... the use of theory and pedagogy that have ... perspectives of educational change. While ..... communication and education systems -.

  12. Paradoxical implications of personal social media use for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Rice, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    New information and communication technologies can have paradoxical implications: they may be liberating and constraining at the same time. This field study examines the direct implications of personal social media use for work on employees’ autonomy and work pressure, and the indirect effects on

  13. Working-life - A paradox in Knowledge-Intensive Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2004-01-01

    A Working-Life Paradox in Knowledge Intensive Companies Keywords: Knowledge work, knowledge management, working-life, consulting companies. The purpose of this article is to identify the influence knowledge-work has on working life of the personnel in knowledge-intensive companies, more precisely...

  14. A Paradoxical Academic Identity: Fate, Utopia and Critical Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Using a dialectical mode of exposition, I offer a reflexive sociological theorisation of the paradox that characterises my academic identity: a fatalistic disenchantment concerning the colonisation of Higher Education (HE) by neoliberalism co-exists with a utopianism concerning HE's emancipatory possibilities. I begin with a discussion of Weber's…

  15. Time symmetry and interpretation of quantum mechanics. [Paradoxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Beauregard, O.C.

    1976-10-01

    A drastic resolution of the quantum paradoxes is proposed, combining (I) von Neumann's postulate that collapse of the state vector is due to the act of observation, and (II) my reinterpretation of von Neumann's quantal irreversibility as an equivalence between wave retardation and entropy increase, both being ''factlike'' rather than ''lawlike'' (Mehlberg). This entails a coupling of the two de jure symmetries between (I) retarded and (II) advanced waves, and between Aristotle's information as (I) learning and (II) willing awareness. Symmetric acceptance of cognizance as a source of retarded waves, and of will as a sink of advanced waves, is submitted as a central ''paradox'' of the Copernican or Einsteinian sort, out of which new light is shed upon previously known paradoxes, such as the EPR paradox, Schroedinger's cat, and Wigner's friend. Parapsychology is thus found to creep into the picture.

  16. Service Recovery Paradox In Indian Banking Industry: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunesh Garg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines existence of service recovery paradox in Indian banking industry. The study is taken up in the tri-city of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. The respondents are catego- rized into failure and no-failure groups on the basis of their service experience. Failure group consti- tutes those respondents who have experienced service recovery, and has been further divided into five sub-groups ranging from service recovery++ (service recovery better than expected to service recovery- - (service recovery worse than expected. Service recovery paradox is examined by com- paring service recovery++ group with no-failure group. The study shows evidence for existence of service recovery paradox in relation to satisfaction. It has been concluded that for service recovery paradox to exist, recovery effort has to be exceptionally good and much better than expectation level of the customer. The study suggests that service managers should take service failure as an opportunity to appease customers by providing a much better than expected recovery experience. However, organizations should not plan to create service failure situations because if they falter on imparting the recovery, customer satisfaction may be influenced negatively.

  17. The Content-Provider Paradox: Universities in the Information Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidhyanathan, Siva

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that universities' rush to abandon their role as "national parks" in the information ecosystem in favor of becoming profitable "content providers" has led to a paradox: to generate new knowledge, researchers and teachers need broad content freedom, but the role of content provider requires highly restrictive policies to…

  18. Inferences from the dark sky: Olbers' paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpino, Mauro; Scardigli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    The classical formulation of 'Olbers' paradox' consists in looking for an explanation of the fact that the sky at night is dark. We use the experimental datum of the nocturnal darkness in order to put constraints on a Newtonian cosmological model. We infer then that the stellar system in such a model should have had an origin at a finite time in the past

  19. Confucius Institutes and China's Soft Power: Practices and Paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Joe Tin-yau; Pan, Suyan

    2016-01-01

    Since China's implementation of the Confucius Institute (CI) project in 2004, most academic works have been written on its objectives, nature, features, development, problems and challenges, especially in terms of soft power projection. Though some of them could unravel the tensions and paradoxes in the CI project, there is a paucity of in-depth…

  20. A Paradox of Newtonian Gravitation and Laplace's Solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 5. A Paradox of Newtonian Gravitation and Laplace's Solution. General Article Volume ... A physical phenomenonthat can justify Laplace's suggestion isalso mentioned briefly. This article also posesan interesting mathematical problem that can ...

  1. Reflections on a Feminist Psychology of Women: Paradoxes and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    1985-01-01

    Reports an analysis of the methods and conclusions of articles published in Psychology of Women Quarterly from 1978 through 1981. Three paradoxes emerge from feminist psychology's commitent to contextual validity: the presumption of "progressive progress"; the implications of internal causes for social conditions; and the advancement of…

  2. A paradox of rationality à la von Neumann-Morgenstern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    We show that there are games and decision situations in which it is not possible for the decision maker to be rational a la von Neumann-Morgenstern in both situations simultaneously, which is the source of the paradox presented in this note. We provide an assumption which is the necessary and

  3. Strategic brand management: Archetypes for managing brands through paradoxes

    OpenAIRE

    Högström, Claes; Gustafsson, ,Anders; Tronvoll, Bård

    2015-01-01

    Although brands are acknowledged as significant assets in a firm's value creation and differentiation process, branding literature often describes opposing perspectives and contradictory demands. This article develops a framework of three strategic brand management archetypes that provide new insights into the complexity and often paradoxical ambiguity of branding. By combining an empirical qualitative study with extant brand management and relational exchange theory, the authors ...

  4. MCM Paradox: Abundance of Eukaryotic Replicative Helicases and Genomic Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mitali; Singh, Sunita; Pradhan, Satyajit; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2014-01-01

    As a crucial component of DNA replication licensing system, minichromosome maintenance (MCM) 2-7 complex acts as the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase. The six related MCM proteins form a heterohexamer and bind with ORC, CDC6, and Cdt1 to form the prereplication complex. Although the MCMs are well known as replicative helicases, their overabundance and distribution patterns on chromatin present a paradox called the "MCM paradox." Several approaches had been taken to solve the MCM paradox and describe the purpose of excess MCMs distributed beyond the replication origins. Alternative functions of these MCMs rather than a helicase had also been proposed. This review focuses on several models and concepts generated to solve the MCM paradox coinciding with their helicase function and provides insight into the concept that excess MCMs are meant for licensing dormant origins as a backup during replication stress. Finally, we extend our view towards the effect of alteration of MCM level. Though an excess MCM constituent is needed for normal cells to withstand stress, there must be a delineation of the threshold level in normal and malignant cells. This review also outlooks the future prospects to better understand the MCM biology.

  5. Merleau-Ponty on Human Motility and Libet's Paradox | Mooney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and-antedating” hypothesis/paradox based on the results of an on-going series of experiments dating back to 1964 that measured the neural adequacy [brain wave activity] of “conscious sensory experience”. What is fascinating about the ...

  6. Cajetan of Thiene on the Logic of Paradox

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-95 ISSN 1214-8407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-08389P Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Cajetan of Thiene * logical operators * semantic paradoxes * scholastic logic Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.

    1984-04-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  8. A classical model explaining the OPERA velocity paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Broda, Boguslaw

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the paradoxical results of the OPERA Collaboration, we have proposed a classical mechanics model yielding the statistically measured velocity of a beam higher than the velocity of the particles constituting the beam. Ingredients of our model necessary to obtain this curious result are a non-constant fraction function and the method of the maximum-likelihood estimation.

  9. Can Rose’s paradox be useful in crime prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Joshi, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Geoffrey Rose’s prevention paradox obtains when the majority of cases with an adverse outcome come from a population of low or moderate risk, and only a few from a minority ‘high risk’ group. Preventive treatment is then better targeted widely than on the ‘high risk’ minority. This study tests wh...

  10. Achievement Data in IEA Studies and Simpson's Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzovsky, Ruth; Steinberg, David M.; Libman, Zipi

    2011-01-01

    This paper is meant to highlight the occurrence of Simpson's Paradox when using aggregated data obtained from two IEA studies in Israel, while ignoring the effect of a powerful intervening variable in the local context--the ethnicity factor. It will demonstrate faulty conclusions regarding either the absence of relationships between a contextual…

  11. Simpson's Paradox in the Interpretation of "Leaky Pipeline" Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Paul H.; Walton, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional "leaky pipeline" plots are widely used to inform gender equality policy and practice. Herein, we demonstrate how a statistical phenomenon known as Simpson's paradox can obscure trends in gender "leaky pipeline" plots. Our approach has been to use Excel spreadsheets to generate hypothetical "leaky…

  12. Semantic paradox. A comparative analysis of scholastic and analytic views

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2014), s. 367-386 ISSN 2168-9105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-08389P Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : semantic paradoxes * scholastic logic * groundlessness * circularity * semantic pathology * two-line puzzles Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  13. Aggression; a Paradoxical pathology of the mind | Kitapondya | Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Aggression; a Paradoxical pathology of the mind.

  14. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Y. Hayden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The St.~Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St.~Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St.~Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial ``seed'' value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the extit{median} extit{heuristic}, strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St.~Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St.~Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  15. The green paradox of the economics of exhaustible resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The green paradox states that an increasing tax on emissions of carbon dioxide, consonant with the expected increase in their marginal damages, may induce oil producers to shift their production toward the present and thereby to exacerbate the problem of climatic change. The model is based on Hotelling models of resource use that do not take the natural and technical features of oil production into account. Natural features include the decline of production through time according to a decline curve. Technical features include the requirement to sink investment in productive capacity. A model of a profit-maximizing firm indicates that, if these features are taken into account, the prediction of the green paradox is unlikely. - Highlights: • The green paradox is a direct application of Hotelling′s rule from the economics of exhaustible resources. • Hotelling′s analysis was a profound contribution to economic thought but evidence for it is weak. • Hotelling-style analysis assumes incorrectly that production can be rearranged at will among time periods. • Technological and geological features of oil production make the prediction of the green paradox unlikely

  16. The Use of Paradoxes as an Instructional Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovac, John J.; Slavsky, David B.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study in which paradoxes about seasons, hemispheres, and altitude were used to teach concepts in climatology. The misconceptions commonly held about the earth-sun distance relationship were used as an instructional strategy with an experimental group, which outgained the control group on an achievement test. (TW)

  17. Chiral tunnelling and the Klein paradox in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsnelson, M.I.; Novoselov, K.S.; Geim, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    The so-called Klein paradox - unimpeded penetration of relativistic particles through high and wide potential barriers - is one of the most exotic and counterintuitive consequences of quantum electrodynamics. The phenomenon is discussed in many contexts in particle, nuclear and astro-physics but

  18. Paradox Basin site characterization report: preparation papers, Gibson Dome location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    This document contains Part C, Identification of Pertinent Issues, of the site characterization report. The site characterization report, preparation papers, includes a description of detailed field studies and efforts to collect data to resolve key geologic and environmental issues in the Gibson Dome location within the Paradox Basin Region of Utah

  19. Danburite in evaporites of the Paradox basin, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, O.B.; Madsen, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Danburite (CaB2Si2O8) has been found as nodules in Pennsylvanian age marine evaporites. The occurrence of danburite and its relation to the host rock in the Paradox basin evaporites indicates that it most likely formed by diagenetic reaction of boron-rich, high-salinity brines with constituents in the anhydrite host rock.-from Authors

  20. 2012 drug packaging review: many dangerous, reportable flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Drug packaging plays an important role in protecting and providing information to patients. The packaging examined by Prescrire in 2012, on the whole, still fails to perform all of these functions effectively. Two issues are especially worrisome. First, packaging too often poses a danger to children. In addition, too many patient leaflets provide incomplete information about adverse effects, thus failing to properly protect the most vulnerable patients. Yet, the method Prescrire used to analyse drug packaging shows that it is not difficult to detect and anticipate risks. It is up to healthcare professionals to take advantage of the method, to protect patients from, and report, dangerous packaging.

  1. The chemical industry - a danger to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtsberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power stations could contaminate large areas with radioactivity when destroyed by strong external influences. In Germany, authorities try to cope with this danger firstly by making certain demands on the strength of the reactor shell and secondly by imposing strict safety regulations on dangerous industrial plants in the surroundings of the reactor. In the case of chemical industry, this means: If a chemical plant and a nuclear reactor lie closely together, special stress is given to explosion pretection measures in the form of primary explosion protection, e.g. strong sealing of inflammable gases and liquids handled in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor. (orig.) [de

  2. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  3. Ordinance on the transport of dangerous goods by road (SDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This Ordinance regulates the transport of dangerous goods by road and replaces a similar Ordinance of 1972. The dangerous goods are listed in Annex A and the special provisions to be complied with for their transport are contained in Annex B. Radioactive materials, categorized as Class IVb, are included in the goods covered by the Ordinance. The Ordinance which entered into force on 1 May 1985 was amended on 9 April 1987 on a minor point and on 27 November 1989 so as to provide for special training for drivers of vehicles carrying such goods. This latter amendment entered into force on 1 January 1990. (NEA) [fr

  4. Paradoxes of Innovation in French Digital Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Baudry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The word ‘innovative’ and its lexical field of novelty are often used to market digital comics. This obsession with everything new implies a specific link to the past. Anything which breaks with prior methods or forms of graphic creation becomes innovative. However, the formal evolution of French digital comics does not match with this linear pattern of innovation. This paper presents an analysis of the idea of innovation in relation to the long-term history of French digital comics creation. Whilst the technical means of graphic creation have improved since the 1980s, does that necessarily mean that the form and aesthetics of digital comics have evolved simultaneously? What is the role played by traditional printed comics in the aesthetic evolution of digital comics? Starting with the 1990s, it is not the potentiality but the reality of technological innovation that we will try to understand through time.

  5. Identification and Assessment of Paradoxical Ventricular Wall Motion Using ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan - Comparison of cine Loop , Phase Analysis and Paradox Image -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Kim, Gwang Weon; Lee, Kyu Bo; Chung, Byung Chun; Whang, Kee Suk; Chae, Sung Chul; Paek, Wee Hyun; Cheon, Jae Eun; Lee, Hyong Woo; Chung, Jin Hong

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-four patients with paradoxical ventricular wall motion noticed both in angiocardiography or 2-dimensional echocardiography were assessed by ECG gated blood pool scan (GBPS). Endless cine loop image, phase and amplitude images and paradox image obtained by visual inspection of each cardiac beat or Fourier transformation of acquired raw data were investigated to determine the incremental value of GBPS with these processing methods for identification of paradoxical ventricular wall motion. The results were as follows:1) Paradoxical wall motions were observed on interventricular septum in 34 cases, left ventricular free wall in 26 and right ventricular wall in 24. Underlying heart diseases were is chemic (23 cases) valvular(9), congenital heart disease (12), cardiomyopathy (5), pericardial effusion(5), post cardiac surgery(3), corpulmonale (2), endocarditis (l) and right ventricular tumor(l). 2) Left ventricular ejection fractions of patients with paradoxical left ventricular wall motion were significantly lower than those with paradoxical septal motion (p <0.005). 3) The sensitivity of each processing methods for detecting paradoxical wall motion was 76.9% by phase analysis, 74.6% by endless cine loop mapping and 68.4% by paradox image manipulation respectively. Paradoxial motions visualized only in phase, paradox or both images were appeared as hypokinesia or akinesia in cine loop image. 4) All events could be identified by at least one of above three processing methods, however only 34 cases (48.4%) showed the paradoxical motions in all of the three images. By these findings, we concluded that simultaneous inspection of all above three processing methods-endless cine loop, phase analysis and paradox image is necessary for accurate identification and assessment of paradoxical ventricular wall motion when performing GBPS.

  6. Identification and Assessment of Paradoxical Ventricular Wall Motion Using ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan - Comparison of cine Loop , Phase Analysis and Paradox Image -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Kim, Gwang Weon; Lee, Kyu Bo; Chung, Byung Chun; Whang, Kee Suk; Chae, Sung Chul; Paek, Wee Hyun; Cheon, Jae Eun [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyong Woo; Chung, Jin Hong [Yeongnam National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Sixty-four patients with paradoxical ventricular wall motion noticed both in angiocardiography or 2-dimensional echocardiography were assessed by ECG gated blood pool scan (GBPS). Endless cine loop image, phase and amplitude images and paradox image obtained by visual inspection of each cardiac beat or Fourier transformation of acquired raw data were investigated to determine the incremental value of GBPS with these processing methods for identification of paradoxical ventricular wall motion. The results were as follows:1) Paradoxical wall motions were observed on interventricular septum in 34 cases, left ventricular free wall in 26 and right ventricular wall in 24. Underlying heart diseases were is chemic (23 cases) valvular(9), congenital heart disease (12), cardiomyopathy (5), pericardial effusion(5), post cardiac surgery(3), corpulmonale (2), endocarditis (l) and right ventricular tumor(l). 2) Left ventricular ejection fractions of patients with paradoxical left ventricular wall motion were significantly lower than those with paradoxical septal motion (p <0.005). 3) The sensitivity of each processing methods for detecting paradoxical wall motion was 76.9% by phase analysis, 74.6% by endless cine loop mapping and 68.4% by paradox image manipulation respectively. Paradoxial motions visualized only in phase, paradox or both images were appeared as hypokinesia or akinesia in cine loop image. 4) All events could be identified by at least one of above three processing methods, however only 34 cases (48.4%) showed the paradoxical motions in all of the three images. By these findings, we concluded that simultaneous inspection of all above three processing methods-endless cine loop, phase analysis and paradox image is necessary for accurate identification and assessment of paradoxical ventricular wall motion when performing GBPS.

  7. Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gyorgy

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dissimilarity measure called Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping (MMTM) is proposed. The MMTM technique allows matching under non-linear monotonic tone mappings and can be computed efficiently when the tone mappings are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. The proposed method is evaluated in various template matching scenarios involving simulated and real images, and compared to other measures developed to be invariant to monotonic intensity transformations. The results show that the MMTM technique is a highly competitive alternative of conventional measures in problems where possible tone mappings are close to monotonic.

  8. MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40).

  9. Paradoxes in carcinogenesis: New opportunities for research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Barnett S

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevailing paradigm in cancer research is the somatic mutation theory that posits that cancer begins with a single mutation in a somatic cell followed by successive mutations. Much cancer research involves refining the somatic mutation theory with an ever increasing catalog of genetic changes. The problem is that such research may miss paradoxical aspects of carcinogenesis for which there is no likely explanation under the somatic mutation theory. These paradoxical aspects offer opportunities for new research directions that should not be ignored. Discussion Various paradoxes related to the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis are discussed: (1 the presence of large numbers of spatially distinct precancerous lesions at the onset of promotion, (2 the large number of genetic instabilities found in hyperplastic polyps not considered cancer, (3 spontaneous regression, (4 higher incidence of cancer in patients with xeroderma pigmentosa but not in patients with other comparable defects in DNA repair, (5 lower incidence of many cancers except leukemia and testicular cancer in patients with Down's syndrome, (6 cancer developing after normal tissue is transplanted to other parts of the body or next to stroma previously exposed to carcinogens, (7 the lack of tumors when epithelial cells exposed to a carcinogen were transplanted next to normal stroma, (8 the development of cancers when Millipore filters of various pore sizes were was inserted under the skin of rats, but only if the holes were sufficiently small. For the latter paradox, a microarray experiment is proposed to try to better understand the phenomena. Summary The famous physicist Niels Bohr said "How wonderful that we have met with a paradox. Now we have some hope of making progress." The same viewpoint should apply to cancer research. It is easy to ignore this piece of wisdom about the means to advance knowledge, but we do so at our peril.

  10. Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erguen, E.L.; Caner, B.; Atalar, E.; Karanfil, A.; Tokgoezoglu, L.

    1998-01-01

    Dobutamine as a predominant beta-1 agonist increases heart rate and myocardial contractility and at sufficient high doses, it also increases systolic blood pressure. This study was undertaken to describe instances of paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT study and the relationship between scintigraphic findings and hypotension occurred during dobutamine infusion. Methods: In 201 consecutive patients unable to perform adequate exercise, dobutamine Tl-201 myocardial SPECT was performed. Dobutamine was infused starting from 10 μg/kg/min increasing to 40 μ/kg/min. Paradoxical hypotension was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg compared with baseline study. Paradoxical hypotension was observed in 40 patients (Group A) out of 201 (19.9%) while no significant change in systolic blood pressure was detected in the remaining 161 patients (Group B). Mean maximum fall in systolic blood pressure was 39±18 mmHg (range: 20-90). In 33 of 40 patients (83%) with paradoxical hypotension, scintigraphy was normal compared to 131 (81%) of the remaining 161 patients. In patients of Group A, angiography, echocardiography and tilt table tests were performed in 13, 11 and 6 patients respectively. Nine of 13 angiographic evaluations (69%), 10 of 11 echocardiographic evaluations (91%), all of the tilt table tests were normal. Additionally, all of the patients of Group A were clinically followed up at least 6 months after the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. None of the patients had a cardiac event except one patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial scintigraphy is not an uncommon finding and up to 19.9% patients may develop such hypotension. To maximize test safety, precautions should be taken during dobutamine myocardial stress test, since remarkable decrease in systolic blood pressure may occur. Unlike hypotension occurring with exercise

  11. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  12. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  13. Probability matching and strategy availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J; James, Greta

    2010-09-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought to their attention, more participants subsequently engage in maximizing. Third, matchers are more likely than maximizers to base decisions in other tasks on their initial intuitions, suggesting that they are more inclined to use a choice strategy that comes to mind quickly. These results indicate that a substantial subset of probability matchers are victims of "underthinking" rather than "overthinking": They fail to engage in sufficient deliberation to generate a superior alternative to the matching strategy that comes so readily to mind.

  14. Computing solutions for matching games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, Péter; Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël

    2012-01-01

    A matching game is a cooperative game (N, v) defined on a graph G = (N, E) with an edge weighting w : E → R+. The player set is N and the value of a coalition S ⊆ N is defined as the maximum weight of a matching in the subgraph induced by S. First we present an O(nm+n2 log n) algorithm that tests if

  15. Probability Matching, Fast and Slow

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2014-01-01

    A prominent point of contention among researchers regarding the interpretation of probability-matching behavior is whether it represents a cognitively sophisticated, adaptive response to the inherent uncertainty of the tasks or settings in which it is observed, or whether instead it represents a fundamental shortcoming in the heuristics that support and guide human decision making. Put crudely, researchers disagree on whether probability matching is "smart" or "dumb." Here, we consider eviden...

  16. Matching games with partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  17. Chemical industrial areas and their dynamic danger behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Audenaert, Amaryllis; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical industrial areas or so-called chemical clusters consist of various companies situated next to each other. Such areas are composed of hundreds of chemical installations exhibiting danger to a certain degree for initiating or continuing knock-on effects. In this paper, a methodology to model

  18. The Danger of Contempt in Universities and in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Segments of modern U.S. society are rewarding rather than punishing the expression of contempt. College campuses are increasingly becoming tolerant of expressions of contempt rather than of respect for diversity of opinions. Universities need to take an active role in teaching students the danger of contempt because of its role in the development…

  19. Radioactivity and dangerous radiation: safety and worker protection. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    1988-01-01

    This book discussed the aspects of radiological protection for radiation workers and working place in details. It covered all aspect in this subject, from the basic information of radiations which is dangerous for whom did not know much about it, to specific recommendations and procedures in order to work safely with it

  20. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available parameters such as flame length or rate of spread can be physically measured or modeled. Fire danger indices are not designed to describe the characteristics of a fire but rather the potential of a fire taking place in an area of interest [5]. Several...