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Sample records for damage functions due

  1. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (i) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (ii) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (iii) the rate of technological advance and diffusion (iv) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper we will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. We believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change.

  2. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A.

    1994-01-01

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (1) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (2) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (3) the rate of technological advance and diffusion, (4) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper the authors will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. The authors believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change

  3. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Odette, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  4. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova; Alexander M. Uzdin; Tatiana M. Chirkst

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thu...

  5. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thus, the risk will always be there, but it must be minimised. The task of optimising the reinforcement costs is solved by using the density distribution function for seismic effects of varying intensity, taking into account the degree of building responsibility. Results The distribution functions of the expected damage for a building with a reinforced concrete frame located in a highly seismic region with a repetition of 9-point shocks every 500 years and 10-point shocks once every 5000 years are constructed. A significant effect of the seismic resistance class of a building on the form of the distribution functions is shown. For structures of a high seismic resistance class, not only is the seismic risk reduced, but also the variance of the expected damage. From the graphs obtained, it can be seen that the seismic resistance class significantly affects the damage distribution. At a probability of 0.997, the expected damage for a non-reinforced building will exceed 43%; for a reinforced one it is only 10%. It also follows from the graphs that the variance of the damage magnitude decreases with the growth of the seismic resistance class of the building. This fact is an additional incentive for investing in antiseismic reinforcement of buildings. Conclusion The study shows the expediency of working with the damage density distribution function when managing seismic risk. In this case, it becomes possible to strengthen the building with a specified probability of

  6. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. [Attention system functions and their relationship with self-reported health in patients with brain damage due to tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, V N; Razumnikova, O M; Perfil'ev, A M; Stupak, V V

    2015-01-01

    To compare parameters of attention in healthy people and patients with neoplasms in different regions of the cerebral cortex and to evaluate quality of life (QoL) indices with regard to impairment of different attention systems. Twenty patients with oncological lesions of the brain (mean age 56.5±8.8 years) who did not undergo surgery were studied. Tumor localization was confirmed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, the tumor type was histologically verified. A control group included 18 healthy people matched for age, sex and education level. To determine attention system functions, we developed a computed version of the Attention Network Test. Error rate and reaction time for correct responses to the target stimulus, displayed along with neutral, congruent and incongruent signals, were the indicators of the efficacy of selective processes. QoL indices were assessed using SF-36 health survey questionnaire. The readiness to respond to incoming stimuli was mostly impaired in patients with brain tumors. Efficacy of executive attention, assessed as the increase in the number of errors in selection of visual stimuli, was decreased while temporary parameters of the functions of this system were not changed in patients compared to controls. The SF-36 total score was stable in patients with marked reduction in scores on the Role and Emotional Functioning scales. The most severe health impairment measured on the SF-36 scales of role/social emotional functioning and viability was recorded in patients with the lesions of frontal cortical areas compared to temporal/parietal areas. The relationship between SF-36 Health self-rating and attention systems was found. This finding puts the question of the importance of attention characteristics and QoL for survival prognosis of patients with brain tumors.

  8. Ovarian damage due to cyst removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlman, Signe; Kjer, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of endometriomas and potential damage to the ovary have been debated. Studies have described the inconsistent risk of unintended removal of ovarian tissue when a cystectomy of an endometrioma is performed. We evaluated the risk of inadvertently removed ovarian tis...

  9. Coupled analysis of building damage due to tunneling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Rots, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Excavation works in urban areas require a preliminary risk damage assessment. In historical cities, the prediction of building response to settlements is necessary to reduce the risk of damage of the architectural heritage. The current method used to predict the building damage due to ground

  10. Endothelial damage due to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dei Cas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The first human deaths due to air pollution were recorded in the mid-20th century. There were 6,000 cases of illness recorded in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and 20,000 in London in 1952; 15 and 4,000 cases of death, respectively, were allegedly ascribed to air pollution. Since then, many countries have adopted standards of air quality in order to protect environmental and human health, although the quality of the air in some industrialized countries remains worrying. Emerging countries in the Far East and South America are also cause for concern because of the growth in the population, industrialization and transport. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimated that air pollutants, particularly PM10, are associated with a mortality rate of 5% for cancer of the respiratory system, 2% for cardiovascular diseases and about 1% for respiratory tract infections. These estimates consider the mortality but not the morbidity rate, which would increase proportionally the number of cases of these pathologies, despite the difficulty in evaluation.

  11. Damage of plants due to peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Terakado, K.

    1974-02-01

    In Japan plant damages began to resemble those due to PAN about 1972. Exposure experiments with artifically synthesized PAN in an environment simulation room determined the concentration of PAN and its duration to examine the relationship between these data in the field and crop damage. Synthesized PAN created by irradiating a mixture of ethyl nitrate and oxygen with ultraviolet light gave results similar to those seen in fields. From the end of April to the end of November, damages to petunias seemingly due to PAN appeared 15 times. The symptoms differed with the variety of petunia. After 14 experiments in fields from September 20 to November 30 with a continuous determination of the environmental concentration of PAN, damages to petunia were confirmed on 6 days when the maximum PAN concentration range was 3.0-6.7 ppb. The duration of concentrations higher than 3 ppb was 2-13 hr. The most serious damage appeared on September 20 when a concentration of more than 5 ppb continued for 7 hours. No damage appeared with a long continuation (6-12 hr) of a lower concentration of PAN of 2 ppb. Inter-varietal grafting showed that the symptoms and the degree of damage due to PAN were influenced only by the physiological specificity of the aerial portion of the plant. Leaves which are most affected by PAN differed with the variety of petunia.

  12. Uncertainty in urban flood damage assessment due to urban drainage modelling and depth-damage curve estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, G; La Loggia, G; Notaro, V

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased occurrence of flooding events in urban areas, many procedures for flood damage quantification have been defined in recent decades. The lack of large databases in most cases is overcome by combining the output of urban drainage models and damage curves linking flooding to expected damage. The application of advanced hydraulic models as diagnostic, design and decision-making support tools has become a standard practice in hydraulic research and application. Flooding damage functions are usually evaluated by a priori estimation of potential damage (based on the value of exposed goods) or by interpolating real damage data (recorded during historical flooding events). Hydraulic models have undergone continuous advancements, pushed forward by increasing computer capacity. The details of the flooding propagation process on the surface and the details of the interconnections between underground and surface drainage systems have been studied extensively in recent years, resulting in progressively more reliable models. The same level of was advancement has not been reached with regard to damage curves, for which improvements are highly connected to data availability; this remains the main bottleneck in the expected flooding damage estimation. Such functions are usually affected by significant uncertainty intrinsically related to the collected data and to the simplified structure of the adopted functional relationships. The present paper aimed to evaluate this uncertainty by comparing the intrinsic uncertainty connected to the construction of the damage-depth function to the hydraulic model uncertainty. In this way, the paper sought to evaluate the role of hydraulic model detail level in the wider context of flood damage estimation. This paper demonstrated that the use of detailed hydraulic models might not be justified because of the higher computational cost and the significant uncertainty in damage estimation curves. This uncertainty occurs mainly

  13. A method for the estimation of the probability of damage due to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.

    1979-07-01

    The available information on seismicity within the United Kingdom has been combined with building damage data from the United States to produce a method of estimating the probability of damage to structures due to the occurrence of earthquakes. The analysis has been based on the use of site intensity as the major damage producing parameter. Data for structural, pipework and equipment items have been assumed and the overall probability of damage calculated as a function of the design level. Due account is taken of the uncertainties of the seismic data. (author)

  14. 78 FR 66852 - Housing Assistance Due to Structural Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... constructed. This type of housing would have a life expectancy of more than 5 years, but less than 25 years... FEMA-2010-0035] RIN 1660-AA68 Housing Assistance Due to Structural Damage AGENCY: Federal Emergency...'s repair, replacement, and housing construction assistance regulations that clarify the eligibility...

  15. Reduction in thermal conductivity of ceramics due to radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, P.G.; Hurley, G.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion reactors. In several of these applications, the thermal conductivity is an important design parameter as it affects the level of temperature and thermal stress in service. Ceramic insulators are known to suffer substantial reduction in thermal conductivity due to neutron irradiation damage. The present study estimates the reduction in thermal conductivity at high temperature due to radiation induced defects. Point, extended, and extended partly transparent defects are considered

  16. Preliminary observations of environmental damage due to the Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1992-01-01

    Preparing for and conducting the Gulf War resulted in much damage to the environment of the region. The first and most visible effect is related to the damage caused by oil well fires in terms of air pollution as well as the potential damage to the petroleum reservoirs. The second detrimental effect has been caused by the oil spill in the Gulf water. Hundreds of miles of the western coastline of the Gulf are already covered with oil. Petroleum 'mats' have settled on coral reefs and have reduced Gulf water productivity. Foremost among the irreparable damages are changes to the terrain due to the digging of trenches, building walls of soil and otherwise disturbing the desert pavement in and around Kuwait. Disruption of the, usually, one-grain thick layer of pebbles on the desert floor exposes soil to wind action. Changing the contours of the normally flat land increases resistance to the wind and increases the potential of particle transport until the land is peneplained. This condition will increase the frequency and the ferocity of dust storms in the region. It will also result in the formation of new sand dunes; sand drifts already exist along roads in northern Kuwait. It is believed that the detrimental effects on the atmosphere will last for years, on the Gulf water for decades, and on the desert surface for centuries. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  17. Preliminary observations of environmental damage due to the Gulf War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Baz, F [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Remote Sensing

    1992-02-01

    Preparing for and conducting the Gulf War resulted in much damage to the environment of the region. The first and most visible effect is related to the damage caused by oil well fires in terms of air pollution as well as the potential damage to the petroleum reservoirs. The second detrimental effect has been caused by the oil spill in the Gulf water. Hundreds of miles of the western coastline of the Gulf are already covered with oil. Petroleum 'mats' have settled on coral reefs and have reduced Gulf water productivity. Foremost among the irreparable damages are changes to the terrain due to the digging of trenches, building walls of soil and otherwise disturbing the desert pavement in and around Kuwait. Disruption of the, usually, one-grain thick layer of pebbles on the desert floor exposes soil to wind action. Changing the contours of the normally flat land increases resistance to the wind and increases the potential of particle transport until the land is peneplained. This condition will increase the frequency and the ferocity of dust storms in the region. It will also result in the formation of new sand dunes; sand drifts already exist along roads in northern Kuwait. It is believed that the detrimental effects on the atmosphere will last for years, on the Gulf water for decades, and on the desert surface for centuries. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig.

  18. Tracheoesophageal Fistula due to a Damaged Tracheal Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the management of a tracheoesophageal fistula due to a damaged tracheal stent, which was first inserted to treat tracheal stenosis. A 29-year-old woman with a history of treated epilepsy had a seizure and suffered from smoke inhalation during a fire. Breathing difficulties appeared and gradually worsened; consultation was obtained two years afterward. After undergoing a thorough examination, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal strangulation. A noncovered, metallic stent was inserted. When the patient was 37 years old, she was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a tracheoesophageal fistula. We diagnosed it as a tracheoesophageal fistula due to the collapse of the damaged tracheal stent toward the esophageal side, and we decided to perform a mediastinal tracheostomy. Granulation may be formed in the circumference of a stent that has been present for a prolonged period, and removal of the stent may become difficult. This case suggests that insertion of a noncovered, metallic stent is contraindicated for a benign disease.

  19. Damage studies on tungsten due to helium ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, N.J.; Buzarbaruah, N.; Mohanty, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Used plasma focus helium ion source to study radiation induced damage on tungsten. • Surface analyses confirm formation of micro-crack, bubbles, blisters, pinholes, etc. • XRD patterns confirm development of compressive stress due to thermal load. • Reduction in hardness value is observed in the case of exposed sample. - Abstract: Energetic and high fluence helium ions emitted in a plasma focus device have been used successfully to study the radiation induced damage on tungsten. The reference and irradiated samples were characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and by hardness testers. The micrographs of the irradiated samples at lower magnification show uniform mesh of cracks of micrometer width. However at higher magnification, various types of crystalline defects such as voids, pinholes, bubbles, blisters and microcracks are distinctly noticed. The prominent peaks in X-ray diffraction spectrum of irradiated samples are seen shifted toward higher Bragg angles, thus indicating accumulation of compressive stress due to the heat load delivered by helium ions. A marginal reduction in hardness of the irradiated sample is also noticed

  20. Damage energy functions for compounds and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of the damage energy of an energetic primary knock-on atom in a material is a central component in the procedure used to calculate dpa for metals exposed to neutron and charged particle radiation. Coefficients for analytic fits to the calculated damage energy functions are given for Al 2 O 3 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 , and NbTi. Damage efficiencies are given for Al 2 O 3

  1. Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due to Centrifugal Compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Centrifugal damage has been known to alter bacterial cell surface properties and interior structures, including DNA. Very few studies exist on bacterial damage caused by centrifugation because of the difficulty in relating centrifugation speed and container geometry to the damage caused. Here, we

  2. MRI findings of brain damage due to neonatal hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Fan Guoguang; Ji Xu; Sun Baohai; Guo Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To report the MRI findings of brain damage observed in neonatal patients who suffered from isolated hypoglycemia and to explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) in early detection of neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury. Methods: Twelve neonates with isolated hypoglycemia (10 of the 12 were diagnosed to suffer from hypoglycemic encephalopathy) were enrolled in this study. They were first scanned at age from 3 days to 10 days with T 1 WI, T 2 WI and DWI(b is 0 s/mm 2 , 1000 s/mm 2 ), and 4 of them were then scanned from 7 days to 10 days following the initial scan. All acquired MR images were retrospectively analysed. Results: First series of DWI images showed distinct hyperintense signal in 11 cases in several areas including bilateral occipital cortex (2 cases), right occipital cortex (1 case), left occipital cortex and subcortical white matter(1 case), bilateral occipital cortex and subcortical white matter (2 cases), bilateral parieto-occipital cortex (2 cases), bilateral parieto-occipital cortex and subcortical white matter(2 cases), the splenium of corpus callosum (4 cases), bilateral corona radiata( 2 cases), left caudate nucleus and globus pallidus (1 case), bilateral thalamus (1 case), bilaterally posterior limb of internal capsule (1 case). In the initial T 1 WI and T 2 WI images, there were subtle hypointensity in the damaged cortical areas (3 cases), hyperintensity in the bilaterally affected occipital cortex( 1 case) on T 1 weighted images, and hyperintensity in the affected cortex and subcortical white matter with poor differentiation on T 2 weighted images. The followed-up MRI of 4 cases showed regional encephalomalacia in the affected occipital lobes(4 cases), slightly hyperintensity on T 2 weighted images in the damaged occipital cortex (2 cases), extensive demyelination (1 case), disappearance of hyperintensity of the splenium of corpus callosum (1 case), and persistent hyperintensity in the splenium of corpus callosum (1 case

  3. Damage symptoms of plants due to PAN exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I; Sawada, T; Ohashi, T; Odaira, T

    1974-11-01

    In order to identify the cause of plant damage which differed from that by ozone, a series of exposure experiments was carried out on Beta vulgaris, Japanese radish, French bean, luthern, tomato, and spinach in a controlled weather room by artificially synthesized PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate). The damage appeared generally on younger leaves as a lustering and bronzing on the lower surface; there was a specific symptom in which the interveinary part of the lower surface depressed, leaving the veins in relief. At higher concentrations of PAN, damages appeared on the upper surface of leaves, however, bronzing and lustering were clearer during exposure to lower concentrations of PAN. The position of the leaves and the part of a leaf which was damaged were constant in the petunia, morning glory, and tobacco. There was a hyperbolic relationship between the concentration of PAN and the time period of appearance of the damage as was seen during sulfur dioxide and ozone exposures.

  4. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  5. Enamel subsurface damage due to tooth preparation with diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H H; Kelly, J R; Jahanmir, S; Thompson, V P; Rekow, E D

    1997-10-01

    In clinical tooth preparation with diamond burs, sharp diamond particles indent and scratch the enamel, causing material removal. Such operations may produce subsurface damage in enamel. However, little information is available on the mechanisms and the extent of subsurface damage in enamel produced during clinical tooth preparation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the mechanisms of subsurface damage produced in enamel during tooth preparation by means of diamond burs, and to examine the dependence of such damage on enamel rod orientation, diamond particle size, and removal rate. Subsurface damage was evaluated by a bonded-interface technique. Tooth preparation was carried out on two enamel rod orientations, with four clinical diamond burs (coarse, medium, fine, and superfine) used in a dental handpiece. The results of this study showed that subsurface damage in enamel took the form of median-type cracks and distributed microcracks, extending preferentially along the boundaries between the enamel rods. Microcracks within individual enamel rods were also observed. The median-type cracks were significantly longer in the direction parallel to the enamel rods than perpendicular to the rods. Preparation with the coarse diamond bur produced cracks as deep as 84 +/- 30 microns in enamel. Finishing with fine diamond burs was effective in crack removal. The crack lengths in enamel were not significantly different when the removal rate was varied. Based on these results, it is concluded that subsurface damage in enamel induced by tooth preparation takes the form of median-type cracks as well as inter- and intra-rod microcracks, and that the lengths of these cracks are sensitive to diamond particle size and enamel rod orientation, but insensitive to removal rate.

  6. Proposal for Modified Damage Probability Distribution Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1996-01-01

    Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub-committee on st......Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub...

  7. A Study on health damage due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Oh, So Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    According to the domestic and foreign change in given conditions of air preservation policy, the air preservation policy in Korea should be implemented scientifically and reasonably. A gradual turnover to receptor-oriented reflecting human health and ecological effect is needed to establish and promote the air preservation policy systemically and in a long-term basis. Based on the quantified health damage of a people, air preservation policy in Korea should develop as a management policy to develop and implement an optimum management mechanism to minimized health damage of receptor. 19 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. The neuroimaging evidence for chronic brain damage due to boxing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, I.F. [Lysholm Radiological Department, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    A number of imaging techniques have been used to investigate changes produced in the brain by boxing. Most morphological studies have failed to show significant correlations between putative abnormalities on imaging and clinical evidence of brain damage. Fenestration of the septum pellucidum, with formation of a cavum, one of the most frequent observations, does not appear to correlate with neurological or physiological evidence of brain damage. Serial studies on large groups may be more informative. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cerebral blood flow studies have been reported in only small numbers of boxers; serial studies are not available to date. (orig.)

  9. Videodensitometry in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegenius, G.; Wegener, T.; Ruhn, G.; Saldeen, T.; Erikson, U.

    Serial pulmonary angiography with videodensitometry was performed in 18 rats with pulmonary damage caused by administration of a fibrinolysis inhibitor, tranexamic acid (200 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally) and bovine thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight injected into the right femoral vein). The mean transit time (MTT) was calculated from videodensitometry, the observed area of interest consisting of approximately one-third of the right lung, including both central and peripheral parts. The impact of the pulmonary damage was analysed by morphologic methods and correlated to MTT. Although a pressure rise presumably occurred in the pulmonary circulation, no change in MTT was found after induction of pulmonary damage, indicating opening of actual and potential anastomoses between pulmonary arterioles and venules to serve as by-pass portions and as a safety-valve mechanism for the capillary bed and the right heart, respectively. Another explanation to unchanged MTT may be opening of resting capillary beds. Two rats with very severe pulmonary damage showed prolonged MTT. These rats may have suffered from cardiac failure.

  10. Videodensitometry in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegenius, G.; Wegener, T.; Ruhn, G.; Saldeen, T.; Erikson, U.

    1985-01-01

    Serial pulmonary angiography with videodensitometry was performed in 18 rats with pulmonary damage caused by administration of a fibrinolysis inhibitor, tranexamic acid (200 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally) and bovine thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight injected into the right femoral vein). The mean transit time (MTT) was calculated from videodensitometry, the observed area of interest consisting of approximately one-third of the right lung, including both central and peripheral parts. The impact of the pulmonary damage was analysed by morphologic methods and correlated to MTT. Although a pressure rise presumably occurred in the pulmonary circulation, no change in MTT was found after induction of pulmonary damage, indicating opening of actual and potential anastomoses between pulmonary arterioles and venules to serve as by-pass portions and as a safety-valve mechanism for the capillary bed and the right heart, respectively. Another explanation to unchanged MTT may be opening of resting capillary beds. Two rats with very severe pulmonary damage showed prolonged MTT. These rats may have suffered from cardiac failure. (orig.)

  11. Validity of reciprocity rule on mouse skin thermal damage due to CO2 laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, P.; Dehghanpour, H. R.; Moghadam, M. S.; Daneshafrooz, V.

    2013-07-01

    CO2 laser (10.6 μm) is a well-known infrared coherent light source as a tool in surgery. At this wavelength there is a high absorbance coefficient (860 cm-1), because of vibration mode resonance of H2O molecules. Therefore, the majority of the irradiation energy is absorbed in the tissue and the temperature of the tissue rises as a function of power density and laser exposure duration. In this work, the tissue damage caused by CO2 laser (1-10 W, ˜40-400 W cm-2, 0.1-6 s) was measured using 30 mouse skin samples. Skin damage assessment was based on measurements of the depth of cut, mean diameter of the crater and the carbonized layer. The results show that tissue damage as assessed above parameters increased with laser fluence and saturated at 1000 J cm-2. Moreover, the damage effect due to high power density at short duration was not equivalent to that with low power density at longer irradiation time even though the energy delivered was identical. These results indicate the lack of validity of reciprocity (Bunsen-Roscoe) rule for the thermal damage.

  12. Un-repairable DNA damage in cell due to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Giichi

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell reproductive deactivation is caused by damage to DNA. In a cell, cellular DNA radical reacts with diffusion controlled rate and generates DNA peroxide radical. The chemical repair of DNA radical with hydrogen donation by thiol competes with the reaction of oxygen with same radicals in the DNA molecules. From the point reaction rates, the prolongation of radical life time is not as great as expected from the reduction in the glutathione content of the cell. This indicates that further reducting compounds (protein bound thiol) are present in the cell. The residual radicals are altered to strand breaks, base damages and so on. The effective lesions for a number of endpoints is un-repaired double strand break, which has been discovered in a cluster. This event gives risk to high LET radiation or to a track end of X-rays. For X- or electron irradiations the strand breaks are frequently induced by the interactions between sublesions on two strands in DNA. A single strand break followed by radical action may be unstable excited state, because of remaining sugar radical action and of having negative charged phosphates, in which strands breaks will be rejoined in a short time to stable state. On the same time, a break in the double helix will be immediately produced if two breaks are on either or approximately opposite locations. The formation of a double strand break in the helix depends on the ion strength of the cell. The potassium ions are largely released from polyanionic strand during irradiation, which results in the induction of denatured region. Double strand break with the denatured region seems to be un-repairable DNA damage. (author)

  13. The Damage To The Armour Layer Due To Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztunali Ozbahceci, Berguzar; Ergin, Aysen; Takayama, Tomotsuka

    2010-05-01

    The sea waves are not regular but random and chaotic. In order to understand this randomness, it is common to make individual wave analysis in time domain or spectral analysis in frequency domain. Characteristic wave heights like Hmax, H%2,H1-10, H1-3, Hmean are obtained through individual wave analysis in time domain. These characteristic wave heights are important because they are used in the design of different type of coastal structures. It is common to use significant wave height, H1-3,for the design of rubble mound structures. Therefore, only spectrally derived or zero-crossing significant wave height is usually reported for the rubble mound breakwaters without any information on larger waves. However, even the values of H1-3are similar; some train of irregular waves may exhibit a large fluctuation of instantaneous wave energy, while another train may not show such a fluctuation (Goda, 1998). Moreover, freak or rogue wave, simply defined as the wave exceeding at least twice the significant wave height may also occur. Those larger waves were called as extreme waves in this study and the effect of extreme waves on the damage to the armour layer of rubble mound breakwaters was investigated by means of hydraulic model experiment. Rock armored rubble mound breakwater model with 1:1.5 slope was constructed in the wave channel of Hydraulics Laboratory of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute of Kyoto University, Japan. The model was consisted of a permeable core layer, a filter and armour layer with two stones thicknesses. Size of stones were same for both of the slopes as Dn50(armour)=0.034m, Dn50(filter)=0.021m and Dn50(core)=0.0148m for armour, filter and core layers, respectively. Time series which are approximately equal to 1000 waves, with similar significant wave height but different extreme wave height cases were generated. In order to generate necessary time series in the wave channel, they were firstly computed by numerically. For the numerical

  14. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T. (ROB, DCT, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (US))

    1991-05-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the {alpha} and {beta} terms reflect lethal damage created {ital during} the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD.

  15. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the α and β terms reflect lethal damage created during the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with ''unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD

  16. Damage costs due to automotive air pollution and the influence of street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, Joseph V.; Rabl, Ari

    2001-01-01

    Using the methodology of the ExternE Project of the European Commission, we have evaluated the damage costs of automotive air pollution by way of two case studies in France: a trip across Paris, and a trip from Paris to Lyon. This methodology involves an analysis of the impact pathways, starting with the emissions (e.g., g/km of particles form tailpipe), followed by local and regional dispersion (e.g., incremental μg/m 3 of particles), calculation of the physical impacts using exposure-response functions (e.g., cases of respiratory hospital admissions), and finally multiplication by unit costs factors (e.g., ε per hospital admission). Damages are aggregated over all affected receptors in Europe. In addition to the local and regional dispersion calculations carried out so far by ExternE, we also consider the increased microscale impacts due to the trapping of pollutants in street canyons, using numerical simulations with the FLUENT software. We have evaluated impacts to human health, agricultural crops and building materials, due to particles, NO x , CO, HC and CO 2 . Health impacts, especially reduced life expectancy, dominate in terms of cost. Damages for older cars (before 1997) range from 2 to 41Euro cents/km, whereas for newer cars (since 1997), the range 1-9 Euro cents/km, and there is continuing progress in reducing the emissions further. In large cities, the particulate emissions of diesel cars lead to the highest damages, exceeding those of gasoline cars by a factor of 7. For cars before 1997 the order of magnitude of the damage costs is comparable to the price of gasoline, and the loss of life expectancy is comparable to that from traffic accidents. (Author)

  17. Stimulation of Functional Vision in Children with Perinatal Brain Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaški-Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual st...

  18. Damage formation and annealing in InP due to swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarou, A.; Wesch, W.; Wendler, E.; Klaumuenzer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Virgin and pre-damaged InP samples were irradiated at room temperature (RT) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) with different fluences of 140 MeV Kr, 390 MeV Xe and 600 MeV Au ions. The pre-damaging was performed with 600 keV Ge ions at LNT to obtain different damage levels. The samples were analysed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channelling geometry. A relatively weak damage accumulation in virgin InP and a very significant defect annealing in pre-damaged InP occurs due to 140 MeV Kr irradiation. The damaging of virgin InP with 390 MeV Xe and 600 MeV Au is much more efficient in comparison with that of 140 MeV Kr. Further, annealing of the pre-damaged InP due to 390 MeV Xe irradiation is hardly visible. At LNT InP appears to be much more radiation-resistant to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation than at RT. Our results show that during SHI irradiation of InP both damage formation and damage annealing occur simultaneously. Whether the first or the second one plays a more important role depends on the SHI mass and energy

  19. Unexpected ICD pulse generator failure due to electronic circuit damage caused by electrical overstress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R G; Hayes, D L; Almquist, A K; Epstein, A E; Parsonnet, V; Tyers, G F; Vlay, S C; Schoenfeld, M H

    2001-07-01

    Because it is a lifesaving device, the unexpected failure of an ICD can be catastrophic. We report ICD electronic circuit failure due to electrical overstress damage (EOS) to the high voltage hybird circuit and other electronic components in a series of ICD pulse generator models. Data were obtained from the Multicenter Registry of Pacemaker and ICD Pacemaker and Lead Failures, and from the manufactures' adverse event reports, that were in the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Of 16 nonbattery Guidant/CPI ICD pulse generator failures reported to the registry, 6 (38%) have been confirmed by the manufacturer to be EOS related, and Guidant/CPI has reported 273 such failures to the FDA as of 12/29/00. The signs of failure included loss of telemetry and inability to deliver therapy, and some patients have experienced serious adverse events. Hybrid circuit damage may have occurred during capacitor charging or reform, and the majority appears to have happened during normal ICD function. While the incidence of this problem is unknown, a management strategy should be adopted that includes routine follow-up every 3 months and device evaluation after a shock or exposure to external defibrillation or electrosurgical devices. This study suggests that additional data are needed to determine the incidence of this problem, and that our present methods for monitoring the performance of ICD's following market release are inadequate.

  20. Mechanical Properties and Elastic Constants Due to Damage Accumulation and Amorphization in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Damage accumulation due to cascade overlap, which was simulated previously, has been used to study the changes of elastic constants, bulk and elastic moduli as a function of dose. These mechanical properties generally decrease with increasing dose, and the rapid decrease at low-dose level indicates that point defects and small clusters play an important role in the changes of elastic constants rather than topological disorder. The internal strain relaxation has no effect on the elastic constants, C11 and C12, in perfect SiC, but it has a significant influence on all elastic constants calculated in damaged SiC. The elastic constants in the cascade-amorphized (CA) SiC decrease about 19%, 29% and 46% for C11, C12 and C44, respectively. The bulk modulus decrease 23% and the elastic modulus decreases 29%, which is consistent with experimental measurements. The stability of both the perfect SiC and CA-SiC under hydrostatic tension has been also investigated. All mechanical properties in the CA-SiC exhibit behavior similar to that in perfect SiC, but the critical stress at which the CA-SiC becomes structurally unstable is one order of magnitude smaller than that for perfect SiC

  1. Functional and morphologic damage in the neonatally irradiated canine kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peneyra, R.S.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Perinatal irradiation of the developing kidney results in progressive glomerulosclerosis (PGS) and renal failure. This syndrome may result from direct radiation damage to mature deep cortical nephrons and/or nephron functional adaptations resulting from outer cortical nephron ablation. Beagle dogs received single, whole-body exposures (330 R) to 60 Co gamma radiation at 4 days of age (IR4) to study the combined effects of direct radiation damage and nephron loss, or at 30 days of age (IR30) to study the effects of renal irradiation alone. To study the effects of nephron loss alone, dogs underwent unilateral nephrectomy (UN4) or superficial hyperthermic renal ablation (HY4) at 4 days of age. Nephron loss due to irradiation (IR4) and partial renal ablation (UN4 and HY4) was associated with compensatory nephron hypertrophy and increased single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR), while irradiation at 30 days resulted in transitory decreased SNGFR. Similar degrees of PGS occurred in IR4 dogs which experienced both irradiation and loss of nephrons and UN4 and HY4 dogs which experienced only loss of nephrons. PGS of lesser severity also occurred in IR30 dogs. These findings indicate that PGS associated with perinatal renal irradiation results from direct radiation damage to deep cortical nephrons and compensatory functional changes occurring in response to loss of renal mass

  2. Mathematical modeling of damage function when attacking file server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. G.; Skrypnikov, A. V.; Chernyshova, E. V.; Mogutnov, R. V.; Levushkin, D. M.

    2018-05-01

    The development of information technologies in Russia and the prospects for their further improvement allow us to identify a stable trend of expansion of both functions of the corresponding automated information systems (AIS) and the spheres of their application. At the same time, many threats to information processes in the AIS are expanding, which in turn stimulates the development of adequate means and systems for ensuring the information security of the AS and methods for assessing their protection. It is necessary to assess the ability of the system to continue its normal functioning under the conditions of permanent destructive influences and to resist them, to adapt the functioning algorithms to new conditions and to organize functional restoration or to ensure functioning with a gradual process of degradation, possibly without losing the most significant “critical” information functions. The analysis and evaluation of reliability are needed to be transformed into the analysis and evaluation of survivability. Survivability can be considered as the ability of the information system to store and restore the performance of basic functions in a given volume and for a given time in the case of a change in the system structure and / or algorithms and the conditions of its functioning due to adverse effects. One of the system survivability indicators is the reserve of survivability (S-survivability) that is the critical number of defects reduced by a unit. The authors will consider defect as a unit of measurement of damage to the information system by adverse impact. U is denoted as the critical number of defects, then S = 1-U is the index of S-survivability. The article gives the definition of an analytical formula for the function of damage and risk.

  3. Alzheimer's disease due to loss of function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a highly complex disease involving a broad range of clinical, cellular, and biochemical manifestations that are currently not understood in combination. This has led to many views of AD, e.g. the amyloid, tau, presenilin, oxidative stress, and metal hypotheses....... The amyloid hypothesis has dominated the field with its assumption that buildup of pathogenic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide causes disease. This paradigm has been criticized, yet most data suggest that Aβ plays a key role in the disease. Here, a new loss-of-function hypothesis is synthesized that accounts...

  4. Defective motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment due to periventricular white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Joel M; Gilmore, Rick O; Shaikh, Sumera M; Kunselman, Allen R; Trescher, William V; Tashima, Lauren M; Boltz, Marianne E; McAuliffe, Matthew B; Cheung, Albert; Fesi, Jeremy D

    2012-07-01

    We sought to characterize visual motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) due to periventricular white matter damage caused by either hydrocephalus (eight individuals) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) associated with prematurity (11 individuals). Using steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEP), we measured cortical activity related to motion processing for two distinct types of visual stimuli: 'local' motion patterns thought to activate mainly primary visual cortex (V1), and 'global' or coherent patterns thought to activate higher cortical visual association areas (V3, V5, etc.). We studied three groups of children: (1) 19 children with CVI (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 8mo]; 9 male; 10 female); (2) 40 neurologically and visually normal comparison children (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 1mo]; 18 male; 22 female); and (3) because strabismus and amblyopia are common in children with CVI, a group of 41 children without neurological problems who had visual deficits due to amblyopia and/or strabismus (mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 8mo]; 28 male; 13 female). We found that the processing of global as opposed to local motion was preferentially impaired in individuals with CVI, especially for slower target velocities (p=0.028). Motion processing is impaired in children with CVI. ssVEP may provide useful and objective information about the development of higher visual function in children at risk for CVI. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2011.

  5. Climate change damage functions in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Beier, Claus; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    , their properties, goods and services. In: Climate change 2007. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 211-272. [2] Mikkelsen TN, Beier C, et al. (2008) Experimental design of multifactor climate change experiments with elevated CO2, warming and drought – the CLIMAITE project. Functional Ecology, 22, 185-195. [3...... will be variable (2). Modeling exercises suggest large-scale range shifts of the major biomes of the world (1). The unknown magnitude of future GHG emissions and the complexity of the climate-carbon system induce large uncertainties in the projected changes. A changed climate may result in new interactions and new...... directions of ecosystem change due to differing adaptive capacities and new species assemblages. Within the framework ‘ecosystem services’ both marketed and non-marketed utilities of the natural environment are formulated (3). Provisioning, cultural, supporting, and regulating ecosystem services have been...

  6. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Damage estimation of subterranean building constructions due to groundwater inundation – the GIS-based model approach GRUWAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schinke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and management of flood risk commonly focuses on surface water floods, because these types are often associated with high economic losses due to damage to buildings and settlements. The rising groundwater as a secondary effect of these floods induces additional damage, particularly in the basements of buildings. Mostly, these losses remain underestimated, because they are difficult to assess, especially for the entire building stock of flood-prone urban areas. For this purpose an appropriate methodology has been developed and lead to a groundwater damage simulation model named GRUWAD. The overall methodology combines various engineering and geoinformatic methods to calculate major damage processes by high groundwater levels. It considers a classification of buildings by building types, synthetic depth-damage functions for groundwater inundation as well as the results of a groundwater-flow model. The modular structure of this procedure can be adapted in the level of detail. Hence, the model allows damage calculations from the local to the regional scale. Among others it can be used to prepare risk maps, for ex-ante analysis of future risks, and to simulate the effects of mitigation measures. Therefore, the model is a multifarious tool for determining urban resilience with respect to high groundwater levels.

  8. An overview of road damages due to flooding: Case study in Kedah state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Muhd Shahril Nizam; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Flooding occurs frequently in many countries including Malaysia. Floods in Malaysia are usually due to heavy and prolonged rainfall, uncontrolled development, and drainage systems that are not being monitored. Road damage due to flooding event can cause huge expenditures for the post-flooding rehabilitation and maintenance. The required maintenance and rehabilitation could upset the original life cycle cost estimations. Data on road statistics were obtained from the Highway Planning Division, Ministry of Works Malaysia and data on flooding was collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia for events between 2012 and 2015. The pilot sites were selected based on its historical cases of floods that caused road damages in Kedah. The pilot site indicated that the impact of flooding on road infrastructures systems can be used to plan better road design and maintenances. It also revealed that it costs more than RM 1 million to reinstate roads damaged by flooding in a typical district annually.

  9. Evaluation of environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneikis, J.; Shtreimikiene, D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods to evaluate the environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy are presented. The products of burning fossil fuel (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and ashes) make the bulk of the pollutants that are being discharged into the atmosphere. To evaluate the damage caused by these pollutants an empirical method is suggested. The direct and analytical methods are used as a basis in collecting data for the empirical evaluation. All the three methods are described and empirical formulas suggested for calculating environmental damage due to burning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. The authors prove the necessity to change the present system of environmental taxes in Lithuania, which are purely symbolic. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs

  10. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  11. Alkylation Damage by Lipid Electrophiles Targets Functional Protein Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G.; Ullery, Jody C.; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A.; Beavers, William N.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions. PMID:24429493

  12. Flood damage estimation of companies: A comparison of Stage-Damage-Functions and Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The development of appropriate flood damage models plays an important role not only for the damage assessment after an event but also to develop adaptation and risk mitigation strategies. So called Stage-Damage-Functions (SDFs) are often applied as a standard approach to estimate flood damage. These functions assign a certain damage to the water depth depending on the use or other characteristics of the exposed objects. Recent studies apply machine learning algorithms like Random Forests (RFs) to model flood damage. These algorithms usually consider more influencing variables and promise to depict a more detailed insight into the damage processes. In addition they provide an inherent validation scheme. Our study focuses on direct, tangible damage of single companies. The objective is to model and validate the flood damage suffered by single companies with SDFs and RFs. The data sets used are taken from two surveys conducted after the floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in the years 2002 and 2013 in Germany. Damage to buildings (n = 430), equipment (n = 651) as well as goods and stock (n = 530) are taken into account. The model outputs are validated via a comparison with the actual flood damage acquired by the surveys and subsequently compared with each other. This study investigates the gain in model performance with the use of additional data and the advantages and disadvantages of the RFs compared to SDFs. RFs show an increase in model performance with an increasing amount of data records over a comparatively large range, while the model performance of the SDFs is already saturated for a small set of records. In addition, the RFs are able to identify damage influencing variables, which improves the understanding of damage processes. Hence, RFs can slightly improve flood damage predictions and provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms compared to SDFs.

  13. Stimulation of functional vision in children with perinatal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual stimulation on development of functional vision at early age of life. We initially assessed 30 children with perinatal brain damage up to 3 years of age, who were reffered to our pediatric low vision cabinet in "Little house" from child neurologists, ophthalmologists Type and degree of visual impairment was determined according to functional vision assessment of each child. On the bases of those assessments different kind of visual stimulations were carried out with children who have been identified to have a certain visual impairment. Through visual stimulation program some of the children were stimulated with light stimulus, some with different materials under the ultraviolet (UV) light, and some with bright color and high contrast materials. Children were also involved in program of early stimulation of overall sensory motor development. Goals and methods of therapy were determined individually, based on observation of child's possibilities and need. After one year of program, reassessment was done. Results for visual functions and functional vision were compared to evaluate the improvement of the vision development. These results have shown that there was significant improvement in functional vision, especially in visual attention and visual communication.

  14. Assessment of damage to the desert surfaces of Kuwait due to the Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.; Al-Ajmi, D.

    1993-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on a joint research project by Boston University and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research that commenced in April 1992. The project aim is to establish the extent and nature of environmental damage to the desert surface and coastal zone of Kuwait due to the Gulf War and its aftermath. Change detection image enhancement techniques were employed to enhance environmental change by comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper images obtained before the wars and after the cessation of the oil and well fires. Higher resolution SPOT images were also utilized to evaluate the nature of the environmental damage to specific areas. The most prominent changes were due to: (1) the deposition of oil and course-grained soot on the desert surface as a result of ''oil rain'' from the plume that emanated from the oil well fires; (2) the formation of hundreds of oil lakes, from oil seepage at the damaged oil well heads; (3) the mobilization of sand and dust and (4) the pollution of segments of the coastal zone by the deposition of oil from several oil spills. Interpretation of satellite image data are checked in the field to confirm the observations, and to assess the nature of the damage. Final results will be utilized in establishing the needs for remedial action to counteract the harmful effects of the various types of damage to the environment of Kuwait

  15. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  16. Development of damage functions for high-rise building components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustu, O.; Miller, D.D.; Brokken, S.T.

    1982-10-01

    The component approach for predicting the effects that ground motion from underground nuclear explosions will have on structures involves predicting the damage to each structural and nonstructural component of a building on the basis of the expected local deformation that most affects the damage to the component. This study was conducted to provide the basic data necessary to evaluate the component approach. Available published laboratory test data for various high-rise building components were collected. These data were analyzed statistically to determine damage threshold values and their variabilities, which in turn were used to derive component damage functions. The portion of construction costs attributable to various building components was determined statistically. This information was needed because component damage functions define damage as a percentage of the replacement values of the component, and, in order to calculate the overall building damage factor, the relative cost of each component must be estimated. The feasibility of the component approach to damage prediction is demonstrated. It is recommended that further experimental research directed towards developing an adequate data base of component damage thresholds for all significant building components should be encouraged. Parallel to this effort, detailed damage data from specific buildings damaged in earthquakes should be collected to verify the theoretical procedure

  17. Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Axel; van Deursen, Jan M.; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of stem cell function contributes to the progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair with ageing. Evidence is mounting that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment are partly responsible for stem cell dysfunction with ageing. Here, we review the impact of the various types of DNA damage that accumulate with ageing on stem cell functionality, as well as the development of cancer. We discuss DNA-damage-induced cell intrinsic and extrinsic alterations that influence these processes, and review recent advances in understanding systemic adjustments to DNA damage and how they affect stem cells. PMID:24576896

  18. Numerical assessment of wind turbine blade damage due to contact/impact with tower during installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar Verma, Amrit; Petter Vedvik, Nils; Gao, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    The use of floating crane vessel for installation of offshore wind turbine blades presents a great challenge in terms of its random motions and is likely to increase the probability of the blade hitting the preassembled tower during lifting operation. To evaluate the consequences of such scenarios and to determine the allowable motions or sea states for such operations, it is very important to understand the damage development in the blade due to impact. The present paper employs the application of high fidelity finite element method to investigate the damage behavior in the blade when the leading edge of the blade hits the tower. A nonlinear time domain structural analysis using ABAQUS was conducted on the DTU 10 MW reference blade model which is based on shell elements. Damage assessment along with the nature of evolution of various energies is examined and presented for two different impact velocities with modified layup stacking sequence at the contact region.

  19. Nonstructural damages of reinforced concrete buildings due to 2015 Ranau earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyanto, Mohd Irwan; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    On 15th June 2016 a moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw5.9 was occurred in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the epicentre was located at 16 km northwest of Ranau. Less than two days after the first event, a reconnaissance mission took action to investigate the damages on buildings. Since the reinforced concrete buildings in Ranau were designed based on gravity and wind load only, a lot of minor to severe damages was occurred. This paper presents the damages on the nonstructural elements of reinforced concrete buildings due to Ranau earthquake. The assessment was conducted via in-situ field investigation covering the visual observation, taking photo, and interview with local resident. Based on in-situ field investigation, there was a lot of damages occurred on the nonstructural elements like the brick walls. Such damages cannot be neglected since it can cause injury and fatality to the victims. Therefore, it can be concluded that the installation of nonstructural elements should be reviewed for the sake of safety.

  20. An investigation on damaged buildings in Ranau due the 2015 Sabah earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yang Soh; Tan, Jun Pin; Chiew, Lerk Qing; Chang, Wai Hoe; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-10-01

    A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck near Ranau district in Sabah, Malaysia on June 5, 2015. The epicenter was located 14 km from Ranau. Various buildings were damaged by the earthquake. This paper discusses the extent of the destruction to two severely damaged structures in Ranau. An assessment of damaged buildings in Ranau Hospital using microtremor data was conducted after the earthquake event. The building consists of two identical blocks with similar soft-story structural forms. Two microtremor observations were carried out before and after the repair work. The predominant frequencies of the damaged buildings were determined by using the Nakamura's H/V method. Based on the assumption that both identical blocks of building in Ranau Hospital have similar predominant frequencies due to the same structural design and construction quality, results show that B block of Ranau Hospital suffered more damage compared with another block of the building. The predominant frequency of B block is 10% lower than that of A Block. Results obtained are consistent with the observed building performance during the site reconnaissance. The predominant frequency of both buildings measured after the repair work shows 11% to 21% increment, which implies that the lateral stiffness of both buildings has been improved.

  1. Mechanical damage due to corrosion of parts of pump technology and valves of LWR power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, J.; Krumpl, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two types are described of uneven corrosion of austenitic chromium-nickel steel: pitting and slit corrosion. The occurrence of slit corrosion is typical of parts of pumping technology and valves. The corrosion damage of austenitic chromium-nickel steels spreads as intergranular, transgranular or mixed corrosion. In nuclear power facilities with LWR's, intergranular corrosion is due to chlorides and sulphur compounds while transgranular corrosion is due to the presence of dissolved oxygen and chlorides. In mechanically stressed parts, stress corrosion takes place. The recommended procedures are discussed of reducing the corrosion-mechanical damage of pumping equipment of light water reactors during design, production and assembly. During the service of the equipment, corrosion cracks are detected using nondestructive methods and surface cracks are repaired by grinding and welding. (E.S.)

  2. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of damage functions to CTR component fluence limit predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Doran, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Material behavior observed under irradiation conditions in test reactors is not always directly applicable to the design of reactor components such as CTR first wall because of differences in the damage effectiveness of test reactor and service spectra. The interpolation and, under some conditions, extrapolation of material property change data from test conditions to different neutron spectra in service conditions can be accomplished using semi-empirical damage functions. The derivation and application of damage functions to CTR conditions is reviewed. Since limited amounts of data are available for applications to CTR design spectra, considerable attention is placed on the effectiveness of various available and proposed neutron sources in determining a damage function and subsequent fluence limit prediction. Neutron sources included in this study were EBR-II, HIFR, LAMPF (Be and Cu targets), high energy deuterons incident on Be (D-Be), and 14 MeV neutrons (D-T)

  4. Obesity-exposed oocytes accumulate and transmit damaged mitochondria due to an inability to activate mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoures, Anna L; Saben, Jessica; Drury, Andrea; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Modi, Zeel; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondria are the most prominent organelle in the oocyte. Somatic cells maintain a healthy population of mitochondria by degrading damaged mitochondria via mitophagy, a specialized autophagy pathway. However, evidence from previous work investigating the more general macroautophagy pathway in oocytes suggests that mitophagy may not be active in the oocyte. This would leave the vast numbers of mitochondria - poised to be inherited by the offspring - vulnerable to damage. Here we test the hypothesis that inactive mitophagy in the oocyte underlies maternal transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. To determine whether oocytes can complete mitophagy, we used either CCCP or AntimycinA to depolarize mitochondria and trigger mitophagy. After depolarization, we did not detect co-localization of mitochondria with autophagosomes and mitochondrial DNA copy number remained unchanged, indicating the non-functional mitochondrial population was not removed. To investigate the impact of an absence of mitophagy in oocytes with damaged mitochondria on offspring mitochondrial function, we utilized in vitro fertilization of high fat high sugar (HF/HS)-exposed oocytes, which have lower mitochondrial membrane potential and damaged mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that blastocysts generated from HF/HS oocytes have decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, lower metabolites involved in ATP generation, and accumulation of PINK1, a mitophagy marker protein. This mitochondrial phenotype in the blastocyst mirrors the phenotype we show in HF/HS exposed oocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms governing oocyte mitophagy are fundamentally distinct from those governing somatic cell mitophagy and that the absence of mitophagy in the setting of HF/HS exposure contributes to the oocyte-to-blastocyst transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Usage of prestressed vertical bolts for retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Askar

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation with the objective of retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear using prestressed vertical bolts is presented in this paper. The parameters examined in this study are vertical prestressed bolts with different ratios within the slab thickness, slab thickness and central column size. Through the experimental tests the load carrying capacity, deformation characteristics and the cracking behavior have been investigated. A comparison between the behavior of retrofitted slabs and their references showed that the proposed system of repair is effective and could be used in practice. A comparison between the experimental results and calculated punching failure load based on the formulas adopted by different codes, showed a reasonable agreement.

  6. Computed chest tomography in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, T.; Wegenius, G.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Saldeen, T.

    Computed chest tomography was performed in 13 rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism, caused by injection of thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight) and tranexamic acid, a fibrinolytic inhibitor (200 mg/kg body weight), and in 9 control rats. The purpose of the investigation was to perform attenuation measurements at two levels of the right lung, each with three regions of interest (anterior, mid and posterior). Alterations in attenuation, compared with controls, were correlated with lung weight. Compared with controls, the attenuation was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior regions at both levels in animals with pulmonary damage, but not in the mid regions. There was a statistically significant correlation between increasing attenuation and increasing lung weight. A significant difference was found between damaged and control lungs regarding the microscopic grade of interstitial oedema, alveolar oedema and fibrin. Histograms of attenuation values in computed tomograms might be of value in detecting alveolar oedema. It is concluded that computed chest tomography is a good method for detection pulmonary oedema at an early stage of experimental microembolism in the rat.

  7. Computed chest tomography in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, T.; Wegenius, G.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Saldeen, T.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Computed chest tomography was performed in 13 rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism, caused by injection of thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight) and tranexamic acid, a fibrinolytic inhibitor (200 mg/kg body weight), and in 9 control rats. The purpose of the investigation was to perform attenuation measurements at two levels of the right lung, each with three regions of interest (anterior, mid and posterior). Alterations in attenuation, compared with controls, were correlated with lung weight. Compared with controls, the attenuation was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior regions at both levels in animals with pulmonary damage, but not in the mid regions. There was a statistically significant correlation between increasing attenuation and increasing lung weight. A significant difference was found between damaged and control lungs regarding the microscopic grade of interstitial oedema, alveolar oedema and fibrin. Histograms of attenuation values in computed tomograms might be of value in detecting alveolar oedema. It is concluded that computed chest tomography is a good method for detection pulmonary oedema at an early stage of experimental microembolism in the rat. (orig.)

  8. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: matsuonm@usp.br, nelsonk@pea.usp.br; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  9. Estimation of health damage due to emission of air pollutants by cars: the canyon effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.V. [Ecole des Mines, Centre d' Energetique, Paris, 75 (France); Rabl, A.

    1999-07-01

    Since current epidemiological evidence suggests that air pollution has harmful effects even at typical ambient concentrations and the dispersion is significant over hundreds to thousands of km, the estimation of total health damage involves consideration of local and regional effects. In recent years, several estimates have been published of health damage due to air pollution from cars, in particular by Delucchi et al of UC Davis and by the ExternE Project of the European Commission. To capture the geographic extent of pollutant dispersion, local and regional models have been used in combination. The present paper addresses a potentially significant contribution of the total damage, not yet taken into account in these studies: the increased concentration of pollutants inside urban street canyons. This canyon effect is appreciable only for primary pollutants, the time constants for the formation of secondary pollutants being long compared to the residence time in the canyon. We assumed linearity of incremental health impact with incremental concentration, in view of the lack of epidemiological evidence for no-effect thresholds or significant deviations from linearity at typical ambient concentrations; therefore, only long term average concentrations matter. We use the FLUENT software to model the dispersion inside a street canyon for a wide range of rectangular geometries and wind velocities. Our results suggest that the canyon effect is of marginal significance for total damages, the contribution of the canyon effect being roughly 10 to 20% of the total. The relative importance of the canyon effect is, of course, highly variable with local conditions; it could be much smaller but it is unlikely to add more than 100% to the flat terrain estimate. (Author)

  10. Assessment of damage from reduction of expected lifespan due to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical and methodological approaches to the assessment of damage from premature mortality and reduction of life expectancy due to various reasons. The concepts measuring the price of a human life are analyzed: the evaluation from the standpoint of the theory of human capital; indirect estimation taking into account non-monetary social costs; evaluation of individuals’ willingness to pay for the elimination of the risk of death; estimation based on the determination of insurance premiums and compensations under court decision; evaluation of the social investments, aimed to reduce the risk of premature mortality of the individual. The following indexes were calculated for all subordinate entities of the Russian Federation: reduction of life expectancy, lost years of potential life in the working age, and gross regional product lost due to the reduction of years of potential life in the working-age population as a result of cancer

  11. The assessment of damages due to climate change in a situation of uncertainty: the contribution of adaptation cost modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research is to introduce new elements for the assessment of damages due to climate changes within the frame of compact models aiding the decision. Two types of methodologies are used: sequential optimisation stochastic models and simulation stochastic models using optimal assessment methods. The author first defines the damages, characterizes their different categories, and reviews the existing assessments. Notably, he makes the distinction between damages due to climate change and damages due to its rate. Then, he presents the different models used in this study, the numerical solutions, and gives a rough estimate of the importance of the considered phenomena. By introducing a new category of capital in an optimal growth model, he tries to establish a framework allowing the representation of adaptation and of its costs. He introduces inertia in macro-economical evolutions, climatic variability, detection of climate change and damages due to climate hazards

  12. Vulnerability Assessment of Housing Damage in the Philippines Due to an Increase Increase in Typhoon Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Stromberg, Per; Gasparatos, Alexandros

    2010-05-01

    south is almost unaffected due to its proximity to the equator. The estimation of the damage shows that the number of houses partially or totally destroyed could increase by up to 58% in certain regions by 2085. The historical damage data shows how the adaptive capacity values of each region given by Yusuf and Herminia (2009) are crucial to the amount of damage recorded. These authors defined this parameter as the degree to which adjustments in practices, processes or structures can moderate or offset potential damage or take advantage of opportunities from climate change. This clearly highlights the importance of mitigation measures to increase the resilience of communities in the future. This is a significant conclusion of the present paper, independent of whether tropical cyclones increase in intensity or not.

  13. Damage to apparel layers and underlying tissue due to hand-gun bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra; Kieser, Jules; Mabbott, Alexander; Mott, Charlotte; Champion, Stephen; Girvan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic damage to the clothing of victims of gunshot wounds to the chest can provide useful forensic evidence. Anyone shot in the torso will usually be wearing clothing which will be damaged by the penetrating impact event and can reportedly be the source of some of the debris in the wound. Minimal research has previously been reported regarding the effect of bullets on apparel fabrics and underlying tissue. This paper examines the effect of ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket [FMJ] DM11 A1B2, 8.0 g; and soft point flat nose Remington R357M3, 10.2 g) on clothing layers that cover the torso (T-shirt, T-shirt plus hoodie, T-shirt plus denim jacket) and underlying structures represented by porcine thoracic wall (skin, underlying tissue, ribs). Impacts were recorded using a Phantom V12 high speed camera. Ejected bone debris was collected before wound tracts were dissected and measured; any debris found was recovered for further analysis. Size and mass of bony debris was recorded; fibre debris recovered from the wound and impact damage to fabrics were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remington R357M3 ammunition was characteristically associated with stellate fabric damage; individual fibres were less likely to show mushrooming. In contrast, 9 mm FMJ ammunition resulted in punch-out damage to fabric layers, with mushrooming of individual fibres being more common. Entry wound sizes were similar for both types of ammunition and smaller than the diameter of the bullet that caused them. In this work, the Remington R357M3 ammunition resulted in larger exit wounds due to the bullet construction which mushroomed. That fabric coverings did not affect the amount of bony debris produced is interesting, particularly given there was some evidence that apparel layers affected the size of the wound. Recent work has suggested that denim (representative of jeans) can exacerbate wounding caused by high-velocity bullet impacts to the thigh when the bullet does not

  14. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of potential damage to hernia repair materials due to fixation with helical titanium tacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdsirisopon, Sopon; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D; Deeken, Corey R

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the strength and extensibility of hernia repair materials are negatively influenced by the application of helical titanium tacks. This study evaluated 14 meshes including bare polypropylene, macroporous polytetrafluoroethylene, absorbable barrier, partially absorbable mesh, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene materials. Each mesh provided 15 specimens, which were prepared in 7.5 × 7.5-cm squares. Of these, 5 "undamaged" specimens were subjected to ball-burst testing to determine their biomechanical properties before application of helical titanium tacks (ProTack). To 10 "damaged" specimens 7 tacks were applied 1 cm apart in a 3.5-cm-diameter circle using a tacking force of 25 to 28 N. The tacks were removed from five of the specimens before ball-burst testing and left intact in the remaining five specimens. The application of tacks had no effect on the tensile strength of Dualmesh, ProLite Ultra, Infinit, Ultrapro, C-QUR Lite (6 in.). Most of the meshes did not exhibit significantly different tensile strengths between removal of tacks and tacks left intact. Exceptions included C-QUR, Prolene, Ultrapro, and Bard Soft Mesh, which were weaker with removal of tacks than with tacks left intact during the test. Damage due to the application of helical titanium tacks also caused increased strain at a stress of 16 N/cm for all the meshes except C-QUR Lite (>6 in.) and Physiomesh. Many of the meshes evaluated in this study exhibited damage in the form of reduced tensile strength and increased extensibility after the application of tacks compared with the corresponding "undamaged" meshes. Meshes with smaller interstices and larger filaments were influenced negatively by the application of helical titanium tacks, whereas mesh designs with larger interstices and smaller filaments tended to maintain their baseline mechanical properties.

  16. Analysis and evaluation of atom level composition variation and property change due to materials irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuo; Takeguchi, Masaki; Mitsuishi, Kazuki; Song Menhi; Saito, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at general elucidation of atom level composition variation due to radiation damage and property change accompanied with this under intending to stressing application of the in-situ analysis and evaluation apparatus on material radiation damage. Then, by using the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) capable of showing a power in composition analysis at microscopic region, measurement of EELS on crystal structure change after heat treatment of Xe precipitation was carried out under parallel of its high resolution observation. As a result, a precipitation with less than 30 nm in diameter was observed on a specimen inserted at 473 K. Xe precipitates in crystalline state began to change at 623 K, to be perfectly gassy state at 773 K. In an energy filter image (EFI) using low loss of Xe, distribution of crystalline and non-crystalline Xe was observed. In EELS, peaks at 14.6 and 15.3 eV were observed in 300 and 773 K, respectively, which were thought to be plasmon. And, difference of peak position at the core loss was thought to reflex difference of Xe state at 300 and 773 K. (G.K.)

  17. Bread dough rheology: Computing with a damage function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger I.; Qi, Fuzhong; Dai, Shaocong

    2015-01-01

    We describe an improved damage function model for bread dough rheology. The model has relatively few parameters, all of which can easily be found from simple experiments. Small deformations in the linear region are described by a gel-like power-law memory function. A set of large non-reversing deformations - stress relaxation after a step of shear, steady shearing and elongation beginning from rest, and biaxial stretching, is used to test the model. With the introduction of a revised strain measure which includes a Mooney-Rivlin term, all of these motions can be well described by the damage function described in previous papers. For reversing step strains, larger amplitude oscillatory shearing and recoil reasonable predictions have been found. The numerical methods used are discussed and we give some examples.

  18. Bicarbonate modulates oxidative and functional damage in ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queliconi, Bruno B; Marazzi, Thire B M; Vaz, Sandra M; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith; Augusto, Ohara; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-02-01

    The carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)) pair is the main biological pH buffer. However, its influence on biological processes, and in particular redox processes, is still poorly explored. Here we study the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) on ischemic injury in three distinct models (cardiac HL-1 cells, perfused rat heart, and Caenorhabditis elegans). We found that, although various concentrations of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) do not affect function under basal conditions, ischemia-reperfusion or similar insults in the presence of higher CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) resulted in greater functional loss associated with higher oxidative damage in all models. Because the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) was observed in all models tested, we believe this buffer is an important determinant of oxidative damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probabilistic analysis and fatigue damage assessment of offshore mooring system due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anteng; Li, Huajun; Wang, Shuqing; Du, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Both wave-frequency (WF) and low-frequency (LF) components of mooring tension are in principle non-Gaussian due to nonlinearities in the dynamic system. This paper conducts a comprehensive investigation of applicable probability density functions (PDFs) of mooring tension amplitudes used to assess mooring-line fatigue damage via the spectral method. Short-term statistical characteristics of mooring-line tension responses are firstly investigated, in which the discrepancy arising from Gaussian approximation is revealed by comparing kurtosis and skewness coefficients. Several distribution functions based on present analytical spectral methods are selected to express the statistical distribution of the mooring-line tension amplitudes. Results indicate that the Gamma-type distribution and a linear combination of Dirlik and Tovo-Benasciutti formulas are suitable for separate WF and LF mooring tension components. A novel parametric method based on nonlinear transformations and stochastic optimization is then proposed to increase the effectiveness of mooring-line fatigue assessment due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension responses. Using time domain simulation as a benchmark, its accuracy is further validated using a numerical case study of a moored semi-submersible platform.

  20. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  1. Two familial ALS proteins function in prevention/repair of transcription-associated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah J; Mordes, Daniel A; Cameron, Lisa A; Neuberg, Donna S; Landini, Serena; Eggan, Kevin; Livingston, David M

    2016-11-29

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron dysfunction disease that leads to paralysis and death. There is currently no established molecular pathogenesis pathway. Multiple proteins involved in RNA processing are linked to ALS, including FUS and TDP43, and we propose a disease mechanism in which loss of function of at least one of these proteins leads to an accumulation of transcription-associated DNA damage contributing to motor neuron cell death and progressive neurological symptoms. In support of this hypothesis, we find that FUS or TDP43 depletion leads to increased sensitivity to a transcription-arresting agent due to increased DNA damage. Thus, these proteins normally contribute to the prevention or repair of transcription-associated DNA damage. In addition, both FUS and TDP43 colocalize with active RNA polymerase II at sites of DNA damage along with the DNA damage repair protein, BRCA1, and FUS and TDP43 participate in the prevention or repair of R loop-associated DNA damage, a manifestation of aberrant transcription and/or RNA processing. Gaining a better understanding of the role(s) that FUS and TDP43 play in transcription-associated DNA damage could shed light on the mechanisms underlying ALS pathogenesis.

  2. Damages to masonry due to interaction(s) between mortar and brick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugt, L.J.A.R. van der

    1995-01-01

    Masonry consists of brick and mortar. Next to the laying mortar there can be a separate pointing mortar as well. Each of these components can suffer damage. Such damages, of course, have to do with the properties of the components and with the agressiveness of the environment. However, next to their

  3. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area plots. Results show that wounding occurred on 16.4% of the remaining trees, but the severity of wounding varied significantly by species. Forty-six percent of wounding for all species combined was considered as small size. The greatest average amount of damage, to a bole, occurred along the first 1m up from the ground and also within 3m of the skid trail centerline (86.4%. Gouges were present on 79% of all scars. The stratification of the study unit would effectively improve accuracy of stand damage surveys. Selection of the appropriate method for damage reduction to trees adjacent skid trails was crucial. According to the results, skidding damage cannot be completely avoided in practice. We suggest that the education and the entertainment of the foresters and workers in forest would be enhanced and the injuries could be explained before the harvesting to the workers. In such a way the damages would be less in the future.

  4. Environmental problems associated with blasting in mines: public apprehensions of damage due to blast vibrations - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1994-12-31

    Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of creep damage due to stress relaxation in SA533 grade B class 1 and SA508 class 3 pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.L.; Urko, W.

    1993-01-01

    Creep damage can result from stress relaxation of residual stresses in components when exposed to high temperature thermal cycles. Pressure vessels, such as the reactor vessel of the modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR), which normally operate at temperatures well below the creep range can develop relatively high residual stresses in high stress locations. During short term excursions to elevated-temperatures, creep damage can be produced by the loadings on the vessel. In addition, residual stresses will relax out, causing greater creep damage in the pressure vessel material than might otherwise be calculated. The evaluation described in this paper assesses the magnitude of the creep damage due to relaxation of residual stresses resulting from short term exposure of the pressure vessel material to temperatures in the creep range. Creep relaxation curves were generated for SA533 Grade B, Class 1 and SA508 Class 3 pressure vessel steels using finite element analysis of a simple uniaxial truss loaded under constant strain conditions to produce an initial axial stress equal to 1.25 times the material yield strength at temperature. The strain is held constant for 1000 hours at prescribed temperatures from 700 F to 1000 F. The material creep law is used to calculate the relaxed stress for each time increment. The calculated stress relaxation versus time curves are compared with stress relaxation test data. Creep damage fractions are calculated by integrating the stress relaxation versus time curves and performing a linear creep damage summation using the minimum stress to rupture curves at the respective relaxation temperatures. Cumulative creep damage due to stress relaxation as a function of time and temperature is derived from the linear damage summation

  6. DNA damage in human lymphocytes due to synergistic interaction between ionizing radiation and pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. H.; Chun, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Biological risks may arise from the possibility of the synergistic interaction between harmful factors such as ionizing radiation and pesticide. The effect of pesticide on radiation-induced DNA damage in human in human blood lymphocytes was evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the pesticide, were exposed to 2.0 Gy of gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in SCGE assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The present study confirms that the pesticide has the cytotoxic effect on lymphocytes and that it interacts synergistically with ionizing radiationon DNA damage, as well

  7. Frequency Response Function Based Damage Identification for Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joseph Acton

    Structural health monitoring technologies continue to be pursued for aerospace structures in the interests of increased safety and, when combined with health prognosis, efficiency in life-cycle management. The current dissertation develops and validates damage identification technology as a critical component for structural health monitoring of aerospace structures and, in particular, composite unmanned aerial vehicles. The primary innovation is a statistical least-squares damage identification algorithm based in concepts of parameter estimation and model update. The algorithm uses frequency response function based residual force vectors derived from distributed vibration measurements to update a structural finite element model through statistically weighted least-squares minimization producing location and quantification of the damage, estimation uncertainty, and an updated model. Advantages compared to other approaches include robust applicability to systems which are heavily damped, large, and noisy, with a relatively low number of distributed measurement points compared to the number of analytical degrees-of-freedom of an associated analytical structural model (e.g., modal finite element model). Motivation, research objectives, and a dissertation summary are discussed in Chapter 1 followed by a literature review in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives background theory and the damage identification algorithm derivation followed by a study of fundamental algorithm behavior on a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with generalized damping. Chapter 4 investigates the impact of noise then successfully proves the algorithm against competing methods using an analytical eight degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with non-proportional structural damping. Chapter 5 extends use of the algorithm to finite element models, including solutions for numerical issues, approaches for modeling damping approximately in reduced coordinates, and analytical validation using a composite

  8. Damage reconstruction due to impact of high-energetic particles on Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 (U)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Safety Board (DSB) investigates the crash of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 which occurred on Thursday July 17, 2014 in the Donetsk region (Ukraine). The DSB wants to provide a clear picture of the cause of the crash. A possible cause is fatal damage to the aircraft due to detonation of the

  9. Measures to prevent concrete damage due to alkali-silica reaction in the Netherlands: Current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: • the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: 50 % by

  10. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  11. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Zhao Hongguang; Du Xiang; Li Yanbo; Guo Wei; Gong Shouliang; Xiao Jian; Yao Chongshun; Li Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm 2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  12. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Yuqiang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling; Hu, Fangdi; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40 min incubation time and in the pH 5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5 mM FeSO_4, 50 mM H_2O_2). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy)_3"3"+. The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV–vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. - Highlights: • Hydroxyl radicals were produced by Fenton reagents. • An electrochemical bovine serum albumin (BSA) damage sensor was successfully fabricated. • The proposed biosensor can assess the antioxidant capacity of four flavonoids. • The order of antioxidant activities of flavonoids is

  13. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bolu [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gou, Yuqiang [Lanzhou Military Command Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hu, Fangdi, E-mail: hufd@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Wanghong, E-mail: wanghongzhao@sina.com [Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 51515 (China)

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40 min incubation time and in the pH 5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5 mM FeSO{sub 4}, 50 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy){sub 3}{sup 3+}. The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV–vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. - Highlights: • Hydroxyl radicals were produced by Fenton reagents. • An electrochemical bovine serum albumin (BSA) damage sensor was successfully fabricated. • The proposed biosensor can assess the antioxidant capacity of four flavonoids. • The order of antioxidant

  14. Appreciation the damage of kidney function with RIA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haodan

    1992-01-01

    Using RIA method, the authors took 4 kinds of urine specimen from 100 normal persons which were taken in the morning 1 h after drinking voluntary and all- 24 h, and stored at 4 C deg and -30 C deg respectively, in order to detect the concentration of the urine protein Β 2 -MG, ALb, IgG and THP. The results are as follows: for 3-days-storage at 4 C deg and 2-weeks-storage at -30 C deg, P > 0.05; for the ALb, IgG and THP between voluntary urine and 24 h urine, α = 0.7565, 0.7865 and 0.7537 respectively; for Β 2 -MG, between the 1h-urine after drinking and voluntary urine, α = 0.7238. The urinary levels were measured of Β 2 -MG, ALb, IgG and THP with voluntary urine specimen in 177 cases of various types of nephropathy, urino-infection, and diabetic nephrosis, hypertesion-nephrosis, systemic lupus erythematosus. It is considered that the method of testing urine protein with voluntary urine specimen is not only accurate for collecting but also convenient for the patient. It is more accurate and sensitive than the traditional BUN and Cr for the appreciation of kidney function damage. And it gives a early stage index of kidney damage

  15. Damage of plates due to impact, dynamic pressure and explosive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Jones

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this article to present design equations which can be used to predict the damage of ductile plating when subjected to mass impact, dynamic pressure or impulsive loadings. The external loadings are sufficiently severe to produce inelastic material behaviour and produce finite transverse displacement, or geometry change, effects. The damage is characterised as the final or permanent transverse displacement of a plate. The theoretical method predicts values for the maximum permanent transverse displacements which agree reasonably well with the corresponding experimental results generated on aluminium alloy circular, square and rectangular plates. Thus, the equations presented in this article are valuable for preliminary design purposes and for forensic studies, while the experimental data can be used for validating numerical schemes.

  16. Detection of system changes due to damage using a tuned hyperchaotic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkamani, S; Butcher, E A; Todd, M D; Park, G

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the use of a hyperchaotic signal as an excitation to probe a system for dynamic changes induced by damage events. In chaotic interrogation a deterministic chaotic input (rather than the more commonly employed stochastic white noise input) is applied to the structure and the dynamic response is mined for features derived from its state space reconstruction. The steady-state chaotic excitation is tuned to excite the structure in a way that optimal sensitivity to dimensionality changes in the response may be observed, resulting in damage-sensitive features extracted from the resulting attractors. The enhanced technique proposed in this paper explores a hyperchaotic excitation, which is fundamentally new in its use as an excitation. Hyperchaotic oscillators have at least two Lyapunov exponents, in contrast to simple chaotic oscillators. By using the Kaplan–Yorke conjecture and performing a parametric investigation, the steady-state hyperchaotic excitation is tuned to excite the structure in such a way that the optimal (as will be defined) dimensionality of the steady-state response is achieved. A feature called the 'average local attractor variance ratio' (ALAVR), which is based on attractor geometry, is used to compare the geometry of a baseline attractor to a test attractor. The enhanced technique is applied to analytically and experimentally analyze the response of an eight-degree-of-freedom system to the hyperchaotic excitation for the purpose of damage assessment. A comparison between the results obtained from current hyperchaotic excitation versus a chaotic excitation highlights the higher damage sensitivity in the system response to the hyperchaotic excitation

  17. Repair of radiation damage of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus due to gamma and UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryznar, L.; Drasil, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cells were irradiated in dry state with gamma radiation and UV radiation. The post-irradiation warming of freeze dried cells (2 hours to 60deg or to 80deg) influenced the ability to repair sublethal damage. Heating to 80deg caused a mild reduction in survival. The repair of irradiated and heated cells required more time than that of cells which had only been irradiated. (M.D.)

  18. Failure of Stainless Steel Welds Due to Microstructural Damage Prevented by In Situ Metallography

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez,Juan Manuel Salgado; Alvarado,María Inés; Hernandez,Hector Vergara; Quiroz,José Trinidad Perez; Olmos,Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In stainless steels, microstructural damage is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides or sigma phase. These microconstituents are detrimental in stainless steel welds because they lead to weld decay. Nevertheless, they are prone to appear in the heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of stainless steel welds. This is particularly important for repairs of industrial components made of austenitic stainless steel. Non-destructive metallography can be applied in welding repairs of...

  19. Damages in American Samoa due to the 29 September 2009 Samoa Islands Region Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2009-12-01

    A large earthquake of Mw 8.0 occurred in Samoa Islands Region in the early morning on 29 September 2009 (local time). A Large Tsunami generated by the earthquake hit Samoa, American Samoa, Tonga. Total 192 people were died or missing in these three countries (22 October 2009). The authors surveyed in Tutuila Island, American Samoa from 6 to 8 in October 2009 with the aim to find out damages in the disaster. In American Samoa, death and missing toll was 35. The main findings are as follows; first, human damages were little for tsunami run-up height of about 4 to 6 meters and tsunami arrival time of about 20 minutes. We can suppose that residents evacuated quickly after feeling shaking or something. Secondly, houses were severely damaged in some low elevation coastal villages such as Amanave, Leone, Pago Pago, Tula and so on. Third, a power plant and an airport, which are important infrastructures in relief and recovery phase, were also severely damaged. Inundation depth at the power plant was 2.31 meters. A blackout in the daytime lasted when we surveyed. On the other hand, the airport could use already at that time. But it was closed on the first day in the disaster because of a lot of disaster debris on the runway carried by tsunami. Inundation depth at the airport fence was measured in 0.7 to 0.8 meters. Other countries in the south-western Pacific region may have power plants or airports with similar risk, so it should be assessed against future tsunami disasters. Inundated thermal power plant in Pago Pago Debris on runway in Tafuna Airport (Provided by Mr. Chris Soti, DPA)

  20. Relation between hippocampal damage and cerebral cortical function in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Kogure, Daiji; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relation between hippocampal damage and cerebral cortical dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using MRI and SPECT. Nineteen patients with AD and 10 control subjects were studied. Hippocampal damage (including hippocampal formation, entorhinal cortex, and parahippocampal white matter) was assessed to evaluate the severity of atrophy and the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and cerebral cortical dysfunction was evaluated by quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements using SPECT with 99mTc-ECD. Compared with controls, patients with AD had significantly more atrophy of the medial temporal lobe and a decrease in MTRs of the hippocampus and parahippocampus. There were significant correlations between the severity of hippocampal damage and regional CBF in temporoparietal lobes. Mini-Mental State Examination scores significantly correlated with the severity of hippocampal damage and regional CBFs in temporoparietal lobes. These results suggest that the functional effect of hippocampal damage occurs in temporoparietal lobes in AD, probably due to neuronal disconnections between hippocampal areas (including the entorhinal cortex) and temporoparietal lobes. (author)

  1. Filtered air plastic chamber as an experimental facility to prove visible damage of crops due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y; Yoda, H; Omichi, S; Shiratori, K

    1975-01-01

    An experimental filtered air chamber was constructed to prove the visible damage of crops due to air pollution. The chamber was provided with another room into which non-filtered ambient air was introduced. The purified air was prepared by filtering ambient air with activated carbon. The average content of air pollutants in the purified air chamber was less than 10 to 20% of the ozone and 20% of the sulfur oxides in the ambient air. However, cultivated vegetables such as tobacco and spinach, which are susceptible to oxidant, showed no visible damage in the filtered air chamber, and showed the same damage in the nonfiltered air chamber as was seen in fields at the same time.

  2. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Yuqiang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling; Hu, Fangdi; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40 min incubation time and in the pH 5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5 mM FeSO4, 50 mM H2O2). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy)3(3+). The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin>kaempferol>apigenin>naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation effects and damage formation in semiconductors due to high-energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamarou, A.

    2006-11-07

    The object of this thesis was the study of ion-beam induced damage formation and annealing in crystalline and conventionally predamaged Ge, GaAs, and InP. The samples were irradiated either at {approx}80 K or at room temperature with Kr, Xe, or Au ions with specific energy of about 0.3 MeV/u to 3 MeV/u. Thereafter the samples were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Radiation effects and damage formation in semiconductors due to high-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarou, A.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this thesis was the study of ion-beam induced damage formation and annealing in crystalline and conventionally predamaged Ge, GaAs, and InP. The samples were irradiated either at ∼80 K or at room temperature with Kr, Xe, or Au ions with specific energy of about 0.3 MeV/u to 3 MeV/u. Thereafter the samples were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy

  5. Establishment of a mouse model with misregulated chromosome condensation due to defective Mcph1 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Trimborn

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human gene MCPH1 cause primary microcephaly associated with a unique cellular phenotype with premature chromosome condensation (PCC in early G2 phase and delayed decondensation post-mitosis (PCC syndrome. The gene encodes the BRCT-domain containing protein microcephalin/BRIT1. Apart from its role in the regulation of chromosome condensation, the protein is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. We report here on the first mouse model of impaired Mcph1-function. The model was established based on an embryonic stem cell line from BayGenomics (RR0608 containing a gene trap in intron 12 of the Mcph1 gene deleting the C-terminal BRCT-domain of the protein. Although residual wild type allele can be detected by quantitative real-time PCR cell cultures generated from mouse tissues bearing the homozygous gene trap mutation display the cellular phenotype of misregulated chromosome condensation that is characteristic for the human disorder, confirming defective Mcph1 function due to the gene trap mutation. While surprisingly the DNA damage response (formation of repair foci, chromosomal breakage, and G2/M checkpoint function after irradiation appears to be largely normal in cell cultures derived from Mcph1(gt/gt mice, the overall survival rates of the Mcph1(gt/gt animals are significantly reduced compared to wild type and heterozygous mice. However, we could not detect clear signs of premature malignant disease development due to the perturbed Mcph1 function. Moreover, the animals show no obvious physical phenotype and no reduced fertility. Body and brain size are within the range of wild type controls. Gene expression on RNA and protein level did not reveal any specific pattern of differentially regulated genes. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first mammalian transgenic model displaying a defect in mitotic chromosome condensation and is also the first mouse model for impaired Mcph1-function.

  6. Establishment of a mouse model with misregulated chromosome condensation due to defective Mcph1 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimborn, Marc; Ghani, Mahdi; Walther, Diego J; Dopatka, Monika; Dutrannoy, Véronique; Busche, Andreas; Meyer, Franziska; Nowak, Stefanie; Nowak, Jean; Zabel, Claus; Klose, Joachim; Esquitino, Veronica; Garshasbi, Masoud; Kuss, Andreas W; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Mueller, Susanne; Poehlmann, Charlotte; Gavvovidis, Ioannis; Schindler, Detlev; Sperling, Karl; Neitzel, Heidemarie

    2010-02-16

    Mutations in the human gene MCPH1 cause primary microcephaly associated with a unique cellular phenotype with premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in early G2 phase and delayed decondensation post-mitosis (PCC syndrome). The gene encodes the BRCT-domain containing protein microcephalin/BRIT1. Apart from its role in the regulation of chromosome condensation, the protein is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. We report here on the first mouse model of impaired Mcph1-function. The model was established based on an embryonic stem cell line from BayGenomics (RR0608) containing a gene trap in intron 12 of the Mcph1 gene deleting the C-terminal BRCT-domain of the protein. Although residual wild type allele can be detected by quantitative real-time PCR cell cultures generated from mouse tissues bearing the homozygous gene trap mutation display the cellular phenotype of misregulated chromosome condensation that is characteristic for the human disorder, confirming defective Mcph1 function due to the gene trap mutation. While surprisingly the DNA damage response (formation of repair foci, chromosomal breakage, and G2/M checkpoint function after irradiation) appears to be largely normal in cell cultures derived from Mcph1(gt/gt) mice, the overall survival rates of the Mcph1(gt/gt) animals are significantly reduced compared to wild type and heterozygous mice. However, we could not detect clear signs of premature malignant disease development due to the perturbed Mcph1 function. Moreover, the animals show no obvious physical phenotype and no reduced fertility. Body and brain size are within the range of wild type controls. Gene expression on RNA and protein level did not reveal any specific pattern of differentially regulated genes. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first mammalian transgenic model displaying a defect in mitotic chromosome condensation and is also the first mouse model for impaired Mcph1-function.

  7. A Study of Moisture Damage in Plastomeric Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder Using Functionalized AFM Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Tarefder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt binder is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM with chemically functionalized AFM tips. Four different percentages of plastomeric polymers and two antistripping agents such as Kling Beta and Lime are used to modify a base asphalt binder. Chemical functional groups such as -COOH, -CH3, -NH3, and –OH, that are commonly present in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt system, are used to functionalize the AFM tips. The force distance mode of AFM is used to measure the adhesion forces between a modified asphalt sample surface and the functionalized AFM tips. This enables the measurement of adhesion within an asphalt binder system. It is shown that the adhesion force values in dry sample changed substantially from that in wet conditioned samples. It is evident from this study that plastomeric modification does not help reduce moisture damage in asphalt. The percentage change in adhesion forces due to moisture is about 20 nN for the lime modified samples, and about 50 nN for the Kling Beta modified samples. This indicates that lime is more effective than Kling Beta for reducing moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt.

  8. Failure of Stainless Steel Welds Due to Microstructural Damage Prevented by In Situ Metallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Salgado Lopez

    Full Text Available Abstract In stainless steels, microstructural damage is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides or sigma phase. These microconstituents are detrimental in stainless steel welds because they lead to weld decay. Nevertheless, they are prone to appear in the heat affected zone (HAZ microstructure of stainless steel welds. This is particularly important for repairs of industrial components made of austenitic stainless steel. Non-destructive metallography can be applied in welding repairs of AISI 304 stainless steel components where it is difficult to ensure that no detrimental phase is present in the HAZ microstructure. The need of microstructural inspection in repairs of AISI 304 is caused because it is not possible to manufacture coupons for destructive metallography, with which the microstructure can be analyzed. In this work, it is proposed to apply in situ metallography as non-destructive testing in order to identify microstructural damage in the microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel welds. The results of this study showed that the external surface micrographs of the weldment are representative of HAZ microstructure of the stainless steel component; because they show the presence of precipitated metallic carbides in the grain boundaries or sigma phase in the microstructure of the HAZ.

  9. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  10. Application of damage function analysis to reactor coolant circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    The application of deterministic models for simulating stress corrosion cracking phenomena in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant circuits is described. The first generation code, DAMAGE-PREDICTOR, has been used to model the radiolysis of the coolant, to estimate the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), and to calculate the crack growth rate (CGR) at fixed state points during reactor operation in about a dozen plants worldwide. This code has been validated in ''double-blind'' comparisons between the calculated and measured hydrogen concentration, oxygen concentration, and ECP in the recirculation system of the Leibstadt BWR in Switzerland, as well as through less formal comparisons with data from other plants. Second generation codes have now been developed, including REMAIN for simulating BWRs with internal coolant pumps and the ALERT series for modeling reactors with external pumps. One of this series, ALERT, yields the integrated damage function (IDF), which is the crack length versus time, on a component-by-component basis for a specified future operating scenario. This code therefore allows one to explore proposed future operating protocols, with the objective of identifying those that are most cost-effective and which minimizes the risk of failure of components in the coolant circuit by stress corrosion cracking. The application of this code is illustrated by exploring the benefits of partial hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) for an actual reactor, in which hydrogen is added to the feedwater over only limited periods during operation. The simulations show that the benefits, in terms of reduction in the IDFs for various components, are sensitive to when HWC was initiated in the plant life and to the length of time over which it is applied. (author)

  11. Application of damage function analysis to reactor coolant circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, D.D. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Technology, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The application of deterministic models for simulating stress corrosion cracking phenomena in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant circuits is described. The first generation code, DAMAGE-PREDICTOR, has been used to model the radiolysis of the coolant, to estimate the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), and to calculate the crack growth rate (CGR) at fixed state points during reactor operation in about a dozen plants worldwide. This code has been validated in ''double-blind'' comparisons between the calculated and measured hydrogen concentration, oxygen concentration, and ECP in the recirculation system of the Leibstadt BWR in Switzerland, as well as through less formal comparisons with data from other plants. Second generation codes have now been developed, including REMAIN for simulating BWRs with internal coolant pumps and the ALERT series for modeling reactors with external pumps. One of this series, ALERT, yields the integrated damage function (IDF), which is the crack length versus time, on a component-by-component basis for a specified future operating scenario. This code therefore allows one to explore proposed future operating protocols, with the objective of identifying those that are most cost-effective and which minimizes the risk of failure of components in the coolant circuit by stress corrosion cracking. The application of this code is illustrated by exploring the benefits of partial hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) for an actual reactor, in which hydrogen is added to the feedwater over only limited periods during operation. The simulations show that the benefits, in terms of reduction in the IDFs for various components, are sensitive to when HWC was initiated in the plant life and to the length of time over which it is applied. (author)

  12. Real-Time Vehicle Routing for Repairing Damaged Infrastructures Due to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the task of repairing damaged infrastructures as a series of multidepot vehicle-routing problems with time windows in a time-rolling frame. The network size of the tackled problems changes from time to time, as new disaster nodes will be added to and serviced disaster nodes will be deleted from the current network. In addition, an inaccessible disaster node would become accessible when one of its adjacent disaster nodes has been repaired. By the “take-and-conquer” strategy, the repair sequence of the disaster nodes in the affected area can be suitably scheduled. Thirteen instances were tested with our proposed heuristic, that is, Chen et al.'s approach. For comparison, Hsueh et al.'s approach (2008 with necessary modification was also tested. The results show that Chen et al.'s approach performs slightly better for larger size networks in terms of objective value.

  13. The effect of apple (Malus Domestica juice on the damage of mice liver cells due to paracetamol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hartanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.

  14. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  15. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  16. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K F [Bruce Engineering Department, In-Service Nuclear Projects, Ontario Hydro, North York, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced.

  17. Comet assay optimization for assessment of DNA damage due to radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Ramadhani; Devita Tetriana; Viria Agesti Suvifan

    2016-01-01

    Comet assay can be used to measure the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage level caused by ionizing radiation exposure in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The principle of the comet assay is based on the amount of denatured DNA fragments that migrated out of the cell nucleus during electrophoresis. There are several aspects that must be concerned when doing the comet assay. For example the agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature, and voltage gradient), and the measurement parameters that used in analyze the comet. Percentage of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA) is strongly recommended as a parameter when analyze the comet because it can be converted to lesions per 106 base pairs (bp) using calibration curve that show relationship between the dose of ionizing radiation and % tail DNA. To obtain an accurate result, the calibration curve must be made and comet should be analyzing using image processing analysis software since it can be increase the precision and reduce the subjectivity of the measurement process. (author)

  18. Cardiotoxic (Arrhythmogenic) Effects of 1,1-Difluoroethane Due to Electrolyte Imbalance and Cardiomyocyte Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kaushal; Barletta, Michael; Wurpel, John

    2017-06-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of chemical vapors to attain euphoric effects. Many common household products are abused by inhalation and one is 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), which is a halogenated hydrocarbon used in refrigeration, dust-off spray, and airbrush painting. Although many human DFE abuse cases have been studied, the etiology and mechanism of sudden death is still unknown. In this study, an animal model was used to simulate the human conditions of DFE inhalation abuse that results in sudden death.Current research targets mechanistic studies involving electrolyte changes and cardiomyocyte damage after DFE administration in vivo. To investigate these changes, Sprague Dawley rats (N = 6) were exposed to 30 seconds of 20 L/min of DFE in multiple doses. Isoflurane acted as a control. Two additional groups, epinephrine and epinephrine + DFE, were included to simulate the clinical condition of DFE abuse. Plasma sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels were measured, followed by lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin I levels. In addition, oxidative stress markers were also evaluated in all animal groups. Electrolyte levels showed a significant rise in plasma potassium and magnesium levels for the treated groups. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin I levels in DFE and epinephrine + DFE administered rats were significantly elevated as compared with control. Some oxidative stress makers were also elevated significantly in treatment groups. Furthermore, histopathological analysis showed hyperemia/congestion in treated rats.These results support cardiotoxic effects indicating that DFE results in fatal arrhythmias, and the study can be important during clinical cases involving inhalant abuse.

  19. Estimation of the Past and Future Infrastructure Damage Due the Permafrost Evolution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, D. O.; Chesnokova, I. V.; Morozova, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The geocryological processes such as thermokarst, frost heaving and fracturing, icing, thermal erosion are the source of immediate danger for the structures. The economic losses during the construction procedures in the permafrost area are linked also with the other geological processes that have the specific character in cold regions. These processes are swamping, desertification, deflation, flooding, mudflows and landslides. Linear transport structures are most vulnerable component of regional and national economy. Because the high length the transport structures have to cross the landscapes with different permafrost conditions that have the different reaction to climate change. The climate warming is favorable for thermokarst and the frost heaving is linked with climate cooling. In result the structure falls in the circumstances that are not predicted in the construction project. Local engineering problems of structure exploitation lead to global risks of sustainable development of regions. Authors developed the database of geocryological damage cases for the last twelve years at the Russian territory. Spatial data have the attributive table that was filled by the published information from various permafrost conference proceedings. The preliminary GIS-analysis of gathered data showed the widespread territorial distribution of the cases of negative consequences of geocryological processes activity. The information about maximum effect from geocryological processes was validated by detailed field investigation along the railways in Yamal and Transbaicalia Regions. Authors expect the expanding of database by similar data from other sectors of Arctic. It is important for analyzing the regional, time and industrial tendencies of geocryological risk evolution. Obtained information could be used in insurance procedures and in information systems of decisions support in different management levels. The investigation was completed with financial support by Russian

  20. DNA damage due to perfluorooctane sulfonate based on nano-gold embedded in nano-porous poly-pyrrole film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Liping, E-mail: lipinglu@bjut.edu.cn; Xu, Laihui; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage induced from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was further developed on a nano-porous bionic interface. The interface was formed by assembling DNA on nano-gold particles which were embedded in a nano-porous overoxidized polypyrrole film (OPPy). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical investigations indicate that OPPy can be treated to form nano-pore structures. DNA damage due to PFOS was proved using electrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and was investigated by detecting differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) response of methylene blue (MB) which was used as electro-active indicator in the system. The current of MB attenuates obviously after incubation of DNA in PFOS. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrates that PFOS weakens DNA charge transport. The tentative binding ratio of PFOS: DNA base pair was obtained by analyzing XPS data of this system.

  1. Prediction of pressure tube fretting-wear damage due to fuel vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetisir, M.; Fisher, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fretting marks between fuel bundle bearing pads and pressure tubes have been observed at the inlet end of some Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) and Bruce NGS fuel channels. The excitation mechanisms that lead to fretting are not fully understood. In this paper, the possibility of bearing pad-to-pressure tube fretting due to turbulence-induced motion of the fuel element is investigated. Numerical simulations indicate that this mechanism by itself is not likely to cause the level of fretting experienced in Darlington and Bruce NGSs. (orig.)

  2. Prediction of pressure tube fretting-wear damage due to fuel vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetisir, M; Fisher, N J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Fretting marks between fuel bundle bearing pads and pressure tubes have been observed at the inlet end of some Darlington NGS (nuclear generating station) and Bruce NGS fuel channels. The excitation mechanisms that lead to fretting are not fully understood. In this paper, the possibility of bearing pad-to-pressure tube fretting due to turbulence-induced motion of the fuel element is investigated. Numerical simulations indicate that this mechanism by itself is not likely to cause the level of fretting experienced in Darlington and Bruce NGS`s (nuclear generating stations). (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  3. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  4. Damaged Neocortical Perineuronal Nets Due to Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice, Rats and Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Härtig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM, perineuronal nets (PNs are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU, their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept. We analyzed brain tissues obtained 1 day after ischemia onset from: (a mice after filament-based permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO; (b rats subjected to thromboembolic MACO; and (c sheep at 14 days after electrosurgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. Multiple fluorescence labeling was applied to explore simultaneous alterations of NVU and ECM. Serial mouse sections labeled with the net marker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA displayed largely decomposed and nearly erased PNs in infarcted neocortical areas that were demarcated by up-regulated immunoreactivity for vascular collagen IV (Coll IV. Subsequent semi-quantitative analyses in mice confirmed significantly decreased WFA-staining along the ischemic border zone and a relative decrease in the directly ischemia-affected neocortex. Triple fluorescence labeling throughout the three animal models revealed up-regulated Coll IV and decomposed PNs accompanied by activated astroglia and altered immunoreactivity for parvalbumin, a calcium-binding protein in fast-firing GABAergic neurons which are predominantly surrounded by neocortical PNs. Furthermore, ischemic neocortical areas in rodents simultaneously displayed less intense staining of WFA, aggrecan, the net components neurocan, versican and the

  5. Surface structural damage study in cortical bone due to medical drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera R, Cesar G; De la Torre-I, Manuel H; Flores-M, Jorge M; Hernandez M, Ma Del Socorro; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Briones-R, Manuel de J; Sanchez-P, Jorge

    2017-05-01

    A bone's fracture could be produced by an excessive, repetitive, or sudden load. A regular medical practice to heal it is to fix it in two possible ways: external immobilization, using a ferule, or an internal fixation, using a prosthetic device commonly attached to the bone by means of surgical screws. The bone's volume loss due to this drilling modifies its structure either in the presence or absence of a fracture. To observe the bone's surface behavior caused by the drilling effects, a digital holographic interferometer is used to analyze the displacement surface's variations in nonfractured post-mortem porcine femoral bones. Several nondrilled post-mortem bones are compressed and compared to a set of post-mortem bones with a different number of cortical drillings. During each compression test, a series of digital interferometric holograms were recorded using a high-speed CMOS camera. The results are presented as pseudo 3D mesh displacement maps for comparisons in the physiological range of load (30 and 50 lbs) and beyond (100, 200, and 400 lbs). The high resolution of the optical phase gives a better understanding about the bone's microstructural modifications. Finally, a relationship between compression load and bone volume loss due to the drilling was observed. The results prove that digital holographic interferometry is a viable technique to study the conditions that avoid the surgical screw from loosening in medical procedures of this kind.

  6. Investigation and studies on plant damage due to Tokyo photochemical smog. Part II. On the damage of petunia which showed the symptoms like injuries by pan (peroxyacetyl nitrate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terakado, K.

    1973-10-01

    Twice in the middle of June and in early Aug. 1972, petunia leaves were damaged by peroxyacetyl nitrate in Tokyo. The leaf damage, root activity, and pH and specific conductivity of the soil were studied. Similar plants were exposed experimentally to ozone for comparison. No damage was found on other types of plants in the same greenhouse, and different types of petunias were damaged to different degrees. The damage was studied by microscopy anbd by gross symptoms.

  7. Enhancement of First Wall Damage in Iter Type Tokamak due to Lenr Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Andrei G.; Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    In recent experiments with pulsed periodic high current (J ~ 300-500 mA/cm2) D2-glow discharge at deuteron energies as low as 0.8-2.45 keV a large DD-reaction yield has been obtained. Thick target yield measurement show unusually high DD-reaction enhancement (at Ed = 1 keV the yield is about nine orders of magnitude larger than that deduced from standard Bosch and Halle extrapolation of DD-reaction cross-section to lower energies) The results obtained in these LENR experiments with glow discharge suggest nonnegligible edge plasma effects in the ITER TOKAMAK that were previously ignored. In the case of the ITER DT plasma core, we here estimate the DT reaction yield at the metal edge due to plasma ion bombardment of the first wall and/or divertor materials.

  8. Enhancement of first wall damage in ITER type tokamak due to LENR effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, Andrei G.; Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    In recent experiments with pulsed periodic high current (J - 300-500 mA/cm 2 ) D 2 -glow discharge at deuteron energies as low as 0.8-2.45 keV a large DD-reaction yield has been obtained. Thick target yield measurement show unusually high DD-reaction enhancement (at E d =1 keV the yield is about nine orders of magnitude larger than that deduced from standard Bosch and Halle extrapolation of DD-reaction cross-section to lower energies). The results obtained in these LENR experiments with glow discharge suggest nonnegligible edge plasma effects in the ITER TOKAMAK that were previously ignored. In the case of the ITER DT plasma core, we here estimate the DT reaction yield at the metal edge due to plasma ion bombardment of the first wall and/or divertor materials. (author)

  9. Toe Tissue Transfer for Reconstruction of Damaged Digits due to Electrical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Do Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical burns are one of the most devastating types of injuries, and can becharacterized by the conduction of electric current through the deeper soft tissue such asvessels, nerves, muscles, and bones. For that reason, the extent of an electric burn is veryfrequently underestimated on initial impression.Methods From July 1999 to June 2006, we performed 15 cases of toe tissue transfer for thereconstruction of finger defects caused by electrical burns. We performed preoperative rangeof motion exercise, early excision, and coverage of the digital defect with toe tissue transfer.Results We obtained satisfactory results in both functional and aesthetic aspects in all 15cases without specific complications. Static two-point discrimination results in the transferredtoe cases ranged from 8 to 11 mm, with an average of 9.5 mm. The mean range of motionof the transferred toe was 20° to 36° in the distal interphalangeal joint, 16° to 45° in theproximal interphalangeal joint, and 15° to 35° in the metacarpophalangeal joint. All of thepatients were relatively satisfied with the function and appearance of their new digits.Conclusions The strategic management of electrical injury to the hands can be both challengingand complex. Because the optimal surgical method is free tissue transfer, maintenance ofvascular integrity among various physiological changes works as a determining factor for thepostoperative outcome following the reconstruction.

  10. Estimation of core-damage frequency to evolutionary ALWR [advanced light water reactor] due to seismic initiating events: Task 4.3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Harrison, D.G.; Summitt, R.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is presently developing a requirements document for the design of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One of the basic goals of the EPRI ALWR Requirements Document is that the core-damage frequency for an ALWR shall be less than 1.0E-5. To aid in this effort, the Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) initiated a functional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to determine how effectively the evolutionary plant requirements contained in the existing EPRI Requirements Document assure that this safety goal will be met. This report develops an approximation of the core-damage frequency due to seismic events for both evolutionary plant designs (pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor(BWR)) as modeled in the corresponding functional PRAs. Component fragility values were taken directly form information which has been submitted for inclusion in Appendix A to Volume 1 of the EPRI Requirements Document. The results show a seismic core-damage frequency of 5.2E-6 for PWRS and 5.0E-6 for BWRs. Combined with the internal initiators from the functional PRAs, the overall core-damage frequencies are 6.0E-6 for the pwr and BWR, both of which satisfy the 1.0E-5 EPRI goal. In addition, site-specific considerations, such as more rigid components and less conservative fragility data and seismic hazard curves, may further reduce these frequencies. The effect of seismic events on structures are not addressed in this generic evaluation and should be addressed separately on a design-specific basis. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. A comparison between the irradiation damage response of spinel and zirconia due to Xe ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickafus, K.E.; Wetteland, C.J.; Baker, N.P.; Yu Ning; Devanathan, R.; Nastasi, M.; Bordes, N.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Xe-implanted spinel and cubic zirconia surfaces, as determined by nano-indentation measurements, are distinct and the differences can be related to their microstructures. Upon Xe 2+ ion irradiation to high dose at cryogenic temperature (120 K), the Young's modulus of irradiated spinel falls dramatically until the modulus is only about 3/4 the un-irradiated value. The maximum modulus occurs concurrent with the formation of a metastable crystalline phase of spinel. The subsequent elastic softening at higher Xe 2+ doses is an indication of the onset of amorphization of the spinel. Xe-implanted zirconia surfaces behave differently, in all cases showing almost no change in elastic modulus with increasing Xe 2+ ion dose. This is consistent with microstructural observations of Xe-implanted zirconia crystals which, unlike spinel, show no change in crystal structure with increasing ion dose. The hardness of both spinel and zirconia increases slightly for low Xe 2+ ion doses. At higher doses, zirconia shows little change in hardness, while the hardness of the implanted spinel falls by more than a factor of two. The initial increase in hardness of both spinel and zirconia is consistent with point defect accumulation and the precipitation of small interstitial clusters, while the drop in hardness of spinel at high Xe 2+ ion doses is due to the formation of an amorphous phase. (orig.)

  12. Enhanced thermomechanical stability on laser-induced damage by functionally graded layers in quasi-rugate filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yunti; Ma, Ping; Lv, Liang; Zhang, Mingxiao; Lu, Zhongwen; Qiao, Zhao; Qiu, Fuming

    2018-05-01

    Ta2O5-SiO2 quasi-rugate filters with a reasonable optimization of rugate notch filter design were prepared by ion-beam sputtering. The optical properties and laser-induced damage threshold are studied. Compared with the spectrum of HL-stacks, the spectrum of quasi-rugate filters have weaker second harmonic peaks and narrower stopbands. According to the effect of functionally graded layers (FGLs), 1-on-1 and S-on-1 Laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of quasi-rugate filters are about 22% and 50% higher than those of HL stacks, respectively. Through the analysis of the damage morphologies, laser-induced damage of films under nanosecond multi-pulse are dominated by a combination of thermal shock stress and thermomechanical instability due to nodules. Compared with catastrophic damages, the damage sits of quasi-rugate filters are developed in a moderate way. The damage growth behavior of defect-induced damage sites have been effectively restrained by the structure of FGLs. Generally, FGLs are used to reduce thermal stress by the similar thermal-expansion coefficients of neighboring layers and solve the problems such as instability and cracking raised by the interface discontinuity of nodular boundaries, respectively.

  13. Irradiation damage in graphite due to fast neutrons in fission and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    Gas cooled reactors have been in operation for the production of electricity for over forty years, encompassing a total of 56 units operated in seven countries. The predominant experience has been with carbon dioxide cooled reactors (52 units), with the majority operated in the United Kingdom. In addition, four prototype helium cooled power plants were operated in the United States and Germany. The United Kingdom has no plans for further construction of carbon dioxide units, and the last helium cooled unit was shutdown in 1990. However, there has been an increasing interest in modular helium cooled reactors during the 1990s as a possible future nuclear option. Graphite is a primary material for the construction of gas cooled reactor cores, serving as a low absorption neutron moderator and providing a high temperature, high strength structure. Commercial gas cooled reactor cores (both carbon dioxide cooled and helium cooled) utilise large quantities of graphite. The structural behaviour of graphite (strength, dimensional stability, susceptibility to cracking, etc.) is a complex function of the source material, manufacturing process, chemical environment, and temperature and irradiation history. A large body of data on graphite structural performance has accumulated from operation of commercial gas cooled reactors, beginning in the 1950s and continuing to the present. The IAEA is supporting a project to collect graphite data and archive it in a retrievable form as an International Database on Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Properties, with limited general access and more detailed access by participating Member States. Because of the large size of the database, the complexity of the phenomena and the number of variables involved, a general understanding of graphite behaviour is essential to the understanding and use of the data

  14. Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heru Prasetyo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells. Materials and Methods: Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1 expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique. Results: There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45. Conclusion: Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1 Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45; (2 Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3 regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

  15. Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R Heru; Hestianah, Eka Pramyrtha

    2017-06-01

    This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells. Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v) honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1) expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique. There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45. Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1) Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45); (2) Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3) regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

  16. Multifunctional Ebselen drug functions through the activation of DNA damage response and alterations in nuclear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gajendra K; Balkrishna, Shah Jaimin; Sathish, Narayanan; Kumar, Sangit; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2012-01-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that Ebselen is an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. Contrary to this, studies have also shown a high degree of cellular toxicity associated with Ebselen usage, the underlying mechanism of which remains less understood. In this study we have attempted to identify a possible molecular mechanism behind the above by investigating the effects of Ebselen on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Significant growth arrest was documented in yeast cells exposed to Ebselen similar to that seen in presence of DNA damaging agents (including methyl methane sulfonate [MMS] and hydroxy urea [HU]). Furthermore, mutations in specific lysine residues in the histone H3 tail (H3 K56R) resulted in increased sensitivity of yeast cells to Ebselen presumably due to alterations in post-translational modifications of histone proteins towards regulating replication and DNA damage repair. Our findings suggest that Ebselen functions through activation of DNA damage response, alterations in histone modifications, activation of checkpoint kinase pathway and derepression of ribonucleotide reductases (DNA repair genes) which to the best of our knowledge is being reported for the first time. Interestingly subsequent to Ebselen exposure there were changes in global yeast protein expression and specific histone modifications, identification of which is expected to reveal a fundamental cellular mechanism underlying the action of Ebselen. Taken together these observations will help to redesign Ebselen-based therapy in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Function of ZFAND3 in the DNA Damage Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Cantor SB, Naka- tani Y, Livingston DM. 2006. Multifactorial contribu- tions to an acute DNA damage response by BRCA1/ BARD1-containing complexes. Genes...Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68915. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068915 Editor: Sue Cotterill, St. Georges University of London, United

  18. The Functional Classification of Brain Damage-Related Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colenbrander, August

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a terminological framework to show the relationships among different types of visual deficits. It distinguishes between visual functions, which describe how the eye and the lower visual system function, and functional vision, which describes how a person functions. When visual functions are disturbed, the term "visual…

  19. Advances in detecting localized road damage due to sinkholes induced by engineering works using high resolution RASARSAT-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zebker, H. A.; Lakshmi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkholes often occur in karst terrains such as found in central and eastern Pennsylvania. Voids produced by dissolution of carbonate rocks can result in soil transport leading to localized, gradual or rapid, sinking of the land surface. A cluster of sinkholes developed in 2000 around a small rural community beside Bushkill creek near a limestone quarry, and severely destroyed road bridges and railway tracks. At a cost of $6 million, the Pennsylvania DoT replaced the bridge, which was damaged again in 2004 by newly developed sinkholes likely associated with quarry's pumping activity. Here we present high-resolution spaceborne interferometric radar images of sinkhole development on this community. We show that this technique may be used to monitor regions with high sinkhole damage risk and assist future infrastructure route planning, especially in rural areas where hydrogeologic information is limited. Specifically, we processed 66 RADARSAT-2 interferograms to extract deformation occurred over Bushkill creek between Jun. 2015 and Mar. 2016 with a temporal resolution of 24 days. We advanced recent persistent scatterer techniques to preserve meter-level spatial resolution in the interferograms while minimizing temporal decorrelation and phase unwrapping error. We observe periodic deformation due to pumping activity at the quarry and localized subsidence along Bushkill creek that is co-located with recent reported sinkholes. We plan to use the automatic processing techniques developed for this study to study road damage in another region in Pennsylvania, along Lewiston Narrows, and also to monitor urban infrastructure improvements in Seattle, both again with RASARSAT-2 data. Our results demonstrate that recent advances in satellite geodesy can be transferred to benefit society beyond the science community.

  20. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage due to cyclic stress loading at 77 K for MOCVD-YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M; Yoshida, Y; Hojo, M; Shikimachi, K; Hirano, N; Nagaya, S

    2008-01-01

    Tensile fatigue tests were carried out at 77 K for YBCO-coated conductors fabricated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The S-N relationship, variation of critical current (I c ) during cyclic loading and microscopic fatigue damage were investigated. Fatigue strength at 10 6 cycles was evaluated to be σ max = 1300 MPa and 890 MPa under the stress ratios of 0.5 and 0.1. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage, depending on the number of stress cycles to failure, were observed. In one of the fracture mechanisms, fatigue behavior is characterized by overall fracture which occurs at 10 4 -10 5 cycles. For these specimens, I c after unloading does not degrade before overall fracture. Although only shallow slip bands were found at the Ag surface, fatigue cracks were found on the Hastelloy C-276 surface of the fractured specimen. These results suggest that overall fracture due to cyclic stress was caused by fatigue of the Hastelloy substrate. In the other fracture mechanism, even though overall fracture did not occur at 10 6 cycles, a slight decrease of I c was detected after 10 5 cycles. No fatigue crack was found on the Hastelloy surface, while deep slip bands corresponding to the initial stage of fatigue crack were observed on the Ag surface. From these results, we concluded that I c degradation at a high cycle number is attributed to the fatigue of the Ag stabilizing layer

  1. Expected damage to accelerator equipment due to the impact of the full LHC beam: beam instrumentation, experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper or to evaporate about 300 liter of water. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment. Reliable machine protection systems are necessary to safely operate the accelerator complex. To design a machine protection system, it is essential to know the damage potential of the stored beam and the consequences in case of a failure. One (catastrophic) failure would be, if the entire beam is lost in the aperture due to a problem with the beam dumping system. This thesis presents the simulation studies, results of a benchmarking experiment, and detailed target investigation, for this failure case. In the experiment, solid copper cylinders were irradiated with the 440GeV proton beam delivered by the ...

  2. Mutism and auditory agnosia due to bilateral insular damage--role of the insula in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M; Daquin, G; Milandre, L; Royere, M L; Rey, M; Lanteri, A; Salamon, G; Khalil, R

    1995-03-01

    We report a case of transient mutism and persistent auditory agnosia due to two successive ischemic infarcts mainly involving the insular cortex on both hemispheres. During the 'mutic' period, which lasted about 1 month, the patient did not respond to any auditory stimuli and made no effort to communicate. On follow-up examinations, language competences had re-appeared almost intact, but a massive auditory agnosia for non-verbal sounds was observed. From close inspection of lesion site, as determined with brain resonance imaging, and from a study of auditory evoked potentials, it is concluded that bilateral insular damage was crucial to both expressive and receptive components of the syndrome. The role of the insula in verbal and non-verbal communication is discussed in the light of anatomical descriptions of the pattern of connectivity of the insular cortex.

  3. Assessment of damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head due to thermal attack by core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Behling, S.R.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Camera inspection of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) inlet plenum region has shown that approximately 10 to 20 percent of the core material loading may have relocated to the lower plenum. Although vessel integrity was maintained, a question of primary concern is ''how close to vessel failure'' did this accident come. This report summarizes the results of thermal analyses aimed at assessing damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head and attached instrument penetration tubes due to thermal attack by hot core debris. Results indicate that the instrument penetration nozzles could have experienced melt failure at localized hot spot regions, with attendant debris drainage and plugging of the instrument lead tubes. However, only minor direct thermal attack of the vessel liner is predicted

  4. Estimation of probability density functions of damage parameter for valve leakage detection in reciprocating pump used in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Hyun Su; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo [Div. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents an advanced estimation method for obtaining the probability density functions of a damage parameter for valve leakage detection in a reciprocating pump. The estimation method is based on a comparison of model data which are simulated by using a mathematical model, and experimental data which are measured on the inside and outside of the reciprocating pump in operation. The mathematical model, which is simplified and extended on the basis of previous models, describes not only the normal state of the pump, but also its abnormal state caused by valve leakage. The pressure in the cylinder is expressed as a function of the crankshaft angle, and an additional volume flow rate due to the valve leakage is quantified by a damage parameter in the mathematical model. The change in the cylinder pressure profiles due to the suction valve leakage is noticeable in the compression and expansion modes of the pump. The damage parameter value over 300 cycles is calculated in two ways, considering advance or delay in the opening and closing angles of the discharge valves. The probability density functions of the damage parameter are compared for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic features of valve leakage.

  5. Estimation of probability density functions of damage parameter for valve leakage detection in reciprocating pump used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Hyun Su; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced estimation method for obtaining the probability density functions of a damage parameter for valve leakage detection in a reciprocating pump. The estimation method is based on a comparison of model data which are simulated by using a mathematical model, and experimental data which are measured on the inside and outside of the reciprocating pump in operation. The mathematical model, which is simplified and extended on the basis of previous models, describes not only the normal state of the pump, but also its abnormal state caused by valve leakage. The pressure in the cylinder is expressed as a function of the crankshaft angle, and an additional volume flow rate due to the valve leakage is quantified by a damage parameter in the mathematical model. The change in the cylinder pressure profiles due to the suction valve leakage is noticeable in the compression and expansion modes of the pump. The damage parameter value over 300 cycles is calculated in two ways, considering advance or delay in the opening and closing angles of the discharge valves. The probability density functions of the damage parameter are compared for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic features of valve leakage

  6. Estimation of Probability Density Functions of Damage Parameter for Valve Leakage Detection in Reciprocating Pump Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Kyeom Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced estimation method for obtaining the probability density functions of a damage parameter for valve leakage detection in a reciprocating pump. The estimation method is based on a comparison of model data which are simulated by using a mathematical model, and experimental data which are measured on the inside and outside of the reciprocating pump in operation. The mathematical model, which is simplified and extended on the basis of previous models, describes not only the normal state of the pump, but also its abnormal state caused by valve leakage. The pressure in the cylinder is expressed as a function of the crankshaft angle, and an additional volume flow rate due to the valve leakage is quantified by a damage parameter in the mathematical model. The change in the cylinder pressure profiles due to the suction valve leakage is noticeable in the compression and expansion modes of the pump. The damage parameter value over 300 cycles is calculated in two ways, considering advance or delay in the opening and closing angles of the discharge valves. The probability density functions of the damage parameter are compared for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic features of valve leakage.

  7. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA...... methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...

  9. Defect in mitochondrial functions in damaged human mitral valve

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Santosh; Kumar, Pawan; Mishra, Kaushala; Patil, Neela

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which a primary mitochondrial dysfunction is proven by morphological, biochemical, and genetic examinations. The mitral valve has important function in the regulation of blood flow from one chamber to another. Often, the mitral valve becomes abnormal with age, in Rheumatic fever or it is abnormal from birth (Congenital) or it can be destroyed by infection i.e. bacterial endocarditis and needs replacement. Myocardial function dep...

  10. Repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in rat epidermis as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, E.V.; Burns, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The rate of repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in proliferating rat epidermal cells diminished progressively with increasing age of the animal. The dorsal skin was irradiated with 1200 rad of 0.8 MeV electrons at various ages, and the amount of DNA damage was determined as a function of time after irradiation by the method of alkaline unwinding followed by S 1 nuclease digestion. The amount of DNA damage immediately after irradiation was not age dependent, while the rate of damage removal from the DNA decreased with increasing age. By fitting an exponential function to the relative amount of undamaged DNA as a function of time after irradiation, DNA repair halftimes of 20, 27, 69, and 107 min were obtained for 28, 100-, 200-, and 400-day-old animals, respectively

  11. Organotins in Neuronal Damage, Brain Function, and Behavior: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ferraz da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of exposure to environmental contaminants have shown significant effects on brain function and behavior in different experimental models. The endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC present various classes of pollutants with potential neurotoxic actions, such as organotins (OTs. OTs have received special attention due to their toxic effects on the central nervous system, leading to abnormal mammalian neuroendocrine axis function. OTs are organometallic pollutants with a tin atom bound to one or more carbon atoms. OT exposure may occur through the food chain and/or contaminated water, since they have multiple applications in industry and agriculture. In addition, OTs have been used with few legal restrictions in the last decades, despite being highly toxic. In addition to their action as EDC, OTs can also cross the blood–brain barrier and show relevant neurotoxic effects, as observed in several animal model studies specifically involving the development of neurodegenerative processes, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this short review is to summarize the toxic effects of the most common OT compounds, such as trimethyltin, tributyltin, triethyltin, and triphenyltin, on the brain with a focus on neuronal damage as a result of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. We also aim to present evidence for the disruption of behavioral functions, neurotransmitters, and neuroendocrine pathways caused by OTs.

  12. An extended diffraction tomography method for quantifying structural damage using numerical Green's functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene; Rose, L R Francis; Wang, Chun H

    2015-05-01

    Existing damage imaging algorithms for detecting and quantifying structural defects, particularly those based on diffraction tomography, assume far-field conditions for the scattered field data. This paper presents a major extension of diffraction tomography that can overcome this limitation and utilises a near-field multi-static data matrix as the input data. This new algorithm, which employs numerical solutions of the dynamic Green's functions, makes it possible to quantitatively image laminar damage even in complex structures for which the dynamic Green's functions are not available analytically. To validate this new method, the numerical Green's functions and the multi-static data matrix for laminar damage in flat and stiffened isotropic plates are first determined using finite element models. Next, these results are time-gated to remove boundary reflections, followed by discrete Fourier transform to obtain the amplitude and phase information for both the baseline (damage-free) and the scattered wave fields. Using these computationally generated results and experimental verification, it is shown that the new imaging algorithm is capable of accurately determining the damage geometry, size and severity for a variety of damage sizes and shapes, including multi-site damage. Some aspects of minimal sensors requirement pertinent to image quality and practical implementation are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Damage functions generation for polyatomic materials irradiated in test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberman, A.; Lesueur, D.

    1987-06-01

    Neutron exposure parameters in polyatomic materials is of great importance for fusion technology programs. The COMPOSI code computes the number of displaced atoms of sub-lattice ''j'' induced by one atom of sub-lattice ''i'' either by direct collision or through intermediate knocked atom. The code uses Lindhard equations; it is solved by iterative process. The atomic displacements cross-sections, as a function of neutron energy are derived by folding previous results with ''i'' type PKA. Moreover the COMPOSI code may include recoils from charged particles e.g.: Alpha + Triton from Li 6 capture in Li Al 0 2 . These responses in various spectra are discussed [fr

  14. In field damage of high and low cyanogenic cassava due to a generalist insect herbivore Cyrtomenus bergi (Hemiptera: Cydnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Bellotti, Anthony Charles; Castaño, Oscar

    2003-12-01

    The hypothesis that cyanogenic potential in cassava roots deters polyphagous insects in the field is relevant to current efforts to reduce or eliminate the cyanogenic potential in cassava. To test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted in the field under natural selection pressure of the polyphagous root feeder Cyrtomenus bergi Froeschner (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). A number of cassava varieties (33) as well as 13 cassava siblings and their parental clone, each representing a determined level of cyanogenic potential (CNP), were scored for damage caused by C. bergi and related to CNP and nonglycosidic cyanogens, measured as hydrogen cyanide. Additionally, 161 low-CNP varieties (Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) were screened for resistance/tolerance to C. bergi. Low root damage scores were registered at all levels of CNP. Nevertheless, CNP and yield (or root size) partly explained the damage in cassava siblings (r2 = 0.82) and different cassava varieties (r2 = 0.42), but only when mean values of damage scores were used. This relation was only significant in one of two crop cycles. A logistic model describes the underlying negative relation between CNP and damage. An exponential model describes the underlying negative relation between root size and damage. Damage, caused by C. bergi feeding, released nonglycosidic cyanogens, and an exponential model fits the underlying positive relation. Fifteen low-CNP clones were selected for potential resistance/tolerance against C. bergi.

  15. Changing risk of spring frost damage in grapevines due to climate change? A case study in the Swiss Rhone Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg; Holzkämper, Annelie

    2018-01-01

    Late spring frost is a severe risk during early plant development. It may cause important economic damage to grapevine production. In a warming climate, late frost risk either could decline due to the reduction in frost days and an advancement of the last day of frost or increase due to a more pronounced shift forward of the start of the active growing period of the plants. These possibilities were analyzed in a case study for two locations in the lower Swiss Rhone Valley (Sion, Aigle) where viticulture is an important part of agriculture. Twelve phenology models were calibrated for the developmental stage BBCH09 (bud burst) using measured or reconstructed temperature data for two vineyards in Changins (1958 to 2012) and Leytron (1977 to 2014) together with observed phenological data. The day of year (DOY) for BBCH09 was then modelled for the years 1951 to 2050 using the best performing phenology model in combination with ten downscaled and bias-corrected climate scenarios. A 100-day period starting with BBCH09 was defined, during which daily mean and minimum temperatures were used to calculate three frost risk indices in each year. These indices were compared between the periods 1961-1990 (reference) and 2021-2050 (climate change scenario). Based on the average of the ensemble of climate model chains, BBCH09 advanced by 9 (range 7-11) (Aigle) and 7 (range 5-8) (Sion) days between the two time periods, similar to the shift in the last day of frost. The separate results of the different model chains suggest that, in the near future, late spring frost risk may increase or decrease, depending on location and climate change projections. While for the reference, the risk is larger at the warmer site (Sion) compared to that at the cooler site (Aigle), for the period 2021-2050, small shifts in both phenology and occurrence of frost (i.e., days with daily minimum temperature below 0 °C) lead to a small decrease in frost risk at the warmer but an increase at the cooler

  16. Changing risk of spring frost damage in grapevines due to climate change? A case study in the Swiss Rhone Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg; Holzkämper, Annelie

    2018-06-01

    Late spring frost is a severe risk during early plant development. It may cause important economic damage to grapevine production. In a warming climate, late frost risk either could decline due to the reduction in frost days and an advancement of the last day of frost or increase due to a more pronounced shift forward of the start of the active growing period of the plants. These possibilities were analyzed in a case study for two locations in the lower Swiss Rhone Valley (Sion, Aigle) where viticulture is an important part of agriculture. Twelve phenology models were calibrated for the developmental stage BBCH09 (bud burst) using measured or reconstructed temperature data for two vineyards in Changins (1958 to 2012) and Leytron (1977 to 2014) together with observed phenological data. The day of year (DOY) for BBCH09 was then modelled for the years 1951 to 2050 using the best performing phenology model in combination with ten downscaled and bias-corrected climate scenarios. A 100-day period starting with BBCH09 was defined, during which daily mean and minimum temperatures were used to calculate three frost risk indices in each year. These indices were compared between the periods 1961-1990 (reference) and 2021-2050 (climate change scenario). Based on the average of the ensemble of climate model chains, BBCH09 advanced by 9 (range 7-11) (Aigle) and 7 (range 5-8) (Sion) days between the two time periods, similar to the shift in the last day of frost. The separate results of the different model chains suggest that, in the near future, late spring frost risk may increase or decrease, depending on location and climate change projections. While for the reference, the risk is larger at the warmer site (Sion) compared to that at the cooler site (Aigle), for the period 2021-2050, small shifts in both phenology and occurrence of frost (i.e., days with daily minimum temperature below 0 °C) lead to a small decrease in frost risk at the warmer but an increase at the cooler

  17. Renal endothelial function and blood flow predict the individual susceptibility to adriamycin-induced renal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Buikema, Hendrik; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; van Wattum, Marjolein; de Zeeuw, Dick; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    Background. Susceptibility to renal injury varies among individuals. Previously, we found that individual endothelial function of healthy renal arteries in vitro predicted severity of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy. Here we hypothesized that individual differences in endothelial function in

  18. Renal endothelial function and blood flow predict the individual susceptibility to adriamycin-induced renal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Buikema, Hendrik; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; van Wattum, Marjolein; de Zeeuw, Dick; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to renal injury varies among individuals. Previously, we found that individual endothelial function of healthy renal arteries in vitro predicted severity of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy. Here we hypothesized that individual differences in endothelial function in vitro and renal

  19. EMP damage function of input port of DC solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Chen Xiangyue; Mao Congguang; Zhou Hui

    2009-01-01

    The principle of using pivotal quantity to estimate confidence interval for the cumulative distribution function at a specific value when the distribution is assumed to be normal is introduced. The damage function of input port of DC solide state relay is calculated by this method. This method can be used for vulnerability assessment. (authors)

  20. Electron Microscopy Study of Stainless Steel Radiation Damage Due to Long-Term Irradation by Alpha Particles Emitted From Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unlu, Kenan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Rios-Martinez, Carlos [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Saglam, Mehmet [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Hart, Ron R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shipp, John D. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Rennie, John [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-04-16

    Radiation damage and associated surface and microstructural changes produced in stainless steel encapsulation by high-fluence alpha particle irradiations from weapons-grade plutonium of 316-stainless steel are being investigated.

  1. Impaired work functioning due to common mental disorders in nurses and allied health professionals: the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gärtner, F. R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) negatively affect work functioning. In the health service sector not only the prevalence of CMDs is high, but work functioning problems are associated with a risk of serious consequences for patients and healthcare providers. If work functioning problems due to CMDs are

  2. Repair of endogenous and ionizing radiation-induced DNA damages: mechanisms and biological functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, S.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular DNA is continuously exposed to endogenous and exogenous stress. Oxidative stress due to cellular metabolism is the major cause of endogenous DNA damage. On the other hand, ionizing radiation (IR) is an important exogenous stress. Both induce similar DNA damages: damaged bases, abasic sites and strand breakage. Most of these lesions are lethal and/or mutagenic. The survival of the cell is managed by efficient and accurate DNA repair mechanisms that remove lesions before their replication or transcription. DNA repair pathways involved in the removal of IR-induced lesions are briefly described. Base excision repair (BER) is mostly involved in the removal of base damage, abasic sites and single strand breaks. In contrast, DNA double strand breaks are mostly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). How DNA repair pathways prevent cancer process is also discussed. (author)

  3. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monica; Westbrook, David G; Brown, Jamelle A; Feeley, Kyle P; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Weisbrod, Robert M; Widlansky, Michael E; Gokce, Noyan; Ballinger, Scott W; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2016-03-31

    Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA promotes atherosclerosis in animal models. Thus, we evaluated the relation of mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells s with vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We assessed non-invasive vascular function and mitochondrial DNA damage in 275 patients (age 57 ± 9 years, 60 % women) with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease alone (N = 55), diabetes mellitus alone (N = 74), combined atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (N = 48), and controls age >45 without diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (N = 98). Mitochondrial DNA damage measured by quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher with clinical atherosclerosis alone (0.55 ± 0.65), diabetes mellitus alone (0.65 ± 1.0), and combined clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus (0.89 ± 1.32) as compared to control subjects (0.23 ± 0.64, P < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, and relevant cardiovascular risk factors, clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus remained associated with higher mitochondrial DNA damage levels (β = 0.14 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and β = 0.21 ± 0.13, P = 0.002, respectively). Higher mitochondrial DNA damage was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial pulsatility, but not with flow-mediated dilation or hyperemic response, measures of vasodilator function. We found greater mitochondrial DNA damage in patients with diabetes mellitus and clinical atherosclerosis. The association of mitochondrial DNA damage and baseline pulse amplitude may suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially adverse microvascular impact.

  4. Quantitative assessment of intergranular damage due to PWR primary water exposure in structural Ni-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Ovanessian, Benoît; Deleume, Julien; Cloué, Jean-Marc; Andrieu, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► IG damage occurred on Ni-base alloys during exposure at high temperature water. ► Two characterization methods yield a tomographic analysis of this IG damage. ► Connected or isolated intergranular oxygen/oxide penetrations are quantified. ► Such quantitative description provides information on IGSCC susceptibility. - Abstract: Two nickel-based alloys, alloy 718 and alloy 600, known to have different resistances to IGSCC, were exposed to a simulated PWR primary water environment at 360 °C for 1000 h. The intergranular oxidation damage was analyzed in detail using an original approach involving two characterization methods (Incremental Mechanical Polishing/Microcopy procedure and SIMS imaging) which yielded a tomographic analysis of the damage. Intergranular oxygen/oxide penetrations occurred either as connected or isolated penetrations deep under the external oxide/substrate interface as far as 10 μm for alloy 600 and only 4 μm for alloy 718. Therefore, assessing this damage precisely is essential to interpret IGSCC susceptibility.

  5. ESTIMATION OF DAMAGED AREAS DUE TO THE 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI USING SAR IMAGERY OF ALOS/PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Ni Made

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale earthquake and tsunami affect thousands of people and cause serious damages worldwide every year. Quick observation of the disaster damage is extremely important for planning effective rescue operations. In the past, acquiring damage information was limited to only field surveys or using aerial photographs. In the last decade, space-borne images were used in many disaster researches, such as tsunami damage detection. In this study, SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR satellite images were used to estimate tsunami damage in the form of inundation areas in Talcahuano, the area near the epicentre of the 2010 Chile earthquake. The image processing consisted of three stages, i.e. pre-processing, analysis processing, and post-processing. It was conducted using multi-temporal images before and after the disaster. In the analysis processing, inundation areas were extracted through the masking processing. It consisted of water masking using a high-resolution optical image of ALOS/AVNIR-2 and elevation masking which built upon the inundation height using DEM image of ASTER-GDEM. The area result was 8.77 Km2. It showed a good result and corresponded to the inundation map of Talcahuano. Future study in another area is needed in order to strengthen the estimation processing method.

  6. Damage Detection of Structures for Ambient Loading Based on Cross Correlation Function Amplitude and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-sheng Huo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for the damage detection of skeletal structures which combines the cross correlation function amplitude (CCFA with the support vector machine (SVM is presented in this paper. The proposed method consists of two stages. Firstly, the data features are extracted from the CCFA, which, calculated from dynamic responses and as a representation of the modal shapes of the structure, changes when damage occurs on the structure. The data features are then input into the SVM with the one-against-one (OAO algorithm to classify the damage status of the structure. The simulation data of IASC-ASCE benchmark model and a vibration experiment of truss structure are adopted to verify the feasibility of proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is suitable for the damage identification of skeletal structures with the limited sensors subjected to ambient excitation. As the CCFA based data features are sensitive to damage, the proposed method demonstrates its reliability in the diagnosis of structures with damage, especially for those with minor damage. In addition, the proposed method shows better noise robustness and is more suitable for noisy environments.

  7. A Green's Function Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. DNA is damaged by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains. In the recent years, the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE) have been used extensively in biochemistry [1], notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space [2]. In our future work on DNA damage, we wish to use an approach based on the GFDE to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. To do so, we will use the code RITRACKS [3] developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of radiolytic species after irradiation. We have also recently developed an efficient Monte-Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state [4], which can be modified and adapted to simulate DNA damage by free radicals. To do so, we will use the known reaction rate constants between radicals (OH, eaq, H,...) and the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates and use the sampling algorithms to simulate the diffusion of free radicals and chemical reactions with DNA. These techniques should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage and double-strand breaks.

  8. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  9. Genome-Wide Requirements for Resistance to Functionally Distinct DNA-Damaging Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanistic and therapeutic differences in the cellular response to DNA-damaging compounds are not completely understood, despite intense study. To expand our knowledge of DNA damage, we assayed the effects of 12 closely related DNA-damaging agents on the complete pool of ~4,700 barcoded homozygous deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In our protocol, deletion strains are pooled together and grown competitively in the presence of compound. Relative strain sensitivity is determined by hybridization of PCR-amplified barcodes to an oligonucleotide array carrying the barcode complements. These screens identified genes in well-characterized DNA-damage-response pathways as well as genes whose role in the DNA-damage response had not been previously established. High-throughput individual growth analysis was used to independently confirm microarray results. Each compound produced a unique genome-wide profile. Analysis of these data allowed us to determine the relative importance of DNA-repair modules for resistance to each of the 12 profiled compounds. Clustering the data for 12 distinct compounds uncovered both known and novel functional interactions that comprise the DNA-damage response and allowed us to define the genetic determinants required for repair of interstrand cross-links. Further genetic analysis allowed determination of epistasis for one of these functional groups.

  10. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE [Department of Energy] N-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L.; Baxter, J.T.; Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P.; Brosseau, D.A.

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs

  11. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE (Department of Energy) N-Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baxter, J.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P. (EQE, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Brosseau, D.A. (ERCE, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs.

  12. Modeling the yield of double-strand breaks due to formation of multiply damaged sites in irradiated plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xapsos, M.A.; Pogozelski, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    Although double-strand breaks have long been recognized as an important type of DNa lesion, it is well established that this broad class of damage does not correlate well with indicators of the effectiveness of radiation as the cellular level. Assays of double-strand breaks do not distinguish the degree of complexity or clustering of singly damaged sites produced in a single energy deposition event, which is currently hypothesized to be key to understanding cellular end points. As a step toward this understanding, double-strand breaks that are formed proportionally to dose in plasmid DNA are analyzed from the mechanistic aspect to evaluate the yield that arises from multiply damaged sites as hypothesized by Ward (Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 35, 95-125, 1988) and Goodhead (Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 65, 7-17, 1994) as opposed to the yield that arises form single hydroxyl radicals as hypothesized by Siddiqi and Bothe (Radiat. Res. 112, 449-463, 1987). For low-LET radiation such as γ rays, the importance of multiply damaged sites is shown to increase with the solution's hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. For moderately high-LET radiation such as 100 keV/μm helium ions, a much different behavior is observed. In this case, a large fraction of double-strand breaks are formed as a result of multiply damaged sties over a broad range of scavenging conditions. Results also indicate that the RBE for common cellular end points correlates more closely with the RBE for common cellular end points correlates more closely with the RBE for multiply damaged sites than with the RBE for total double-strand breaks over a range of LET up to at least 100 keV/μm. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  14. Effects of high repetition rate and beam size on hard tissue damage due to subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Eichler, Juergen; Stoller, Patrick C.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the effects of the repetition rate and the beam size on the threshold for ultrashort laser pulse induced damage in dentin. The observed results are explained as cumulative thermal effects. Our model is consistent with the experimental results and explains the dependence of the threshold on repetition rate, beam size, and exposure time. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Applying stochastic small-scale damage functions to German winter storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, B. F.; Rybski, D.; Kropp, J. P.; Burghoff, O.; Held, H.

    2012-03-01

    Analyzing insurance-loss data we derive stochastic storm-damage functions for residential buildings. On district level we fit power-law relations between daily loss and maximum wind speed, typically spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude. The estimated exponents for 439 German districts roughly range from 8 to 12. In addition, we find correlations among the parameters and socio-demographic data, which we employ in a simplified parametrization of the damage function with just 3 independent parameters for each district. A Monte Carlo method is used to generate loss estimates and confidence bounds of daily and annual storm damages in Germany. Our approach reproduces the annual progression of winter storm losses and enables to estimate daily losses over a wide range of magnitudes.

  16. Core damage vulnerability due to the loss of ESW [essential service water] systems at multiplant sites: An assessment and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish the core damage vulnerability caused by the failure of the ESW systems in multiplant units that have only two sw pumps per unit with crosstie capability. Design and operating data have been surveyed to derive system failure frequency. A core damage model is constructed including operating configurations, specific recovery actions, and time and leak rate dependent RCP seal LOCA model. The estimated CDF SW = 2.55 x 10 -4 /yr is significant indicating the potential vulnerability of this particular SW design arrangement. A number of different potential improvements have been considered. The addition of a swing pump serving both units is shown to have the most significant CDF reduction potential (∼50%) combined with advantageous cost/benefit aspects. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Silicon Damage Response Function Derivation and Verification: Assessment of Impact on ASTM Standard E722

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depriest, Kendall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Unsuccessful attempts by members of the radiation effects community to independently derive the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) damage energy factors for silicon in ASTM standard E722-14 led to an investigation of the software coding and data that produced those damage energy factors. The ad hoc collaboration to discover the reason for lack of agreement revealed a coding error and resulted in a report documenting the methodology to produce the response function for the standard. The recommended changes in the NRT damage energy factors for silicon are shown to have significant impact for a narrow energy region of the 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence response function. However, when evaluating integral metrics over all neutrons energies in various spectra important to the SNL electronics testing community, the change in the response results in a small decrease in the total 1- MeV(Si) equivalent fluence of ~0.6% compared to the E722-14 response. Response functions based on the newly recommended NRT damage energy factors have been produced and are available for users of both the NuGET and MCNP codes.

  18. Attenuation of radiation-induced DNA damage due to paracrine interactions between normal human epithelial and stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenko, V.A.; Nakazawa, Yu.; Rogounovitch, T.I.; Suzuki, K.; Mitsutake, N.; Matsuse, M.; Yamashita, S.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Developmentally, every tissue accommodates different types of cells, such as epitheliocytes and stromal cells in parenchymal organs. To better understand the complexity of radiation response, it is necessary to evaluate possible cross-talk between different tissue components. This work was set out to investigate reciprocal influence of normal human epithelial cells and fibroblasts on the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage. Methods: Model cultures of primary human thyrocytes (PT), normal diploid fibroblasts (BJ), PT/BJ cell co-culture and conditioned medium transfer were used to examine DNA damage in terms of γ-H2AX foci number per cell or by Comet assay after exposure to different doses of γ-rays. Results: In co-cultures, the kinetics of γ-H2AX foci number change was dose-dependent and similar to that in individual PT and BJ cultures. The number of γ-H2AX foci in co-cultures was significantly lower (∼25%) in both types of cells comparing to individual cultures. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual counterpart cells prior to irradiation resulted in approximately 35% reduction in the number γ-H2AX foci at 1 Gy and lower doses in both PT and BJ demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. Comet assay corroborated the results of γ-H2AX foci counting in conditioned medium transfer experiments. In contrast to medium conditioned on PT cells, conditioned medium collected from several human thyroid cancer cell lines failed to establish DNA-protected state in BJ fibroblasts. In its turn, medium conditioned on BJ cells did not change the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in cancer cell lines tested. Conclusion: The results imply the existence of a network of soluble factor-mediated paracrine interactions between normal epithelial and stromal cells that could be a part of natural mechanism by which cells protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  19. "Detecting Differential Item Functioning and Differential Step Functioning due to Differences that ""Should"" Matter"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Miller

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the use of differential item functioning (DIF and differential step functioning (DSF analyses to detect differences in item difficulty that are related to experiences of examinees, such as their teachers' instructional practices, that are relevant to the knowledge, skill, or ability the test is intended to measure. This analysis is in contrast to the typical use of DIF or DSF to detect differences related to characteristics of examinees, such as gender, language, or cultural knowledge, that should be irrelevant. Using data from two forms of Ontario's Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, analyses were performed comparing groups of students defined by their teachers' instructional practices. All constructed-response items were tested for DIF using the Mantel Chi-Square, standardized Liu Agresti cumulative common log-odds ratio, and standardized Cox's noncentrality parameter. Items exhibiting moderate to large DIF were subsequently tested for DSF. In contrast to typical DIF or DSF analyses, which inform item development, these analyses have the potential to inform instructional practice.

  20. Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA in Muscle Damage and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Ochi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3. It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength.

  1. Materials properties utilization in a cumulative mechanical damage function for LMFBR fuel pin failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    An overview is presented of one of the fuel-pin analysis techniques used in the CRBRP program, the cumulative mechanical damage function. This technique, as applied to LMFBR's, was developed along with the majority of models used to describe the mechanical properties and environmental behavior of the cladding (i.e., 20 percent cold-worked, 316 stainless steel). As it relates to fuel-pin analyses the Cumulative Mechanical Damage Function (CDF) continually monitors cladding integrity through steady state and transient operation; it is a time dependent function of temperature and stress which reflects the effects of both the prior mechanical history and the variations in mechanical properties caused by exposure to the reactor environment

  2. Absenteeism due to Functional Limitations Caused by Seven Common Chronic Diseases in US Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Tam D; Wei, Feifei; Beverly, Claudia J

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the relationship between functional limitation due to chronic diseases and absenteeism among full-time workers. The studied chronic diseases include arthritis/rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, lung disease, and stroke. We analyzed data from the 2011 to 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Economic impact was determined by workdays lost and lost income. Increase in absenteeism was observed for each studied condition. Employees with multiple conditions also saw increase absenteeism. Employers lose 28.2 million workdays annually ($4.95 billion in lost income) due to functional limitation caused by chronic diseases. The results show a burden on society due to functional limitation caused by studied chronic diseases. Employers should look into implementing intervention/prevention programs, such as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programs, to help reduce the cost associated with absenteeism.

  3. Extent, perception and mitigation of damage due to high groundwater levels in the city of Dresden, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk analysis and management plans mostly neglect groundwater flooding, i.e. high groundwater levels. However, rising groundwater may cause considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. To improve the knowledge about groundwater flooding and support risk management, a survey was undertaken in the city of Dresden (Saxony, Germany, resulting in 605 completed interviews with private households endangered by high groundwater levels. The reported relatively low flood impact and damage of groundwater floods in comparison with mixed floods was reflected by its scarce perception: Hardly anybody thinks about the risk of groundwater flooding. The interviewees thought that public authorities and not themselves, should be mainly responsible for preparedness and emergency response. Up to now, people do not include groundwater risk in their decision processes on self protection. The implementation of precautionary measures does not differ between households with groundwater or with mixed flood experience. However, less households undertake emergency measures when expecting a groundwater flood only. The state of preparedness should be further improved via an intensified risk communication about groundwater flooding by the authorities. Conditions to reach the endangered population are good, since 70% of the interviewed people are willing to inform themselves about groundwater floods. Recommendations for an improved risk communication are given.

  4. Aldh2 knockout mice were more sensitive to DNA damage in leukocytes due to ethyl tertiary butyl ether exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the genotoxicity of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), a gasoline additive, male and female C57BL/6 mice of Aldh2+/+ and Aldh2-/- genotypes, aged 8 wk, were exposed to 0, 500, 1,750, or 5,000 ppm ETBE for 6 h/day, 5 d per week for 13 wk. DNA damage in leukocytes was measured by the alkaline comet assay and expressed quantitatively as Tail Intensity (TI). For male mice, TI was significantly higher in all three groups exposed to ETBE than in those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice, whereas within Aldh2+/+ mice, TI increased only in those exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with mice without exposure. For female mice, a significant increase in TI values was observed in the group exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice; TI in Aldh2-/- mice exposed to 1,750 and 5,000 ppm was significantly higher than in Aldh2+/+ mice without exposure. TI did not significantly increase in any of the groups exposed to ETBE within female Aldh2+/+ mice. Based on the results we suggest that Aldh2-/- mice are more sensitive to DNA damage caused by ETBE than Aldh2+/+ mice and that males seem more susceptible to this effect than females.

  5. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Hassan, R. A.; Mohamed, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum W hmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A 578 / A 540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σ ac ) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  6. 49 CFR 1242.78 - Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX-55-76 and XX-55-78). 1242.78 Section 1242.78...

  7. Membrane protein damage and repair: selective loss of a quinone-protein function in chloroplast membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, D.J.; Ohad, I.; Arntzen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A loss of electron transport capacity in chloroplast membranes was induced by high-light intensities (photoinhibition). The primary site of inhibition was at the reducing side of photosystem II (PSII) with little damage to the oxidizing side or to the reaction center core of PSII. Addition of herbicides (atrazine or diuron) partially protected the membrane from photoinhibition; these compounds displace the bound plastoquinone (designated as Q/sub B/), which functions as the secondary electron acceptor on the reducing side of PSII. Loss of function of the 32-kilodalton Q/sub B/ apoprotein was demonstrated by a loss of binding sites for [ 14 C]atraazine. We suggest that quinone anions, which may interact with molecular oxygen to produce an oxygen radical, selectively damage the apoprotein of the secondary acceptor of PSII, thus rendering it inactive and thereby blocking photosynthetic electron flow under conditions of high photon flux densities. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  8. Lack of functional relevance of isolated cell damage in transplants of Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Oliver; Astradsson, Arnar; Hallett, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Postmortem analyses from clinical neural transplantation trials of several subjects with Parkinson's disease revealed surviving grafted dopaminergic neurons after more than a decade. A subset of these subjects displayed isolated dopaminergic neurons within the grafts that contained Lewy body......-like structures. In this review, we discuss why this isolated cell damage is unlikely to affect the overall graft function and how we can use these observations to help us to understand age-related neurodegeneration and refine our future cell replacement therapies....

  9. Impaired work functioning due to common mental disorders in nurses and allied health professionals: the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, F R; Nieuwenhuijsen, K; van Dijk, F J H; Sluiter, J K

    2012-02-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) negatively affect work functioning. In the health service sector not only the prevalence of CMDs is high, but work functioning problems are associated with a risk of serious consequences for patients and healthcare providers. If work functioning problems due to CMDs are detected early, timely help can be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a detection questionnaire for impaired work functioning due to CMDs in nurses and allied health professionals working in hospitals. First, an item pool was developed by a systematic literature study and five focus group interviews with employees and experts. To evaluate the content validity, additional interviews were held. Second, a cross-sectional assessment of the item pool in 314 nurses and allied health professionals was used for item selection and for identification and corroboration of subscales by explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. The study results in the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire (NWFQ), a 50-item self-report questionnaire consisting of seven subscales: cognitive aspects of task execution, impaired decision making, causing incidents at work, avoidance behavior, conflicts and irritations with colleagues, impaired contact with patients and their family, and lack of energy and motivation. The questionnaire has a proven high content validity. All subscales have good or acceptable internal consistency. The Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire gives insight into precise and concrete aspects of impaired work functioning of nurses and allied health professionals. The scores can be used as a starting point for purposeful interventions.

  10. DNA damage response and spindle assembly checkpoint function throughout the cell cycle to ensure genomic integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Errors in replication or segregation lead to DNA damage, mutations, and aneuploidies. Consequently, cells monitor these events and delay progression through the cell cycle so repair precedes division. The DNA damage response (DDR, which monitors DNA integrity, and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, which responds to defects in spindle attachment/tension during metaphase of mitosis and meiosis, are critical for preventing genome instability. Here we show that the DDR and SAC function together throughout the cell cycle to ensure genome integrity in C. elegans germ cells. Metaphase defects result in enrichment of SAC and DDR components to chromatin, and both SAC and DDR are required for metaphase delays. During persistent metaphase arrest following establishment of bi-oriented chromosomes, stability of the metaphase plate is compromised in the absence of DDR kinases ATR or CHK1 or SAC components, MAD1/MAD2, suggesting SAC functions in metaphase beyond its interactions with APC activator CDC20. In response to DNA damage, MAD2 and the histone variant CENPA become enriched at the nuclear periphery in a DDR-dependent manner. Further, depletion of either MAD1 or CENPA results in loss of peripherally associated damaged DNA. In contrast to a SAC-insensitive CDC20 mutant, germ cells deficient for SAC or CENPA cannot efficiently repair DNA damage, suggesting that SAC mediates DNA repair through CENPA interactions with the nuclear periphery. We also show that replication perturbations result in relocalization of MAD1/MAD2 in human cells, suggesting that the role of SAC in DNA repair is conserved.

  11. New Computational Model Based on Finite Element Method to Quantify Damage Evolution Due to External Sulfate Attack on Self-Compacting Concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Khelifa, Mohammed Rissel; Guessasma, Sofiane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This work combines experimental and numerical investigations to study the mechanical degradation of self-compacting concrete under accelerated aging conditions. Four different experimental treatments are tested among them constant immersion and immersion-drying protocols allow an efficient external sulfate attack of the material. Significant damage is observed due to interfacial ettringite. A predictive analysis is then adopted to quantify the relationship between ettringite growth and mechanical damage evolution during aging. Typical 3D microstructures representing the cement paste-aggregate structures are generated using Monte Carlo scheme. These images are converted into a finite element model to predict the mechanical performance under different criteria of damage kinetics. The effect of ettringite is then associated to the development of an interphase of lower mechanical properties. Our results show that the observed time evolution of Young's modulus is best described by a linear increase of the interphase content. Our model results indicate also that the interphase regions grow at maximum stress regions rather than exclusively at interfaces. Finally, constant immersion predicts a rate of damage growth five times lower than that of immersion-drying protocol. © 2012 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

  12. New Computational Model Based on Finite Element Method to Quantify Damage Evolution Due to External Sulfate Attack on Self-Compacting Concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Khelifa, Mohammed Rissel

    2012-12-27

    Abstract: This work combines experimental and numerical investigations to study the mechanical degradation of self-compacting concrete under accelerated aging conditions. Four different experimental treatments are tested among them constant immersion and immersion-drying protocols allow an efficient external sulfate attack of the material. Significant damage is observed due to interfacial ettringite. A predictive analysis is then adopted to quantify the relationship between ettringite growth and mechanical damage evolution during aging. Typical 3D microstructures representing the cement paste-aggregate structures are generated using Monte Carlo scheme. These images are converted into a finite element model to predict the mechanical performance under different criteria of damage kinetics. The effect of ettringite is then associated to the development of an interphase of lower mechanical properties. Our results show that the observed time evolution of Young\\'s modulus is best described by a linear increase of the interphase content. Our model results indicate also that the interphase regions grow at maximum stress regions rather than exclusively at interfaces. Finally, constant immersion predicts a rate of damage growth five times lower than that of immersion-drying protocol. © 2012 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

  13. A phenomenological approach to simulating the evolution of radioactive-waste container damage due to pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The damage to high-level radioactive-waste containers by pitting corrosion is an important design and performance assessment consideration. It is desirable to calculate the evolution of the pit depth distribution, not just the time required for initial penetration of the containers, so that the area available for advective of diffusive release of radionuclides through the container can be estimated. A phenomenological approach for computing the time evolution of these distributions is presented which combines elements of the deterministic and stochastic aspects of pit growth. The consistency of this approach with the mechanisms believed to control the evolution of the pit depth distribution is discussed. Qualitative comparisons of preliminary model predictions with a variety of experimental data from the literature are shown to be generally favorable. The sensitivity of the simulated distributions to changes in the input parameters is discussed. Finally, the results of the current model are compared to those of existing approaches based on extreme-value statistics, particularly regarding the extrapolation of laboratory data to large exposed surface areas

  14. Impact of prenatal antimicrobial treatment on fetal brain damage due to autogenous fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats: A Histomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neylane Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate brain neuronal density in newborn rats whose mothers were subjected to fecal peritonitis and compare findings between rats born to mothers treated and not treated with antimicrobials. Methods: Peritonitis was induced with a 10% fecal suspension (4mL/kg in 2 pregnant rats. Of these, 1 received antimicrobial treatment 24 hours after peritonitis induction: moxifloxacin and dexamethasone plus 2 mL of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi extract. One pregnant rat underwent no intervention and served as a control. Results: The newborn brains of rats born to mothers with fecal peritonitis were significantly smaller and of less firm consistency. Brain neuronal density was lower in the untreated group than in the control and treated groups (P<0.01. Conclusions: Untreated peritonitis caused brain damage in the offspring, which was averted by effective early antimicrobial treatment. This approach may provide an early avenue for translation of such therapy in humans. Keywords: peritonitis, brain injuries, rats

  15. Relative binding affinity of carboxylate-, phosphonate-, and bisphosphonate-functionalized gold nanoparticles targeted to damaged bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ryan D. [Rush University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology (United States); Cole, Lisa E.; Roeder, Ryan K., E-mail: rroeder@nd.edu [University of Notre Dame, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Bioengineering Graduate Program (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Functionalized Au NPs have received considerable recent interest for targeting and labeling cells and tissues. Damaged bone tissue can be targeted by functionalizing Au NPs with molecules exhibiting affinity for calcium. Therefore, the relative binding affinity of Au NPs surface functionalized with either carboxylate (l-glutamic acid), phosphonate (2-aminoethylphosphonic acid), or bisphosphonate (alendronate) was investigated for targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue in vitro. Targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue was qualitatively verified by visual observation and backscattered electron microscopy, and quantitatively measured by the surface density of Au NPs using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The surface density of functionalized Au NPs was significantly greater within damaged tissue compared to undamaged tissue for each functional group. Bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs exhibited a greater surface density labeling damaged tissue compared to glutamic acid- and phosphonic acid-functionalized Au NPs, which was consistent with the results of previous work comparing the binding affinity of the same functionalized Au NPs to synthetic hydroxyapatite crystals. Targeted labeling was enabled not only by the functional groups but also by the colloidal stability in solution. Functionalized Au NPs were stabilized by the presence of the functional groups, and were shown to remain well dispersed in ionic (phosphate buffered saline) and serum (fetal bovine serum) solutions for up to 1 week. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs have potential for targeted delivery to damaged bone tissue in vitro and provide motivation for in vivo investigation.

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone restores hepatocellular function and prevents liver damage in estrogen-deficient females following trauma and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, J F; Jarrar, D; Wang, P; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    2001-05-15

    Recent studies have shown that administration of the sex steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in males following trauma-hemorrhagic shock has salutary effects on the depressed cardiovascular and immunological functions under those conditions. Since the effects of sex steroids are gender specific, we examined whether administration of DHEA has any beneficial effects on hepatocellular function in female rats with low estrogen levels following trauma-hemorrhage. Ovariectomy was performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days prior to the experiments. The animals then underwent a 5-cm midline laparotomy and were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (40 mm Hg for 90 min). This was followed by fluid resuscitation (Ringer's lactate over 60 min) and administration of DHEA (30 mg/kg BW) or vehicle subcutaneously at the end of resuscitation. At 24 h after resuscitation hepatocellular function, i.e., clearance of indocyanine green (ICG), and hepatocyte damage (serum alanine aminotransferase) were measured. Plasma levels of DHEA and 17beta-estradiol were also assayed. Vehicle-treated rats had significantly reduced hepatocellular function, increased ALT activity, and decreased levels of 17beta-estradiol following trauma-hemorrhage compared to sham-operated animals (P trauma-hemorrhage, hepatocellular function and ALT activity were similar to those of shams. However, administration of DHEA did not influence the plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol. Administration of DHEA following trauma-hemorrhage restored hepatocellular function and reduced hepatic damage that was observed in ovariectomized female rats under such conditions. This salutary effect of DHEA did not appear to be due to elevated levels of plasma 17beta-estradiol. We therefore propose that DHEA should be considered a novel, safe, and useful adjunct in the treatment of trauma-induced hepatocellular dysfunction in ovariectomized and postmenopausal females. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Protective function of complement against alcohol-induced rat liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Igor L; Väkevä, Antti; Järveläinen, Harri A; Meri, Seppo; Lindros, Kai O

    2004-11-01

    The complement system can promote tissue damage or play a homeostatic role in the clearance and disposal of damaged tissue. We assessed the role of the terminal complement pathway in alcohol-induced liver damage in complement C6 (C6-/-) genetically deficient rats. C6-/- and corresponding C6+/+ rats were continuously exposed to ethanol by feeding ethanol-supplemented liquid diet for six weeks. Liver samples were analyzed for histopathology and complement component deposition by immunofluorescence microscopy. Prostaglandin E receptors and cytokine mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR and plasma cytokines by ELISA. Deposition of complement components C1, C3, C8 and C9 was observed in C6+/+ rats, but not in C6-/- animals. The histopathological changes, the liver weight increase and the elevation of the plasma pro-/anti-inflammatory TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratio were, on the other hand, more marked in C6-/- rats. Furthermore, ethanol enhanced the hepatic mRNA expression of the prostaglandin E receptors EP2R and EP4R exclusively in the C6-/- rats. Our results indicate that a deficient terminal complement pathway predisposes to tissue injury and promotes a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. This suggests that an intact complement system has a protective function in the development of alcoholic liver damage.

  18. Improved clinicopathologic assessments of acute liver damage due to trauma in Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Holthaus, Lisa; Barron, Heather Wilson; Divers, Stephen J; McBride, Michael; Almy, Frederic; Bush, Sharon; Latimer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-01

    Increased activities of certain biochemical enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) have been associated with blunt liver injury in many species. To evaluate changes in plasma hepatic biochemical parameters in acute avian liver disease caused by trauma and to compare biochemical changes with histologic lesions in hepatic parenchyma, 30 healthy fasted Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) were divided into 2 groups, and traumatic liver injury was caused by endoscopic liver biopsy (group 1) or by liver biopsy and crushing injury to the hepatic parenchyma with endoscopic forceps (group 2) in anesthetized birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours in alternate groups to compare analyte values after injury with those at baseline. Results showed consistently decreased plasma ALP activity (excluding 1 time point) throughout the study, which was thought to be associated with isoflurane administration. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase activity initially increased but rapidly declined thereafter and was attributed to acute focal hepatocellular injury. In both groups, increases in plasma AST, ALT, and LDH activities was most likely caused by muscle injury because creatine kinase activity was concurrently increased. Compared with baseline values, bile acid concentration and y-glutamyl transferase activity were not affected by liver biopsy or crush injury. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was the most specific indicator of liver injury in both groups. Histologic changes correlated poorly with biochemical results, possibly because the small area of hepatic parenchyma that was damaged did not affect enzyme values substantially.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2017-08-01

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m 2 , planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m 2 (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  20. Early-stage evolution of particle size distribution with Johnson's SB function due to Brownian coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hong; Lin Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    The moment method can be used to determine the time evolution of particle size distribution due to Brownian coagulation based on the general dynamic equation (GDE). But the function form of the initial particle size distribution must be determined beforehand for the moment method. If the assumed function type of the initial particle size distribution has an obvious deviation from the true particle population, the evolution of particle size distribution may be different from the real evolution tendency. Thus, a simple and general method is proposed based on the moment method. In this method, the Johnson's S B function is chosen as a general distribution function to fit the initial distributions including the log normal (L-N), Rosin–Rammler (R-R), normal (N-N) and gamma distribution functions, respectively. Meanwhile, using the modified beta function to fit the L-N, R-R, N-N and gamma functions is also conducted as a comparison in order to present the advantage of the Johnson's S B function as the general distribution function. And then, the time evolution of particle size distributions using the Johnson's S B function as the initial distribution can be obtained by several lower order moment equations of the Johnson's S B function in conjunction with the GDE during the Brownian coagulation process. Simulation experiments indicate that fairly reasonable results of the time evolution of particle size distribution can be obtained with this proposed method in the free molecule regime, transition regime and continuum plus near continuum regime, respectively, at the early time stage of evolution. The Johnson's S B function has the ability of describing the early time evolution of different initial particle size distributions. (paper)

  1. Cerebral activations during viewing of food stimuli in adult patients with acquired structural hypothalamic damage: a functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C A; Powell, J L; Kemp, G J; Halford, J C G; Wilding, J P; Harrold, J A; Kumar, S V D; Cuthbertson, D J; Cross, A A; Javadpour, M; MacFarlane, I A; Stancak, A A; Daousi, C

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is common following hypothalamic damage due to tumours. Homeostatic and non-homeostatic brain centres control appetite and energy balance but their interaction in the presence of hypothalamic damage remains unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal appetite in obese patients with hypothalamic damage results from aberrant brain processing of food stimuli. We sought to establish differences in activation of brain food motivation and reward neurocircuitry in patients with hypothalamic obesity (HO) compared with patients with hypothalamic damage whose weight had remained stable. In a cross-sectional study at a University Clinical Research Centre, we studied 9 patients with HO, 10 age-matched obese controls, 7 patients who remained weight-stable following hypothalamic insult (HWS) and 10 non-obese controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the fasted state, 1 h and 3 h after a test meal, while subjects were presented with images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and non-food objects. Insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, Peptide YY and ghrelin were measured throughout the experiment, and appetite ratings were recorded. Mean neural activation in the posterior insula and lingual gyrus (brain areas linked to food motivation and reward value of food) in HWS were significantly lower than in the other three groups (P=0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between insulin levels and posterior insula activation (P=0.002). Neural pathways associated with food motivation and reward-related behaviour, and the influence of insulin on their activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of HO.

  2. Dual functions of ASCIZ in the DNA base damage response and pulmonary organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Jurado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Zn²(+-finger proteins comprise one of the largest protein superfamilies with diverse biological functions. The ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn²(+-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN and ZNF822 was originally linked to functions in the DNA base damage response and has also been proposed to be an essential cofactor of the ATM kinase. Here we show that absence of ASCIZ leads to p53-independent late-embryonic lethality in mice. Asciz-deficient primary fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA base damaging agents MMS and H2O2, but Asciz deletion knock-down does not affect ATM levels and activation in mouse, chicken, or human cells. Unexpectedly, Asciz-deficient embryos also exhibit severe respiratory tract defects with complete pulmonary agenesis and severe tracheal atresia. Nkx2.1-expressing respiratory precursors are still specified in the absence of ASCIZ, but fail to segregate properly within the ventral foregut, and as a consequence lung buds never form and separation of the trachea from the oesophagus stalls early. Comparison of phenotypes suggests that ASCIZ functions between Wnt2-2b/ß-catenin and FGF10/FGF-receptor 2b signaling pathways in the mesodermal/endodermal crosstalk regulating early respiratory development. We also find that ASCIZ can activate expression of reporter genes via its SQ/TQ-cluster domain in vitro, suggesting that it may exert its developmental functions as a transcription factor. Altogether, the data indicate that, in addition to its role in the DNA base damage response, ASCIZ has separate developmental functions as an essential regulator of respiratory organogenesis.

  3. Treatment of skin damage due to irradiation and post-irradiation skin tumours, at the Hornheide special clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    A short precis of 54 years of history of the Hornheide special clinic for tumours, tuberculosis, and plastic surgery of face and skin is followed by a description of the current tasks of the clinic as an interdisciplinary center for plastic surgery and rehabilitation with facilities for tumour surgery, radiotherapy, skin and tissue pathology, and psychotherapy. Important special areas of this interdisciplinary cooperation are the treatment of skin disorders due to radiation and of tumours on irradiated skin, as well as treatment and plastic surgery after removal of tumours by irradiation in order to make the affected areas fit for renewed irradiation. (TRV) [de

  4. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation-contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  5. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation–contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  6. Essential Function of Dicer in Resolving DNA Damage in the Rapidly Dividing Cells of the Developing and Malignant Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Swahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of genomic integrity is critical during neurodevelopment, particularly in rapidly dividing cerebellar granule neuronal precursors that experience constitutive replication-associated DNA damage. As Dicer was recently recognized to have an unexpected function in the DNA damage response, we examined whether Dicer was important for preserving genomic integrity in the developing brain. We report that deletion of Dicer in the developing mouse cerebellum resulted in the accumulation of DNA damage leading to cerebellar progenitor degeneration, which was rescued with p53 deficiency; deletion of DGCR8 also resulted in similar DNA damage and cerebellar degeneration. Dicer deficiency also resulted in DNA damage and death in other rapidly dividing cells including embryonic stem cells and the malignant cerebellar progenitors in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. Together, these results identify an essential function of Dicer in resolving the spontaneous DNA damage that occurs during the rapid proliferation of developmental progenitors and malignant cells.

  7. Quantification of flash flood economic risk using ultra-detailed stage-damage functions and 2-D hydraulic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, J.; Alvarenga, F. M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2016-10-01

    The village of Pajares de Pedraza (Segovia, Spain) is located in the floodplain of the Cega River, a left bank tributary of the Douro River. Repeated flash flood events occur in this small village because of its upstream catchment area, mountainous character and impermeable lithology, which reduce concentration time to just a few hours. River overbank flow has frequently caused flooding and property damage to homes and rural properties, most notably in 1927, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2013 and 2014. Consequently, a detailed analysis was carried out to quantify the economic risk of flash floods in peri-urban and rural areas. Magnitudes and exceedance probabilities were obtained from a flood frequency analysis of maximum discharges. To determine the extent and characteristics of the flooded area, we performed 2D hydraulic modeling (Iber 2.0 software) based on LIDAR (1 m) topography and considering three different scenarios associated with the initial construction (1997) and subsequent extension (2013) of a linear defense structure (rockfill dike or levee) to protect the population. Specific stage-damage functions were expressly developed using in situ data collection for exposed elements, with special emphasis on urban-type categories. The average number of elements and their unit value were established. The relationship between water depth and the height at which electric outlets, furniture, household goods, etc. were located was analyzed; due to its effect on the form of the function. Other nonspecific magnitude-damage functions were used in order to compare both economic estimates. The results indicate that the use of non-specific magnitude-damage functions leads to a significant overestimation of economic losses, partly linked to the use of general economic cost data. Furthermore, a detailed classification and financial assessment of exposed assets is the most important step to ensure a correct estimate of financial losses. In both cases, this should include a

  8. A damage detection method for instrumented civil structures using prerecorded Green’s functions and cross-correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, Vanessa; Kohler, Monica; Heaton, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Automated damage detection methods have application to instrumented structures that are susceptible to types of damage that are difficult or costly to detect. The presented method has application to the detection of brittle fracture of welded beam-column connections in steel moment-resisting frames (MRFs), where locations of potential structural damage are known a priori. The method makes use of a prerecorded catalog of Green’s function templates and a cross-correlation method ...

  9. Time Course and Association of Functional and Biochemical Markers in Severe Semitendinosus Damage Following Intensive Eccentric Leg Curls: Differences between and within Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Carmona

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the extent and evolution of hamstring muscle damage caused by an intensive bout of eccentric leg curls (ELCs by (1 assessing the time course and association of different indirect markers of muscle damage such as changes in the force-generating capacity (FGC, functional magnetic resonance (fMRI, and serum muscle enzyme levels and (2 analyzing differences in the degree of hamstring muscle damage between and within subjects (limb-to-limb comparison.Methods: Thirteen male participants performed six sets of 10 repetitions of an ELC with each leg. Before and at regular intervals over 7 days after the exercise, FGC was measured with maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC. Serum enzyme levels, fMRI transverse relaxation time (T2 and perceived muscle soreness were also assessed and compared against the FGC.Results: Two groups of subjects were identified according to the extent of hamstring muscle damage based on decreased FGC and increased serum enzyme levels: high responders (n = 10, severe muscle damage and moderate responders (n = 3, moderate muscle damage. In the high responders, fMRI T2 analysis revealed that the semitendinosus (ST muscle suffered severe damage in the three regions measured (proximal, middle, and distal. The biceps femoris short head (BFsh muscle was also damaged and there were significant differences in the FGC within subjects in the high responders.Conclusion: FGC and serum enzyme levels measured in 10 of the subjects from the sample were consistent with severe muscle damage. However, the results showed a wide range of peak MVC reductions, reflecting different degrees of damage between subjects (high and moderate responders. fMRI analysis confirmed that the ST was the hamstring muscle most damaged by ELCs, with uniform T2 changes across all the measured sections of this muscle. During intensive ELCs, the ST muscle could suffer an anomalous recruitment pattern due to fatigue and damage, placing an

  10. Effect of TSUMURA Saiboku-to as an agent for healing damage in treatment of radiomucositis due to irradiation of the head and neck area and mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yoshihiro (Tatebayashi Kosei Hospital, Gunma (Japan)); Mitsuhashi, Norio; Takahashi, Iku (and others)

    1992-12-01

    A joint multicenter study was conducted on the utility of TSUMURA Saiboku-to as an agent for healing radiation damage in treatment of radiomucositis due to irradiation of the head and neck area and mediastinum, with the following results. In a comparison of each clinical symptom, efficacy in the TSUMURA Saiboku-to group was not clear, but an overall evaluation of the individual cases showed a significantly increased number of subjects with evaluations of effective or better in the administration group. No serious side effects were observed. (author).

  11. Simulation of vibration modes of the fuel rod damaged due to the grid-to-rod fretting wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Kyeong Koo; Jang, Young Ki; Lee, Kyou Seok

    1997-01-01

    The flow-induced fuel fretting wear observed in some PWRs mainly proceeds in the grid-to-rod contact positions. The grid-to-rod fretting wear in the PWR fuel assembly depends on grid-to-rod gap size, its axial profile and flow-induced vibration. This paper describes the GRIDFORCE program which generates the axially dependent grid-to-rod gap size as a function of burnup. The axially dependent grid-to-rod gap profiles are employed to predict the fuel rod vibration mode shapes by the ANSYS code. With the help of the Paidousis empirical formula, this paper also calculates the fuel rod vibration amplitudes under various supporting conditions, which indicates that the increase of the number of unsupported mid-grids will increase the fuel rod vibration amplitude. On the other hand, the comparison of the predicted vibration mode shapes and the observed mid-grid fretting wear pattern indicates that the 1st and 6th vibration mode shapes under the supporting inactive condition at the mid-grids can simulate the observed mid-grid fretting wear profile. This paper also proposes design guidelines against the grid-to-rod fretting wear. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs

  12. Design rules of mechanical structure of reactors. Damage due to cyclic loading. Progressive distortion. Practical analysis of ratcheting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Gerard; Cousseran, Pierre; Lebey, Jacques; Moulin, Didier; Roche, Roland; Tremblais, Andre.

    1982-08-01

    At first is given a definition of what is ratcheting. A short discussion shows that computation results do not agree with experimental results. This is attributed to the complexity of the real material behavior. These considerations lead to try to build a design rule mainly based on the results of experimental tests. A large experimental program is in progress at CEN-Saclay. Using these results and the results available in open litterature, it was possible to propose a rule based on the concept of effective primary stress Psub(eff). The effective primary stress is a fictitious primary stress giving the same effects that the real loading (it is to say the same effect that the combination of an applied primary stress P and a cyclic straining). Determination of an upper bound value of Psub(eff) is made with the help of an efficiency diagram. More precisely the efficiency diagram include a curve giving a conservative value of an efficiency index V=P/Psub(eff) as a function of the secondary quotient SQ=ΔQ/P. Finally limitation of Psub(eff) intensity is discussed in regard with the current practice [fr

  13. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs, as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1.

  15. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zavaglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA, to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’.

  16. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  17. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  18. Study of cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts with nonlinear output frequency response functions based on NARMAX modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honglan; Mao, Hanying; Mao, Hanling; Zheng, Weixue; Huang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    Cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts plays a key role in the process of remanufacturing engineering and is related to the service safety of the remanufactured parts. In light of the nonlinear properties of used parts caused by cumulative fatigue damage, the based nonlinear output frequency response functions detection approach offers a breakthrough to solve this key problem. First, a modified PSO-adaptive lasso algorithm is introduced to improve the accuracy of the NARMAX model under impulse hammer excitation, and then, an effective new algorithm is derived to estimate the nonlinear output frequency response functions under rectangular pulse excitation, and a based nonlinear output frequency response functions index is introduced to detect the cumulative fatigue damage in used parts. Then, a novel damage detection approach that integrates the NARMAX model and the rectangular pulse is proposed for nonlinear output frequency response functions identification and cumulative fatigue damage detection of used parts. Finally, experimental studies of fatigued plate specimens and used connecting rod parts are conducted to verify the validity of the novel approach. The obtained results reveal that the new approach can detect cumulative fatigue damages of used parts effectively and efficiently and that the various values of the based nonlinear output frequency response functions index can be used to detect the different fatigue damages or working time. Since the proposed new approach can extract nonlinear properties of systems by only a single excitation of the inspected system, it shows great promise for use in remanufacturing engineering applications.

  19. Bias Errors due to Leakage Effects When Estimating Frequency Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Josefsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency response functions are often utilized to characterize a system's dynamic response. For a wide range of engineering applications, it is desirable to determine frequency response functions for a system under stochastic excitation. In practice, the measurement data is contaminated by noise and some form of averaging is needed in order to obtain a consistent estimator. With Welch's method, the discrete Fourier transform is used and the data is segmented into smaller blocks so that averaging can be performed when estimating the spectrum. However, this segmentation introduces leakage effects. As a result, the estimated frequency response function suffers from both systematic (bias and random errors due to leakage. In this paper the bias error in the H1 and H2-estimate is studied and a new method is proposed to derive an approximate expression for the relative bias error at the resonance frequency with different window functions. The method is based on using a sum of real exponentials to describe the window's deterministic autocorrelation function. Simple expressions are derived for a rectangular window and a Hanning window. The theoretical expressions are verified with numerical simulations and a very good agreement is found between the results from the proposed bias expressions and the empirical results.

  20. Quality of life and near vision impairment due to functional presbyopia among rural Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Congdon, Nathan; He, Xiangdong; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Yang, Amy; He, Wei

    2011-06-13

    To evaluate the impact of near-vision impairment on visual functioning and quality of life in a rural adult population in Shenyang, northern China. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 40+ years, during which functional presbyopia (correctable presenting near vision vision-related quality of life and spectacle usage questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers to determine the degree of self-rated difficulty with near tasks. A total of 1008 respondents (91.5% of 1102 eligible persons) were examined, and 776 (78%) of completed the questionnaires (mean age, 57.0 ± 10.2 years; 63.3% women). Near-vision spectacle wearers obtained their spectacles primarily from markets (74.5%) and optical shops (21.7%), and only 1.14% from eye clinics. Among 538 (69.3%) persons with functional presbyopia, self-rated overall (distance and near) vision was worse (P vision. Compared to persons without presbyopia, presbyopic persons were more likely to report diminished accomplishment due to vision (P = 0.01, adjusted for age, sex, education, and distance vision.) Difficulties with activities of daily living and resulting social impediments are common due to presbyopia in this setting. Most spectacle wearers with presbyopia in rural China obtain near correction from sources that do not provide comprehensive vision care.

  1. Effects on executive function following damage to the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara L; Schettler, Stephen P; Killiany, Ronald J; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2009-04-01

    Executive function is a term used to describe the cognitive processes subserved by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). An extensive body of work has characterized the effects of damage to the PFC in nonhuman primates, but it has focused primarily on the capacity of recognition and working memory. One limitation in studies of the functional parcellation of the PFC has been the absence of tests that assess executive function or its functional components. The current study used an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of frontal lobe and executive function in humans, to assess the effects of bilateral lesions in the dorsolateral PFC on executive function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The authors used the category set-shifting task, which requires the monkey to establish a pattern of responding to a specific category (color or shape) based on reward contingency, maintain that pattern of responding, and then shift to responding to a different category when the reward contingency changes. Rhesus monkeys with lesions of the dorsolateral PFC were impaired in abstraction, establishing a response pattern to a specific category and maintaining and shifting that response pattern on the category set-shifting task. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF CROSS-TRAINING DUE TO SPA TREATMENT IN CURRING FUNCTIONAL NEUROTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stefanović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern civilization moves to endless automation and mechanization. This fact, in one hand, has positive effect on increase of life standard, but also carries its own risks and threats of mankind. Axelberg, famous academician, makes an interesting remark that only a hundred years ago man did 96 % of his work by himself, while today most manufacturing processes are 100% automated. Stress, lack of physical activity and bad food regime are canses of organic damages of cardiopulmonary system. Latest research, conducted in many countries, shows that for proper functioning of every organism the minimum of moving is necessary.Term neurosis was introduced in medical literature by Scottish doctor W. Cullen in 1777. By that term were considered different clinical appearances which are believed neurotic todey, but also the phenomena today considered as psychosomatic disorders of character and behavior. Pavlov’s reflexive theory is basic in treatment of some types of neurossis’ during spa treatments in Nerečinska Banja. It usually starts at the beginning of May and ends in October, but sometimes if weather is nice, it can last until the middle of November. The treatment cure last tventy-one day, doesn’t include medicaments, but only spa water, baths and massage.

  3. As Bad as it Gets: How Climate Damage Functions Affect Growth and the Social Cost of Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Bretschger, Lukas; Pattakou, Aimilia

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyzes the effects of varying climate impacts on the social cost of carbon and economic growth. We use polynomial damage functions in a model of an endogenously growing two-sector economy. The framework includes nonrenewable natural resources which cause greenhouse gas emissions; pollution stock harms capital and reduces economic growth. We find a big effect of the selected damage function on the social cost of carbon and a significant impact on the growth rate. In our calibration...

  4. Reevaluation of ferritic steel ΔDBTT data used in damage function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Damage functions for the change in ductile-brittle transition temperature (ΔDBTT) in ferritic steels for application to Light Water Reactor (LWR) pressure vessels were re-evaluated. Two improvements in the analysis of the data resulted in a reduction in data scatter from the 15-30% range to the 4-15% range. These improvements were in the form of an improved fluence dependence function and correction of errors in the fluence values themselves. A comparison of several spectral indices used to correlate the data showed that the A-212 and A-302 steels favored the use of the displacement cross section (dpa) while the A-350 steels favored the use of an interstitial cluster cross section which is spectrally more sensitive to neutron energy than the dpa cross section

  5. Study of clean and ion bombardment damaged silver single crystal surfaces by work function measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelvayohan, N.

    1982-06-01

    Work function values of the (110), (100) and (111) faces of silver single crystal were measured by the photoelectric emission method and found to be 4.14 +- 0.04 eV, 4.22 +-0.04 eV and 4.46 +- 0.02 eV respectively. Oxygen adsorption on the faces were studied by surface potential measurement. Strong oxygen adsorption was observed on (110) and (100) faces, whereas the (111) face was found to be inert for oxygen adsorption. Oxygen adsorption on the (111) face damaged by argon ion bombardment was also investigated. The above results were compared with those of early reported work function and oxygen adsorption values. (U.K.)

  6. Influence of heavy ions on cell survival, cytogenetic damage and mitochondrial function of human endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sylvia; Helm, Alexander; Lee, Ryonfa; Pollet, Dieter; Durante, Marco

    There is increasing evidence that there is an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors and radiotherapy patients, typically developing with a long latency. However, essentially no information is available on the potential cardiovascular risks associated with space radiation, in particular heavy ions. To address this issue, we have chosen human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model system. Cells at an early passage number were irradiated with 0.1 to 4 Gy of either 9.8 MeV/u C-ions (LET=170 keV/µm), 91 MeV/u C-ions (LET=29 keV/µm) or 250 kV X-rays. Cells were regularly subcultured up to 40 days (20 population doublings) post-irradiation. Immediately after exposure cell inactivation was deter-mined by the colony forming assay. Furthermore, at selected time-points cytogenetic damage (formation of micronuclei in binucleated cells) and the mitochondrial membrane potential ΨM (flow cytometric analysis following JC-1 staining) were assessed. Measurement of the directly induced radiation damage showed that 9.8 MeV/u and 91 MeV/u C-ions were more effective than X-rays (i.e. about 3 and 2 times, respectively) with respect to cell inactivation or the in-duction of cytogenetic damage. At the subsequent days in the irradiated cultures the number of cells with micronuclei declined to the control level (3-5Altogether our data indicate that under the applied radiation conditions the integrity of mitochondria which play a significant role in the regulation of cardiovascular cell function is not impaired. With respect to directly induced genetic damage C-ions are more effective than X-rays as observed in other cell systems. If the effectiveness of charged particles for the occurrence of late chromosomal damage in endothelial cells is higher than that of sparsely ionizing radiation needs further clarification. The data obtained up to now indicate that sophisticated cytogenetic techniques have to be applied in order to draw any firm

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation of Functionally Graded Subsurface Damage on Cylinders in Nuclear Installations Based on Circumferential SH Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface damage could affect the service life of structures. In nuclear engineering, nondestructive evaluation and detection of the evaluation of the subsurface damage region are of great importance to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In this paper, we propose the use of circumferential horizontal shear (SH waves to detect mechanical properties of subsurface regions of damage on cylindrical structures. The regions of surface damage are considered to be functionally graded material (FGM and the cylinder is considered to be a layered structure. The Bessel functions and the power series technique are employed to solve the governing equations. By analyzing the SH waves in the 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel cylinder, which is frequently applied in the nuclear installations, we discuss the relationship between the phase velocities of SH waves in the cylinder with subsurface layers of damage and the mechanical properties of the subsurface damaged regions. The results show that the subsurface damage could lead to decrease of the SH waves’ phase velocity. The gradient parameters, which represent the degree of subsurface damage, can be evaluated by the variation of the SH waves’ phase velocity. Research results of this study can provide theoretical guidance in nondestructive evaluation for use in the analysis of the reliability and durability of nuclear installations.

  8. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice · Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells · Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcεRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  9. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells centre dot Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcepsilonRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  10. Let thy left brain know what thy right brain doeth: Inter-hemispheric compensation of functional deficits after brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeo, Paolo; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence revealed the importance of inter-hemispheric communication for the compensation of functional deficits after brain damage. This review summarises the biological consequences observed using histology as well as the longitudinal findings measured with magnetic resonance imaging methods in brain damaged animals and patients. In particular, we discuss the impact of post-stroke brain hyperactivity on functional recovery in relation to time. The reviewed evidence also suggests that the proportion of the preserved functional network both in the lesioned and in the intact hemispheres, rather than the simple lesion location, determines the extent of functional recovery. Hence, future research exploring longitudinal changes in patients with brain damage may unveil potential biomarkers underlying functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in corneal sensation, epithelial damage, and tear function after descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yumiko; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Konomi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-09-01

    To study the ocular surface changes in eyes after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) compared with those after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). This prospective study compared the changes in 31 eyes of 28 patients who underwent DSAEK (DSAEK group) with those in 15 disease-matched eyes of 15 patients who underwent PKP (PKP group). Corneal epithelial integrity was evaluated using a fluorescein staining score. Corneal sensation was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Tear function was evaluated using the Schirmer test, tear clearance test, tear function index, and tear break-up time. The postoperative fluorescein staining score was significantly higher in the PKP group than in the DSAEK group (P = 0.02). Postoperative corneal sensation was significantly better in the DSAEK group than in the PKP group (P sensation after DSAEK was significantly better than the preoperative value (P = 0.02). There were no statistically significant changes in the Schirmer test, tear clearance test, tear function index, or break-up time before and after the surgery in both the DSAEK and PKP groups. No significant differences were observed between the DSAEK and PKP groups after the surgery. Corneal sensation was preserved, and epithelial damage was less severe after DSAEK compared with PKP. Preservation of corneal sensation may contribute to the early recovery of visual function and long-term maintenance of ocular surface health after DSAEK.

  12. The damage of the hepatic mixed functional oxygenase system by CCI4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fander, U.

    1981-01-01

    The relation between incorporation of C-14 from C-14-Cl 4 into liver lipids and the damage of the mixed functional oxygenase system of liver microsomes is investigated in rats depending on sex difference and method of pretreatment. Under the respective conditions of pretreatment C-14-incorporation rate and relative decrease of the cytochrome P-450 level as the parameter most influenced by CCl 4 are compared with untreated female rats. Induction by 3-MC does not alter both the parameters. Induction by PB enhances the C-14-incorporation rate as well as the cytochrome P-450 decrease but the latter is more affected. In male rats there is only the C-14-incorporation rate increased. Vitamine D 3 pretreated rats show a less decrease of cytochrome P-450 but an enhanced C-14 incorporation rate. Therefore there is no correlation between cytochrome P-450 decrease and C-14 incorporation rate. Reasons for the lack of that correlation are discussed with regard to the mechanism of liver cell damage by carbon tetrachloride. (orig./MG)

  13. Oxytocin Neurons Exhibit Extensive Functional Plasticity Due To Offspring Age in Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Hiura, Lisa C; Saunders, Alexander G; Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-09-01

    The needs of offspring change as they develop. Thus, parents should concomitantly change their investment based on the age-related needs of the offspring as they mature. Due to the high costs of parental care, it is optimal for parents to exhibit a shift from intense caregiving of young offspring to promoting independence in older offspring. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underlie shifts in parental behavior are poorly understood, and little is known about how the parental brain responds to offspring of different ages. To elucidate mechanisms that relate to shifts in parental behavior as offspring develop, we examined behavioral and neural responses of male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a biparental rodent, to interactions with offspring at different stages of development (ranging from neonatal to weaning age). Importantly, in biparental species, males and females may adjust their behavior differentially as offspring develop. Because the nonapeptides, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), are well known for modulating aspects of parental care, we focused on functional activity of distinct VP and OT cell groups within the maternal and paternal brain in response to separation from, reunion (after a brief period of separation) with, or no separation from offspring of different ages. We found several differences in the neural responses of individual VP and OT cell groups that varied based on the age of pups and sex of the parent. Hypothalamic VP neurons exhibit similar functional responses in both mothers and fathers. However, hypothalamic and amygdalar OT neurons exhibit differential functional responses to being separated from pups based on the sex of the parent. Our results also reveal that the developmental stage of offspring significantly impacts neural function within OT, but not VP, cell groups of both mothers and fathers. These findings provide insight into the functional plastic capabilities of the nonapeptide system, specifically in relation

  14. The spectrum of epilepsy and electroencephalographic abnormalities due to SHANK3 loss-of-function mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J Lloyd; Quach, Michael M

    2016-10-01

    The coincidence of autism with epilepsy is 27% in those individuals with intellectual disability. 1 Individuals with loss-of-function mutations in SHANK3 have intellectual disability, autism, and variably, epilepsy. 2-5 The spectrum of seizure semiologies and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities has never been investigated in detail. With the recent report that SHANK3 mutations are present in approximately 2% of individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities and 1% of individuals with autism, determining the spectrum of seizure semiologies and electrographic abnormalities will be critical for medical practitioners to appropriately counsel the families of patients with SHANK3 mutations. A retrospective chart review was performed of all individuals treated at the Blue Bird Circle Clinic for Child Neurology who have been identified as having either a chromosome 22q13 microdeletion encompassing SHANK3 or a loss-of-function mutation in SHANK3 identified through whole-exome sequencing. For each subject, the presence or absence of seizures, seizure semiology, frequency, age of onset, and efficacy of therapy were determined. Electroencephalography studies were reviewed by a board certified neurophysiologist. Neuroimaging was reviewed by both a board certified pediatric neuroradiologist and child neurologist. There is a wide spectrum of seizure semiologies, frequencies, and severity in individuals with SHANK3 mutations. There are no specific EEG abnormalities found in our cohort, and EEG abnormalities were present in individuals diagnosed with epilepsy and those without history of a clinical seizure. All individuals with a mutation in SHANK3 should be evaluated for epilepsy due to the high prevalence of seizures in this population. The most common semiology is atypical absence seizure, which can be challenging to identify due to comorbid intellectual disability in individuals with SHANK3 mutations; however, no consistent seizure semiology, neuroimaging

  15. Uncertainty in Earthquake Source Imaging Due to Variations in Source Time Function and Earth Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Razafindrakoto, H. N. T.

    2014-03-25

    One way to improve the accuracy and reliability of kinematic earthquake source imaging is to investigate the origin of uncertainty and to minimize their effects. The difficulties in kinematic source inversion arise from the nonlinearity of the problem, nonunique choices in the parameterization, and observational errors. We analyze particularly the uncertainty related to the choice of the source time function (STF) and the variability in Earth structure. We consider a synthetic data set generated from a spontaneous dynamic rupture calculation. Using Bayesian inference, we map the solution space of peak slip rate, rupture time, and rise time to characterize the kinematic rupture in terms of posterior density functions. Our test to investigate the effect of the choice of STF reveals that all three tested STFs (isosceles triangle, regularized Yoffe with acceleration time of 0.1 and 0.3 s) retrieve the patch of high slip and slip rate around the hypocenter. However, the use of an isosceles triangle as STF artificially accelerates the rupture to propagate faster than the target solution. It additionally generates an artificial linear correlation between rupture onset time and rise time. These appear to compensate for the dynamic source effects that are not included in the symmetric triangular STF. The exact rise time for the tested STFs is difficult to resolve due to the small amount of radiated seismic moment in the tail of STF. To highlight the effect of Earth structure variability, we perform inversions including the uncertainty in the wavespeed only, and variability in both wavespeed and layer depth. We find that little difference is noticeable between the resulting rupture model uncertainties from these two parameterizations. Both significantly broaden the posterior densities and cause faster rupture propagation particularly near the hypocenter due to the major velocity change at the depth where the fault is located.

  16. Uncertainty in Earthquake Source Imaging Due to Variations in Source Time Function and Earth Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Razafindrakoto, H. N. T.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    One way to improve the accuracy and reliability of kinematic earthquake source imaging is to investigate the origin of uncertainty and to minimize their effects. The difficulties in kinematic source inversion arise from the nonlinearity of the problem, nonunique choices in the parameterization, and observational errors. We analyze particularly the uncertainty related to the choice of the source time function (STF) and the variability in Earth structure. We consider a synthetic data set generated from a spontaneous dynamic rupture calculation. Using Bayesian inference, we map the solution space of peak slip rate, rupture time, and rise time to characterize the kinematic rupture in terms of posterior density functions. Our test to investigate the effect of the choice of STF reveals that all three tested STFs (isosceles triangle, regularized Yoffe with acceleration time of 0.1 and 0.3 s) retrieve the patch of high slip and slip rate around the hypocenter. However, the use of an isosceles triangle as STF artificially accelerates the rupture to propagate faster than the target solution. It additionally generates an artificial linear correlation between rupture onset time and rise time. These appear to compensate for the dynamic source effects that are not included in the symmetric triangular STF. The exact rise time for the tested STFs is difficult to resolve due to the small amount of radiated seismic moment in the tail of STF. To highlight the effect of Earth structure variability, we perform inversions including the uncertainty in the wavespeed only, and variability in both wavespeed and layer depth. We find that little difference is noticeable between the resulting rupture model uncertainties from these two parameterizations. Both significantly broaden the posterior densities and cause faster rupture propagation particularly near the hypocenter due to the major velocity change at the depth where the fault is located.

  17. Chemical changes in PMMA as a function of depth due to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Huszank, R.; Szikra, D.; Vaczi, T.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Chemical changes were investigated as a function of depth in proton irradiated PMMA → The depth profile of numerous functional groups was determined along the depth → The degree of chemical modification strongly depends on the LET of protons → At low-fluences the zone of maximal modification is restricted to the Bragg peak → At higher fluences the zone of max. modification extends towards the sample surface. - Abstract: In this work we determined depth profiles of the chemical change in PMMA irradiated with 2 MeV protons by infrared spectroscopic and micro-Raman measurements. The measurements were carried out on 10 μm thin stacked foil samples using an infrared spectrometer in universal attenuated total reflectance (UATR) and transmission modes; while the thick samples were analyzed with a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer. The depth profiles of the changes formed due to the various delivered fluences were compared to each other. The measurements show the strong dependence of the degree of modification on the energy transfer from the decelerating protons. Depth profiles reveal that at the fluences applied in this work the entire irradiated volume suffered some chemical modifications. In case of low-fluence samples the zone of maximal modification is restricted only to the Bragg peak, but with increasing fluences the region of maximal modification extends towards the sample surface.

  18. Determination of yield and erosion damage functions using subjectively elicited data: application to smallholder tea in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Jayanath; Herath, Gamini; Chisholm, Anthony H.

    2001-01-01

    Tea has been Sri Lanka’s major export earner for several decades. However, soil erosion on tea‐producing land has had considerable on‐site and off‐site effects. This study quantifies soil erosion impacts for smallholder tea farms in Sri Lanka by estimating a yield damage function and an erosion damage function using a subjective elicitation technique. The Mitscherlich‐Spillman type of function was found to yield acceptable results. The study indicates that high rates of soil erosion require e...

  19. Renal function during pregnancy may predict risk of future hospitalization due to atherosclerotic-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Talya; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Sergienko, Ruslan; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to examine whether renal function during pregnancy can serve as a surrogate marker for the risk of developing atherosclerotic-related morbidity. A case-control study, including women who gave birth at a tertiary referral medical centre during 2000-2012. This population was divided into cases of women who were subsequently hospitalized for atherosclerotic morbidity during the study period and age-matched controls. From the study population, we retrieved two groups: the creatinine (Cr) group: women who had at least one Cr measurement (4945 women) and the urea group: women who had at least one urea measurement (4932 women) during their pregnancies. In the Cr and urea group, there were 572 and 571 cases and 4373 and 4361 controls, respectively. The mean follow-up period in the Cr and urea group was 61.7 ± 37.0 and 57.3 ± 36.0 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models (controlling for confounders: gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, obesity, maternal age, creatinine level (for urea), and gestational week) were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for hospitalizations. A significant association was documented between renal function during pregnancy and long-term atherosclerotic morbidity. Multivariate analysis, showed that Cr at pregnancy index of ≥89 μmol/L was associated with a significant increased risk for hospitalization due to cardiovascular (CVS) events (adjusted HR = 2.91 CI 1.37-6.19 P = 0.005) and urea level ≤7 mmol/L was independently associated with reduced prevalence of CVS hospitalization (adjusted HR = 0.62 CI 0.57-0.86 P = 0.001). Renal function abnormality during pregnancy may reveal occult predisposition to atherosclerotic morbidity years after childbirth. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Assessing the performance of a differential evolution algorithm in structural damage detection by varying the objective function

    OpenAIRE

    Villalba-Morales, Jesús Daniel; Laier, José Elias

    2014-01-01

    Structural damage detection has become an important research topic in certain segments of the engineering community. These methodologies occasionally formulate an optimization problem by defining an objective function based on dynamic parameters, with metaheuristics used to find the solution. In this study, damage localization and quantification is performed by an Adaptive Differential Evolution algorithm, which solves the associated optimization problem. Furthermore, this paper looks at the ...

  1. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  2. Oncological, surgical and functional results of the treatment of patients after hemipelvectomy due to metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Guzik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic lesions localized in the pelvis cause pain, pathological fractures and decrease quality of patients life. Limited data are avaliable to compare the oncological, surgical and functional outcomes after different surgeries in patients with metastatic pelvic tumors. Most of the works presents the results of hemipelvectomy performed in patients with primary malignant bone tumors. The objectives of this study were to assess the outcome of patients after internal hemipelvectomy due to cancer metastases. Methods Over the period 2010–2015 at the Department of Orthopaedic Oncology in Brzozów, 34 patients with metastases to the pelvis were treated. This study group comprised of 21 men and 13 women. The mean age was 67 (range: 51–79 for men and 56 (range: 41–77 for women. The majority of the treated patients suffered from myeloma (12 patients and breast cancer (8 patients. Following the Enneking system classification guidelines, tumours were found in zone I (5 cases, zone II (18 cases, zone III (4 cases. Tumour involvement of both zones (II and III considered 7 patients. The following resections were accomplished: wide in 11 cases, marginal in 17 cases, and intralesional in 6 cases. 18 patients were postoperatively treated with 8 Gy single-dose radiotherapy. 25 patients underwent bone reconstruction using either Lumic prostheses (9 cases or the Harrington technique (16 cases. The mean follow-up period was 2.1 years (range: 1.2–6 years. The analysis covered patients’ survival, number of local recurrences, functional results and effectiveness of surgical treatment, considering the type, number and reason of complications. Results Eight patients died. Overal survival calculated with Kaplan- Meier curve was 48.2% for 34 patients. Mean survival was 3.85 years. There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival depending on the type of metastasis resection. In this group, local tumour recurrences

  3. Pragmatic and executive functions in traumatic brain injury and right brain damage: An exploratory comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the frequency of pragmatic and executive deficits in right brain damaged (RBD and in traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, and to verify possible dissociations between pragmatic and executive functions in these two groups. Methods: The sample comprised 7 cases of TBI and 7 cases of RBD. All participants were assessed by means of tasks from the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery and executive functions tests including the Trail Making Test, Hayling Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks, and working memory tasks from the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery NEUPSILIN. Z-score was calculated and a descriptive analysis of frequency of deficits (Z< -1.5 was carried out. Results: RBD patients presented with deficits predominantly on conversational and narrative discursive tasks, while TBI patients showed a wider spread pattern of pragmatic deficits. Regarding EF, RBD deficits included predominantly working memory and verbal initiation impairment. On the other hand, TBI individuals again exhibited a general profile of executive dysfunction, affecting mainly working memory, initiation, inhibition, planning and switching. Pragmatic and executive deficits were generally associated upon comparisons of RBD patients and TBI cases, except for two simple dissociations: two post-TBI cases showed executive deficits in the absence of pragmatic deficits. Discussion: Pragmatic and executive deficits can be very frequent following TBI or vascular RBD. There seems to be an association between these abilities, indicating that although they can co-occur, a cause-consequence relationship cannot be the only hypothesis.

  4. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Chamoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans.

  5. Irradiation induced modest changes in murine cardiac function despite progressive structural damage to the myocardium and microvasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, Ingar; Gabriels, Karen; Visser, Nils L.; Hoving, Saske; Poele, Johannes A. te; Pol, Jeffrey F.; Gijbels, Marion J.; Janssen, Ben J.; Leeuwen, Fijs W. van; Daemen, Mat J.; Heeneman, Sylvia; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy of thoracic and chest wall tumors increases the long-term risk of cardiotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Methods: Single doses of 2, 8, or 16 Gy were delivered to the hearts of mice and damage was evaluated at 20, 40, and 60 weeks, relative to age matched controls. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and ultrasound were used to measure cardiac geometry and function, which was related to histo-morphology and microvascular damage. Results: Gated SPECT/CT and ultrasound demonstrated decreases in end diastolic and systolic volumes, while the ejection fraction was increased at 20 and 40 weeks after 2, 8, and 16 Gy. Cardiac blood volume was decreased at 20 and 60 weeks after irradiation. Histological examination revealed inflammatory changes at 20 and 40 weeks after 8 and 16 Gy. Microvascular density in the left ventricle was decreased at 40 and 60 weeks after 8 and 16 Gy, with functional damage to remaining microvasculature manifest as decreased alkaline phosphatase (2, 8, and 16 Gy), increased von Willebrand Factor and albumin leakage from vessels (8 and 16 Gy), and amyloidosis (16 Gy). 16 Gy lead to sudden death between 30 and 40 weeks in 38% of mice. Conclusions: Irradiation with 2 and 8 Gy induced modest changes in murine cardiac function within 20 weeks but this did not deteriorate further, despite progressive structural and microvascular damage. This indicates that heart function can compensate for significant structural damage, although higher doses, eventually lead to sudden death.

  6. The use of near infrared transmittance kernel sorting technology to salvage high quality grain from grain downgraded due to Fusarium damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kautzman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxins associated with specific Fusarium fungal infections of grains are a threat to global food and feed security. These fungal infestations are referred to as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB and lead to Fusarium Damaged Kernels (FDK. Incidence of FDK >0.25% will lower the grade, with a tolerance of 5% FDK for export feed grain. During infestation, the fungi can produce a variety of mycotoxins, the most common being deoxynivalenol (DON. Fusarium Damaged Kernels have been associated with reduced crude protein (CP, lowering nutritional, functional and grade value. New technology has been developed using Near Infrared Transmittance (NIT spectra that estimate CP of individual kernels of wheat, barley and durum. Our objective is to evaluate the technology's capability to reduce FDK and DON of downgraded wheat and ability to salvage high quality safe kernels. In five FDK downgraded sources of wheat, the lowest 20% CP kernels had significantly increased FDK and DON with the high CP fractions having decreased FDK and DON, thousand kernel weights (TKW and bushel weight (Bu. Strong positive correlations were observed between FDK and DON (r = 0.90; FDK and grade (r = 0.62 and DON and grade (r = 0.62. Negative correlations were observed between FDK and DON with CP (r = −0.27 and −0.32; TKW (r = −0.45 and −0.54 and Bu (r = −0.79 and −0.74. Results show improved quality and value of Fusarium downgraded grain using this technology.

  7. Seasonal variability of rocky reef fish assemblages: Detecting functional and structural changes due to fishing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel Pessanha; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira

    2013-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of seasonal variation on the stability of fish-based metrics and their capability to detect changes in fish assemblages, which is yet poorly understood despite the general idea that guilds are more resilient to natural variability than species abundances. Three zones subject to different levels of fishing pressure inside the Arrábida Marine Protected Area (MPA) were sampled seasonally. The results showed differences between warm (summer and autumn) and cold (winter and spring) seasons, with the autumn clearly standing out. In general, the values of the metrics density of juveniles, density of invertebrate feeders and density of omnivores increased in warm seasons, which can be attributed to differences in recruitment patterns, spawning migrations and feeding activity among seasons. The density of generalist/opportunistic individuals was sensitive to the effect of fishing, with higher values at zones with the lowest level of protection, while the density of individuals with high commercial value only responded to fishing in the autumn, due to a cumulative result of both juveniles and adults abundances during this season. Overall, this study showed that seasonal variability affects structural and functional features of the fish assemblage and that might influence the detection of changes as a result of anthropogenic pressures. The choice of a specific season, during warm sea conditions after the spawning period (July-October), seems to be more adequate to assess changes on rocky-reef fish assemblages.

  8. Damage and functional recovery of the mouse retina after exposure to genotoxic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, Yu.V.; Tronov, V.A.; Lyakhova, K.N.; Ostrovskij, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    As is known, the mature retina is characterized by high radiation resistance. We showed earlier that ionizing radiation at a dose of ≥25 Gy and the chemical genotoxic agent methylnitrosourea (MNU) in a concentration of ≥60 mg/kg induce acute retinal degeneration, combined with proapoptotic protein expression. The process has a high genotoxic threshold, below which no degeneration signs were traced. The aim of this work was to study the damaging effect of ionizing radiation and MNU on the functional activity of the retina and its ability to recover after exposure to these genotoxicants. The functional activity of the mouse retina was evaluated with electroretinograms (ERG). In parallel, morphological changes in the retina were controlled, and the TUNEL detection of the death of its cell elements was performed. It has been shown that gamma rays or accelerated proton irradiation below 15 Gy cause no structural or functional changes in the mouse retina, which confirms the mature retina's high radiation resistance. Irradiation with a higher dose of 25 Gy leads to photoreceptor layer destruction. This goes along with an increase in the number of the TUNEL-positive photoreceptors, among which are cells with fragmented nuclei, which are typical of apoptosis. MNU in a concentration of 70 mg/kg caused the irreversible loss of the retina's physiological activity, and the morphological degeneration of photoreceptors and their mass death. In a concentration of 35 mg/kg, however, MNU had no cytotoxic effect on the retina. Moreover, this dose caused a reversible ERG amplitude decrease. Also, adaptive response was observed in the retina, which became apparent after two consecutive MNU injections - first, at a dose of 17 mg/kg; then, at a cytotoxic dose of 70 mg/kg. These results point to the possibility of the neurohormesis effect, which was described concerning the retina's exposure to ionizing radiation and some chemicals.

  9. A comparison between the performance degradation of 3T APS due to radiation exposure and the expected internal damage via Monte-Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gi Yoon; Kim, Myung Soo; Lim, Kyung Taek; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Chan Kyu [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hwan [Luvantix ADM , Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The trend of x-ray image sensor has been evolved from an amorphous silicon sensor to a crystal silicon sensor. A crystal silicon X-ray sensor, meaning a X-ray CIS (CMOS image sensor), is consisted of three transistors (Trs), i.e., a Reset Transistor, a Source Follower and a Select Transistor, and a photodiode. They are highly sensitive to radiation exposure. As the frequency of exposure to radiation increases, the quality of the imaging device dramatically decreases. The most well known effects of a X-ray CIS due to the radiation damage are increments in the reset voltage and dark currents. In this study, a pixel array of a X-ray CIS was made of 20×20 pixels and this pixel array was exposed to a high radiation dose. The radiation source was Co-60 and the total radiation dose was increased from 1 to 9 kGy with a step of 1 kGy. We irradiated the small pixel array to get the increments data of the reset voltage and the dark currents. Also, we simulated the radiation effects of the pixel by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) simulation. From the comparison of actual data and simulation data, the most affected location could be determined and the cause of the increments of the reset voltage and dark current could be found.

  10. A SEASONAL COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICAL DAMAGES ON RESIDUAL TREES AND SEEDLINGS DUE TO LOGGING OPERATION USING URUS MIII FOREST SKYLINE IN ARTVIN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Habip Eroğlu; Ufuk Özcan Öztürk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the physical damages of logging activities using Urus MIII forest skylines on residual trees and seedlings were evaluated through comparison between harvesting operations took place in winter and summer seasons in Artvin region. In order to achieve our aims, both in winter and summer, 4 representative plots were taken in the harvesting areas using Urus MIII skyline. Physical damages caused by logging to residual trees and seedling were noted. Damage classes for the residual tr...

  11. Functional alterations due to amino acid changes and evolutionary comparative analysis of ARPKD and ADPKD genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan M. Edrees

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A targeted customized sequencing of genes implicated in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD phenotype was performed to identify candidate variants using the Ion torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. The results identified four potential pathogenic variants in PKHD1 gene [c.4870C>T, p.(Arg1624Trp, c.5725C>T, p.(Arg1909Trp, c.1736C>T, p.(Thr579Met and c.10628T>G, p.(Leu3543Trp] among 12 out of 18 samples. However, one variant c.4870C>T, p.(Arg1624Trp was common among eight patients. Some patient samples also showed few variants in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD disease causing genes PKD1 and PKD2 such as c.12433G>A, p.(Val4145Ile and c.1445T>G, p.(Phe482Cys, respectively. All causative variants were validated by capillary sequencing and confirmed the presence of a novel homozygous variant c.10628T>G, p.(Leu3543Trp in a male proband. We have recently published the results of these studies (Edrees et al., 2016. Here we report for the first time the effect of the common mutation p.(Arg1624Trp found in eight samples on the protein structure and function due to the specific amino acid changes of PKHD1 protein using molecular dynamics simulations. The computational approaches provide tool predict the phenotypic effect of variant on the structure and function of the altered protein. The structural analysis with the common mutation p.(Arg1624Trp in the native and mutant modeled protein were also studied for solvent accessibility, secondary structure and stabilizing residues to find out the stability of the protein between wild type and mutant forms. Furthermore, comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of variants observed in PKHD1, PKD1, and PKD2 genes were also performed in some mammalian species including human to understand the complexity of genomes among closely related mammalian species. Taken together, the results revealed that the evolutionary comparative analyses and characterization of PKHD1, PKD1

  12. Cytokines cause functional and structural damage to isolated islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Bendtzen, K; Bendixen, G

    1985-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble, antigen non-specific, non-immunoglobulin mediators produced and secreted by blood mononuclear cells interacting in the cellular immune-response. To test the possibility that cytokines participate in the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells leading to insulin-......-release, and contents of insulin and glucagon in islets incubated with cytokine-rich supernatants were markedly reduced. This impairment of islet function was due to a cytotoxic effect of cytokine-rich supernatants as judged by disintegration of normal light-microscopic morphology....

  13. Clinical studies of functional imaging of dynamic CT for chronic brain-damaged patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Haruo; Miyano, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    The 311 brain-damaged patients, mostly of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) were examined by functional imaging to dynamic CT (FIDCT) at Tokyo Metropolitan Rehabilitation Hospital. The abnormal patterns of FIDCT were classified according to two categories, i.e. focal area where plain CT showed low density area (LDA), and extra-focal area where plain CT showed no abnormal findings. These patterns were diagnosed by using the two parameters, i.e. Corrected First Moment (CM) and Time to Peak (TP). Over 50% of the focal abnormal FIDCT revealed tha same area with LDA on plain CT. The extra-focal FIDCT showed various abnormal patterns, and only 11% of all the findings had no abnormalities. The correlation of the specific patterns of extra-focal FIDCT with the multiple CVD episodes was investigated, and the findings that had significant correlation were (a) delayed CM of bilateral white matter, (b) diffusely delayed TP of the affected hemisphere, and the patient group that showed no extra-focal abnormal FIDCT had significant low incidence of multiple CVD episodes. From these results, it is concluded that the high-risk group of stroke recurrence can be predicted by extra-focal findings of FIDCT. (author)

  14. Development of a new damage function model for power plants: Methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.I.; Hammitt, J.K.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Spengler, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent models have estimated the environmental impacts of power plants, but differences in assumptions and analytical methodologies have led to diverging findings. In this paper, the authors present a new damage function model that synthesizes previous efforts and refines components that have been associated with variations in impact estimates. Their model focuses on end-use emissions and quantified the direct human health impacts of criteria air pollutants. To compare their model to previous efforts and to evaluate potential policy applications, the authors assess the impacts of an oil and natural gas-fueled cogeneration power plant in Boston, MA. Impacts under baseline assumptions are estimated to be $0.007/kWh of electricity, $0.23/klb of steam, and $0.004/ton-h of chilled water (representing 2--9% of the market value of outputs). Impacts are largely related to ozone (48%) and particulate matter (42%). Addition of upstream emissions and nonpublic health impacts increases externalities by as much as 50%. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the importance of plant siting, meteorological conditions, epidemiological assumptions, and the monetary value placed on premature mortality as well as the potential influence of global warming. Comparative analyses demonstrate that their model provides reasonable impact estimates and would therefore be applicable in a broad range of policy settings

  15. Clinical studies of functional imaging of dynamic CT for chronic brain-damaged patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Haruo; Miyano, Satoshi [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The 311 brain-damaged patients, mostly of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) were examined by functional imaging to dynamic CT (FIDCT) at Tokyo Metropolitan Rehabilitation Hospital. The abnormal patterns of FIDCT were classified according to two categories, i.e. focal area where plain CT showed low density area (LDA), and extra-focal area where plain CT showed no abnormal findings. These patterns were diagnosed by using the two parameters, i.e. Corrected First Moment (CM) and Time to Peak (TP). Over 50% of the focal abnormal FIDCT revealed tha same area with LDA on plain CT. The extra-focal FIDCT showed various abnormal patterns, and only 11% of all the findings had no abnormalities. The correlation of the specific patterns of extra-focal FIDCT with the multiple CVD episodes was investigated, and the findings that had significant correlation were (a) delayed CM of bilateral white matter, (b) diffusely delayed TP of the affected hemisphere, and the patient group that showed no extra-focal abnormal FIDCT had significant low incidence of multiple CVD episodes. From these results, it is concluded that the high-risk group of stroke recurrence can be predicted by extra-focal findings of FIDCT. (author).

  16. Dancing on damaged chromatin. Functions of ATM and the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex in cellular responses to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Kenta; Ohara, Maki; Seki, Ryota; Tauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In order to preserve and protect genetic information, eukaryotic cells have developed a signaling or communications network to help the cell respond to DNA damage, and ATM and NBS1 are key players in this network. ATM is a protein kinase which is activated immediately after a DNA double strand break (DSB) is formed, and the resulting signal cascade generated in response to cellular DSBs is regulated by post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In addition, to ensure the efficient functioning of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, the highly ordered structure of eukaryotic chromatin must be appropriately altered to permit access of repair-related factors to DNA. These alterations are termed chromatin remodeling, and are executed by a specific remodeling complex in conjunction with histone modifications. Current advances in the molecular analysis of DNA damage responses have shown that the auto-phosphorylation of ATM and the interaction between ATM and NBS1 are key steps for ATM activation, and that the association of ATM and NBS1 is involved in chromatin remodeling. Identification of novel factors which function in ubiquitination (RNF8, Ubc13, Rap80, etc.) has also enabled us to understand more details of the early stages in DNA repair pathways which respond to DSBs. In this review, the focus is on the role of ATM and the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex in DSB response pathways, and their role in DSB repair and in the regulation of chromatin remodeling. (author)

  17. Cartilage damage and bone erosion are more prominent determinants of functional impairment in longstanding experimental arthritis than synovial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation of articular joints causing bone and cartilage destruction consequently leads to functional impairment or loss of mobility in affected joints from individuals affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Even successful treatment with complete resolution of synovial inflammatory processes does not lead to full reversal of joint functionality, pointing to the crucial contribution of irreversibly damaged structural components, such as bone and cartilage, to restricted joint mobility. In this context, we investigated the impact of the distinct components, including synovial inflammation, bone erosion or cartilage damage, as well as the effect of blocking tumor necrosis factor (TNF on functional impairment in human-TNF transgenic (hTNFtg mice, a chronic inflammatory erosive animal model of RA. We determined CatWalk-assisted gait profiles as objective quantitative measurements of functional impairment. We first determined body-weight-independent gait parameters, including maximum intensity, print length, print width and print area in wild-type mice. We observed early changes in those gait parameters in hTNFtg mice at week 5 – the first clinical signs of arthritis. Moreover, we found further gait changes during chronic disease development, indicating progressive functional impairment in hTNFtg mice. By investigating the association of gait parameters with inflammation-mediated joint pathologies at different time points of the disease course, we found a relationship between gait parameters and the extent of cartilage damage and bone erosions, but not with the extent of synovitis in this chronic model. Next, we observed a significant improvement of functional impairment upon blocking TNF, even at progressed stages of disease. However, blocking TNF did not restore full functionality owing to remaining subclinical inflammation and structural microdamage. In conclusion, CatWalk gait analysis provides a useful tool for quantitative

  18. Correlating optical damage threshold with intrinsic defect populations in fused silica as a function of heat treatment temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-04-03

    Here, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used for the production of fused silica optics in high-power laser applications. However, relatively little is known about the ultraviolet laser damage threshold of CVD films and how they relate to intrinsic defects produced during deposition. We present here a study relating structural and electronic defects in CVD films to 355 nm pulsed-laser damage threshold as a function of post-deposition annealing temperature (THT). Plasma-enhanced CVD based on SiH4/N2O under oxygen-rich conditions was used to deposit 1.5, 3.1 and 6.4 µm thick films on etched SiO2 substrates. Rapid annealing was performed using a scanned CO2 laser beam up to THT ~ 2100 K. The films were then characterized using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A gradual transition in the damage threshold of annealed films was observed for THT values up to 1600 K, correlating with a decrease in non-bridging silanol and oxygen deficient centres. An additional sharp transition in damage threshold also occurs at ~1850 K indicating substrate annealing. Based on our results, a mechanism for damage-related defect annealing is proposed, and the potential of using high-THT CVD SiO2 to mitigate optical damage is also discussed.

  19. Structural Damage Detection using Frequency Response Function Index and Surrogate Model Based on Optimized Extreme Learning Machine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghiasi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing surrogate models based on artificial intelligence methods for detecting structural damages has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent decades. In this study, a new kernel based on Littlewood-Paley Wavelet (LPW is proposed for Extreme Learning Machine (ELM algorithm to improve the accuracy of detecting multiple damages in structural systems.  ELM is used as metamodel (surrogate model of exact finite element analysis of structures in order to efficiently reduce the computational cost through updating process. In the proposed two-step method, first a damage index, based on Frequency Response Function (FRF of the structure, is used to identify the location of damages. In the second step, the severity of damages in identified elements is detected using ELM. In order to evaluate the efficacy of ELM, the results obtained from the proposed kernel were compared with other kernels proposed for ELM as well as Least Square Support Vector Machine algorithm. The solved numerical problems indicated that ELM algorithm accuracy in detecting structural damages is increased drastically in case of using LPW kernel.

  20. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to b...

  1. Functional analysis of molecular mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis, that are not mediated by DNA damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angermeier, Marita; Moertl, Simone

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-dose irradiation pose new challenges on the radiation protection efforts. Enhanced cellular radiation sensitivity is displayed by disturbed cellular reactions and resulting damage like cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as genetically determinate parameter for the individual radiation sensitivity. In the frame of the project the radiation-induced apoptosis was mechanistically investigated. Since ionizing radiation induced direct DNA damage and generates a reactive oxygen species, the main focus of the research was the differentiation and weighting of DNA damage mediated apoptosis and apoptosis caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  2. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD.

  3. Children's Moral Judgments as a Function of Intention, Damage, and an Actor's Physical Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suls, Jerry; Kalle, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines children's moral judgments of story characters who accidently harm themselves. Children in kindergarten and in grades 3 and 5 rated actors in stories which varied in terms of intention, damage, and harm to the actor. (SS)

  4. Oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue from patients with COPD is clustered in functionally significant sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor M Pastukh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Viktor M Pastukh1, Li Zhang2, Mykhaylo V Ruchko1, Olena Gorodnya1, Gina C Bardwell1, Rubin M Tuder2, Mark N Gillespie11Department of Pharmacology and Center for Lung Biology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL, USA; 2Program in Translational Lung Research, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Lung tissue from COPD patients displays oxidative DNA damage. The present study determined whether oxidative DNA damage was randomly distributed or whether it was localized in specific sequences in either the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes. The DNA damage-specific histone, gamma-H2AX, was detected immunohistochemically in alveolar wall cells in lung tissue from COPD patients but not control subjects. A PCR-based method was used to search for oxidized purine base products in selected 200 bp sequences in promoters and coding regions of the VEGF, TGF-β1, HO-1, Egr1, and β-actin genes while quantitative Southern blot analysis was used to detect oxidative damage to the mitochondrial genome in lung tissue from control subjects and COPD patients. Among the nuclear genes examined, oxidative damage was detected in only 1 sequence in lung tissue from COPD patients: the hypoxic response element (HRE of the VEGF promoter. The content of VEGF mRNA also was reduced in COPD lung tissue. Mitochondrial DNA content was unaltered in COPD lung tissue, but there was a substantial increase in mitochondrial DNA strand breaks and/or abasic sites. These findings show that oxidative DNA damage in COPD lungs is prominent in the HRE of the VEGF promoter and in the mitochondrial genome and raise the intriguing possibility that genome and sequence-specific oxidative DNA damage could contribute to transcriptional dysregulation and cell fate decisions in COPD.Keywords: DNA damage, VEGF hypoxic response element, mtDNA, COPD

  5. Radiation-induced DNA damage as a function of DNA hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarts, S.G.; Miao, L.; Wheeler, K.T.; Sevilla, M.D.; Becker, D.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced DNA damage is produced from the sum of the radicals generated by the direct ionization of the DNA (direct effect) and by the reactions of the DNA with free radicals formed in the surrounding environment (indirect effect). The indirect effect has been believed to be the predominant contributor to radiation-induced intracellular DNA damage, mainly as the result of reactions of bulk water radicals (e.g., OH·) with DNA. However, recent evidence suggests that DNA damage, derived from the irradiation of water molecules that are tightly bound in the hydration layer, may occur as the result of the transfer of electron-loss centers (e.g. holes) and electrons from these water molecules to the DNA. Since this mechanism for damaging DNA more closely parallels that of the direct effect, the irradiation of these tightly bound water molecules may contribute to a quasi-direct effect. These water molecules comprise a large fraction of the water surrounding intracellular DNA and could account for a significant proportion of intracellular radiation-induced DNA damage. Consequently, the authors have attempted to characterize this quasi-direct effect to determine: (1) the extent of the DNA hydration layer that is involved with this effect, and (2) what influence this effect has on the types and quantities of radiation-induced DNA damage

  6. Functional diversity of Csk, Chk, and Src SH2 domains due to a single residue variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetov, Marina K; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Ye, Guofeng; Kumar, Anil; Parang, Keykavous; Sun, Gongqin

    2005-07-08

    The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) family of protein tyrosine kinases contains two members: Csk and Csk homologous kinase (Chk). Both phosphorylate and inactivate Src family kinases. Recent reports suggest that the Src homology (SH) 2 domains of Csk and Chk may bind to different phosphoproteins, which provides a basis for different cellular functions for Csk and Chk. To verify and characterize such a functional divergence, we compared the binding properties of the Csk, Chk, and Src SH2 domains and investigated the structural basis for the functional divergence. First, the study demonstrated striking functional differences between the Csk and Chk SH2 domains and revealed functional similarities between the Chk and Src SH2 domains. Second, structural analysis and mutagenic studies revealed that the functional differences among the three SH2 domains were largely controlled by one residue, Glu127 in Csk, Ile167 in Chk, and Lys200 in Src. Mutating these residues in the Csk or Chk SH2 domain to the Src counterpart resulted in dramatic gain of function similar to Src SH2 domain, whereas mutating Lys200 in Src SH2 domain to Glu (the Csk counterpart) resulted in loss of Src SH2 function. Third, a single point mutation of E127K rendered Csk responsive to activation by a Src SH2 domain ligand. Finally, the optimal phosphopeptide sequence for the Chk SH2 domain was determined. These results provide a compelling explanation for the functional differences between two homologous protein tyrosine kinases and reveal a new structure-function relationship for the SH2 domains.

  7. The Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture: New Damage Functions from a Meta-Analsis and the GGCMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F. C.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Hertel, T. W.; Diaz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Substantial advances have been made in recent years in understanding the effects of climate change on agriculture, but this is not currently represented in economic models used to quantify the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, the science regarding climate change impacts on agriculture in these models dates to the early 1990s or before. In this paper we derive new economic damage functions for the agricultural sector based on two methods for aggregating current scientific understanding of the impacts of warming on yields. We first present a new meta-analysis based on a review of the agronomic literature performed for the IPCC 5th Assessment Report and compare results from this approach with findings from the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI). We find yield impacts implied by the meta-analysis are generally more negative than those from the GGCMI, particularly at higher latitudes, but show substantial agreement in many areas. We then use both yield products as input to the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) computable general equilibrium (CGE) model in order to estimate the welfare consequences of these yield shocks and to produce two new economic damage functions. These damage functions are consistently more negative than the current representation of agricultural damages in Integrated Asessment Models (IAMs), in some cases substantially so. Replacing the existing damage functions with those based on more recent science increases the social cost of carbon (SCC) by between 43% (GGCMI) and 143% (Meta-Analysis). In addition to presenting a new mutli-crop, multi-model gridded yield impact prouct that complements the GGCMI, this is also the first end-to-end study that directly links the biophysical impacts of climate change to the SCC, something we believe essential to improving the integrity of IAMs going forward.

  8. Projecting the risk of damage to reef-lined coasts due to intensified tropical cyclones and sea level rise in Palau to 2100

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Chuki; Kurihara, Haruko; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2017-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs), sea level rise (SLR), and storm surges cause major problems including beach erosion, saltwater intrusion into groundwater, and damage to infrastructure in coastal areas. The magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase as a consequence of future climate change and local factors. Upward reef growth has attracted attention for its role as a natural breakwater able to reduce the risks of natural disasters to coastal communities. However, projections of change ...

  9. Damage to photosystem II due to heat stress without light-driven electron flow: involvement of enhanced introduction of reducing power into thylakoid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Yoko; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kimura, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2012-08-01

    Under a moderately heat-stressed condition, the photosystems of higher plants are damaged in the dark more easily than they are in the presence of light. To obtain a better understanding of this heat-derived damage mechanism that occurs in the dark, we focused on the involvement of the light-independent electron flow that occurs at 40 °C during the damage. In various plant species, the maximal photochemical quantum yield of photosystem (PS) II (Fv/Fm) decreased as a result of heat treatment in the dark. In the case of wheat, the most sensitive plant species tested, both Fv/Fm and oxygen evolution rapidly decreased by heat treatment at 40 °C for 30 min in the dark. In the damage, specific degradation of D1 protein was involved, as shown by immunochemical analysis of major proteins in the photosystem. Because light canceled the damage to PSII, the light-driven electron flow may play a protective role against PSII damage without light. Light-independent incorporation of reducing power from stroma was enhanced at 40 °C but not below 35 °C. Arabidopsis mutants that have a deficit of enzymes which mediate the incorporation of stromal reducing power into thylakoid membranes were tolerant against heat treatment at 40 °C in the dark, suggesting that the reduction of the plastoquinone pool may be involved in the damage. In conclusion, the enhanced introduction of reducing power from stroma into thylakoid membranes that occurs around 40 °C causes over-reduction of plastoquinone, resulting in the damage to D1 protein under heat stress without linear electron flow.

  10. Influence of matrix nature on the functional efficacy of biomedical cell product for the regeneration of damaged liver (experimental model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A comparative analysis of the functional efficacy of biomedical cell products (BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver based on biopolymer scaffolded porous and hydrogel matrices was performed on the experimental model of acute liver failure. Materials and methods. Matrices allowed for clinical use were employed for BMCP in the form of a sponge made from biopolymer nanostructured composite material (BNCM based on a highly purified bacterial copolymers of poly (β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-oxyvalerate and polyethylene glycol and a hydrogel matrix from biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH. Cellular component of BMCP was represented by liver cells and multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells. The functional efficacy of BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver was evaluated on the experimental model of acute liver failure in Wistar rats (n = 40 via biochemical, morphological, and immunohistochemical methods. Results. When BMCP was implanted to regenerate the damaged liver on the basis of the scaffolded BNCM or hydrogel BMCH matrices, the lethality in rats with acute liver failure was absent; while in control it was 66.6%. Restoration of the activity of cytolytic enzyme levels and protein-synthetic liver function began on day 9 after modeling acute liver failure, in contrast to the control group, where recovery occurred only by days 18–21. Both matrices maintained the viability and functional activity of liver cells up to 90 days with the formation of blood vessels in BMCP. The obtained data confirm that scaffolded BNCM matrix and hydrogel BMCH matrix retain for a long time (up to 90 days the vital activity of the adherent cells in the BMCP composition, which allows using them to correct acute liver failure. At the same time, hydrogel matrix due to the presence of bioactive components contributes to the creation of the best conditions for adhesion and cell activity which accelerate the regeneration processes

  11. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McLellan, Tom M

    2014-05-01

    Protein supplements are frequently consumed by athletes and recreationally-active individuals, although the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is often based on marketing claims rather than evidence-based research. To provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of literature examining the hypothesis that protein supplements enhance recovery of muscle function and physical performance by attenuating muscle damage and soreness following a previous bout of exercise. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Inclusion criteria required studies to recruit healthy adults less than 50 years of age and to evaluate the effects of protein supplements alone or in combination with carbohydrate on performance metrics including time-to-exhaustion, time-trial or isometric or isokinetic muscle strength and markers of muscle damage and soreness. Twenty-seven articles were identified of which 18 dealt exclusively with ingestion of protein supplements to reduce muscle damage and soreness and improve recovery of muscle function following exercise, whereas the remaining 9 articles assessed muscle damage as well as performance metrics during single or repeat bouts of exercise. Papers were evaluated based on experimental design and examined for confounders that explain discrepancies between studies such as dietary control, training state of participants, sample size, direct or surrogate measures of muscle damage, and sensitivity of the performance metric. High quality and consistent data demonstrated there is no apparent relationship between recovery of muscle function and ratings of muscle soreness and surrogate markers of muscle damage when protein supplements are consumed prior to, during or after a bout of endurance or resistance exercise. There also appears to be insufficient experimental data

  12. Gain-of-function somatic mutations contribute to inflammation and blood vessel damage that lead to Alzheimer dementia: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2016-02-01

    Amyloid deposits are a characteristic feature of advanced Alzheimer dementia (AD), but whether they initiate the disease or are a consequence of it remains an unsettled question. To explore an alternative pathogenic mechanism, I propose that the triggering events that begin the pathogenic cascade are not amyloid deposits but damaged blood vessels caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to ischemia, amyloid accumulation, axonal degeneration, synaptic loss, and eventually irreversible neuronal cell death. Inflammation and blood vessel damage are well recognized complications of AD, but what causes them and why the cerebral microvasculature is affected have never been adequately addressed. Because heritable autosomal dominant mutations of NLRP3, APP, TREX1, NOTCH3, and Col4A1 are known to provoke inflammatory reactions and damage the brain in a wide variety of diseases, I propose that one or more low abundant, gain-of-function somatic mutations of the same 5 gene families damage the microvasculature of the brain that leads to dementia. This implies that the pathogenic triggers that lead to AD are derived not from external invaders or amyloid but from oxidative damage of our own genes. © FASEB.

  13. Variation in Differential and Total Cross Sections Due to Different Radial Wave Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W., Jr.; Greene, T.

    1976-01-01

    Three sets of analytical wave functions are used to calculate the Na (3s---3p) transition differential and total electron excitation cross sections by Born approximations. Results show expected large variations in values. (Author/CP)

  14. Analytical functions in non-canonical two dimensional algebras; Funzioni analitiche nelle algebre a due componenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, Francesco; Zampetti, Paolo [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Cannata, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale INFO; Nichelatti, Enrico [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-10-01

    Systems of two-dimensional hypercomplex numbers are usually studied in their canonical form, i.e. according to the multiplicative rule for the ``imaginary``versor i{sup 2} = {+-} 1, 0. In this report those systems for which i{sup 2} = {alpha} + {beta}i are studied and expressions are derived for functions given by series expansion as well as for some elementary functions. The results obtained for systems which can be decomposed are then extended to all systems.

  15. The relationship between theory of mind and the executive functions: Evidence from patients with frontal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Lo, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Kaw-Chen

    2017-01-01

    "Theory of mind" (ToM) refers to the ability to predict others' thoughts, intentions, beliefs, and feelings. Evidence from neuropsychology and functional imaging indicates that ToM is a domain-specific or modular architecture; however, research in development psychology has suggested that ToM is the full development of the executive functions in individuals. Therefore, the relationship between ToM and the executive functions needs to be clarified. Since the frontal lobe plays a critical role in the abilities of ToM and the executive functions, patients with frontal lobe damage were recruited for the present study. Assessments of ToM and the executive functions were performed on 23 patients with frontal lobe damage and 20 healthy controls. When controlling for the executive functions, significant differences between the patient and normal groups were found in the affective component of ToM, but not in the cognitive component. The present study suggests that in various social situations, executing ToM abilities requires logical reasoning processes provided by the executive functions. However, the reasoning processes of affective ToM are independent of executive functions.

  16. Calculation of damage function of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in irradiation facilities for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, F., E-mail: fernando.mota@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortiz, C.J., E-mail: christophe.ortiz@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vila, R., E-mail: rafael.vila@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casal, N., E-mail: natalia.casal@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García, A., E-mail: angela.garcia@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A., E-mail: Angel.ibarra@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    A rigorous material testing program is essential for the development of the nuclear fusion world program. In particular, it is very important to predict the generation of the displacement damage in materials, because the irradiation intensity expected in fusion conditions is such that the performance of materials and components under these extreme conditions is unknown. To study the damage produced by neutrons in materials of interest for fusion, a specific computational methodology was developed. Neutron fluxes expected in different irradiation facilities (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility [IFMIF] and DEMO-HCLL) and in different irradiation spots were obtained with particles transport codes (McDeLicious, MCNP). The energy differential cross sections of primary knock-on atoms were calculated using the NJOY code. Resulting data were input into the Monte Carlo code MARLOWE to calculate the corresponding displacements (i.e., interstitials (I) and vacancies (V)). However, the number of Frenkel pairs created during irradiation strongly depends on the recombination radius between interstitials and vacancies. This parameter corresponds to the minimum distance below which instantaneous recombination occurs. Mainly, the influence of such parameter on the damage function in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was assessed in this report. The displacements per atom values calculated as a function of the recombination radius considered are compared to experimental data to determine the most appropriate capture radius. In addition, the damage function and damage dose generated at different experimental irradiation facilities are compared with those expected in DEMO. The conclusion is that both IFMIF and TechnoFusión (future triple beam ion accelerator to emulate fusion neutron irradiation effects in materials) facilities are suited to perform relevant irradiation experiments for the design of DEMO.

  17. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in adulthood: fulfilment of classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, long-term outcomes and predictors of inactive disease, functional status and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ramos, Filipa; Eusébio, Mónica; M Martins, Fernando; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Furtado, Carolina; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Cordeiro, Inês; Ferreira, Joana; Cerqueira, Marcos; Figueira, Ricardo; Brito, Iva; Canhão, Helena; Santos, Maria José; Melo-Gomes, José A; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-01-01

    To determine how adult juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients fulfil classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, evaluate their outcomes and determine clinical predictors of inactive disease, functional status and damage. Patients with JIA registered on the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) older than 18 years and with more than 5 years of disease duration were included. Data regarding sociodemographic features, fulfilment of adult classification criteria, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index-articular (JADI-A) and Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index-extra-articular (JADI-E) damage index and disease activity were analysed. 426 patients were included. Most of patients with systemic JIA fulfilled criteria for Adult Still's disease. 95.6% of the patients with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarthritis and 57.1% of the patients with RF-negative polyarthritis matched criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 38.9% of the patients with extended oligoarthritis were classified as RA while 34.8% of the patients with persistent oligoarthritis were classified as spondyloarthritis. Patients with enthesitis-related arthritis fulfilled criteria for spondyloarthritis in 94.7%. Patients with psoriatic arthritis maintained this classification. Patients with inactive disease had lower disease duration, lower diagnosis delay and corticosteroids exposure. Longer disease duration was associated with higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E. Higher JADI-A was also associated with biological treatment and retirement due to JIA disability and higher JADI-E with corticosteroids exposure. Younger age at disease onset was predictive of higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E and decreased the chance of inactive disease. Most of the included patients fulfilled classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, maintain active disease and have functional impairment. Younger age at disease onset was predictive of higher disability and decreased the

  18. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Damage pattern as a function of radiation quality and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W; Jung, T; Frasch, G

    1999-01-01

    An understanding of damage pattern in critical cellular structures such as DNA is an important prerequisite for a mechanistic assessment of primary radiation damage, its possible repair, and the propagation of residual changes in somatic and germ cells as potential contributors to disease or ageing. Important quantitative insights have been made recently on the distribution in time and space of critical lesions from direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation on mammalian cells. When compared to damage from chemicals or from spontaneous degradation, e.g. depurination or base deamination in DNA, the potential of even low-LET radiation to create local hot spots of damage from single particle tracks is of utmost importance. This has important repercussions on inferences from critical biological effects at high dose and dose rate exposure situations to health risks at chronic, low-level exposures as experienced in environmental and controlled occupational settings. About 10,000 DNA lesions per human cell nucleus and day from spontaneous degradation and chemical attack cause no apparent effect, but a dose of 4 Gy translating into a similar number of direct and indirect DNA breaks induces acute lethality. Therefore, single lesions cannot explain the high efficiency of ionizing radiation in the induction of mutation, transformation and loss of proliferative capacity. Clustered damage leading to poorly repairable double-strand breaks or even more complex local DNA degradation, correlates better with fixed damage and critical biological endpoints. A comparison with other physical, chemical and biological agents indicates that ionizing radiation is indeed set apart from these by its unique micro- and nano-dosimetric traits. Only a few other agents such as bleomycin have a similar potential to cause complex damage from single events. However, in view of the multi-stage mechanism of carcinogenesis, it is still an open question whether dose-effect linearity for complex

  20. Characteristics of latent damage trails due to high energy 208Pb and 238U ions in CR-39 and muscovite mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chohan, A.S.; Akhtar, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the characteristics of latent damage trails produced by (a) 17.14 MeV/nucleon- 208 Pb ions in mica and CR-39 track detectors and (b) 13.7 MeV/nucleon- 238 U in CR-39 track detectors. The parameters studied include (a) V t , average etching velocity along the track, (b) thermal stability of the latent damage trails, (c) the total etchable ranges, and (d) V g the general etching velocity of CR-39 track detectors previously annealed at different temperatures. It has been observed that the latent damage trails in CR-39 are greatly affected at temperatures around 200 0 C in CR-39 track detectors. The general etching velocity of a CR-39 detector has been found to increase with increasing annealing temperatures. (author)

  1. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    Sativum: The flavonoids in parsley -- especially luteolin -- have been shown to function as antioxidants that combine with highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules (oxygen radicals) and help prevent oxidative damage. In addition to its volatile oils and flavonoids, parsley is an excellent source of vitamin C and a good source of vitamin A (notably through its concentration of the pro-vitamin A carotenoids, beta-carotene). Vitamin C has many different functions. It is the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant, rendering harmless dangerous free radicals in all water soluble areas of the body. Beta carotene, another important antioxidant, works in the fat soluble areas of the body. (Bate-Smith et al 1962).

  2. Computational Micromechanics of Damage Initiation and Growth in Functionally Graded Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Gross, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    composites with metal matrix and ceramic inclusions, a series of numerical mesomechanical experiments has been carried out. The tensile stress-strain curves, fraction of failed particles versus applied strain curves, and stress and damage distributions at different stages of loading were determined...

  3. BDNF Regains Function in Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Deficits Caused by Diencephalic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Lindsey C.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage…

  4. Damage functions for the vulnerability assessment of masonry buildings subjected to tunneling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, C.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Rots, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new framework for the assessment of potential damage caused by tunneling-induced settlement to surface masonry buildings. Finite element models in two and three dimensions, validated through comparison with experimental results and field observations, are used to investigate

  5. Arabidopsis RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED directly regulates DNA damage responses through functions beyond cell cycle control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horvath, B.M.; Kourová, Hana; Nagy, S.; Nemeth, E.; Magyar, Z.; Papdi, C.; Ahmad, Z.; Sanchez-Perez, G.F.; Perilli, S.; Blilou, I.; Pettko-Szandtner, A.; Darula, Z.; Meszaros, T.; Binarová, Pavla; Bogre, L.; Scheres, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2017), s. 1261-1278 ISSN 0261-4189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11657S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arabidopsis * BRCA1 * DNA damage response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 9.792, year: 2016

  6. Effect of delayed onset prostacyclin on markers of endothelial function and damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Mikkel; Rasmussen, Rune; Stensballe, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological emergency. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit is one of the main causes of poor outcome after SAH and is probably caused, at least in part, by cerebral vasospasm. The pathophysiology of this is multifaceted, but endothelial damage...

  7. Functional Capacity of Patients with Pacemaker Due to Isolated Congenital Atrioventricular Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Júnior, Roberto Márcio; da Silva, Kátia Regina; Kawauchi, Tatiana Satie; Alves, Lucas Bassolli de Oliveira; Crevelari, Elizabeth Sartori; Martinelli, Martino; Costa, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Isolated congenital atrioventricular block (CAVB) is a rare condition with multiple clinical outcomes. Ventricular remodeling can occur in approximately 10% of the patients after pacemaker (PM) implantation. Objectives To assess the functional capacity of children and young adults with isolated CAVB and chronic pacing of the right ventricle (RV) and evaluate its correlation with predictors of ventricular remodeling. Methods This cross-sectional study used a cohort of patients with isolated CAVB and RV pacing for over a year. The subjects underwent clinical and echocardiographic evaluation. Functional capacity was assessed using the six-minute walk test. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results A total of 61 individuals were evaluated between March 2010 and December 2013, of which 67.2% were women, aged between 7 and 41 years, who were using PMs for 13.5 ± 6.3 years. The percentage of ventricular pacing was 97.9 ± 4.1%, and the duration of the paced QRS complex was 153.7 ± 19.1 ms. Majority of the subjects (95.1%) were asymptomatic and did not use any medication. The mean distance walked was 546.9 ± 76.2 meters and was strongly correlated with the predicted distance (r = 0.907, p = 0.001) but not with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. Conclusions The functional capacity of isolated CAVB patients with chronic RV pacing was satisfactory but did not correlate with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. PMID:25387405

  8. Functional paraoxonase 1 variants modify the risk of Parkinson's disease due to organophosphate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Rhodes, Shannon L; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2013-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that carriers of the "slower metabolizer" MM genotype of paraoxonase (PON1) who were also exposed to ambient organophosphate (OP) pesticides at their residences were at increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, with a larger sample size, we extend our previous investigation to consider additional sources of ambient exposure and examined two additional functional PON1 variants. From 2001 to 2011, we enrolled incident cases of idiopathic PD and population controls living in central California. We genotyped three well-known functional PON1 SNPs: two exonic polymorphisms (PON1L55M and PON1Q192R) and the promoter region variant (PON1C-108T). Ambient exposures to diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion at residential and workplace addresses were assessed using a validated geographic information system-based model incorporating records of agricultural pesticide applications in California. The odds ratio (OR) for Caucasians exposed to OPs at either residential or workplace addresses varied by PON1 genotype; for exposed carriers of the "faster" metabolizer genotypes, ML or LL, we estimated lower odds ratios (range, 1.20-1.39) than for exposed carriers of the "slower" metabolizer genotype MM (range, 1.78-2.45) relative to unexposed carriers of the faster genotypes. We observed similarly increased ORs for exposure across PON1Q192R genotypes, but no differences across PON1C-108T genotypes. The largest ORs were estimated for exposed carriers of both PON1192QQ and PON155MM (OR range, 2.84-3.57). Several functional PON1 variants may act together to modify PD risk for ambient OP exposures. While either PON1L55M or PON1Q192R may be sufficient to identify increased susceptibility, carriers of both slow metabolizer variants seem most susceptible to OP exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyanosis and Stroke due to Functional Cor Triatriatum Dexter in a Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Rachel L; Zaban, Nicholas B; Schamberger, Marcus S; Ho, Chang Y; Mietzsch, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Small remnants of the right valve of the sinus venosus are commonly found in adults, but the incidence and risk associated with these embryonic remnants in neonates are not well studied. The following report describes a cyanotic neonate with a large Eustachian valve remnant creating a functional cor triatriatum dexter who was initially diagnosed with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. The cyanosis in this infant improved over the first postnatal week with conservative management, but she suffered multifocal subcortical stroke, likely related to her intracardiac shunt. The clinical presentation and questions regarding long-term management of this rare diagnosis are explored. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, F.; Unterholzner, S.; Diebold, J.; Knesewitsch, P.; Hahn, K.; Spitzweg, C.

    2006-01-01

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been characterized to mediate the active transport of iodide not only in the thyroid gland but also in various non-thyroidal tissues, including lactating mammary gland and the majority of breast cancers, thereby offering the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine application in breast cancer. In this report, we present a 57-year-old patient with multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, who showed focal radioiodine accumulation in a lesion in the right breast on a posttherapy 131 I scan following radioiodine therapy. CT and MR-mammography showed a focal solid lesion in the right breast suggestive of a fibroadenoma, which was confirmed by histological examination. Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using a human NIS antibody demonstrated NIS-specific immunoreactivity confined to epithelial cells of mammary ducts. In conclusion, in a thyroid cancer patient we identified a benign fibroadenoma of the breast expressing high levels of functionally active NIS protein as underlying cause of focal mammary radioiodine accumulation on a posttherapy 131 I scan. These data show for the first time that functional NIS expression is not restricted to lactating mammary gland and malignant breast tissue, but can also be detected in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomata of the breast

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of radiation-induced renal damage; Funktionelle MRT der Niere zur Erfassung strahleninduzierter Nierenschaedigungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, S.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Michaely, H.J. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany); Boda-Heggemann, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The diagnosis of radiation-induced (especially chronic) renal alterations/damage is difficult and currently relies primarily on clinical evaluation. The importance of renal diagnostic evaluation will increase continuously due to the increasing number of long-term survivors after radiotherapy. This article evaluates the potentia diagnostic contribution of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a focus on functional MRI. The following functional MRI approaches are briefly presented and evaluated: blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging (BOLD), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion measurements and {sup 23}Na imaging. In summary, only DWI and contrast-enhanced MR perfusion currently seem to be suitable approaches for a broader, clinical implementation. However, up to now valid data from larger patient studies are lacking for both techniques in regard to radiation-induced renal alterations. The BOLD and {sup 23}Na imaging procedures have a huge potential but are currently neither sufficiently evaluated with regard to radiation-induced renal alterations nor technically simple and reliable for implementation into the clinical routine. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnostik strahleninduzierter, insbesondere chronischer Schaedigungen der Niere ist nach wie vor schwierig und beruht primaer auf der klinischen Beurteilung. Durch die zunehmende Anzahl von Langzeitueberlebenden nach einer Strahlentherapie wird die Bedeutung dieser Diagnostik jedoch weiter zunehmen. In diesem Beitrag wird der Frage nachgegangen, in wieweit hierzu die MRT-Bildgebung und hier besonders die funktionellen Bildgebungsmodalitaeten ihren Beitrag leisten koennen. Die folgenden Verfahren werden kurz vorgestellt und bewertet: die Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-Bildgebung (BOLD), die diffusionsgewichtete Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI) bzw. das ''diffusion tensor imaging'' (DTI), die MR-Perfusionsmessungen, und

  12. Modelling and Order of Acoustic Transfer Functions Due to Reflections from Augmented Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemer de Vries

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the sound reflections from real physical objects are much more complicated than what usually is and can be modelled by room acoustics modelling software. The main reason for this limitation is the level of detail inherent in the physical object in terms of its geometrical and acoustic properties. In the present paper, the complexity of the sound reflections from a corridor wall is investigated by modelling the corresponding acoustic transfer functions at several receiver positions in front of the wall. The complexity for different wall configurations has been examined and the changes have been achieved by altering its acoustic image. The results show that for a homogenous flat wall, the complexity is significant and for a wall including various smaller objects, the complexity is highly dependent on the position of the receiver with respect to the objects.

  13. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea due to increased CRH tone in melanocortin receptor 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Yoda, Tetsuya; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Chida, Dai

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to chronic stressors results in dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and a disruption in reproduction. CRH, the principal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis induces the secretion of ACTH from the pituitary, which stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis via the specific cell-surface melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R). Previously, we demonstrated that MC2R(-/-) mice had undetectable levels of corticosterone despite high ACTH levels. Here, we evaluated the reproductive functions of female MC2R(-/-) mice and analyzed the mechanism of the disrupted cyclicity of these mice. The expression of CRH in the paraventricular nucleus was significantly increased in MC2R(-/-) mice under nonstressed conditions. Although MC2R(-/-) females were fertile, they showed a prolonged estrous cycle. After hormonal stimulation, MC2R(-/-) females produced nearly-normal numbers of eggs, but slightly less than MC2R(+/-) females, and showed near-normal ovarian histology. During diestrus, the number of GnRH-positive cells in the medial preoptic area was significantly reduced in MC2R(-/-) females. CRH type 1 receptor antagonist restored estrous cyclicity in MC2R(-/-) females. Kisspeptin-positive areas in the arcuate nucleus were comparable, whereas kisspeptin-positive areas in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus in MC2R(-/-) females were significantly reduced compared with MC2R(+/-) females, suggesting that arcuate nucleus kisspeptin is not involved, but anteroventral periventricular nucleus kisspeptin may be involved, in the maintenance of estrous cyclicity. Our findings show that high levels of hypothalamic CRH disturb estrous cyclicity in the female animals and that the MC2R(-/-) female is a unique animal model of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  14. Human DNA-Damage-Inducible 2 Protein Is Structurally and Functionally Distinct from Its Yeast Ortholog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sivá, Monika; Svoboda, Michal; Veverka, Václav; Trempe, J. F.; Hofmann, K.; Kožíšek, Milan; Hexnerová, Rozálie; Sedlák, František; Belza, Jan; Brynda, Jiří; Šácha, Pavel; Hubálek, Martin; Starková, Jana; Flaisigová, Iva; Konvalinka, Jan; Grantz Šašková, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Jul 27 (2016), č. článku 30443. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human DNA-damage-inducible 2 protein * proteasome * ubiquitin * retroviral protease-like domain Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep30443

  15. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  16. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during midloop operation due to loss of residual heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    1995-01-01

    The core damage frequency caused by loss of residual heat removal (RHR) events was assessed during midloop operation of a Westinghouse-designed three-loop pressurized water reactor. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance) and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events were identified and human error probabilities were quantified using the human cognitive reliability (HCR) and the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) models. The results showed that the core damage frequency caused by loss of RHR events during midloop operation was 3.4 x 10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering midloop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e., decay heat removal through the steam generator secondary side, also plays an important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events during midloop operation

  17. Impact of climate change, seedling type and provenance on the risk of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Sweden due to early summer frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langvall, Ola (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Forest Research Station, Lammhult (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A model including site-specific microclimate-affecting properties of a forest regeneration area together with seedling characteristics was used to evaluate the accumulated risk of frost damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Climate change in Sweden was simulated on the basis of the regional climate model RCA3. The daily average temperature, the driving factor for bud burst in the model, was adjusted using the difference between the mean of the climate model data for the years 1961-1990 and 2036-2065. The model was run for a highly frost prone, clear-cut site in which bare-rooted Norway spruce seedlings of mid-Swedish provenance were planted. Alternate runs were conducted with data for containerized seedlings and seedlings of Belarusian origin. The study showed that bud burst will occur at earlier dates throughout Sweden in the period 2036-2065 if the climate changes according to either of the climate scenarios examined, compared to the reference period 1961-1990. Furthermore, the risk of damage to Norway spruce seedlings as a result of frost events during summer will increase in southern Sweden and be unaffected or decrease in northern Sweden. The risk of frost damage was exacerbated in containerized seedlings, while the risk was lower for the seedlings of Belarusian provenance when compared with bare-rooted seedlings or seedlings of mid-Swedish origin

  18. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  19. Point spread function due to multiple scattering of light in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pękala, J.; Wilczyński, H.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric scattering of light has a significant influence on the results of optical observations of air showers. It causes attenuation of direct light from the shower, but also contributes a delayed signal to the observed light. The scattering of light therefore should be accounted for, both in simulations of air shower detection and reconstruction of observed events. In this work a Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering of light has been used to determine the contribution of the scattered light in observations of a point source of light. Results of the simulations and a parameterization of the angular distribution of the scattered light contribution to the observed signal (the point spread function) are presented. -- Author-Highlights: •Analysis of atmospheric scattering of light from an isotropic point source. •Different geometries and atmospheric conditions were investigated. •A parameterization of scattered light distribution has been developed. •The parameterization allows one to easily account for the light scattering in air. •The results will be useful in analyses of observations of extensive air shower

  20. Source biases in midlatitude magnetotelluric transfer functions due to Pc3-4 geomagnetic pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method for imaging the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth is based on the assumption that source magnetic fields can be considered quasi-uniform, such that the spatial scale of the inducing source is much larger than the intrinsic length scale of the electromagnetic induction process (the skin depth). Here, we show using EarthScope MT data that short spatial scale source magnetic fields from geomagnetic pulsations (Pc's) can violate this fundamental assumption. Over resistive regions of the Earth, the skin depth can be comparable to the short meridional range of Pc3-4 disturbances that are generated by geomagnetic field-line resonances (FLRs). In such cases, Pc's can introduce narrow-band bias in MT transfer function estimates at FLR eigenperiods ( 10-100 s). Although it appears unlikely that these biases will be a significant problem for data inversions, further study is necessary to understand the conditions under which they may distort inverse solutions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Structural changes in PVDF fibers due to electrospinning and its effect on biological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaraju, Sita M; Wu, Siliang; Jaffe, Michael; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) is being investigated as a potential scaffold for bone tissue engineering because of its proven biocompatibility and piezoelectric property, wherein it can generate electrical activity when mechanically deformed. In this study, PVDF scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning using different voltages (12–30 kV), evaluated for the presence of the piezoelectric β-crystal phase and its effect on biological function. Electrospun PVDF was compared with unprocessed/raw PVDF, films and melt-spun fibers for the presence of the piezoelectric β-phase using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on scaffolds electrospun at 12 and 25 kV (PVDF-12 kV and PVDF-25 kV, respectively) and compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Electrospinning PVDF resulted in the formation of the piezoelectric β-phase with the highest β-phase fraction of 72% for electrospun PVDF at 25 kV. MSCs cultured on both the scaffolds were well attached as indicated by a spread morphology. Cells on PVDF-25 kV scaffolds had the greatest alkaline phosphatase activity and early mineralization by day 10 as compared to TCP and PVDF-12 kV. The results demonstrate the potential for the use of PVDF scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  2. Choosing the function of mechanical properties of grounds and rock formations due to their heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Irina; Agakhanov, Murad

    2018-03-01

    The development of computing techniques to analyze underground structures, buildings in high-rise construction that would fully take account of the conditions of their design and operation, as well as the real material properties, is one of the important trends in structural mechanics. For the territory in high-rise construction it is necessary to monitor the deformations of the soil surface. When high-rise construction is recommended to take into account the rheological properties and temperature deformations of the soil, the effect of temperature on the mechanical characteristics of the surrounding massif. Similar tasks also arise in the creation and operation of underground parts of high-rise construction, which are used for various purposes. These parts of the structures are surrounded by rock massifs of various materials. The actual mechanical characteristics of such materials must be taken into account. The objective property of nearly all materials is their non-homogeneity, both natural and technological. The work addresses the matters of building nonhomogeneous media initial models based on the experimental evidence. This made it possible to approximate real dependencies and obtain the appropriate functions in a simple and convenient way.

  3. High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Chan; Zhou, Ronghua; Qiu, Yanhua; Luo, Ming; Tan, Zhaoxia; Li, Shen; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Wentao; Liu, Jiaxin; Yang, Chengmin; Liu, Jin; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb), a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v) provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v) did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA) formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(P)H oxidase activity and subunits expression, including gp91(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(P)H oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction.

  4. High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb, a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC, can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(PH oxidase activity and subunits expression, including gp91phox, p47phox, p67phox, and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(PH oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Cerebral blood flow and liver function in patients with encephalopathy due to acute and chronic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T; Schroeder, T; Ranek, L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in hepatic encephalopathy, to ascertain whether this was related to the changes in liver function and whether these changes gave any prognostic information. CBF, determined by the intravenous xenon-133 method......, and liver functions, assessed by the prothrombin index, bilirubin concentration, and the galactose elimination capacity, were studied in patients with acute fulminant liver failure and in patients with encephalopathy due to chronic liver diseases--that is, cirrhosis of various etiologies. The CBF range...

  6. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  7. Developmental stage- and DNA damage-specific functions of C. elegans FANCD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyong Yun; Yang, Insil; Park, Jung-Eun; Baek, Ok-Ryun; Chung, Kee Yang; Koo, Hyeon-Sook

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we set out to investigate the role of Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 protein (FANCD2) in developmental stage-specific DNA damage responses in Caenorhabditis elegans. A mutant C. elegans strain containing a deletion in the gene encoding the FANCD2 homolog, FCD-2, exhibited egg-laying defects, precocious oogenesis, and partial defects in fertilization. The mutant strain also had a lower hatching rate than the wild-type after γ-irradiation of embryos, but not after the irradiation of pachytene stage germ cells. This mutation sensitized pachytene stage germ cells to the genotoxic effects of photoactivated psoralen, as seen by a greatly reduced hatching rate and increased chromosomal aberrations. This mutation also enhanced physiological M-phase arrest and apoptosis. Taken together, our data reveal that the C. elegans FANCD2 homolog participates in the repair of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA crosslinks, not only in proliferating cells but also in pachytene stage cells, and it may have an additional role in double-stranded DNA break repair during embryogenesis

  8. Improved split renal function after percutaneous nephrostomy in young adults with severe hydronephrosis due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Zhang, Qing; Ji, Changwei; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Liu, Guangxiang; Zhang, Shun; Li, Xiaogong; Lian, Huibo; Zhang, Gutian; Guo, Hongqian

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated percutaneous nephrostomy for adult kidneys with severe hydronephrosis due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction and less than 10% split renal function. In this retrospective analysis we included patients who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy for unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction of the kidneys with hydronephrosis and less than 10% split renal function at our hospital between May 2009 and January 2012. Adults (age 18 years or greater) were divided into those 35 years or younger (young adults) and older than 35 years (older adults). The percutaneous nephrostomy remained in situ a mean ± SD of 6.62 ± 2.55 weeks and patients underwent repeat renography before pyeloplasty. When there was no significant improvement in split renal function (10% or greater) and drainage (greater than 400 ml per day), nephrectomy was performed. Otherwise pyeloplasty was performed. Patients were followed by renography, ultrasound and contrast computerized tomography at 3 and 6 months, at 1 year and annually thereafter. Of 53 patients 30 (56.6%) showed improvement after percutaneous nephrostomy drainage and urine output greater than 400 ml per day with percutaneous nephrostomy. Pyeloplasty was then performed. Of 29 young adults 24 (82.8%) showed improved split renal function vs 6 of 24 older adults (25%). Nephrectomy of the other 23 kidneys was performed. At a mean followup of 19.27 ± 7.82 months (range 12 to 36), no patient showed hypertension or urinary tract infection. Split renal function detected by renography may not accurately predict recovered, poorly functioning kidneys, especially in young adults. First observing the recoverability of hydronephrotic kidneys by percutaneous nephrostomy drainage and then preserving select kidneys may be an effective method to manage poorly functioning kidneys due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. A calculation of the physical parameters responsible for the enhancement of radiation damage due to the incorporation of Br/I atoms into the DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that when analogs of thymidine containing iodine or bromine are incorporated into the DNA of irradiated cells there is a decrease of the D 0 . Three mechanisms for this effect have been discussed: (a) photoactivation of the Br/I atom and the production of Auger electrons, (b) creation of highly reactive uracil radicals by the interaction of hydrated electrons with BrUdR/IUdR, leading to SSB, and (c) interference with repair or the fixation of the damage by the presence of the Br/I atoms. Experiments to investigate photoactivation of the Br/I atoms will include all three, so that knowledge of the relative size of each contribution is useful. The first process is reasonably well understood and here the second process is examined. It is assumed that the incorporated analogs only produce radicals if they are present in a region of DNA containing energy depositions. An SSB produced by this radical can combine with a nearby SSB produced by electron damage to give a DSB, thus increasing the yield of DSB compared to the yield without the analog present. The increased yields at various levels of Br/I incorporation are compared to experiment for different models of radical action

  10. Laser-induced damage of fused silica optics at 355 nm due to backward stimulated Brillouin scattering: experimental and theoretical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaignère, Laurent; Gaudfrin, Kévin; Donval, Thierry; Natoli, Jeanyves; Sajer, Jean-Michel; Penninckx, Denis; Courchinoux, Roger; Diaz, Romain

    2018-04-30

    Forward pump pulses with nanosecond duration are able to generate an acoustic wave via electrostriction through a few centimeters of bulk silica. Part of the incident energy is then scattered back on this sound wave, creating a backward Stokes pulse. This phenomenon known as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) might induce first energy-loss, variable change of the temporal waveform depending on the location in the spatial profile making accurate metrology impossible, and moreover it might also initiate front surface damage making the optics unusable. Experiments performed on thick fused silica optics at 355 nm with single longitudinal mode pulses allowed us to detect, observe and quantify these backward pulses. Experimental results are first compared to theoretical calculations in order to strengthen our confidence in metrology. On this basis a phase-modulator has been implemented on the continuous-wave seeders of the lasers leading to pulses with a wide spectrum that suppress SBS and do not exhibit temporal overshoots that also reduce Kerr effects. The developed set-ups are used to check the reduction of the backward stimulated Brillouin scattering and they allow measuring with accuracy the rear surface damage of thick fused silica optics.

  11. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Catherine R; McNamara, Anne V; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Nelson, David E; White, Mike R; Watson, Alastair J M; Jenkins, John R

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage. Importantly we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition results in an increased topoiosmerase II activity but not degradation of topoisomerase II and it is this, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison that causes the increase in cell death. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of action where the inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsp90-topoisomerase II interaction leading to an increase in and activation of unbound topoisomerase II, which, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison leads to the formation of an increased number of cleavable complexes ultimately resulting in rise in DNA damage and a subsequent increase cell death.

  12. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Rosilla F.; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially media...

  13. Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Leads to Persistent Inflammation and Tissue Damage Following Uveitis Due to Reduced Levels of Ciliary Body Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU in diabetic streptozotocin (STZ-hyperglycemic rats. STZ-hyperglycemic rats had impaired levels of the enzyme HO-1 within the ciliary bodies if compared with the nondiabetic rats. STZ-hyperglycemic rats also predisposed the eye to produce high levels of both the cytokines IL-1 β and CXCL8. Subsequent EIU further and significantly P<.01 increased the cytokines production, an effect partly prevented by hemin treatment. Most importantly, hemin, an inducer of heme oxygenase expression and activity, recovered the huge number of infiltrated polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMN within the ciliary bodies associated with STZ-hyperglycemic state and EIU damage. Impairment of the stress-sensitive enzyme HO-1 in STZ-hyperglycemic rats increases and prolongs the inflammatory response to EIU.

  14. Functional link between DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation by ATM in response to a histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Soo

    2007-09-01

    Mutations in the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene, which encodes a 370 kd protein with a kinase catalytic domain, predisposes people to cancers, and these mutations are also linked to ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The histone acetylaion/deacetylation- dependent chromatin remodeling can activate the ATM kinase-mediated DNA damage signal pathway (in an accompanying work, Lee, 2007). This has led us to study whether this modification can impinge on the ATM-mediated DNA damage response via transcriptional modulation in order to understand the function of ATM in the regulation of gene transcription. To identify the genes whose expression is regulated by ATM in response to histone deaceylase (HDAC) inhibition, we performed an analysis of oligonucleotide microarrays with using the appropriate cell lines, isogenic A-T (ATM(-)) and control (ATM(+)) cells, following treatment with a HDAC inhibitor TSA. Treatment with TSA reprograms the differential gene expression profile in response to HDAC inhibition in ATM(-) cells and ATM(+) cells. We analyzed the genes that are regulated by TSA in the ATM-dependent manner, and we classified these genes into different functional categories, including those involved in cell cycle/DNA replication, DNA repair, apoptosis, growth/differentiation, cell- cell adhesion, signal transduction, metabolism and transcription. We found that while some genes are regulated by TSA without regard to ATM, the patterns of gene regulation are differentially regulated in an ATM-dependent manner. Taken together, these finding indicate that ATM can regulate the transcription of genes that play critical roles in the molecular response to DNA damage, and this response is modulated through an altered HDAC inhibition-mediated gene expression.

  15. High dimensional ICA analysis detects within-network functional connectivity damage of default mode and sensory motor networks in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottavia eDipasquale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High dimensional independent component analysis (ICA, compared to low dimensional ICA, allows performing a detailed parcellation of the resting state networks. The purpose of this study was to give further insight into functional connectivity (FC in Alzheimer’s disease (AD using high dimensional ICA. For this reason, we performed both low and high dimensional ICA analyses of resting state fMRI (rfMRI data of 20 healthy controls and 21 AD patients, focusing on the primarily altered default mode network (DMN and exploring the sensory motor network (SMN. As expected, results obtained at low dimensionality were in line with previous literature. Moreover, high dimensional results allowed us to observe either the presence of within-network disconnections and FC damage confined to some of the resting state sub-networks. Due to the higher sensitivity of the high dimensional ICA analysis, our results suggest that high-dimensional decomposition in sub-networks is very promising to better localize FC alterations in AD and that FC damage is not confined to the default mode network.

  16. The effects of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals on chondrocyte viability and function: implications for development of cartilage damage in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Gamble, Gregory D; Dray, Michael; Pitto, Rocco; Bentley, Jarome; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Cartilage damage is frequently observed in advanced destructive gout. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on chondrocyte viability and function. The alamarBlue assay and flow cytometry were used to assess the viability of primary human chondrocytes and cartilage explants following culture with MSU crystals. The number of dead chondrocytes in cartilage explants cultured with MSU crystals was quantified. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of chondrocytic genes. The histological appearance of cartilage in joints affected by gout was also examined. MSU crystals rapidly reduced primary human chondrocyte and cartilage explant viability in a dose-dependent manner (p gout, normal cartilage architecture was lost, with empty chondrocyte lacunae observed. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on chondrocyte viability and function. Interactions between MSU crystals and chondrocytes may contribute to cartilage damage in gout through reduction of chondrocyte viability and promotion of a catabolic state.

  17. Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase is Involved in the Repair of DNA Damage Due to Sulfur Mustard by a Mechanism Other Than DNA Ligase I Activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhat, K. Ramachandra; Benton, Betty J; Ray, Radharaman

    2004-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) modulates several cellular functional proteins by a mechanism in which the proteins are poly-ADP-ribosylated by transferring the ADP-ribose moieties from the enzyme substrate NAD+ to the proteins...

  18. Blockade of cannabinoid CB receptor function protects against in vivo disseminating brain damage following NMDA-induced excitotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.H.; Ramos, J.A.; Fernández-Ruiz, J.

    2002-01-01

    -induced excitotoxic damage in the ipsilateral forebrain was not influenced by agonist-stimulated CB receptor function. In contrast, blockade of CB, but not CB, receptor activity evoked a robust neuroprotective response by reducing the infarct area and the number of cortical degenerating neurons. These results suggest...... receptor function on NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Neonatal (6-day-old) rat pups received a systemic injection of a mixed CB/CB receptor agonist (WIN55,212-2) or their respective antagonists (SR141716A for CB and SR144528 for CB) prior to an unilateral intrastriatal microinjection of NMDA. The NMDA...... a critical involvement of CB receptor tonus on neuronal survival following NMDA receptor-induced excitotoxicity in vivo....

  19. Comparison of the predictions of the LQ and CRE models for normal tissue damage due to biologically targeted radiotherapy with exponentially decaying dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, J.A.; West of Schotland Health Boards, Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    For biologically targeted radiotherapy organ dose rates may be complex functions of time, related to the biodistribution kinetics of the delivery vehicle and radiolabel. The simples situation is where dose rates are exponentially decaying functions of time. Two normal tissue isoeffect models enable the effects of exponentially decaying dose rates to be addressed. These are the extension of the linear-quadratic model and the cumulative radiation effect model. This communication will compare the predictions of these models. (author). 14 refs.; 1 fig

  20. Water pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; Lentini, Marco; Conte, Barbara; Esposito, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution. As control, some specimens were cultured in vitro in Cd- and Pb-added media, at the same pollutants' levels as measured in the most polluted site. P. neesiana cell ultrastructure was modified and severe alterations were observed in chloroplasts from samples exposed in the most polluted site, and Cd- and Pb-cultured samples. Concurrently, a strong increase in the occurrence of Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) was detected in gametophytes following the pollution gradient. In conclusion, ultrastructural damages can be directly related to HSP 70 occurrence in liverwort tissues, and proportional to the degree of pollution present in the river; thus our study suggests P. neesiana as an affordable bioindicator of freshwaters pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Rosilla F; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia.

  2. Assessment of Brain Damage and Plasticity in the Visual System Due to Early Occipital Lesion: Comparison of FDG-PET with Diffusion MRI Tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-won; Tiwari, Vijay N.; Shin, Joseph; Chugani, Harry T.; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the relation between glucose metabolic changes of the primary visual cortex, structural abnormalities of the corresponding visual tracts, and visual symptoms in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Materials and Methods In 10 children with unilateral SWS (ages 1.5–5.5 years), a region-of-interest analysis was applied in the bilateral medial occipital cortex on positron emission tomography (PET) and used to track diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) streamlines corresponding to the central visual pathway. Normalized streamline volumes of individual SWS patients were compared with values from age-matched control groups as well as correlated with normalized glucose uptakes and visual field deficit. Results Lower glucose uptake and lower corresponding streamline volumes were detected in the affected occipital lobe in 9/10 patients, as compared to the contralateral side. Seven of these 9 patients had visual field deficit and normal or decreased streamline volumes on the unaffected side. The two other children had no visual symptoms and showed high contralateral visual streamline volumes. There was a positive correlation between the normalized ratios on DWI and PET, indicating that lower glucose metabolism was associated with lower streamline volume in the affected hemisphere (R = 0.70, P = 0.024). Conclusion We demonstrated that 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET combined with DWI tractography can detect both brain damage on the side of the lesion and contralateral plasticity in children with early occipital lesions. PMID:24391057

  3. PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN NEGARA TERHADAP KERUGIAN DAN KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT KEGIATAN EKSPOR IMPOR LIMBAH 83 (The State Responsibilities toward Environmental Damages due to Hazardous Wastes Export-Import Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Bilo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi dan menganalisis fenomena legal dan praktek hukum yang mengatur pergerakan lintas batas B3 dan limbah 83. Penelitian ini mengkombinasikan pendekatan legal dan normatif. Informasi diinterpretasi dengan menggunakan metode Juridical-analytical dan evaluative-explanatory. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa fihak-fihak yang terlibat dalam pengeluaran limbah B3 adalah bertanggung jawab baik secara individual maupun kolektif untuk memberikan kompensasi kerusakan lingkungan yang diderita oleh fihak ketiga. Prinsip ini didasarkan pada hukum publik internasional yang menyatakan bahwa setiap tindakan pelanggaran hukum oleh suatu negara adalah menyangkut pertanggung jawaban international dari negara tersebut.    ABSTRACT This research aims to investigate and analyze legal phenomena and the practices of law that regulate transboundry movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The research combines the normative and empirical legal approach. Information is interpreted by using juridical analytical and evaluative explanatory method. The research concludes that the parties involved in the transmission of hazardous wastes are either individually or collectively responsible for compensating detriments and environmental damaged sufferes by the third parties. This principle is based on the public international law, which insists that every internationally wrongful act of a State entails the international responsibility of that State.

  4. Evaluation of absorbed dosis during studies of renal function due AI 123I / 131I (Hippuran) and 111 In (DPTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga, Marcial V.V.; Diestra, Carlos E.C.; Villanueva, Raul A.S.; Alegria, Roberto R.; Salvatierra, Carlos C.; Rosales, Jorge M.; Gonzalez, Denis A.; Cruz, Carlos A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Using the MIRD methodology and Cristy-Eckerman representation for for adult kidneys, it proves that the dosimetric contributions of bodies of the biokinetics of 123 I / 131 I (Hippuran) and 111 In (DTPA) are significant, in the estimated of dose, during studies of renal function. Dosimetric contributions (whole body and urinary bladder, kidney excluding) are given by 11.90% (for 123 I), 4.97% (for 131 I) and 28.32% (for 111 In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons emitted by the entire body

  5. Evaluation of absorbed dose in studies of renal function due to 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Rojas, R.; Cabrera, C.; Abanto, D.; Morgan, A.; Diaz, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    The absorbed dose of the kidneys during renal function studies of adult patients is estimated through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing the 123 I/ 131 I (hippuran) e 111 In (DPTA). Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for adult kidneys, it is shown that dosimetric contributions of organs of biokinetics 123 I/ 131 I (hippuran) e 111 In (DPTA) are significant, in estimative of dose for renal function studies. Dosimetric contributions (body and whole bladder, kidneys excluding) are given by 11.90% (for 123 I), 4.97% (for 131 I) and 28.32% (for 111 In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons issued by the whole body

  6. Pronounced Structural and Functional Damage in Early Adult Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis with No or Minimal Clinical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giorgio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS may represent a model of vulnerability to damage occurring during a period of active maturation of the human brain. Whereas adaptive mechanisms seem to take place in the POMS brain in the short-medium term, natural history studies have shown that these patients reach irreversible disability, despite slower progression, at a significantly younger age than adult-onset MS (AOMS patients. We tested for the first time whether significant brain alterations already occurred in POMS patients in their early adulthood and with no or minimal disability (n = 15 in comparison with age- and disability-matched AOMS patients (n = 14 and to normal controls (NC, n = 20. We used a multimodal MRI approach by modeling, using FSL, voxelwise measures of microstructural integrity of white matter tracts and gray matter volumes with those of intra- and internetwork functional connectivity (FC (analysis of variance, p ≤ 0.01, corrected for multiple comparisons across space. POMS patients showed, when compared with both NC and AOMS patients, altered measures of diffusion tensor imaging (reduced fractional anisotropy and/or increased diffusivities and higher probability of lesion occurrence in a clinically eloquent region for physical disability such as the posterior corona radiata. In addition, POMS patients showed, compared with the other two groups, reduced long-range FC, assessed from resting functional MRI, between default mode network and secondary visual network, whose interaction subserves important cognitive functions such as spatial attention and visual learning. Overall, this pattern of structural damage and brain connectivity disruption in early adult POMS patients with no or minimal clinical disability might explain their unfavorable clinical outcome in the long term.

  7. Color Doppler ultrasound evaluation of asphyxial neonatal left ventricular function and its correlation with target organ damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cai Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the color Doppler ultrasound parameters of asphyxial neonatal left ventricular function and the correlation with target organ damage. Methods: Normal neonates, mildly asphyxial neonates and severely asphyxial neonates born in our hospital between January 2014 and December 2015 were selected as the control group (n = 46, mild asphyxia group (n = 37 and severe asphyxia group (n = 23 respectively. On the 1st day after birth, color Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate left ventricular function, and serum was collected to determine myocardial tissue injury, brain tissue injury and brain tissue metabolism indexes. Results: Color Doppler ultrasound parameters cardiac output (CO, ejection fraction (EF and left ventricular fraction shortening (FS as well as serum folate and vitamin B12 content of mild asphyxia group and severe asphyxia group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while serum creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB, troponin I (cTnI, troponin T (cTnT, S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, creatine kinase BB (CK-BB, glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB, and homocysteine (Hcy content were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; CO, FS and EF as well as serum folate and vitamin B12 content of severe asphyxia group were significantly lower than those of mild asphyxia group (P<0.05 while serum CK-MB, cTnT, cTnI, S100B, NSE, CK-BB, GPBB and Hcy content were significantly higher than those of mild asphyxia group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Color Doppler ultrasound can accurately assess asphyxial neonatal left ventricular function damage degree and is closely related to myocardial tissue injury and brain tissue injury degree.

  8. Mechanical and thermal stresses in a functionally graded rotating disk with variable thickness due to radially symmetry loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Saleem, M.; Sahari, B.B.; Hamouda, A.M.S.; Mahdi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating disks have many applications in the aerospace industry such as gas turbines and gears. These disks normally work under thermo mechanical loads. Minimizing the weight of such components can help reduce the overall payload in aerospace industry. For this purpose, a rotating functionally graded (FG) disk with variable thickness under a steady temperature field is considered in this paper. Thermo elastic solutions and the weight of the disk are related to the material grading index and the geometry of the disk. It is found that a disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared to a uniform thickness disk. Maximum radial stress due to centrifugal load in the solid disk with parabolic thickness profile may not be at the center unlike uniform thickness disk. Functionally graded disk with variable thickness has smaller stresses due to thermal load compared to those with uniform thickness. It is seen that for a given value of grading index, the FG disk having concave thickness profile is the lightest in weight whereas the FG disk with uniform thickness profile is the heaviest. Also for any given thickness profile, the weight of the FG disk lies in between the weights of the all-metal and the all-ceramic disks.

  9. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish we...

  10. WRNIP1 functions upstream of DNA polymerase η in the UV-induced DNA damage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Akari, E-mail: akari_yo@stu.musashino-u.ac.jp [Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, 1-1-20 Shinmachi, Nishitokyo-shi, Tokyo 202-8585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yume [Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, 1-1-20 Shinmachi, Nishitokyo-shi, Tokyo 202-8585 (Japan); Tada, Shusuke [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Seki, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 981-8558 (Japan); Enomoto, Takemi [Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, 1-1-20 Shinmachi, Nishitokyo-shi, Tokyo 202-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • The UV sensitivity of POLH{sup −/−} cells was suppressed by disruption of WRNIP1. • In WRNIP1{sup −/−/−}/POLH{sup −/−} cells, mutation frequencies and SCE after irradiation reduced. • WRNIP1 defect recovered rate of fork progression after irradiation in POLH{sup −/−} cells. • WRNIP1 functions upstream of Polη in the translesion DNA synthesis pathway. - Abstract: WRNIP1 (WRN-interacting protein 1) was first identified as a factor that interacts with WRN, the protein that is defective in Werner syndrome (WS). WRNIP1 associates with DNA polymerase η (Polη), but the biological significance of this interaction remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the functional interaction between WRNIP1 and Polη by generating knockouts of both genes in DT40 chicken cells. Disruption of WRNIP1 in Polη-disrupted (POLH{sup −/−}) cells suppressed the phenotypes associated with the loss of Polη: sensitivity to ultraviolet light (UV), delayed repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), elevated frequency of mutation, elevated levels of UV-induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and reduced rate of fork progression after UV irradiation. These results suggest that WRNIP1 functions upstream of Polη in the response to UV irradiation.

  11. Orally active multi-functional antioxidants are neuroprotective in a rat model of light-induced retinal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Randazzo

    Full Text Available Progression of age-related macular degeneration has been linked to iron dysregulation and oxidative stress that induce apoptosis of neural retinal cells. Since both antioxidants and chelating agents have been reported to reduce the progression of retinal lesions associated with AMD in experimental animals, the present study evaluates the ability of multi-functional antioxidants containing functional groups that can independently chelate redox metals and quench free radicals to protect the retina against light-induced retinal degeneration, a rat model of dry atrophic AMD.Proof of concept studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of 4-(5-hydroxypyrimidin-2-yl-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 4 and 4-(5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 8 to reduce retinal damage in 2-week dark adapted Wistar rats exposed to 1000 lx of light for 3 hours. Assessment of the oxidative stress markers 4- hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine modified proteins and Thioredoxin by ELISA and Western blots indicated that these compounds reduced the oxidative insult caused by light exposure. The beneficial antioxidant effects of these compounds in providing significant functional and structural protection were confirmed by electroretinography and quantitative histology of the retina.The present study suggests that multi-functional compounds may be effective candidates for preventive therapy of AMD.

  12. On the Mass and Luminosity Functions of Tidal Disruption Flares: Rate Suppression due to Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.

    2018-01-01

    The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole is expected to yield a luminous flare of thermal emission. About two dozen of these stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) may have been detected in optical transient surveys. However, explaining the observed properties of these events within the tidal disruption paradigm is not yet possible. This theoretical ambiguity has led some authors to suggest that optical TDFs are due to a different process, such as a nuclear supernova or accretion disk instabilities. Here we present a test of a fundamental prediction of the tidal disruption event scenario: a suppression of the flare rate due to the direct capture of stars by the black hole. Using a recently compiled sample of candidate TDFs with black hole mass measurements, plus a careful treatment of selection effects in this flux-limited sample, we confirm that the dearth of observed TDFs from high-mass black holes is statistically significant. All the TDF impostor models we consider fail to explain the observed mass function; the only scenario that fits the data is a suppression of the rate due to direct captures. We find that this suppression can explain the low volumetric rate of the luminous TDF candidate ASASSN-15lh, thus supporting the hypothesis that this flare belongs to the TDF family. Our work is the first to present the optical TDF luminosity function. A steep power law is required to explain the observed rest-frame g-band luminosity, {dN}/{{dL}}g\\propto {L}g-2.5. The mean event rate of the flares in our sample is ≈ 1× {10}-4 galaxy‑1 yr‑1, consistent with the theoretically expected tidal disruption rate.

  13. Functional Interplay of the Mre11 Nuclease and Ku in the Response to Replication-Associated DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Steven S.; Balestrini, Alessia; Petrini, John H. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Mre11 complex is a central component of the DNA damage response, with roles in damage sensing, molecular bridging, and end resection. We have previously shown that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ku70 (yKu70) deficiency reduces the ionizing radiation sensitivity of mre11Δ mutants. In this study, we show that yKu70 deficiency suppressed the camptothecin (CPT) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) sensitivity of nuclease-deficient mre11-3 and sae2Δ mutants in an Exo1-dependent manner. CPT-induced G2/M arrest, γ-H2AX persistence, and chromosome breaks were elevated in mre11-3 mutants. These outcomes were reduced by yKu70 deficiency. Given that the genotoxic effects of CPT are manifest during DNA replication, these data suggest that Ku limits Exo1-dependent double-strand break (DSB) resection during DNA replication, inhibiting the initial processing steps required for homology-directed repair. We propose that Mre11 nuclease- and Sae2-dependent DNA end processing, which initiates DSB resection prevents Ku from engaging DSBs, thus promoting Exo1-dependent resection. In agreement with this idea, we show that Ku affinity for binding to short single-stranded overhangs is much lower than for blunt DNA ends. Collectively, the data define a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-independent, S-phase-specific function of the Ku heterodimer. PMID:21876003

  14. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  15. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  16. Microstructural changes due to laser peening in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel subjected to creep damage at 823K and 923K in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Yuji; Kizuki, Yuta; Suzuki, Hayao; Minowa, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study has investigated microstructural changes due to laser peening in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel subjected to creep. The EBSD or Electron Backscatter Diffraction studies have been made on round-bar type specimens creeping at applied stresses of 230 and 240 MPa at 823 K and 105 MPa at 923K in air. Prior to the creep tests, laser peening was applied to specimens at laser power of 8.4-22GW/cm 2 per pulse in water. Microstructural change in each specimen after its creep test was investigated by EBSD/SEM. The EBSD/SEM analyses revealed that the laser peening treatment makes creep rupture time longer and it reveals local misorientation value for rupture. (author)

  17. Housing conditions influence motor functions and exploratory behavior following focal damage of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornicka-Pawlak, Elzbieta; Jabłońska, Anna; Chyliński, Andrzej; Domańska-Janik, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated influence of housing conditions on motor functions recovery and exploratory behavior following ouabain focal brain lesion in the rat. During 30 days post-surgery period rats were housed individually in standard cages (IS) or in groups in enriched environment (EE) and behaviorally tested. The EE lesioned rats showed enhanced recovery from motor impairments in walking beam task, comparing with IS animals. Contrarily, in the open field IS rats (both lesioned and control) traveled a longer distance, showed less habituation and spent less time resting at the home base than the EE animals. Unlike the EE lesioned animals, the lesioned IS rats, presented a tendency to hyperactivity in postinjury period. Turning tendency was significantly affected by unilateral brain lesion only in the EE rats. We can conclude that housing conditions distinctly affected the rat's behavior in classical laboratory tests.

  18. The regulatory function of self-conscious emotion: insights from patients with orbitofrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jennifer S; Heerey, Erin A; Keltner, Dacher; Scabini, Donatella; Knight, Robert T

    2003-10-01

    Although once considered disruptive, self-conscious emotions are now theorized to be fundamentally involved in the regulation of social behavior. The present study examined the social regulation function of self-conscious emotions by comparing healthy participants with a neuropsychological population--patients with orbitofrontal lesions--characterized by selective regulatory deficits. Orbitofrontal patients and healthy controls participated in a series of tasks designed to assess their social regulation and self-conscious emotions. Another task assessed the ability to infer others' emotional states, an appraisal process involved in self-conscious emotion. Consistent with the theory that self-conscious emotions are important for regulating social behavior, the findings show that deficient behavioral regulation is associated with inappropriate self-conscious emotions that reinforce maladaptive behavior. Additionally, deficient behavioral regulation is associated with impairments in interpreting the self-conscious emotions of others.

  19. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed.

  20. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed

  1. Retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of functional copolymers at polymer-polymer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wunnicke, O; Lorenz-Haas, C; Leiner, V

    2002-01-01

    We studied the retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of a functional copolymer in a polymer bilayer film. The model system consists of fully deuterated polystyrene (PS-d) on top of an amorphous polyamide (PA) sublayer on silicon substrates. Bilayer films were prepared with different content (0, 5, 10 and 30 vol. %) of a statistical copolymer (protonated styrene maleic anhydride acid (SMA2) containing 2% MA groups along the chain) being capable of forming hydrogen bonds with PA. The as-prepared as well as the annealed samples were investigated by neutron-reflectivity (NR) experiments, scanning force microscopy and optical microscopy. A significant retardation of dewetting is observed with the addition of SMA2. From model fits of NR curves the scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the sample surface were determined and an enrichment layer of SMA2 is detected. Retardation is explained by the intermixing of SMA2 and PS-d at the interface. (orig.)

  2. Structural evolution due to Zn and Te adsorption on As-exposed Si(211): density functional calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Bikash C; Konar, Shyamal; Grein, C H; Sivananthan, S

    2009-01-01

    Systematic theoretical investigations are carried out under the density functional formalism in an effort to understand the initial structural evolution due to the adsorption of ZnTe on As-exposed Si(211). Our calculations indicate that after the adsorption of Zn and Te on the As-exposed Si(211), the stable atomic structure qualitatively follows the ideal atomic structure of Si(211) with alteration of various bond lengths. Since the basic symmetry of the Si(211) is preserved after the adsorption of ZnTe, the deposition of ZnTe on the As terminated Si(211) prior to the deposition of CdTe and HgCdTe is useful for obtaining an ultimate quality layer of HgCdTe on Si(211). Some of our results are compared with the available experimental results, and they are found to agree with each other qualitatively.

  3. Chronic exposure to Tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase, Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters. The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  4. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  5. Chronic exposure to Tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  6. Structure-function relationships governing activity and stability of a DNA alkylation damage repair thermostable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Giuseppe; Miggiano, Riccardo; Serpe, Mario; Vettone, Antonella; Valenti, Anna; Lahiri, Samarpita; Rossi, Franca; Rossi, Mosè; Rizzi, Menico; Ciaramella, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferases repair alkylated DNA bases, which are among the most common DNA lesions, and are evolutionary conserved, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. The human ortholog, hAGT, is involved in resistance to alkylating chemotherapy drugs. We report here on the alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferase, SsOGT, from an archaeal species living at high temperature, a condition that enhances the harmful effect of DNA alkylation. The exceptionally high stability of SsOGT gave us the unique opportunity to perform structural and biochemical analysis of a protein of this class in its post-reaction form. This analysis, along with those performed on SsOGT in its ligand-free and DNA-bound forms, provides insights in the structure-function relationships of the protein before, during and after DNA repair, suggesting a molecular basis for DNA recognition, catalytic activity and protein post-reaction fate, and giving hints on the mechanism of alkylation-induced inactivation of this class of proteins. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  8. Imaging and retention measurements of selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine, and the carbon 14 glycochol breath test to document ileal dysfunction due to late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Olmos, R.; Hartog Jager, F. den; Hoefnagel, C.; Taal, B.; Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess ileal dysfunction in patients with complaints after pelvic radiation therapy, retention measurements and scintigraphic imaging with selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine ( 75 Se-HCAT), combined with the carbon 14 clycochol breath test, were evaluated in 39 patients. In 22 patients without ileal resection the results of the 75 Se-HCAT test and the breath test differentiated between a normal functioning ileum (both tests negative) and ileal dysfunction as a cause of complaints (one or both tests positive). Among the patients with ileal dysfunction, the combination of both tests permitted those with bacterial overgrowth (breath test positive, 75 Se-HCAT negative) to be separated from patients with evidence of bile acid malabsorption ( 75 Se-HCAT positive, breath test positive or negative). In 17 patients with small-bowel resection, the 75 Se-HCAT test helped to estimate the severity of bile acid malabsorption with implications for therapy. In this group the breath test was false-negative in 7 cases with abnormal 75 Se-HCAT. Additional systematically performed scintigraphic imaging improved the accuracy of the 75 Se-HCAT test, revealing cases with prolonged colonic accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical, causing spurious retention values. In conclusion, assessment of ileal dysfunction by nuclear medicine techniques in post-irradiation conditions provides information about the aetiology and therefore the possibility of adjustment in the clinical management. (orig.)

  9. An Objective Functional Characterisation of Head Movement Impairment in Individuals with Neck Muscle Weakness Due to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pancani

    Full Text Available Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls.We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively. We quantified the differences between the two groups from the sensor data using indices of velocity, smoothness and movement coupling (intended as a measure of undesired out of plane movements.Results confirmed a general limitation in the ability of the ALS patients to perform and control head movements. High inter-patient variability was observed due to a wide range of observed functional impairment levels. The ability to extend the head backward and flex it laterally were the most compromised, with significantly lower angular velocity (P 0.8, reduced smoothness and greater presence of coupled movements with respect to the controls. A significant reduction of angular velocity (P 0.8 in extension, axial rotation and lateral flexion was observed when patients were asked to perform the movements as fast as possible.This pilot study is the first study providing a functional objective quantification of head movements in ALS. Further work involving different body areas and correlation with existing methods of evaluating neuromuscular function, such as dynamometry and EMG, is needed to explore the use of this approach as a marker of disease progression in ALS.

  10. Evaluation of ischemic corticospinal tract damage by diffusion tensor MRI. Its significance to predict functional outcome of corona radiata infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Motor impairment is one of the most frequent symptoms among stroke patients and often leads to poststroke dependency. Recent advances of diffusion tensor MR imaging made it possible to identify corticospinal tract (CST) three-dimensionally and evaluate structural damage, so precise evaluation of the ischemic CST damage became feasible.Motor impairment, lesion size and location upon diffusion weighted MR image and clinical outcome were assessed in 23 acute to subacute capsular and corona radiata infarct patients. According to the lesion size, patients were grouped into A, maximal diameter below 15 mm and B, that above 15 mm. Motor impairment was graded severe: limb movement synergy level, moderate: selective muscle activity possible and mild: isolated movements well co-ordinated, each corresponding to Brunnstrom stage 1-3, 4-5, and 6, respectively. Outcome at the time of discharge was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS), discharge destination and length of hospital stay were also registered. Diffusion tensor MR imaging was conducted in 15 corona radiata infarct patients at 2.3+-2.2 days from the onset of the clinical symptoms. CST was 3-dimensionally identified with dTV. II. SR and Volume-one 1.72 and CST-FA ratio (ipsi-/contralesional CST-FA) and CST-Area% (CST lesion free area/whole CST area) were obtained at the level where ischemic damage was most prominent and correlation of these parameters to motor impairment and clinical outcome was studied. CST-FA ratio and CST-Area% were in good correlation to motor impairment at presentation. Patients with severe motor impairment had lower CST-FA ratio and CSF-Area% than those with moderate or mild. CST-FA ratio was 0.73+-0.22 in patients with poor clinical outcome (mRS 3-6) and 0.93+-0.09 with good clinical outcome (mRS 0-2) (p=0.038). Diffusion tensor MR imaging is useful in evaluating motor impairment and predicting functional outcome of corona radiata infarct patient in the acute to subacute stage. (author)

  11. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  12. Radiation-induced functional damages in the regeneration system for the gastrointestinal epithelium cell and analysis of its nutritional modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Narita, Mayumi; Ogawa, Yuko; Shinohara, Kiyoko; Nakazawa, Yukiko; Yamada, Keiko [National Inst. of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    It has been known that the stem cells of villus-crypt zone are highly sensitive to radiation exposure. In this study, radiation-induced damages in gastrointestinal cell regeneration system were investigated from an aspect of nutritional factors to clarify the damages in digestive functions caused by X-ray exposure and recovery from them. The activities of digestive enzymes in the small intestine after in vivo X-ray exposure at 100 Gy were determined. The sucrose activity in the upper intestine was gradually reduced to about a half 3 days after the exposure. This change pattern of activity was also observed in other regions in the intestine. This tendency was similar to that of trehalase activity, but the changes in alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino-peptidase activities were less than the above two enzymes. Therefore, time course changes of sucrose and trehalase pattern in the villus-crypt zone were monitored after radiation exposure. Either of the two enzyme activities was low in the crypt and gradually increased from the basement of villus to its top. These activities were dose-dependently reduced by X-ray exposure. Especially it was marked for trehalose activity. Moreover, the amounts of short-chain fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butylic acid in the cecum were determined. Significant increases in acetic acid and propionic acid contents were fount at 1 or 2 days after the X-ray exposure. These increases in fatty acids contents were more distinctive in the animals that received forced and free administration of food than those that received free administration alone. The presence of food components in the intestine might be effective for protecting the mucous membrane regeneration from radiation exposure. (M.N.)

  13. Loss of Slc4a1b chloride/bicarbonate exchanger function protects mechanosensory hair cells from aminoglycoside damage in the zebrafish mutant persephone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale W Hailey

    Full Text Available Mechanosensory hair cell death is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders in the human population. Hair cells are remarkably sensitive to environmental insults such as excessive noise and exposure to some otherwise therapeutic drugs. However, individual responses to damaging agents can vary, in part due to genetic differences. We previously carried out a forward genetic screen using the zebrafish lateral line system to identify mutations that alter the response of larval hair cells to the antibiotic neomycin, one of a class of aminoglycoside compounds that cause hair cell death in humans. The persephone mutation confers resistance to aminoglycosides. 5 dpf homozygous persephone mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings, but differ in their retention of lateral line hair cells upon exposure to neomycin. The mutation in persephone maps to the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger slc4a1b and introduces a single Ser-to-Phe substitution in zSlc4a1b. This mutation prevents delivery of the exchanger to the cell surface and abolishes the ability of the protein to import chloride across the plasma membrane. Loss of function of zSlc4a1b reduces hair cell death caused by exposure to the aminoglycosides neomycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin, and the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Pharmacological block of anion transport with the disulfonic stilbene derivatives DIDS and SITS, or exposure to exogenous bicarbonate, also protects hair cells against damage. Both persephone mutant and DIDS-treated wild-type larvae show reduced uptake of labeled aminoglycosides. persephone mutants also show reduced FM1-43 uptake, indicating a potential impact on mechanotransduction-coupled activity in the mutant. We propose that tight regulation of the ionic environment of sensory hair cells, mediated by zSlc4a1b activity, is critical for their sensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  14. Prestroke physical activity is associated with good functional outcome and arterial recanalization after stroke due to a large vessel occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Ana Clara; López-Cancio, Elena; Pérez de la Ossa, Natalia; Sobrino, Tomás; Hernández-Pérez, María; Gomis, Meritxell; Munuera, Josep; Muñoz, Lucía; Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio; Arenillas, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple studies and meta-analyses have consistently suggested that regular physical activity (PhA) is associated with a decreased stroke risk and recurrence, there is limited data on the possible preconditioning effect of prestroke PhA on stroke severity and prognosis. We aimed to study the association of prestroke PhA with different outcome variables in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to an anterior large vessel occlusion. The Prestroke Physical Activity and Functional Recovery in Patients with Ischemic Stroke and Arterial Occlusion trial is an observational and longitudinal study that included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to a single tertiary stroke center. Main inclusion criteria were: anterior circulation ischemic stroke within 12 h from symptom onset; presence of a confirmed anterior large vessel occlusion, and functional independence previous to stroke. Prestroke PhA was evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and categorized into mild, moderate and high levels by means of metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week thresholds. The primary outcome measure was good functional outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin scale ≤2). Secondary outcomes were severity of stroke at admission, complete early recanalization, early dramatic neurological improvement and final infarct volume. During the study period, 159 patients fulfilled the above criteria. The mean age was 68 years, 62% were men and the baseline NIHSS score was 17. Patients with high levels of prestroke PhA were younger, had more frequently distal occlusions and had lower levels of blood glucose and fibrinogen at admission. After multivariate analysis, a high level of prestroke PhA was associated with a good functional outcome at 3 months. Regarding secondary outcome variables and after adjustment for relevant factors, a high level of prestroke PhA was independently associated with milder stroke severity at admission, early dramatic

  15. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and its relationship with thyroid function tests in adolescents with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grywalska, Ewelina; Surdacka, Agata; Tarach, Jerzy; Klatka, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Failures in apoptotic pathways can contribute to various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease (GD). The aim of the present research was to assess changes in the degree of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocyte apoptosis during methimazole (MMI) treatment in the group of teenage children, and to describe its relationship with thyroid function tests. Material and methods The percentage of PB apoptotic lymphocytes, assessed by the decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (CMXRos staining), was measured in 30 adolescents at the time of diagnosis and after obtaining normalization of the thyroid hormone levels. Results The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes in previously untreated patients with GD (5.16 ±2.81%) was significantly lower (p = 0.000001) than the percentage of apoptotic cells in the same group of patients after obtaining methimazole-induced euthyroidism (10.72 ±4.66%). There was a correlation between the increase of the mean percentages of apoptotic lymphocytes and the reduction of FT4 levels (R = 0.63, p < 0.0001), as well as the reduction of TT3 levels (R = 0.95, p < 0.0001). The more signs and symptoms accompanying the diagnosis of GD, the higher was the increment of the degree of lymphocyte apoptosis observed during the MMI-treatment (R = 0.74, p < 0.0000001). The methimazole dosage correlated (R = 0.85, p < 0.0001) with the percentage of apoptotic cells. Conclusions The use of methimazole in treatment of hyperthyroidism due to GD leads to an increment of apoptotic cells in PB. Higher doses of methimazole cause a higher increase of apoptotic lymphocytes. Apoptosis induction of human PB lymphocytes seems to be one of the indicators of proper hyperthyroidism treatment. PMID:23185197

  16. Fluorescence microscopy point spread function model accounting for aberrations due to refractive index variability within a specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sreya; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2015-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) point spread function (PSF) model for wide-field fluorescence microscopy, suitable for imaging samples with variable refractive index (RI) in multilayered media, is presented. This PSF model is a key component for accurate 3-D image restoration of thick biological samples, such as lung tissue. Microscope- and specimen-derived parameters are combined with a rigorous vectorial formulation to obtain a new PSF model that accounts for additional aberrations due to specimen RI variability. Experimental evaluation and verification of the PSF model was accomplished using images from 175-nm fluorescent beads in a controlled test sample. Fundamental experimental validation of the advantage of using improved PSFs in depth-variant restoration was accomplished by restoring experimental data from beads (6  μm in diameter) mounted in a sample with RI variation. In the investigated study, improvement in restoration accuracy in the range of 18 to 35% was observed when PSFs from the proposed model were used over restoration using PSFs from an existing model. The new PSF model was further validated by showing that its prediction compares to an experimental PSF (determined from 175-nm beads located below a thick rat lung slice) with a 42% improved accuracy over the current PSF model prediction.

  17. Lung Damage due to Chemotherapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kalemci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drug-induced pulmonary toxicity not only emerges in cumulative doses, but also can be observed even at low dosages. Combined administration of many drugs, concurrent radiotherapy applications, opportunistic infections, lymphangitic tumor extension and pleural metastases complicate the disease diagnosis.

  18. Damage caused due to foundry smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1891-01-01

    A detailed analysis of an air pollution event which occurred in 1891 in the vicinity of a superphosphate plant is given. The logic and tests used to implicate HF as the causative agent of environmental stress are detailed thoroughly.

  19. CDK2 and PKA mediated-sequential phosphorylation is critical for p19INK4d function in the DNA damage response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela C Marazita

    Full Text Available DNA damage triggers a phosphorylation-based signaling cascade known as the DNA damage response. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK4/6 inhibitors, has been reported to participate in the DNA damage response promoting DNA repair and cell survival. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the activation mechanism of p19INK4d linked to the response to DNA damage. Results showed that p19INK4d becomes phosphorylated following UV radiation, β-amyloid peptide and cisplatin treatments. ATM-Chk2/ATR-Chk1 signaling pathways were found to be differentially involved in p19INK4d phosphorylation depending on the type of DNA damage. Two sequential phosphorylation events at serine 76 and threonine 141 were identified using p19INK4d single-point mutants in metabolic labeling assays with (32P-orthophosphate. CDK2 and PKA were found to participate in p19INK4d phosphorylation process and that they would mediate serine 76 and threonine 141 modifications respectively. Nuclear translocation of p19INK4d induced by DNA damage was shown to be dependent on serine 76 phosphorylation. Most importantly, both phosphorylation sites were found to be crucial for p19INK4d function in DNA repair and cell survival. In contrast, serine 76 and threonine 141 were dispensable for CDK4/6 inhibition highlighting the independence of p19INK4d functions, in agreement with our previous findings. These results constitute the first description of the activation mechanism of p19INK4d in response to genotoxic stress and demonstrate the functional relevance of this activation following DNA damage.

  20. Inhibition of exportin-1 function results in rapid cell cycle-associated DNA damage in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Russell T; Marcus, Joshua M; Orth, James D

    2017-06-13

    Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) are small molecules in development as anti-cancer agents. The first-in-class SINE, selinexor, is in clinical trials for blood and solid cancers. Selinexor forms a covalent bond with exportin-1 at cysteine-528, and blocks its ability to export cargos. Previous work has shown strong cell cycle effects and drug-induced cell death across many different cancer-derived cell lines. Here, we report strong cell cycle-associated DNA double-stranded break formation upon the treatment of cancer cells with SINE. In multiple cell models, selinexor treatment results in the formation of clustered DNA damage foci in 30-40% of cells within 8 hours that is dependent upon cysteine-528. DNA damage strongly correlates with G1/S-phase and decreased DNA replication. Live cell microscopy reveals an association between DNA damage and cell fate. Cells that form damage in G1-phase more often die or arrest, while those damaged in S/G2-phase frequently progress to cell division. Up to half of all treated cells form damage foci, and most cells that die after being damaged, were damaged in G1-phase. By comparison, non-transformed cell lines show strong cell cycle effects but little DNA damage and less death than cancer cells. Significant drug combination effects occur when selinexor is paired with different classes of agents that either cause DNA damage or that diminish DNA damage repair. These data present a novel effect of exportin-1 inhibition and provide a strong rationale for multiple combination treatments of selinexor with agents that are currently in use for the treatment of different solid cancers.

  1. Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  2. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract protects human dermal fibroblasts against hydrogen peroxide oxidative damage and improves mitochondrial functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, José L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-06-11

    Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  3. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. METHODS: To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup" injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V. versus intra-glandular injections, and b comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF. BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. CONCLUSION: BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  4. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Simon D; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Maria, Ola M; Khalili, Saeed; Wang, Renee Wan-Jou; Quan, Vu-Hung; Hu, Shen; Seuntjens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup") injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a) comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V.) versus intra-glandular injections, and b) comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF). BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  5. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bó, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Brambilla, Ada; Rizzolo, Anna; Porrini, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly reduced (P < .01) H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Affinity for, and localization of, PEG-functionalized silica nanoparticles to sites of damage in an ex vivo spinal cord injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bojun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI leads to serious neurological and functional deficits through a chain of pathophysiological events. At the molecular level, progressive damage is initially revealed by collapse of plasma membrane organization and integrity produced by breaches. Consequently, the loss of its role as a semi-permeable barrier that generally mediates the regulation and transport of ions and molecules eventually results in cell death. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the functional recovery of compromised plasma membranes can be induced by the application of the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG after both spinal and brain trauma in adult rats and guinea pigs. Additionally, efforts have been directed towards a nanoparticle-based PEG application. The in vivo and ex vivo applications of PEG-decorated silica nanoparticles following CNS injury were able to effectively and efficiently enhance resealing of damaged cell membranes. Results The possibility for selectivity of tetramethyl rhodamine-dextran (TMR dye-doped, PEG-functionalized silica nanoparticles (TMR-PSiNPs to damaged spinal cord was evaluated using an ex vivo model of guinea pig SCI. Crushed and nearby undamaged spinal cord tissues exhibited an obvious difference in both the imbibement and accumulation of the TMR-PSiNPs, revealing selective labeling of compression-injured tissues. Conclusions These data show that appropriately functionalized nanoparticles can be an efficient means to both 1. carry drugs, and 2. apply membrane repair agents where they are needed in focally damaged nervous tissue.

  8. Effect of tubular damage by mercuric chloride on kidney function and some urinary enzymes in the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, B G; Price, R G; Topham, J C

    1973-01-01

    Alkaline and acid phosphatases, ..beta..-glucosidase, ..beta..-galactosidase, N-acetyl-..beta..-glucosaminidase and lactate dehydrogenase were monitored in the urine and serum of dogs with renal tubular damage induced by a series of increasing doses of mercuric chloride. Evidence is presented that the assay of urinary alkaline and acid phosphatase is the most sensitive method of detecting renal tubular damage in the dog. The clearance of (/sup 14/C)-propranolol was compared before and after the administration of mercuric chloride. In the presence of tubular damage the blood half-life of propranolol and the rate of excretion of metabolites in the urine were increased. 35 references, 7 tables.

  9. [Effect of damage integrity rat brain synaptic membranes on the functional activity GABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-)-ionophore complex in the CNC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrov, I G; Kalinina, M V

    2013-01-01

    Functional activity of the CGABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-) ionophore complex was investigated the muscimol-stimulated entry of the radioactive isotope 36Cl(-) in synaptoneurosomes in changing the structure and permeability of neuronal membranes. Integrity of the membranes was damaged by removal of Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) from the incubation medium and by the method of freezing-thawing synaptoneurosomes. In both cases, an increase in basal 36Cl(-) entry into synaptoneurosomes, indicating increased nonspecific permeability of neuronal membranes, and decreased activity the CABA(A)-receptor/Cl(-) ionophore complex. The conclusion about the relationship of processes damage neuronal membranes and reducing the inhibitory processes in the epileptic focus.

  10. Primary damage in tungsten using the binary collision approximation, molecular dynamic simulations and the density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Backer, A; Sand, A; Ortiz, C J; Domain, C; Olsson, P; Berthod, E; Becquart, C S

    2016-01-01

    The damage produced by primary knock-on atoms (PKA) in W has been investigated from the threshold displacement energy (TDE) where it produces one self interstitial atom–vacancy pair to larger energies, up to 100 keV, where a large molten volume is formed. The TDE has been determined in different crystal directions using the Born–Oppenheimer density functional molecular dynamics (DFT-MD). A significant difference has been observed without and with the semi-core electrons. Classical MD has been used with two different empirical potentials characterized as ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ to obtain statistics on TDEs. Cascades of larger energy have been calculated, with these potentials, using a model that accounts for electronic losses (Sand et al 2013 Europhys. Lett. 103 46003). Two other sets of cascades have been produced using the binary collision approximation (BCA): a Monte Carlo BCA using SDTrimSP (Eckstein et al 2011 SDTrimSP: Version 5.00. Report IPP 12/8) (similar to SRIM www.srim.org) and MARLOWE (RSICC Home Page. (https://rsicc.ornl.gov/codes/psr/psr1/psr-137.html) (accessed May, 2014)). The comparison of these sets of cascades gave a recombination distance equal to 12 Å which is significantly larger from the one we reported in Hou et al (2010 J. Nucl. Mater. 403 89) because, here, we used bulk cascades rather than surface cascades which produce more defects (Stoller 2002 J. Nucl. Mater. 307 935, Nordlund et al 1999 Nature 398 49). Investigations on the defect clustering aspect showed that the difference between BCA and MD cascades is considerably reduced after the annealing of the cascade debris at 473 K using our Object Kinetic Monte Carlo model, LAKIMOCA (Domain et al 2004 J. Nucl. Mater. 335 121). (paper)

  11. Severe structural and functional visual system damage leads to profound loss of vision-related quality of life in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Felix; Zimmermann, Hanna; Mikolajczak, Janine; Oertel, Frederike C; Pache, Florence; Weinhold, Maria; Schinzel, Johann; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are characterized by devastating optic neuritis attacks causing more structural damage and visual impairment than in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to compare vision-related quality of life in NMOSD and MS patients and correlate it to structural retinal damage and visual function. Thirty-one NMOSD and 31 matched MS patients were included. Vision-related quality of life was assessed with the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). All patients underwent retinal optical coherence tomography and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements. Vision-related quality of life was reduced in NMOSD compared to MS patients. This difference was driven by a higher incidence of bilateral and more severe optic neuritis in the NMOSD group. Retinal thinning and visual impairment were significantly greater in the NMOSD cohort. Lower vision-related quality of life was associated with more retinal damage and reduced visual function as assessed by visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. NMOSD-related bilateral ON-attacks cause severe structural damage and visual impairment that lead to severe loss of vision-related quality of life. The NEI-VFQ is a helpful tool to monitor vision-related quality of life in NMOSD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resolvin D1 Halts Remote Neuroinflammation and Improves Functional Recovery after Focal Brain Damage Via ALX/FPR2 Receptor-Regulated MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisicchia, Elisa; Sasso, Valeria; Catanzaro, Giuseppina; Leuti, Alessandro; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Chiacchiarini, Martina; Molinari, Marco; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Chiurchiù, Valerio

    2018-01-22

    Remote damage is a secondary phenomenon that usually occurs after a primary brain damage in regions that are distant, yet functionally connected, and that is critical for determining the outcomes of several CNS pathologies, including traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. The understanding of remote damage-associated mechanisms has been mostly achieved in several models of focal brain injury such as the hemicerebellectomy (HCb) experimental paradigm, which helped to identify the involvement of many key players, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy. Currently, few interventions have been shown to successfully limit the progression of secondary damage events and there is still an unmet need for new therapeutic options. Given the emergence of the novel concept of resolution of inflammation, mediated by the newly identified ω3-derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators, such as resolvins, we reported a reduced ability of HCb-injured animals to produce resolvin D1 (RvD1) and an increased expression of its target receptor ALX/FPR2 in remote brain regions. The in vivo administration of RvD1 promoted functional recovery and neuroprotection by reducing the activation of Iba-1+ microglia and GFAP+ astrocytes as well as by impairing inflammatory-induced neuronal cell death in remote regions. These effects were counteracted by intracerebroventricular neutralization of ALX/FPR2, whose activation by RvD1 also down-regulated miR-146b- and miR-219a-1-dependent inflammatory markers. In conclusion, we propose that innovative therapies based on RvD1-ALX/FPR2 axis could be exploited to curtail remote damage and enable neuroprotective effects after acute focal brain damage.

  13. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral...

  14. Prevalence, and Intellectual Outcome of Unilateral Focal Cortical Brain Damage as a Function of Age, Sex and Aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. J. Braun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologists and neuropsychologists are aware that aging men are more at risk than women for brain damage, principally because of the well known male-predominant risk for cardiovascular disease and related cerebrovascular accidents. However, a disproportion in prevalence of brain damage between the sexes in childhood may be less suspected. Furthermore, sex-specific risk for other aetiologies of brain damage may be little known, whether in the pediatric or adult populations. Proposals of a sex difference in cognitive recovery from brain damage have also been controversial. Six hundred and thirty five “consecutive” cases with cortical focal lesions including cases of all ages and both sexes were reviewed. Aetiology of the lesion was determined for each case as was postlesion IQ. Risk was highly male prevalent in all age groups, with a predominance of cardiovascular aetiology explaining much of the adult male prevalence. However, several other aetiological categories were significantly male prevalent in juveniles (mitotic, traumatic, dysplasic and adults (mitotic, traumatic. There was no sex difference in outcome (i.e., postlesion IQ of these cortical brain lesions for the cohort as a whole, after statistical removal of the influence of lesion extent, aetiology and presence of epilepsy. Mechanisms potentially responsible for sex differences in prevalence, aetiology of brain damage, and recovery, are reviewed and discussed.

  15. Research for organism functions by analysis of radiation damage-repair process. Analysis of high order structure in radiosensitive parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hideaki; Tsuchida, Kozo; Hashido, Kazuo; Takada, Naoko; Kameoka, Yosuke; Hirata, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Centromere of human chromosome was recognized easily and certainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) process. The DNA in plasmid were extracted right after irradiation of 137 Cs before repairs of the damaged DNA. Genes of the damaged DNA were detected by polymerase cycle restoration (PCR) process. Cut off frequency for two chains in the DNA were detected in real time. The cut off frequency in the damaged plasmid DNA detected by the PCR process was compared with simulation calculation. The difference between these cut off frequency values was within the value expected by electrophoretic mobility. It was cleared that the PCR amplification was difficult for the close structure of plasmid, but carried immediately on the nicked plasmid. (M. Suetake)

  16. Broadening of the x-ray emission line due to the instrumental function of the double-crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, T.; Ito, Y.; Omote, K.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the instrumental function on the Cu Kα 1 emission line was investigated for the case of a double-crystal spectrometer. The magnitude of broadening for both Si(220) and Si(440) was calculated for a Lorentzian emission line with the width of 1-5 eV; the broadening for Si(220) is 0.12-0.18 eV while that for Si(440) is only 0.015-0.043 eV. The former is too large to be neglected, so the correction for the instrumental function is important. The spectrum affected by the instrumental function seems to keep the shape of Lorentzian though its width is larger. The fact indicates that the Lorentzian fitting analysis is effective if the appropriate correction for width is done

  17. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning: A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Rowlands, Amy; Renouf, Charlotte; Hanna, Donncha; Britt, Eileen; Carter, Janet D.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4–6 months after the fatal February, 2011 earthquake. Participants were from highly affected and relatively unaffected suburbs in low, medium and high average house...

  18. New Experiments and a Model-Driven Approach for Interpreting Middle Stone Age Lithic Point Function Using the Edge Damage Distribution Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Benjamin J; Brown, Kyle S; Harris, Jacob A; Wilkins, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early evidence for symbolic material culture and complex technological innovations. However, one of the most visible aspects of MSA technologies are unretouched triangular stone points that appear in the archaeological record as early as 500,000 years ago in Africa and persist throughout the MSA. How these tools were being used and discarded across a changing Pleistocene landscape can provide insight into how MSA populations prioritized technological and foraging decisions. Creating inferential links between experimental and archaeological tool use helps to establish prehistoric tool function, but is complicated by the overlaying of post-depositional damage onto behaviorally worn tools. Taphonomic damage patterning can provide insight into site formation history, but may preclude behavioral interpretations of tool function. Here, multiple experimental processes that form edge damage on unretouched lithic points from taphonomic and behavioral processes are presented. These provide experimental distributions of wear on tool edges from known processes that are then quantitatively compared to the archaeological patterning of stone point edge damage from three MSA lithic assemblages-Kathu Pan 1, Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, and Die Kelders Cave 1. By using a model-fitting approach, the results presented here provide evidence for variable MSA behavioral strategies of stone point utilization on the landscape consistent with armature tips at KP1, and cutting tools at PP13B and DK1, as well as damage contributions from post-depositional sources across assemblages. This study provides a method with which landscape-scale questions of early modern human tool-use and site-use can be addressed.

  19. Resistance to diet-induced adiposity in cannabinoid receptor-1 deficient mice is not due to impaired adipocyte function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Koolman, Anniek H.; de Boer, Pieter T.; Bos, Trijnie; Bleeker, Aycha; Bloks, Vincent W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Overactivity and/or dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) contribute to development of obesity. In vitro studies indicate a regulatory role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in adipocyte function and CB1-receptor deficient (CB1-/-) mice are resistant to high fat

  20. SU-F-T-301: Planar Dose Pass Rate Inflation Due to the MapCHECK Measurement Uncertainty Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D; Spaans, J; Kumaraswamy, L; Podgorsak, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of the Measurement Uncertainty function on planar dosimetry pass rates, as analyzed with Sun Nuclear Corporation analytic software (“MapCHECK” or “SNC Patient”). This optional function is toggled on by default upon software installation, and automatically increases the user-defined dose percent difference (%Diff) tolerance for each planar dose comparison. Methods: Dose planes from 109 IMRT fields and 40 VMAT arcs were measured with the MapCHECK 2 diode array, and compared to calculated planes from a commercial treatment planning system. Pass rates were calculated within the SNC analytic software using varying calculation parameters, including Measurement Uncertainty on and off. By varying the %Diff criterion for each dose comparison performed with Measurement Uncertainty turned off, an effective %Diff criterion was defined for each field/arc corresponding to the pass rate achieved with MapCHECK Uncertainty turned on. Results: For 3%/3mm analysis, the Measurement Uncertainty function increases the user-defined %Diff by 0.8–1.1% average, depending on plan type and calculation technique, for an average pass rate increase of 1.0–3.5% (maximum +8.7%). For 2%, 2 mm analysis, the Measurement Uncertainty function increases the user-defined %Diff by 0.7–1.2% average, for an average pass rate increase of 3.5–8.1% (maximum +14.2%). The largest increases in pass rate are generally seen with poorly-matched planar dose comparisons; the MapCHECK Uncertainty effect is markedly smaller as pass rates approach 100%. Conclusion: The Measurement Uncertainty function may substantially inflate planar dose comparison pass rates for typical IMRT and VMAT planes. The types of uncertainties incorporated into the function (and their associated quantitative estimates) as described in the software user’s manual may not accurately estimate realistic measurement uncertainty for the user’s measurement conditions. Pass rates listed in published

  1. SU-F-T-301: Planar Dose Pass Rate Inflation Due to the MapCHECK Measurement Uncertainty Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D [Northside Hospital Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA (United States); Spaans, J; Kumaraswamy, L; Podgorsak, M [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of the Measurement Uncertainty function on planar dosimetry pass rates, as analyzed with Sun Nuclear Corporation analytic software (“MapCHECK” or “SNC Patient”). This optional function is toggled on by default upon software installation, and automatically increases the user-defined dose percent difference (%Diff) tolerance for each planar dose comparison. Methods: Dose planes from 109 IMRT fields and 40 VMAT arcs were measured with the MapCHECK 2 diode array, and compared to calculated planes from a commercial treatment planning system. Pass rates were calculated within the SNC analytic software using varying calculation parameters, including Measurement Uncertainty on and off. By varying the %Diff criterion for each dose comparison performed with Measurement Uncertainty turned off, an effective %Diff criterion was defined for each field/arc corresponding to the pass rate achieved with MapCHECK Uncertainty turned on. Results: For 3%/3mm analysis, the Measurement Uncertainty function increases the user-defined %Diff by 0.8–1.1% average, depending on plan type and calculation technique, for an average pass rate increase of 1.0–3.5% (maximum +8.7%). For 2%, 2 mm analysis, the Measurement Uncertainty function increases the user-defined %Diff by 0.7–1.2% average, for an average pass rate increase of 3.5–8.1% (maximum +14.2%). The largest increases in pass rate are generally seen with poorly-matched planar dose comparisons; the MapCHECK Uncertainty effect is markedly smaller as pass rates approach 100%. Conclusion: The Measurement Uncertainty function may substantially inflate planar dose comparison pass rates for typical IMRT and VMAT planes. The types of uncertainties incorporated into the function (and their associated quantitative estimates) as described in the software user’s manual may not accurately estimate realistic measurement uncertainty for the user’s measurement conditions. Pass rates listed in published

  2. Investigating the consequences of urban volcanism using a scenario approach II: Insights into transportation network damage and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Daniel M.; Deligne, Natalia I.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Woods, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Transportation networks are critical infrastructure in urban environments. Before, during and following volcanic activity, these networks can incur direct and indirect impacts, which subsequently reduces the Level-of-Service available to transportation end-users. Additionally, reductions in service can arise from management strategies including evacuation zoning, causing additional complications for transportation end-users and operators. Here, we develop metrics that incorporate Level-of-Service for transportation end-users as the key measure of vulnerability for multi-hazard volcanic impact and risk assessments. A hypothetical eruption scenario recently developed for the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, is applied to describe potential impacts of a small basaltic eruption on different transportation modes, namely road, rail, and activities at airports and ports. We demonstrate how the new metrics can be applied at specific locations worldwide by considering the geophysical hazard sequence and evacuation zones in this scenario, a process that was strongly informed by consultation with transportation infrastructure providers and emergency management officials. We also discuss the potential implications of modified hazard sequences (e.g. different wind profiles during the scenario, and unrest with no resulting eruption) on transportation vulnerability and population displacement. The vent area of the eruption scenario used in our study is located north of the Māngere Bridge suburb of Auckland. The volcanic activity in the scenario progresses from seismic unrest, through phreatomagmatic explosions generating pyroclastic surges to a magmatic phase generating a scoria cone and lava flows. We find that most physical damage to transportation networks occurs from pyroclastic surges during the initial stages of the eruption. However, the most extensive service reduction across all networks occurs 6 days prior to the eruption onset, largely attributed to the

  3. Study of microinstabilities due to an anisotropic velocity distribution function of the particles of a homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennion, F.

    1966-06-01

    A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f oi = 1 / (2*π*α p e i *α p a i ) * λ(ν p e - α p e i ) * e -(v p a 2 /α p a i 2 ) . The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy (τ) and electron temperature (T e ). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [fr

  4. Overexpression of IGF-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E.; Walter, Glenn A.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Since insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of viral mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for two weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantar flexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate and muscle damage and recovery was monitored over a period of 2 to 21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by MRI, a nonspecific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1 injected, compared to contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (P<0.05). The reduced prevalence of muscle damage in IGF-1 injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fraction area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-I injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3%vs 54.1±3.6%, P<0.05). Evidence of the effect of IGF-1 on muscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days), and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1 injected limbs (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate a potential role of IGF-1 in protecting unloaded

  5. Importance of the functional state of alveolar macrophages of the lungs for hygienic evaluation of protective reactions and cell damage due to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusl, M; Vyskocil, A; Duerrer, I; Aulika, B V; Litvinov, N N; Merkur' eva, R V

    1983-01-01

    Total number of cells, their viability and ability to adhesion were examined in surface alveolar macrophages isolated from rat livers after exposure to sulphur dioxide during 2, 4 and 6 weeks (0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/m3); to nitrogen oxide during 5, 8 and 15 hours, 28 and 56 days (19 mg/m3) and to carbon monoxide during 2, 28 and 56 days (0.01% or 10 MAC). In the experiment with exposure to sulphur dioxide, the activity of enzymes of varying localization in the macrophages - soluble in the cytoplasm (lactate dehydrogenase) and connected with subcellular structures - lysosomes (beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) was tested by means of biochemical methods in parallel with cytological examinations. Low concentrations of various chemical contaminants of the atmospheric air (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide) have an unfavourable biological effect on rats, manifest in the impairment of local immunity, i.e., decreased number of alveolar macrophages, disturbance of their viability and reduced ability of the macrophages to adhesion. At the same time, sulphur dioxide induces enzyme disorganization in lactate dehydrogenase and in a number of lysosomal enzymes of the macrophages. These results serve as a basis for the recommendation of cytobiochemical methods of elaborating methodological approaches to the regulation of environmental factors. Alveolar macrophages as a constituent part of the mononuclear phagocytic system ensuring local non-specific and specific resistance of the organism form one of the most important cellular mechanisms of protection of the organism against the harmful effect of environmental factors including chemical contaminants of the atmospheric air (1, 2).

  6. Contribution to the damage measurement of reinforced concrete buildings under seismic solicitations: proposal of an improvement for the evaluation of the damaging potential of a signal and of the damage for the girders structures: introduction to the reliability analysis of the damage in terms of the damaging potential of a seismic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naze, P.A.

    2004-12-01

    Building damage measurement during and after an earthquake remains an economical as well as technical stake as difficult to cope with as the problem it raises all the more because its importance depends on the field or the building function: civil, medical, military, nuclear... Even building ruin remains one of the most critical diagnosis to establish. Then since prediction of earthquake still remains impossible, foreseeing structural damages due to seismic motion has become a key point in earthquake engineering. This work aims at evaluating the relevance of classical seismic signal damaging potential indices and at proposing improvement of these indices in order to provide better prediction of structural damage due to earthquake. The first part supplies a non exhaustive state of the art of main Damaging Potential Indices IP and Damage Indices ID used in earthquake engineering. In the second part, IP/ID correlations results are analysed in order to evaluate IP relevance, to justify displacement based approach use (capacity spectrum method) for damage prediction and to make good the proposal for improvement of Damaging Potential Index. But studding seismic signal damaging potential is usually not enough to foresee damage firstly because scalar representation of damaging potential is not easy to link to physics reality and secondly because of damage scattering often observed for a single value of seismic signal damaging potential. In the same way, a single damage index value may correspond to very different structural damage states. Hence, this work carries on with a contribution to damage index reliability improvement, able to detect real structural damage appearance as well as to quantify this damage by associating the distance between one structural sate and the structural collapse, defined as an instability. (author)

  7. Resistance to diet-induced adiposity in cannabinoid receptor-1 deficient mice is not due to impaired adipocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosterveer Maaike H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overactivity and/or dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS contribute to development of obesity. In vitro studies indicate a regulatory role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 in adipocyte function and CB1-receptor deficient (CB1-/- mice are resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. Whether this phenotype of CB1-/- mice is related to altered fat metabolism in adipose tissue is unknown. Methods We evaluated adipose tissue differentiation/proliferation markers and quantified lipogenic and lipolytic activities in fat tissues of CB1-/- and CB1+/+ mice fed a high-fat (HF or a high-fat/fish oil (HF/FO diet as compared to animals receiving a low-fat chow diet. Comparison between HF diet and HF/FO diet allowed to investigate the influence of dietary fat quality on adipose tissue biology in relation to CB1 functioning. Results The adiposity-resistant phenotype of the CB1-/- mice was characterized by reduced fat mass and adipocyte size in HF and HF/FO-fed CB1-/- mice in parallel to a significant increase in energy expenditure as compared to CB1+/+ mice. The expression levels of adipocyte differentiation and proliferation markers were however maintained in these animals. Consistent with unaltered lipogenic gene expression, the fatty acid synthesis rates in adipose tissues from CB1-/- and CB1+/+ mice were unchanged. Whole-body and adipose-specific lipoprotein lipase (LPL activities were also not altered in CB1-/- mice. Conclusions These findings indicate that protection against diet-induced adiposity in CB1-deficient mice is not related to changes in adipocyte function per se, but rather results from increased energy dissipation by oxidative and non-oxidative pathways.

  8. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  9. Changes in work function due to NO2 adsorption on monolayer and bilayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Nuala M.; Armiento, Rickard; Yakimova, Rositsa; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic properties of monolayer graphene grown epitaxially on SiC(0001) are known to be highly sensitive to the presence of NO2 molecules. The presence of small areas of bilayer graphene, on the other hand, considerably reduces the overall sensitivity of the surface. We investigate how NO2 molecules interact with monolayer and bilayer graphene, both free-standing and on a SiC(0001) substrate. We show that it is necessary to explicitly include the effect of the substrate in order to reproduce the experimental results. When monolayer graphene is present on SiC, there is a large charge transfer from the interface between the buffer layer and the SiC substrate to the molecule. As a result, the surface work function increases by 0.9 eV after molecular adsorption. A graphene bilayer is more effective at screening this interfacial charge, and so the charge transfer and change in work function after NO2 adsorption is much smaller.

  10. Producing chicken eggs containing isoflavone as functional food due to feeding effect of soy sauce by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudz, L. D.; Sarjana, T. A.; Muryani, R.; Suthama, N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to verify the impact of feeding soy sauce by-product in producing isoflavone-enriched chicken eggs as functional food. Experiment used 200 laying hens of 80-week old with average body weight of 1,932.75±189.50 g. Experimental diets were formulated using yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, poultry meal, premix, CaCO3, and soy sauce by-product (SSBP). A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replication (10 birds each), was assigned in this experiment. Inclusion levels of SSBP were the treatments, namely, none (T0), 10 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 15.0% (T3). Parameters observed were colour, index, and weight of egg yolk, and isoflavone content. Analysis of variance was applied and continued to Duncan test at 5% probability. Results indicated that yolk colour index and weight were not affected by the treatments, but isoflavone content was significantly (P<0.05) increased by feeding SSBP. Egg yolk isoflavone in T2 (0.41 mg/g) and T3 (0.47 mg/g) were higher than those in T0 (0.31 mg/g) and T1 (0.35 mg/g). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of soy sauce by-product at higher level (12.5 and 15.0%) can produce isoflavone-enriched eggs as functional food.

  11. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, María Florencia; Belluscio, Laura M; de la Fuente, Verónica; Berardino, Bruno G; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Byk, Laura; Marazita, Mariela; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-07-01

    DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CARDIAC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES IN FEMALES WITH UNTREATED HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO SHEEHAN SYNDROME: RESPONSE TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Data on cardiac abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism are limited. We investigated echocardiographic abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism and their response to treatment. Twenty-three females with treatment-naïve hypopituitarism and 30 matched healthy controls were evaluated for cardiac structure and function. Echocardiographic evaluation was done at presentation and after achieving a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Fourteen (61%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and 11 (48%) had pericardial effusion as against none among controls. Indices of left ventricular (LV) size like LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD; 44.5 ± 3.5 mm in cases vs. 47.6 ± 3.8 mm in controls, P = .004), and LV diastolic volume (LVEDV; 91.8 ± 18.0 mL versus 106.5 ± 20.4 mL, P = .009) were significantly lower in the SS group compared with controls. LV mass (LVM) was 70.8 ± 19.2 g in cases and 108.0 ± 33.2 g in controls (P = .02). Similarly, indices of LV systolic function like stroke volume (SV; 59.1 ± 12.0 mL in cases and 74.4 ± 15.8 mL in controls; P = .000), ejection fraction (EF; 64.3 ± 6.2 % in cases against 69.9 ± 9.2 % in controls; P = .03), and fractional shortening (FS; 34.9 ± 4.7% versus 40.1 ± 4.4%, P = .000) were significantly decreased in patients compared with controls. Cardiac abnormalities normalized with restoration of a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Pericardial effusion, mitral regurgitation, and diminished LVM are common in females with untreated hypopituitarism. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone BMI = body mass index DT = deceleration time EDV = end-diastolic volume EF = ejection fraction FS = fractional shortening GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1 ITT = insulin tolerance test IVSd = interventricular septal diameter LH = luteinizing hormone LV = left ventricular LVEDD = LV end diastolic dimension LVEDV = LV end diastolic volume LVM = LV mass MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MVP = mitral value prolapse PPH

  13. Impact of a modified Maze procedure on the atrial hormonal function and level of myocardial damage markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Zheleznev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF in patients with valvular heart disease remains one of the most pressing problems in cardiac surgery. The purpose of the study was to determine the dynamics of proANP and myocardial damage markers depending on a modification of the radiofrequency (RF Maze procedure used. The study involved 86 patients operated over a period from November 2007 to December 2010. A concomitant RF Maze procedure during mitral valve (MV surgery was performed in two groups of the cohort; in group 1 it was the standard Maze IV scheme, in group 2 it was the modified one. In both groups we assessed the levels of proANP and myocardial damage markers. In group 1 a more significant decrease in proANP (by 4 times was seen as compared to group 2 (by half. In group 1, the pleural effusion rate was 46.2%, and thoracocentesis rate reached 25.6%. In group 2, the corresponding rates were lower,14.9% and 27.7%. During the first postoperative day there was an increase in creatine phosphokinase MB fraction and Troponin T in both groups, and the rise was significantly higher in group 1. It should be noted that modified Maze IV RF ablation results in 80% freedom from AF, which is consistent with that of the standard Maze IV scheme. In patients with left atrial ablation the proANP secretion is less prominent early after surgery, and myocardial damage is lower in comparison with biatrial ablation.

  14. Characterizing Early Psychosocial Functioning of Parents of Children with Moderate to Severe Genital Ambiguity due to Disorders of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suorsa, Kristina I; Mullins, Alexandria J; Tackett, Alayna P; Reyes, Kristy J Scott; Austin, Paul; Baskin, Laurence; Bernabé, Kerlly; Cheng, Earl; Fried, Allyson; Frimberger, Dominic; Galan, Denise; Gonzalez, Lynette; Greenfield, Saul; Kropp, Bradley; Meyer, Sabrina; Meyer, Theresa; Nokoff, Natalie; Palmer, Blake; Poppas, Dix; Paradis, Alethea; Yerkes, Elizabeth; Wisniewski, Amy B; Mullins, Larry L

    2015-12-01

    We examined the psychosocial characteristics of parents of children with disorders of sex development at early presentation to a disorders of sex development clinic. Parental anxiety, depression, quality of life, illness uncertainty and posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed. Additionally we evaluated the relationship of assigned child gender to parental outcomes. A total of 51 parents of children with ambiguous or atypical genitalia were recruited from 7 centers specializing in treatment of disorders of sex development. At initial assessment no child had undergone genitoplasty. Parents completed the Cosmetic Appearance Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, SF-36, Parent Perception of Uncertainty Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised. A large percentage of parents (54.5%) were dissatisfied with the genital appearance of their child, and a small but significant percentage reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, diminished quality of life, uncertainty and posttraumatic stress. Few gender differences emerged. Although many parents function well, a subset experience significant psychological distress around the time of diagnosis of a disorder of sex development in their child. Early screening to assess the need for psychosocial interventions is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rate of shunt revision as a function of age in patients with shunted hydrocephalus due to myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupepe, Esther B; Hopson, Betsy; Johnston, James M; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Jerry Oakes, W; Blount, Jeffrey P; Rocque, Brandon G

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE It is generally accepted that cerebrospinal fluid shunts fail most frequently in the first years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of shunt failure for a given patient age in a well-defined cohort with shunted hydrocephalus due to myelomeningocele (MMC). METHODS The authors analyzed data from their institutional spina bifida research database including all patients with MMC and shunted hydrocephalus. For the entire population, the number of shunt revisions in each year of life was determined. Then the number of patients at risk for shunt revision during each year of life was calculated, thus enabling them to calculate the rate of shunt revision per patient in each year of life. In this way, the timing of all shunt revision operations for the entire clinic population and the likelihood of having a shunt revision during each year of life were calculated. RESULTS A total of 655 patients were enrolled in the spina bifida research database, 519 of whom had a diagnosis of MMC and whose mean age was 17.48 ± 11.7 years (median 16 years, range 0-63 years). Four hundred seventeen patients had had a CSF shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus and thus are included in this analysis. There were 94 shunt revisions in the 1st year of life, which represents a rate of 0.23 revisions per patient in that year. The rate of shunt revision per patient-year initially decreased as age increased, except for an increase in revision frequency in the early teen years. Shunt revisions continued to occur as late as 43 years of age. CONCLUSIONS These data substantiate the idea that shunt revision surgeries in patients with MMC are most common in the 1st year of life and decrease thereafter, except for an increase in the early teen years. A persistent risk of shunt failure was observed well into adult life. These findings underscore the importance of routine follow-up of all MMC patients with shunted hydrocephalus and will aid in counseling patients and

  16. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  17. Time-dependent changes in pulmonary surfactant function and composition in acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumonia or aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchenbuch Tim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations to pulmonary surfactant composition have been encountered in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. However, only few data are available regarding the time-course and duration of surfactant changes in ARDS patients, although this information may largely influence the optimum design of clinical trials addressing surfactant replacement therapy. We therefore examined the time-course of surfactant changes in 15 patients with direct ARDS (pneumonia, aspiration over the first 8 days after onset of mechanical ventilation. Methods Three consecutive bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL were performed shortly after intubation (T0, and four days (T1 and eight days (T2 after intubation. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as controls. Phospholipid-to-protein ratio in BAL fluids, phospholipid class profiles, phosphatidylcholine (PC molecular species, surfactant proteins (SP-A, -B, -C, -D, and relative content and surface tension properties of large surfactant aggregates (LA were assessed. Results At T0, a severe and highly significant reduction in SP-A, SP-B and SP-C, the LA fraction, PC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG percentages, and dipalmitoylation of PC (DPPC was encountered. Surface activity of the LA fraction was greatly impaired. Over time, significant improvements were encountered especially in view of LA content, DPPC, PG and SP-A, but minimum surface tension of LA was not fully restored (15 mN/m at T2. A highly significant correlation was observed between PaO2/FiO2 and minimum surface tension (r = -0.83; p Conclusion We concluded that a profound impairment of pulmonary surfactant composition and function occurs in the very early stage of the disease and only gradually resolves over time. These observations may explain why former surfactant replacement studies with a short treatment duration failed to improve outcome and may help to establish optimal composition and duration of surfactant administration in future

  18. Contradiction between plastid gene transcription and function due to complex posttranscriptional splicing: an exemplary study of ycf15 function and evolution in angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shi

    Full Text Available Plant chloroplast genes are usually co-transcribed while its posttranscriptional splicing is fairly complex and remains largely unsolved. On basis of sequencing the three complete Camellia (Theaceae chloroplast genomes for the first time, we comprehensively analyzed the evolutionary patterns of ycf15, a plastid gene quite paradoxical in terms of its function and evolution, along the inferred angiosperm phylogeny. Although many species in separate lineages including the three species reported here contained an intact ycf15 gene in their chloroplast genomes, the phylogenetic mixture of both intact and obviously disabled ycf15 genes imply that they are all non-functional. Both intracellular gene transfer (IGT and horizontal gene transfer (HGT failed to explain such distributional anomalies. While, transcriptome analyses revealed that ycf15 was transcribed as precursor polycistronic transcript which contained ycf2, ycf15 and antisense trnL-CAA. The transcriptome assembly was surprisingly found to cover near the complete Camellia chloroplast genome. Many non-coding regions including pseudogenes were mapped by multiple transcripts, indicating the generality of pseudogene transcriptions. Our results suggest that plastid DNA posttranscriptional splicing may involve complex cleavage of non-functional genes.

  19. Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures

  20. CEREBRAL CORTEX DAMAGE INDUCED BY ACUTE ORAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... This study examines alcohol-induced cerebral cortex damage and the association with oxidative ... alcohol has profound effects on the function ... Chronic use of ..... Alcohol induced brain damage and liver damage in young.

  1. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzeh Gholampour; Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi; Seyed Mohammad Owji; Jaafar Vatanparast

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...

  2. Habitat Modeling and Preferences of Marine Mammals as Function of Oceanographic Characteristics: Development of Predictive Tools for Assessing the Risks and the Impacts Due to Sound Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    evaluate WEC projects in the perspective of the environmental cost-benefit analysis. Proceedings of the ISOPE 2011, Maui, Hawaii, USA 19-24 June, 2011...Function of Oceanographic Characteristics: Development of Predictive Tools for Assessing the Risks and the Impacts Due to Sound Emissions Dr...detections) and the available environmental predictors; - Creating the knowledge-based background about potential mitigation measures appropriate for

  3. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  4. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning: A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Rowlands, Amy; Renouf, Charlotte; Hanna, Donncha; Britt, Eileen; Carter, Janet D

    2015-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4-6 months after the fatal February, 2011 earthquake. Participants were from highly affected and relatively unaffected suburbs in low, medium and high average household income areas. The assessment battery included the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), along with single item measures of substance use, earthquake damage and impact, and disruptions in daily life and relationship functioning. Controlling for age, gender and social isolation, participants from low income areas were more likely to meet diagnostic cut-offs for depression and anxiety, and have more severe anxiety symptoms. Higher probabilities of acute stress, depression and anxiety diagnoses were evident in affected versus unaffected areas, and those in affected areas had more severe acute stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. An interaction between income and earthquake effect was found for depression, with those from the low and medium income affected suburbs more depressed. Those from low income areas were more likely, post-earthquake, to start psychiatric medication and increase smoking. There was a uniform increase in alcohol use across participants. Those from the low income affected suburb had greater general and relationship disruption post-quake. Average household income and damage exposure made unique contributions to earthquake-related distress and dysfunction. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Mechanisms of subsidence for induced damage and techniques for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, E.C.; Bennett, R.M.; Kane, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Structural damage due to mining induced subsidence is a function of the nature of the structure and its position on the subsidence profile. A point on the profile may be in the tensile zone, the compressive zone, or the no-deformation zone at the bottom of the profile. Damage to structures in the tension zone is primarily due to a reduction of support during vertical displacement of the ground surface, and to shear stresses between the soil and structure resulting from horizontal displacements. The damage mechanisms due to tension can be investigated effectively using a two-dimensional plane stress analysis. Structures in the compression zone are subjected to positive moments in the footing and large compressive horizontal stresses in the foundation walls. A plane strain analysis of the foundation wall is utilized to examine compression zone damage mechanisms. The structural aspects affecting each mechanism are identified and potential mitigation techniques are summarized

  6. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  7. [Arm Motor Function Recovery during Rehabilitation with the Use of Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface: a Patient with Severe Brain Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukova, E V; Pavlova, O G; Kurganskaya, M E; Bobrov, P D; Turbina, L G; Frolov, A A; Davydov, V I; Sil'tchenko, A V; Mokienko, O A

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of motor function recovery in a patient with severe brain damage in the course of neurorehabilitation using hand exoskeleton controlled by brain-computer interface. For estimating the motor function of paretic arm, we used the biomechanical analysis of movements registered during the course of rehabilitation. After 15 weekly sessions of hand exoskeleton control, the following results were obtained: a) the velocity profile of goal-directed movements of paretic hand became bell-shaped, b) the patient began to extend and abduct the hand which was flexed and adducted in the beginning of rehabilitation, and c) the patient began to supinate the forearm which was pronated in the beginning of rehabilitation. The first result is an evidence of the general improvement of the quality of motor control, while the second and third results prove that the spasticity of paretic arm has decreased.

  8. Rewiring yeast acetate metabolism through MPC1 loss of function leads to mitochondrial damage and decreases chronological lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During growth on fermentable substrates, such as glucose, pyruvate, which is the end-product of glycolysis, can be used to generate acetyl-CoA in the cytosol via acetaldehyde and acetate, or in mitochondria by direct oxidative decarboxylation. In the latter case, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC is responsible for pyruvate transport into mitochondrial matrix space. During chronological aging, yeast cells which lack the major structural subunit Mpc1 display a reduced lifespan accompanied by an age-dependent loss of autophagy. Here, we show that the impairment of pyruvate import into mitochondria linked to Mpc1 loss is compensated by a flux redirection of TCA cycle intermediates through the malic enzyme-dependent alternative route. In such a way, the TCA cycle operates in a “branched” fashion to generate pyruvate and is depleted of intermediates. Mutant cells cope with this depletion by increasing the activity of glyoxylate cycle and of the pathway which provides the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA. Moreover, cellular respiration decreases and ROS accumulate in the mitochondria which, in turn, undergo severe damage. These acquired traits in concert with the reduced autophagy restrict cell survival of the mpc1∆ mutant during chronological aging. Conversely, the activation of the carnitine shuttle by supplying acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria is sufficient to abrogate the short-lived phenotype of the mutant.

  9. Covariance of dynamic strain responses for structural damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. Y.; Wang, L. X.; Law, S. S.; Nie, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    A new approach to address the practical problems with condition evaluation/damage detection of structures is proposed based on the distinct features of a new damage index. The covariance of strain response function (CoS) is a function of modal parameters of the structure. A local stiffness reduction in structure would cause monotonous increase in the CoS. Its sensitivity matrix with respect to local damages of structure is negative and narrow-banded. The damage extent can be estimated with an approximation to the sensitivity matrix to decouple the identification equations. The CoS sensitivity can be calibrated in practice from two previous states of measurements to estimate approximately the damage extent of a structure. A seven-storey plane frame structure is numerically studied to illustrate the features of the CoS index and the proposed method. A steel circular arch in the laboratory is tested. Natural frequencies changed due to damage in the arch and the damage occurrence can be judged. However, the proposed CoS method can identify not only damage happening but also location, even damage extent without need of an analytical model. It is promising for structural condition evaluation of selected components.

  10. The Reliability and Predictive Ability of a Biomarker of Oxidative DNA Damage on Functional Outcomes after Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Hsieh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the reliability of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and determined its ability to predict functional outcomes in stroke survivors. The rehabilitation effect on 8-OHdG and functional outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-one stroke patients received a 4-week rehabilitation. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The test-retest reliability of 8-OHdG was good (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.76. Upper-limb motor function and muscle power determined by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Medical Research Council (MRC scales before rehabilitation showed significant negative correlation with 8-OHdG (r = −0.38, r = −0.30; p < 0.05. After rehabilitation, we found a fair and significant correlation between 8-OHdG and FMA (r = −0.34 and 8-OHdG and pain (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. Baseline 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with post-treatment FMA, MRC, and pain scores (r = −0.34, −0.31, and 0.25; p < 0.05, indicating its ability to predict functional outcomes. 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased, and functional outcomes were improved after rehabilitation. The exploratory study findings conclude that 8-OHdG is a reliable and promising biomarker of oxidative stress and could be a valid predictor of functional outcomes in patients. Monitoring of behavioral indicators along with biomarkers may have crucial benefits in translational stroke research.

  11. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  12. The Reliability and Predictive Ability of a Biomarker of Oxidative DNA Damage on Functional Outcomes after Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Lin, Keh-Chung; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and determined its ability to predict functional outcomes in stroke survivors. The rehabilitation effect on 8-OHdG and functional outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-one stroke patients received a 4-week rehabilitation. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The test-retest reliability of 8-OHdG was good (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.76). Upper-limb motor function and muscle power determined by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Medical Research Council (MRC) scales before rehabilitation showed significant negative correlation with 8-OHdG (r = −0.38, r = −0.30; p rehabilitation, we found a fair and significant correlation between 8-OHdG and FMA (r = −0.34) and 8-OHdG and pain (r = 0.26, p rehabilitation. The exploratory study findings conclude that 8-OHdG is a reliable and promising biomarker of oxidative stress and could be a valid predictor of functional outcomes in patients. Monitoring of behavioral indicators along with biomarkers may have crucial benefits in translational stroke research. PMID:24743892

  13. Modelling of creep damage development in ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, R. [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The physical creep damage, which is observed in fossil-fired power plants, is mainly due to the formation of cavities and their interaction. It has previously been demonstrated that both the nucleation and growth of creep cavities can be described by power functions in strain for low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels. It possible to show that the physical creep damage is proportional to the product of the number of cavities and their area. Hence, the physical creep damage can also be expressed in terms of the creep strain. In the presentation this physical creep damage is connected to the empirical creep damage classes (1-5). A creep strain-time function, which is known to be applicable to low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels, is used to describe tertiary creep. With this creep strain - time model the residual lifetime can be predicted from the observed damage. For a given damage class the remaining life is directly proportional to the service time. An expression for the time to the next inspection is proposed. This expression is a function of fraction of the total allowed damage, which is consumed till the next inspection. (orig.) 10 refs.

  14. Modelling of creep damage development in ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, R [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The physical creep damage, which is observed in fossil-fired power plants, is mainly due to the formation of cavities and their interaction. It has previously been demonstrated that both the nucleation and growth of creep cavities can be described by power functions in strain for low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels. It possible to show that the physical creep damage is proportional to the product of the number of cavities and their area. Hence, the physical creep damage can also be expressed in terms of the creep strain. In the presentation this physical creep damage is connected to the empirical creep damage classes (1-5). A creep strain-time function, which is known to be applicable to low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels, is used to describe tertiary creep. With this creep strain - time model the residual lifetime can be predicted from the observed damage. For a given damage class the remaining life is directly proportional to the service time. An expression for the time to the next inspection is proposed. This expression is a function of fraction of the total allowed damage, which is consumed till the next inspection. (orig.) 10 refs.

  15. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  16. An anthocyanin-rich strawberry extract protects against oxidative stress damage and improves mitochondrial functionality in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to an oxidizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, Josè L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of the Sveva strawberry polyphenol-rich extract on human dermal fibroblasts against AAPH-induced oxidative stress. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for evaluating the phenolic composition of the fruits. Sveva strawberry presented a high anthocyanin content (639.79 mg per kg fresh fruit), representing ∼86.08% of the total phenolic content, with Pg-3-glc as the most abundant representative (611.18 mg per kg fresh fruit). Only one ellagitannin (agrimoniin) was identified, while two quercetins, three kaempherol derivates, and three ellagic acid derivatives were detected and quantified. Strawberry pre-treatment (0.5 mg ml(-1)) markedly increased human dermal fibroblast viability, with a significant reduction of apoptotic and dead cells, and suppressed AAPH-induced ROS generation, after only 30 minutes of incubation with the oxidizing agent, and lipid peroxidation, against a range of AAPH concentrations tested. Notably, the strawberry extract also improved the mitochondrial functionality: the basal respiratory performance after treatment was ∼1.59-fold higher compared to control cells, while pre-treatment with strawberry extract before oxidative damage increased ∼2.70-fold compared to stressed cells. Our results confirm that the strawberry possesses antioxidant properties, and may be useful for the prevention of free radical-induced skin damage.

  17. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN's IEA-R1 research reactor (PSA level 1) due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami

    2009-01-01

    This work applies the methodology of probabilistic safety assessment level 1 to the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two categories of identified initiating events of accidents in the reactor are studied: loss of flow and loss of primary coolant. Among the initiating events, blockage of flow channel and loss of cooling fluid by major pipe rupture in the primary circuit are chosen for a detailed analysis. The event tree technique is used to analyze the evolution of the accident, including the actuation or the fail of actuation of the safety systems and the reactor damages. Using the fault tree the reliability of the following reactor safety systems is evaluated: reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the electric system. Estimative for the frequency of damage to the reactor core and the probability of failure of the analyzed systems are calculated. The estimated values for the frequencies of core damage are within the expected margins and are of the same order of magnitude as those found for similar reactors. The reliability of the reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool and ECCS are satisfactory for the conditions these systems are required. However, for the electric system it is suggested an upgrade to increase its reliability. (author)

  18. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after RBC transfusion in patients with haematologic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I

    2015-01-01

    function and the endothelium) to RBC transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled from patients with various transfusion-dependent haematologic diseases before 1 and 24 h after RBC transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole-blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate....... Compared to before transfusion, patients had slightly reduced coagulability 1 h after RBC transfusion, assessed by TEG. However, transfusion of older RBC products (>14 days) was associated with increased coagulability (all P level of syndecan-1 increased slightly 24 h after transfusion (median....... The changes observed were small to moderate and the clinical relevance of these findings should be investigated in larger studies....

  19. DNA damage in synchronized hela cells irradiated with ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, C.S.; Collins, A.R.S.; Johnson, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    The lethal effect of uv radiation on HeLa cells is least in mitosis and greatest in late G 1 -early S. Photochemical damage to HeLa DNA, as measured by thymine-containing dimer formation and by alkaline sucrose sedimentation, also increases from mitosis towards early S phase. Computer simulations of uv absorption by an idealized HeLa cell at different stages of the cell cycle indicate that changes in damage could be due solely to changes in chromatin geometry. But survival is not exclusively a function of damage

  20. Heavy Chronic Ethanol Exposure From Adolescence to Adulthood Induces Cerebellar Neuronal Loss and Motor Function Damage in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. R. da Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, heavy ethanol consumption by teenagers/younger adults has increased considerably among females. However, few studies have addressed the long-term impact on brain structures’ morphology and function of chronic exposure to high ethanol doses from adolescence to adulthood in females. In line with this idea, in the current study we investigated whether heavy chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence to adulthood may induce motor impairments and morphological and cellular alterations in the cerebellum of female rats. Adolescent female Wistar rats (35 days old were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v during 55 days by gavage. At 90 days of age, motor function of animals was assessed using open field (OF, pole, beam walking and rotarod tests. Following completion of behavioral tests, morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of the cerebellum were performed. Chronic ethanol exposure impaired significantly motor performance of female rats, inducing spontaneous locomotor activity deficits, bradykinesia, incoordination and motor learning disruption. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that ethanol exposure induced atrophy and neuronal loss in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that heavy ethanol exposure during adolescence is associated with long-lasting cerebellar degeneration and motor impairments in female rats.

  1. The law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law defines the basic system of indemnification of nuclear damage by the operation of reactors to protect sufferers and help the sound development of atomic energy business. The operation of reactors means hereunder the operation of reactors, processing, reprocessing and the uses of nuclear fuel materials as well as transport, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel materials or things contaminated by them, which accompany with those procedures. The nuclear damage signifies injuries due to functions of fission of nuclear fuel materials or radiation or poisonous functions of things contaminated by them. When nuclear damage happens by the operation of reactors, the atomic energy enterpriser concerned shall indemnify the damage. Atomic energy undertakers shall not operate reactors without taking measures for compensation. The measures shall be the conclusion of nuclear damage compensation insurance contracts and indemnification contracts or the deposit. The amount of less than yen 10 milliards specified by the order and acknowledged by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency shall be allotted to the compensation by these measures for each works, enterprise or nuclear ship. The government shall assist atomic energy enterprisers to indemnify, when such compensation surpasses the amount assigned and the support is considered necessary. (Okada, K.)

  2. Spinal Cord Injury due to Tumour or Metastasis in Aragón, Northeastern Spain (1991–2008: Incidence, Time Trends, and Neurological Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayken Elizabeth Louise van den Berg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Understanding the presentation of spinal cord injury (SCI due to tumours considering population distribution and temporal trends is key to managing SCI health services. This study quantified incidence rates, function scores, and trends of SCI due to tumour or metastasis over an 18-year time period in a defined region in Spain. Methods. A retrospective cohort study included in-and outpatients with nontraumatic SCI due to tumour or metastasis admitted to a metropolitan hospital in Spain between 1991 and 2008. Main outcome measures were crude and age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates, tumour location and type, distribution by spinal level, neurological level of injury, and impairment ASIA scores. Results. Primary tumour or metastasis accounted for 32.5% of nontraumatic SCI with an incidence rate of 4.1 per million population. Increasing rates with age and over time were observed. Major pathology groups were intradural-extramedullary masses from which meningiomas and neurinomas accounted for 40%. Lesions were mostly incomplete with predominant ASIA Grade D. Conclusions. Increasing incidence rates of tumour-related SCI over time in the middle-aged and the elderly suggest a growing need for neurooncology health resources in the future.

  3. Mixed function oxidase induction in Carcinus aestuarii. Field and experimental studies for the evaluation of toxicological risk due to Mediterranean contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi, M.C.; Savelli, C.; Casini, S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test and validate the use of mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction, in the crab Carcinus aestuarii, under experimental and field studies, for the evaluation of toxicological risk due to the main contaminants in the Mediterranean. Two different experiments were performed in the laboratory in order to identify the most suitable tissues for MFO studies in this species and the most suitable and sensitive MFO responses for evaluating chemical stress due to lipophilic contaminants. In order to validate this methodology in the field, two studies were carried out in two polluted Mediterranean lagoons: a transplant experiment in Orbetello Lagoon and an in situ experiment in Venice Lagoon. The following MFO responses were investigated in hepatopancres and gills of the crabs: ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activities and reductase enzyme activities. The main results can be summarised as follows: midgut-gland and gills were confirmed to be useful for MFO tests; BPH activity in hepatopancreas was the most suitable and sensitive MFO response for evaluating chemical stress due to Mediterranean contaminants in laboratory and field studies; in the Orbetello Lagoon experiment, a statistically significant difference was found between sites subject to different human impact. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after platelet transfusion in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I

    2015-01-01

    and after platelet transfusion in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled before, 1 and 24 h after platelet transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole blood aggregometry (Multiplate) and thromboelastography (TEG). Endothelial biomarkers (s......OBJECTIVES: The beneficial effect of platelet transfusion on haemostasis is well established, but there is emerging evidence that platelet transfusion induces an inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. BACKGROUND: We investigated haemostatic function and endothelial biomarkers before......ICAM-1, syndecan-1, sThrombomodulin, sVE-Cadherin) and platelet activation biomarkers (sCD40L, TGF-beta) were investigated along with haematology/biochemistry analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included. Despite continued low platelet counts, platelet transfusion normalised the median values...

  5. Application of contact mechanics for fretting damage of fuel rod: part 1 influence functions and numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.; Kang, H. S.; Song, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    For the analysis of the fretting problem of the fuel rods, present paper(Part I) shows the numerical method developed for evaluating the stresses on the contact surfaces between the fuel rods and the spacer grids. Theory of Contact Mechanics was incorporated. Contact area was regarded as a plane strain condition, so plane problem was taken into consideration. Normal stress profile on the contact surface was assumed to be Hertzian. As for the direction of the shear load, a closed load path, e.g. load increase in transverse increase in axial decrease in transverse decrease in axial increase in transverse increase in axial direction was considered for simulating the rod vibration in a reactor core. Partial slip problem was consulted. As for the numerical method, a triangular traction element was utilized and the corresponding influence functions were evaluated. Numerical program has been implemented for the present analysis, of which the validity was verified by comparing the Mindlin-Cattaneo solution

  6. Could myelin damage from radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure help explain the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Johansson, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Myelin provides the electrical insulation for the central and peripheral nervous system and develops rapidly in the first years of life, but continues into mid-life or later. Myelin integrity is vital to healthy nervous system development and functioning. This review outlines the development of myelin through life, and then considers the evidence for an association between myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) typical in the modern world. In RF-EMF peer-reviewed literature examining relevant impacts such as myelin sheath, multiple sclerosis, and other myelin-related diseases, cellular examination was included. There are surprisingly little data available in each area, but considered together a picture begins to emerge in RF-EMF-exposed cases: (1) significant morphological lesions in the myelin sheath of rats; (2) a greater risk of multiple sclerosis in a study subgroup; (3) effects in proteins related to myelin production; and (4) physical symptoms in individuals with functional impairment electrohypersensitivity, many of which are the same as if myelin were affected by RF-EMF exposure, giving rise to symptoms of demyelination. In the latter, there are exceptions; headache is common only in electrohypersensitivity, while ataxia is typical of demyelination but infrequently found in the former group. Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals.

  7. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  8. Structure of a Novel DNA-binding Domain of Helicase-like Transcription Factor (HLTF) and Its Functional Implication in DNA Damage Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishiki, Asami; Hara, Kodai; Ikegaya, Yuzu; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-05-22

    HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor) is a yeast RAD5 homolog found in mammals. HLTF has E3 ubiquitin ligase and DNA helicase activities, and plays a pivotal role in the template-switching pathway of DNA damage tolerance. HLTF has an N-terminal domain that has been designated the HIRAN (HIP116 and RAD5 N-terminal) domain. The HIRAN domain has been hypothesized to play a role in DNA binding; however, the structural basis of, and functional evidence for, the HIRAN domain in DNA binding has remained unclear. Here we show for the first time the crystal structure of the HIRAN domain of human HLTF in complex with DNA. The HIRAN domain is composed of six β-strands and two α-helices, forming an OB-fold structure frequently found in ssDNA-binding proteins, including in replication factor A (RPA). Interestingly, this study reveals that the HIRAN domain interacts with not only with a single-stranded DNA but also with a duplex DNA. Furthermore, the structure unexpectedly clarifies that the HIRAN domain specifically recognizes the 3'-end of DNA. These results suggest that the HIRAN domain functions as a sensor to the 3'-end of the primer strand at the stalled replication fork and that the domain facilitates fork regression. HLTF is recruited to a damaged site through the HIRAN domain at the stalled replication fork. Furthermore, our results have implications for the mechanism of template switching. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Amendment damages the function of continuous flooding in decreasing Cd and Pb uptake by rice in acid paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinxin; Li, Hongying; Zhang, Ligan; Chai, Rushan; Tu, Renfeng; Gao, Hongjian

    2018-01-01

    Combinations of remediation technologies are needed to solve the problem of soil contamination in paddy rice, due to multiple potential toxic elements (PTEs). Two potential mitigation methods, water management and in-situ remediation by soil amendment, have been widely used in treatment of PTE-polluted paddy soil. However, the interactive relationship between soil amendment and water management, and its influence on the accumulation of PTEs in rice are poorly understood. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of phosphate amendment on Cd and Pb availability in soil and their influence on Cd and Pb uptake into rice, on Fe and P availability in soil, and on the alteration of Fe amount and compartment on root surface among different water management strategies. Results indicated that Cd and Pb content in the shoot and grain were significantly affected by the different water management strategies in nonamended soils, and followed the order: wetting irrigation > conventional irrigation > continuous flooding. The application of phosphate amendment significantly decreased the variations of Cd and Pb absorption in shoot and grain of rice among different water treatments. The reasons may be attributed to the enhancement of P availability and the decrease of Fe availability in soil, and the decreased variations of Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ content in root coating after the application of phosphate amendment. These results suggested that the simultaneous use of phosphate amendment and continuous flooding to immobilize Cd and Pb, especially in acid paddy soils, should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SU-E-J-164: Estimation of DVH Variation for PTV Due to Interfraction Organ Motion in Prostate VMAT Using Gaussian Error Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C; Jiang, R; Chow, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We developed a method to predict the change of DVH for PTV due to interfraction organ motion in prostate VMAT without repeating the CT scan and treatment planning. The method is based on a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curves of PTV modelled by the Gaussian error function (GEF). Methods: For a group of 30 patients with different prostate sizes, their VMAT plans were recalculated by shifting their PTVs 1 cm with 10 increments in the anterior-posterior, left-right and superior-inferior directions. The DVH curve of PTV in each replan was then fitted by the GEF to determine parameters describing the shape of curve. Information of parameters, varying with the DVH change due to prostate motion for different prostate sizes, was analyzed and stored in a database of a program written by MATLAB. Results: To predict a new DVH for PTV due to prostate interfraction motion, prostate size and shift distance with direction were input to the program. Parameters modelling the DVH for PTV were determined based on the pre-calculated patient dataset. From the new parameters, DVH curves of PTVs with and without considering the prostate motion were plotted for comparison. The program was verified with different prostate cases involving interfraction prostate shifts and replans. Conclusion: Variation of DVH for PTV in prostate VMAT can be predicted using a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curve fitting. The computing time is fast because CT rescan and replan are not required. This quick DVH estimation can help radiation staff to determine if the changed PTV coverage due to prostate shift is tolerable in the treatment. However, it should be noted that the program can only consider prostate interfraction motions along three axes, and is restricted to prostate VMAT plan using the same plan script in the treatment planning system

  11. Evaluation of liver function in carbon tetrachloride-damaged rabbits by dynamic SPECT. Comparison of 99mTc-GSA and 99mTc-Sn colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Yukiko; Hino, Ichirou; Kojima, Kanji; Ohkawa, Motoomi; Tanabe, Masatada; Tamai, Toyosato.

    1994-01-01

    Technetium-99m-DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) is a new ligand that binds specifically to asialoglycoprotein receptors in hepatocytes. We performed liver dynamic SPECT using 99m Tc-GSA and 99m Tc-Sn colloid in nine normal control rabbits and 17 chronically CCl 4 -damaged rabbits (total 29 examinations), and also performed liver function tests (ICGR 15 , Alb, etc). Using the obtained dynamic SPECT data, we analyzed the liver kinetics of 99m Tc-Sn colloid using a one-compartment model (hepatic blood flow [K]) and 99m Tc-GSA using a two-compartment model (hepatic blood flow and receptor binding [K 1 ], catabolism [K 2 ]). As the CCl 4 -treated period increased, K 1 decreased most significantly. K 1 showed the most statistically significant correlation with the results of liver function tests, ICGR 15 (p 1 showed a correlation with the hepatic fibrosis of the HAI score. From the present results, liver dynamic SPECT using 99m Tc-GSA may be said to provide a novel method for the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve. (author)

  12. Possible Radiation-Induced Damage to the Molecular Structure of Wooden Artifacts Due to Micro-Computed Tomography, Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Kozachuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to ascertain whether radiation produced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, micro-computed tomography (μCT and/or portable handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF equipment might damage wood artifacts during analysis. Changes at the molecular level were monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. No significant changes in FTIR spectra were observed as a result of μCT or handheld XRF analysis. No substantial changes in the collected FTIR spectra were observed when XPS analytical times on the order of minutes were used. However, XPS analysis collected over tens of hours did produce significant changes in the FTIR spectra.

  13. Telomerase activity-independent function of telomerase reverse transcriptase is involved in acrylamide-induced neuron damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Pan, H; Wang, J; Liu, X; Hu, X

    2014-07-01

    Polyacrylamide is used widely in industry, and its decomposition product, acrylamide (ACR), readily finds its way into commonly consumed cosmetics and baked and fried foods. ACR exerts potent neurotoxic effects in human and animal models. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, traditionally has been considered to play an important role in maintaining telomere length. Emerging evidence has shown, however, that TERT plays an important role in neuroprotection by inhibiting apoptosis and excitotoxicity, and by promoting angiogenesis, neuronal survival and neurogenesis, which are closely related to the telomere-independent functions of TERT. We investigated whether and how the TERT pathway is involved in ACR induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. We found that ACR 1) significantly reduced the viability of cortical neurons as measured by MTT assay, 2) induced neuron apoptosis as revealed by FITC-conjugated Annexin V/PI double staining and flow cytometry (FACS) analysis, 3) elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3, and 4) decreased bcl-2 expression of cortical neurons. ACR also increased intracellular ROS levels in cortical neurons, increased MDA levels and reduced GSH, SOD and GSH-Px levels in mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner. We found that TERT expression in mitochondria was increased by ACR at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mM, but TERT expression was decreased by 10 mM ACR. Telomerase activity, however, was undetectable in rat cortical neurons. Our results suggest that the TERT pathway is involved in ACR induced apoptosis of cortical neurons. TERT also may exert its neuroprotective role in a telomerase activity-independent way, especially in mitochondria.

  14. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN'S IEA-R1 research reactor due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Cabral, Eduardo Lobo Lustosa

    2009-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), which is the Brazilian nuclear regulatory commission, imposes safety and licensing standards in order to ensure that the nuclear power plants operate in a safe way. For licensing a nuclear reactor one of the demands of CNEN is the simulation of some accidents and thermalhydraulic transients considered as design base to verify the integrity of the plant when submitted to adverse conditions. The accidents that must be simulated are those that present large probability to occur or those that can cause more serious consequences. According to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) the initiating event that can cause the largest damage in the core, of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, is the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The objective of this paper is estimate the frequency of the IEA-R1 core damage, caused by this initiating event. In this paper we analyze the accident evolution and performance of the systems which should mitigate this event: the Emergency Coolant Core System (ECCS) and the isolated pool system. They will be analyzed by means of the event tree. In this work the reliability of these systems are also quantified using the fault tree. (author)

  15. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  16. Nerve transfers for restoration of upper extremity motor function in a child with upper extremity motor deficits due to transverse myelitis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, Michael J; Belzberg, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    Transverse myelitis (TM) may result in permanent neurologic dysfunction. Nerve transfers have been developed to restore function after peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a case report of a child with permanent right upper extremity weakness due to TM that underwent nerve transfers. The following procedures were performed: double fascicle transfer from median nerve and ulnar nerve to the brachialis and biceps branches of the musculocutaneous nerve, spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve, and medial cord to axillary nerve end-to-side neurorraphy. At 22 months, the patient demonstrated excellent recovery of elbow flexion with minimal improvement in shoulder abduction. We propose that the treatment of permanent deficits from TM represents a novel indication for nerve transfers in a subset of patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of the absorbed dose during studies of the renal function due to I123 / I131 (hippuran) and In111 (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, M.; Castillo, C.; Sarachaga, R.; Rojas, R.; Zelada, L.; Melendez, J.; Gomez, M.; Diaz, E.

    2014-08-01

    Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for kidneys, bladder, and whole body as organs of the bio-kinetics of I 123 / I 131 (hippuran) and the In 111 (D PTA), the absorbed dose for studies of the renal function of adults due to the I 123 is 0,0071 mGy/MBq where 88.16% corresponds to its auto-dose and 11,96% to the organs of their bio-kinetics; while for the I 131 their dose is 0,032 mGy/MBq where 95,03% corresponds to its auto-dose and 4,97% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. For the In 111 their dose is 0,0168 mGy/MBq where 71,68% corresponds to their auto-dose and 28,32% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. In all the cases the dosimetric contributions of the organs of the bio-kinetics (whole body and urinary bladder) are very significant, and this fundamentally is due to the photons of the whole body. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of ischemic damage of the corticospinal tract by diffusion tensor MRI. Utility in predicting functional outcome of corona radiata infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideki; Matsuno, Akira; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Mineko; Ono, Seiichi; Takeuchi, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Motor impairment is one of the most frequent symptoms among stroke patients and often leads to post-stroke dependency, so evaluation of motor symptoms and underlining corticospinal tract (CST) damage is of prime importance. Motor impairment, ischemic lesion by diffusion weighted MRI, and clinical outcome were assessed in 15 acute to early subacute corona radiata infarct patients. Motor impairment was graded severe: limb movement synergy level, moderate: selective muscle activity possible and mild: isolated movements are well coordinated. Outcome at the time of discharge was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Diffusion tensor MRI (GE Signa Excite system 1.5 T, Echo Planar Imaging, MPG 15) was conducted at 2.3±2.2 days from the onset of the clinical symptoms. CST was delineated 3-dimensionally with dTV.II.SR and Volume-one 1.72. CST-FA (fractional anisotropy) ratio and CST-Area % were calculated at the slice where CST-infarct overlap was maximal. CST-FA ratio and CST-Area % showed good correlation to motor impairment at presentation. Patients with severe motor impairment had lower CST-FA ratio and CSF-Area % than those with moderate or mild. CST-FA ratio was 0.73±0.22 in patients with poor clinical outcome (mRS 3-6) and 0.93±0.09 with good clinical outcome (mRS 0-2) (p=0.038). Diffusion tensor MRI is useful in evaluating ischemic CST damage and predicting functional outcome in patients with corona radiata infarcts in the acute to subacute stage. (author)

  19. Estimating the lifetimes of titanium containers for nuclear fuel waste: A damage function for the crevice corrosion of grade-2 titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Ikeda, B.M.; Quinn, M.J.; Kolar, M.

    1995-06-01

    The assumptions upon which the lifetime failure model used in the postclosure assessment is based are reevaluated. In particular, the conservations involved in assuming that crevice initiation would occur, and that sufficient oxygen would be present to maintain crevice propagation to failure, are discussed. Unless the period required to saturate the environment around the container can be specified with some certainty, it remains necessary to assume corrosion would initiate rapidly on all containers. A modified version of the container lifetime model has been developed which avoids the need to use averaged temperature profiles. In this model, these profiles are converted to propagation rate profiles using an experimental activation energy and then numerically integrated to predict container failure times. A damage function is developed relating the maximum depth of penetration by crevice corrosion to either the time since emplacement in the vault or the total amount of oxygen consumed. This function is used to estimate the maximum penetration depth expected if all the oxygen available in a borehole is consumed in crevice corrosion and to determine the impact on container lifetimes of various repassivation criteria. The factors likely to cause repassivation are summarized, and a number of engineering approaches to extending container lifetimes suggested. (author). 22 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  20. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  1. Recovery of phage lambda from ultraviolet damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoret, R.; Blanco, M.; George, J.; Radman, M.

    1975-01-01

    Recovery of phage lambda from ultraviolet damage can occur, in the dark, through three types of repair processes as defined by microbiological tests: host-cell reactivation, prophage reactivation, and uv reactivation. This paper reviews the properties of the three repair processes, analyzes their dependence on the functioning of bacterial and phage genes, and discusses their relationship. Progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the three repair processes has been relatively slow, particularly for uv reactivation. It has been shown that host-cell reactivation is due to pyrimidine dimer excision and that prophage reactivation is due to genetic recombination (prereplicative). We provide evidence showing that neither of these mechanisms accounts for uv reactivation of phage lambda. Furthermore, uv reactivation differs from the other repair processes in that it is inducible and error-prone. Whether uv-damaged bacterial DNA is subject to a similar repair process is still an open question

  2. Impaired left ventricular systolic function reserve limits cardiac output and exercise capacity in HFpEF patients due to systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Michael; Mörner, Stellan; Lindmark, Krister; Lindqvist, Per

    2013-09-30

    Heart failure (HF) patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (HFpEF) due to systemic hypertension (SHT) are known to have limited exercise tolerance. Despite having normal EF at rest, we hypothesize that these patients have abnormal systolic function reserve limiting their exercise capacity. Seventeen patients with SHT (mean age 68 ± 9 years) but no valve disease and 14 healthy individuals (mean age of 65 ± 10 years) underwent resting and peak exercise echocardiography using conventional, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking techniques. The differences between resting and peak exercise values were also analyzed (Δ). Exercise capacity was determined as the workload divided by body surface area. Resting values for left atrial (LA) volume/BSA (r=-0.66, pexercise capacity. LVEF increased during exercise in normals (mean Δ EF=10 ± 8%) but failed to do so in patients (mean Δ EF=0.6 ± 9%, pexercise in patients, to the same extent as it did in normals (0.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 1/s, pexercise (Δ) in LV lateral wall systolic velocity from tissue Doppler (s') (0.71, pexercise capacity independent of changes in heart rate. HFpEF patients with hypertensive LV disease have significantly limited exercise capacity which is related to left atrial enlargement as well as compromised LV systolic function at the time of the symptoms. The limited myocardial systolic function reserve seems to be underlying important explanation for their limited exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [High-frequency rotation sensation function damage of the crista of the horizontal semicircular canal induced by gentamicin and its morphological basis.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; He, Ming; Wang, Wu-Qing

    2009-12-25

    The goal of the present study was to explore high-frequency rotation sensation function damage of the crista of the horizontal semicircular canal induced by gentamicin and its morphological basis. The guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups (group 1, 2, 3 and control group, n=20). The animals of treated groups received gentamicin subcutaneously (50 mg/kg per day) for 1 week (group 1), 2 weeks (group 2) and 3 weeks (group 3), respectively. The animals of control group were administered with equal volume of saline subcutaneously. Videonystagmography (VNG) evoked by ice water or high-frequency rotations, and vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) evoked by low- and high-frequency rotations were recorded after the administration. After VNG and VsEP were examined, the cristae of the horizontal semicircular canals were prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results are as follows: (1) In VNG examination, after ice water stimulation, no obvious nystagmus was observed in the animals of group 3, and there was no significant difference in nystagmus frequency and duration among group 1, 2 and control group (P>0.05). After high- frequency rotations, no obvious nystagmus was yet observed in the animals of group 3. There were significant differences in the nystagmus frequency and duration of the VNG waves between the experimental group 2 and control group (P0.05). (2) In VsEP examination, there was no significant difference in the parameters of VsEP among group 1, 2 and control group (P>0.05), and VsEP was not observed in group 3 after low-frequency rotations. After high- frequency rotations, compared with control group, the latencies and amplitudes of P1 and P2 in group 2 significantly decreased (P0.05). Group 3 had no response of VsEP to high-frequency rotations. (3) Electron microscopy was used to observe the crista hair cells of the four groups. In control group, the hair cells were normal. In group 1, almost normal appearance with slight

  4. Intrinsic Patterns of Coupling between Correlation and Amplitude of Low-Frequency fMRI Fluctuations Are Disrupted in Degenerative Dementia Mainly due to Functional Disconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, Daniele; DiNuzzo, Mauro; Gili, Tommaso; Moraschi, Marta; Fratini, Michela; Maraviglia, Bruno; Serra, Laura; Bozzali, Marco; Giove, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Low frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of the BOLD signal are a major discovery in the study of the resting brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two fMRI-based measures, functional connectivity (FC), a measure of signal synchronicity, and the amplitude of LFFs (ALFF), a measure of signal periodicity, have been proved to be sensitive to changes induced by several neurological diseases, including degenerative dementia. In spite of the increasing use of these measures, whether and how they are related to each other remains to be elucidated. In this work we used voxel-wise FC and ALFF computed in different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; and full-band: 0.01-0.073 Hz), in order to assess their relationship in healthy elderly as well as the relevant changes induced by Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We found that in healthy elderly subjects FC and ALFF are positively correlated in anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (full-band, slow-4 and slow-5), temporal cortex (full-band and slow-5), and in a set of subcortical regions (full-band and slow-4). These correlation patterns between FC and ALFF were absent in either AD or MCI patients. Notably, the loss of correlation between FC and ALFF in the AD group was primarily due to changes in FC rather than in ALFF. Our results indicate that degenerative dementia is characterized by a loss of global connection rather than by a decrease of fluctuation amplitude. PMID:25844531

  5. DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF MYOCARDIUM DUE TO COMBINATION THERAPY WITH AMLODIPINE AND BISOPROLOL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Zapesochnaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of 6-month therapy with combination of amlodipine and bisoprolol on the structural and functional status of the myocardium in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients who live in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra were divided into two groups depending on arrangement of working time. The first group included 72 patients who work only day shift; the second group – 68 patients who work alternate (day/night shifts. Combination therapy with amlodipine and bisoprolol assigned to all patients. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, after 12 weeks, and after 6 months of therapy.Results. The target blood pressure (BP level in group 1 was achieved in 92.9%. A share of patients with normal left ventricular (LV geometry increased from 37.5 to 44.8%; a share of patients with concentric and eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH decreased from 30.6 to 23.9% and 19.4 to 19.2%, respectively. Target BP level in group 2 was achieved in 87.9%. A share of patients with normal LV geometry increased from 23.5 to 33.3%; while share of patients with concentric and eccentric LVH decreased from 45.6 to 38.1% and from 19.1 to 17.4%, respectively. A positive correlation between LV myocardial index and average daily systolic and diastolic BP was found.Conclusion. Revealed changes in BP and in LV structure and function due to treatment with amlodipine and bisoprolol can be considered as cardioprotective effect of this combination in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North. This effect was more pronounced in hypertensive patients working alternate (day/night shifts.

  6. DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF MYOCARDIUM DUE TO COMBINATION THERAPY WITH AMLODIPINE AND BISOPROLOL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Zapesochnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of 6-month therapy with combination of amlodipine and bisoprolol on the structural and functional status of the myocardium in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients who live in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra were divided into two groups depending on arrangement of working time. The first group included 72 patients who work only day shift; the second group – 68 patients who work alternate (day/night shifts. Combination therapy with amlodipine and bisoprolol assigned to all patients. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, after 12 weeks, and after 6 months of therapy.Results. The target blood pressure (BP level in group 1 was achieved in 92.9%. A share of patients with normal left ventricular (LV geometry increased from 37.5 to 44.8%; a share of patients with concentric and eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH decreased from 30.6 to 23.9% and 19.4 to 19.2%, respectively. Target BP level in group 2 was achieved in 87.9%. A share of patients with normal LV geometry increased from 23.5 to 33.3%; while share of patients with concentric and eccentric LVH decreased from 45.6 to 38.1% and from 19.1 to 17.4%, respectively. A positive correlation between LV myocardial index and average daily systolic and diastolic BP was found.Conclusion. Revealed changes in BP and in LV structure and function due to treatment with amlodipine and bisoprolol can be considered as cardioprotective effect of this combination in hypertensive patients who work in the Far North. This effect was more pronounced in hypertensive patients working alternate (day/night shifts.

  7. Modeling laser damage to the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Clifton D.

    significantly for wavelengths in the near infrared due to an increase in the absorption coefficient for these long wavelengths. This means that less energy actually reaches the retina, but it also means that more energy is absorbed by the vitreous which can lead to significant temperature rises. The refractive index of water is known to depend on temperature, and the vitreous has very similar optical properties to water, so temperature gradients in the vitreous lead to refractive index gradients that act as a lens. Since the refractive index of water decreases with an increase in temperature, the overall effect is to establish a negative lens that defocuses a beam inside the eye during a laser exposure. This effect is a potential protection mechanism for the retina, as it would limit the time for which a laser can be sharply focused on the retina. Our model agrees well with thermal lensing measurements that have been conducted in water and we have used it to predict the retinal damage threshold as a function of exposure duration for 1318 nm exposures at various beam diameters. The model predicts that the damage threshold remains constant after some exposure time, which depends on the beam diameter. This is due mainly to the fact the retinal temperature rise is limited by the thermal lens and reaches a peak value in a relatively short time (on the order of 10 ms), which limits the amount of time that a laser exposure can cause damage. Finally, in Chapter 6 we describe the first steps we have taken in building a comprehensive short pulse retina damage model. Currently, no model capable of predicting retinal damage outcome based on the exposure parameters at the cornea exists. Models of possible damage mechanisms do exist (the damage mechanism for pulses less than about 1 mus are non-thermal), but these models assume that the exposure parameters are known at the absorption site (the retina). We have constructed a configurable, linear short pulse propagation model, that is capable

  8. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  9. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  10. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Gholampour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7: Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection. After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p

  11. Experimental Study on Damage Detection in Timber Specimens Based on an Electromechanical Impedance Technique and RMSD-Based Mahalanobis Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansheng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the electromechanical impedance (EMI method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens. In addition, the conventional damage index, namely root mean square deviation (RMSD is employed to evaluate the level of damage. On that basis, a new damage index, Mahalanobis distance based on RMSD, is proposed to evaluate the damage severity of timber specimens. Experimental studies are implemented to detect notch and hole damage in the timber specimens. Experimental results verify the availability and robustness of the proposed damage index and its superiority over the RMSD indexes.

  12. Permeability Damage Due to Asphaltene Deposition : Experimental and Modeling Aspects Endommagement d'un milieu poreux par dépôts d'asphaltènes : expériences et modélisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minssieux L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The flow properties of several asphaltenic crudes were studied at reservoir temperature in rocks of different morphology and mineralogy. The experiments performed showed a progressive reduction in permeability to oil during injection, varying in rate according to the system considered. The existence of organic deposits was verified by Rock-Evalpyrolysis measurements made on sections of samples taken at the end of flow at different distances from the entry face. This technique enables the profile of the deposits to be quantified. The interpretation of the permeability damage experiments and their simulation are treated by comparing the asphaltenes in oil to colloidal particles in suspension, capable of being deposited at the surface of the pores and thus reducing the permeability of the porous medium. The first simulations were carried out using the PARISIFP particle damage model, which has recently been extended to the case of multi-layer deposition. A satisfactory qualitative agreement is observed with the experimental results. Les propriétés d'écoulement de plusieurs bruts asphalténiques ont été étudiées à la température du réservoir d'origine dans des roches de morphologie et minéralogie différentes. Les expériences réalisées mettent en évidence une réduction progressive de la perméabilité à l'huile au cours de l'injection, plus ou moins rapide selon les cas. L'existence de dépôts organiques a été vérifiée par des mesures de pyrolyse Rock-Evaleffectuées sur des sections d'échantillons prélevées en fin d'écoulement à différentes distances de la face d'entrée. Cette technique permet de quantifier le profil des dépôts. L'interprétation des expériences de colmatage et leur simulation sont traitées en assimilant les asphaltènes dans l'huile à des particules colloïdales en suspension, susceptibles de se déposer à la surface des pores et ainsi de réduire la perméabilité du milieu poreux. Les premi

  13. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  14. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on mitochondrial function of neuronal cells in the cortex of neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The timing and mechanisms of protection by hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD have only been partially elucidated. We monitored the effect of HBO on the mitochondrial function of neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats after HIBD. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (total of 360 of both genders were randomly divided into normal control, HIBD, and HIBD+HBO groups. The HBO treatment began immediately after hypoxia-ischemia (HI and continued once a day for 7 consecutive days. Animals were euthanized 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h post-HI to monitor the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm occurring soon after a single dose of HBO treatment, as well as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days post-HI to study ΔΨm changes after a series of HBO treatments. Fluctuations in ΔΨm were observed in the ipsilateral cortex in both HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups. Within 2 to 12 h after HI insult, the ΔΨm of the HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups recovered to some extent. A secondary drop in ΔΨm was observed in both groups during the 1-4 days post-HI period, but was more severe in the HIBD+HBO group. There was a secondary recovery of ΔΨm observed in the HIBD+HBO group, but not in the HIBD group, during the 5-7 days period after HI insult. HBO therapy may not lead to improvement of neural cell mitochondrial function in the cerebral cortex in the early stage post-HI, but may improve it in the sub-acute stage post-HI.

  15. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung

    2008-01-01

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the service

  16. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  17. Orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved mouse ovaries and gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues in the restoration of function following chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    Full Text Available Therapy advances are constantly improving survival rates of cancer patients, however the toxic effects of chemotherapy drugs can seriously affect patients' quality of life. In women, fertility and premature ovarian endocrine dysfunction are of particular concern. It is urgently we find methods to preserve or reconstruct ovarian function for these women. This study compares GnRHa treatment with ovarian tissue cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation in a chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage murine model. 56 inbred Lewis rats were divided into 4 treatment groups: Saline control (group I; cyclophosphamide only (group II; cyclophosphamide plus GnRHa (group III; cyclophosphamide and grafting of thawed cryopreserved ovaries (group IV. Body weight, estrous cycle recovery time, ovarian weight, morphology and follicle count, as well as breeding and fertility were compared among groups. Only group IV was able to restore to normal body weight by the end of the observation period and resumed normal estrous cycles in a shorter time compared to other treatment groups. There was a decrease in primordial follicles in all treatment groups, but group III had the greatest reduction. Although, there was no difference in pregnancy, only one animal littered normal pups in group II, none littered in group III and four littered in group IV. Thus, cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of ovarian tissue can restore the fertility of rats subjected to chemotherapy in a manner that is superior to GnRHa treatment. We also observed increased rates of hepatic, splenic and pulmonary haemorrhage in group III, suggesting there may be synergistic toxicity of GnRHa and cyclophosphamide.

  18. Foveal damage in habitual poppers users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audo, Isabelle; El Sanharawi, Mohamed; Vignal-Clermont, Catherine; Villa, Antoine; Morin, Annie; Conrath, John; Fompeydie, Dominique; Sahel, José-Alain; Gocho-Nakashima, Kiyoko; Goureau, Olivier; Paques, Michel

    2011-06-01

    To describe foveal damage in habitual use of poppers, a popular recreational drug. Retrospective observational case series. Six patients with bilateral vision loss after chronic popper inhalation were seen in 4 university-based ophthalmology departments. Symptoms, medical history, ophthalmic examination, and functional and morphological tests are described. All patients experienced progressive bilateral vision loss, with central photopsia in 2 cases. Initial visual acuities ranged from 20/50 to 20/25. In all patients, a bilateral yellow foveal spot was present that, by optical coherence tomography, was associated with disruption of the outer segments of foveal cones. Functional and anatomical damage was restricted to the fovea. The poppers involved were identified as isopropyl nitrite in 3 cases. Four patients showed anatomical and/or functional improvement over several months after discontinuing popper inhalation. Repeated inhalation of poppers may be associated with prolonged bilateral vision loss due to the disruption of foveal cone outer segments. Retinal damage may progressively improve following drug discontinuation.

  19. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  20. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  1. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  2. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  3. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  4. Poly(GR) in C9ORF72-Related ALS/FTD Compromises Mitochondrial Function and Increases Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Lu, Yubing; Gendron, Tania F; Karydas, Anna; Tran, Helene; Yang, Dejun; Petrucelli, Leonard; Miller, Bruce L; Almeida, Sandra; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2016-10-19

    GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common genetic cause of both ALS and FTD. To uncover underlying pathogenic mechanisms, we found that DNA damage was greater, in an age-dependent manner, in motor neurons differentiated from iPSCs of multiple C9ORF72 patients than control neurons. Ectopic expression of the dipeptide repeat (DPR) protein (GR) 80 in iPSC-derived control neurons increased DNA damage, suggesting poly(GR) contributes to DNA damage in aged C9ORF72 neurons. Oxidative stress was also increased in C9ORF72 neurons in an age-dependent manner. Pharmacological or genetic reduction of oxidative stress partially rescued DNA damage in C9ORF72 neurons and control neurons expressing (GR) 80 or (GR) 80 -induced cellular toxicity in flies. Moreover, interactome analysis revealed that (GR) 80 preferentially bound to mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, poly(GR) in C9ORF72 neurons compromises mitochondrial function and causes DNA damage in part by increasing oxidative stress, revealing another pathogenic mechanism in C9ORF72-related ALS and FTD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  6. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries

  7. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  8. A Coupled Plastic Damage Model for Concrete considering the Effect of Damage on Plastic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Feng; Cheng, Guangxu

    2015-01-01

    A coupled plastic damage model with two damage scalars is proposed to describe the nonlinear features of concrete. The constitutive formulations are developed by assuming that damage can be represented effectively in the material compliance tensor. Damage evolution law and plastic damage coupling are described using the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. The plasticity part is developed without using the effective stress concept. A plastic yield function based on the true stress is ado...

  9. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order

  10. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Krashevska

    Full Text Available Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  11. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  12. What is at Risk? [Excluding Damages due to Physical Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Possible Targets: Relay Configurations; Control System Settings – Changing of control parameters, limiting values; Erasing complete data from SCADA servers. Freezing values of critical line loadings. Denial of Service (communication to control room)

  13. Simulation of SANS signal due to radiation damage in Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, G.; Schaublin, R.; Spatig, P.; Fikar, J.; Baluc, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A wide number of irradiation-induced de