WorldWideScience

Sample records for daitai nenryo seizo

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the development of technologies for utilizing biological resources such as complex biosystems. Development of technologies for producing substitute fuel for petroleum by utilizing organisms; 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technologies of producing useful substances using the substance decomposing/producing functions of complex biosystems and methods of their handling are developed. In the utilization of microbes in the digestive tracts of termites and longicorns, it is made clear that several kinds of termites cleave the {beta}-O-4 ether linkage. In relation to technologies for wood decomposing complex microbial system construction and complex vector system development, a screening system is constructed in which strains that exhibit complex actions are combined. Concerning the advanced utilization of tropical oil plants, conditions are determined for inducing callus out of oil palm tissues. Out of oil palm sarcocarp tissues, mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) is isolated for the construction of a cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) library. For the purpose of isolating a powerful promoter, a partial base sequence is determined for ubiquitin that frequently expresses itself in cells. A pathogenic bacterium ailing the oil palm is sampled for identification, and it is inferred that the bacterium is a kind of Ganoderma boninense. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1997 report on the results of the industrial technology R and D project. Development of technology to use biological resources such as the complex biological system (Development of biological use petroleum substitution fuel production technology); 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Experimental researches were conducted and the FY 1997 results were reported with the aim of establishing analytical technology for the complex biological system by which the complex biological system can be analyzed in such a state as it is using the molecular biological method. In the study of the molecular genetic analytical technology, PCR primers used for amplification of topoisomerase II genes of the whole eukaryote was designed. As to the histochemical analytical technology, a study was made on the new constitution microorganism detection method by the hybridization method and the antibody specific dyeing method, and the following were conducted: manifestation in quantity of colibacillus and the recovery, refining, and construction of peptide library by fuzzy display method. Concerning the functional analytical technology, technological researches were made such as the environmental adaptation mechanism of high thermophile and the information transfer mechanism among bacteria through cell membranes for elucidation of the special environment detection/response mechanism and the special environment adaptation/resistance mechanism. As to the separation/culture technology, various anaerobic microorganisms were separated from marine sponge for the development of a method of culturing in 3D matrices. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1998 report on the results of the development of the utilization technology of biological resources such as bioconsortia. Development of the petroleum substituting fuel production technology using biology; 1998 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the analysis technology and industrial utilization technology required for the establishment of the utilization technology of consortia's high functions which are already used in the fermentation technology field over the limit of the conventional bio-technology using functions of single biological species, study was made. As a part of the study, the establishment was aimed at of the high-grade utilization technology of seaweed/algae using the degradation/conversion functions of the consortium base and the useful substance production technology by interaction of the consortium base of organism and flora/fauna. Studies for the establishment of the technology were made in the following two fields: technology to use unused resources such as lignocellulose and technology to produce petroleum substituting useful resources. As to the technology to use unused resources, the establishment was proceeded with of the technology to degrade/convert the seaweed-origin acidic polysaccharide into the useful substance using the consortium system. In FY 1998, in search of the excellent microorganism consortia which can degrade/solubilize carageenan, samples were picked up from the underwater of the Republic of Palau and incubated in the flat culture medium. Thirty-eight kinds of the degraded bacterium group were acquired. Using the degraded bacterium group, {kappa}-carrageenan was degraded and analyzed of the products. (NEDO)

  4. Project to aid development of an oil substituting fuel manufacturing technology in fiscal 1998. Report on the result of developing a technology to make cable covering materials into fuel; 1998 nendo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu kaihatsu hojo jigyo. Densen hifukuzai nenryoka gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research and development have been carried out with an objective to re-utilize waste cable covering materials as oil substituting energy. The research has been performed on behavior of chlorine and lead being substances that impede making the cable covering materials into fuel, development of a technology to remove chlorine, lead and copper, and pelletizing properties for fuel making. In the study of behavior of chlorine and lead, the following matters were made clear: dechlorination reaction completes within 30 minutes if pyrolysis temperature is higher than 300 degrees C; the more the amount of filler CaCO3 in test samples, the less the dechlorination amount; and secular deterioration does not affect the dechlorination amount. A technology has been developed successfully to remove the substances that hinder making the cover materials into fuel, achieving the target values of copper at 0.2% or less, lead at 0.3% or less, and chlorine at 5% or less. In developing the pelletizing technology that puts the cover materials into raw materials for blast furnaces, dechlorination rate of 90% was achieved by mixing coke/PVC at a ratio of 1/1 and dechlorinating it by using a rotary kiln. It was verified that the product is free of problems in particle size as the blast furnace raw material. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 industrial technology R and D project. Report on the results of the development of utilization technology of biological resource such bioconsortia system (Development of production technology of biological use petroleum substituting fuels); 1998 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugo seibutsukeinado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Technology development was conducted for production of useful substances using the bioconsortia system. In FY 1998, the development of element technology was studied. As to the utilization technology of gut symbiotic microorganisms such as termite and longhorn beetle, clone types of gut microorganism complex system were analyzed to find out the diversification. In the decay of wood, co-culture of two species of mold fungus was increased in efficiency than single culture. More than 90% was classified/identified of the mold fungi accumulated (in wood piece)/separated for the utilization of plant symbiotic microorganisms. For the production of petroleum substituting useful resource, conditions were established of callus induction from immature embryos of tropical oil crops, especially oil palm, and of regeneration of a lot of small plants from the callus. To establish the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of oil palm, the binary vector harboring the reporter gene and selectable marker gene was constructed. Using the vector, oil palm tissues are inoculated and infected with agrobacteria. To heighten the function of palm oil, 10 particular clones were selected from the complementary DNA library obtained from oil palm fruit tissues. The genetic study of germs was also made. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1998 report on the results of the development of the utilization technology of biological resources such as bioconsortia. Development of the petroleum substituting fuel production technology using biology; 1998 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the analysis technology and industrial utilization technology required for the establishment of the utilization technology of consortia's high functions which are already used in the fermentation technology field over the limit of the conventional bio-technology using functions of single biological species, study was made. As a part of the study, the establishment was aimed at of the high-grade utilization technology of seaweed/algae using the degradation/conversion functions of the consortium base and the useful substance production technology by interaction of the consortium base of organism and flora/fauna. Studies for the establishment of the technology were made in the following two fields: technology to use unused resources such as lignocellulose and technology to produce petroleum substituting useful resources. As to the technology to use unused resources, the establishment was proceeded with of the technology to degrade/convert the seaweed-origin acidic polysaccharide into the useful substance using the consortium system. In FY 1998, in search of the excellent microorganism consortia which can degrade/solubilize carageenan, samples were picked up from the underwater of the Republic of Palau and incubated in the flat culture medium. Thirty-eight kinds of the degraded bacterium group were acquired. Using the degraded bacterium group, {kappa}-carrageenan was degraded and analyzed of the products. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1999 report on the results of the project on the industrial science technology R and D. Development of utilization technology of biological resources such as bioconsortium system (Development of the petroleum substituting fuel production technology using living organisms); 1999 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugou seibutsukei tou seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the high-grade utilization technology of unused seaweed/algae and production technology of useful substances using high-grade functions of bioconsortia, study was conducted, and the FY 1999 results were reported. In the analysis of the ocean environment adaptation mechanism, the R and D were made of a selection method of the marine microbial consortia using korormicin. In the study of the high-grade utilization technology of unused resources/substances such as marine-producing algae, several tens of the carrageenase producing microbial consortia were acquired from the surface of seaweed, and some carrageenase producing bacteria and non-producing bacteria were acquired by isolating as pure strains. In the study of the petroleum substituting useful resource production technology, developed was a monitoring system of the environmental stress using marine-product invertebrate/micro-algae symbiotic system. In the study of the high-grade utilization of large useful algae, elucidation of the related genes, fabrication of variants and analysis of genes were carried out for the bacterium BUP-7 which indicates activity of growth acceleration/shape formation of seaweed. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1999 report on the results of the project on the industrial science technology R and D. Development of utilization technology of biological resources such as bioconsortium system (Development of the petroleum substituting fuel production technology using living organisms); 1999 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugou seibutsukei tou seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology for producing and degrading useful substances using bioconsortia, study was made of the handling technology of bioconsortia, the basic element technology, etc., and the FY 1999 results were reported. In the study of the high-grade utilization technology of lignocellulose/the components, an sample was obtained in which the effect of the bacteria culture supernatant treatment was recognized in the biobleaching by co-treatment of the bacteria culture filtrate - MnP. As to the search for control factor of lignin degrading enzyme and the utilization technology, it was found out that bisphenol A was efficiently degraded by a combination of laccase and mediator production bacteria. Concerning the utilization technology of plant symbiotic bacteria, classification/identification have been finished of approximately 60% of the stored bacteria. In the study of the production technology of the petroleum substituting useful resource, a system was constructed in which immature embryos were used for callus induction and regeneration of plantlets, and plants were regenerated at high frequency via the formation of adventitious embryos. By this, the culture cell with high propagation ability was obtained. (NEDO)

  9. Manufacturing method of molten carbonate fuel cell. Yoyu tansan prime en nenryo denchi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneuchi, Atsuo; Murata, Kenji

    1989-09-14

    An fuel electrode of a molten carbonate fuel cell is preliminarily dipped with molten carbonate. This operation is troublesome and reduces the productivity because this operation is made by the fuel electrode unit. In this invention, the carbonate is dipped in the process of temperature elevation after the assembly of the fuel cell. In other words, the carbonate electrode is buried in a groove formed in the fuel electrode leaving a gas flowing space; this fuel electrode is layer-built with a matrix and an oxidant electrode to form a unit cell; this unit cell is assembled to compose a fuel cell; while an anti-oxidant gas is fed to a groove of the fuel electrode, temperature is raised up to the operation level, wherein the carbonnate in the groove is molten to be dipped into the fuel electrode. The anti-oxidant gas is such inactive ones as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon and helium. 2 figs.

  10. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fabricating method of gas diffusion electrode for fuel cell. Nenryo denchiyo gas kakusan denkyoku no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H [Yokohama (Japan)

    1994-01-28

    Cation exchange film is pressure bonded by hot-pressing on an aluminium foil for the solid high polymer electrolyte fuel cell which uses the cation exchange film as the electrolyte (PEMFC), but the conditions for the hot-pressing are severe because the softening temperature of polytetrafluoroethylene used as the binder for the bonding is higher than that of the cation exchange film. This invention is concerned with a method of improving adhesion and binding between the cation exchange film surface and the electrode catalyst layer, wherein K or Na type perfluorosulfonic acid system copolymer of the same material as that used for the cation exchange film is used as the binder in preparing the electrode catalyst layer of PEMFC, and the softening temperature of the cation exchange film itself is increased to enable high temperature hot-pressing. It is desirable to use the cation exchange film with the dry film thickness from 50 to 150[mu] and ion exchange capacity from 0.83 to 1.43 milli-equivalent/g (dry resin). 1 fig.

  12. Fabricating method of gas diffusion electrode for fuel cell. Nenryo denchiyo gas kakusan denkyoku no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H [Yokohama (Japan)

    1994-01-28

    When the cation exchange film of the solid high polymer electrolyte fuel cell which uses the cation exchange film as the electrolyte (PEMFC) is bonded with the electrode catalyst layers for the anode and cathode, the hot-press conditions are severe and satisfactory bonding is hard to be achieved because the softening temperature of polytetrafluoroethylene used as the binder for the bonding is higher than that of the cation exchange film. This invention is concerned with a means of obtaining PEMFC which can generate high cell voltage, wherein perfluorosulfonic acid system copolymer solution or dispersed solution similar to that used for the cation exchange film is used as the binder when bonding carbon cloth or carbon paper coated with electrode catalyst layers for anode and cathode to the cation exchange film, setting of hot-pressing conditions is made easier, and the adhesion and bonding of the cation exchange film surface and the electrode catalyst layers are improved. 1 fig.

  13. Development of coal gas production technology acceptable for fuel cells; Nenryo denchiyo sekitan gas seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, N; Omata, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In utilizing coal for high-efficiency direct power generation using fuel cells, it is necessary that coal be fed into the fuel cells after having been made into ash-free gaseous fuel. Research and development works are being carried out with an objective to develop a coal gasification furnace most suitable for fuel cells and establish a system to refine coal up to the one that can be fed into fuel cells. Fiscal 1995 has conducted investigations on coal gasification technologies, air separation technologies, and gas refining technologies as the important element technologies, and a trial design on integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems. This paper reports from among the above items the result of the trial design on an IGFC system using molten carbonate fuel cells. The paper describes system comparison on paths of produced gases and anode waste gas, comparison on refining processes using a wet system and a dry system, and parameter studies on oxygen concentration in gasifying agents. It was made clear that the suitable furnace is an oxygen blown coal gasification furnace, and the power generation efficiency at the system terminal can be higher than 53%. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Basic survey on trends of waste use type production facilities and waste fuel production facilities; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Haikibutsu riyogata seizo shisetsu oyobi haikibutsu nenryo seizo shisetsu doko kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This survey was made to obtain the basic data for future spread and promotion of No.6 type (waste use type production facilities) and No.7 type (waste fuel production facilities) which were added to the objects having been subsidized since fiscal 1997 under `the environmental harmony type energy community project.` In the former, the kiln in the cement industry and the blast furnace in the steel industry can be extremely large places to receive waste plastic since the facilities are distributed in every area and the treatment capacity is large. However, the effective collection, transportation and sorting of large quantity of waste plastic, especially the problem of removal of vinyl chloride, is a big bottleneck. As to the use of waste plastic using gasification technology, there are no actual results on the commercial basis. That is, however, appropriate for treatment of the waste difficult in treatment, and can be expected of the usage in the chemical industry. In the latter, in the facilities using industrial waste raw materials as fuel, solidification and liquefaction are both operated on a commercial basis. In relation to the solidification and use as fuel of general waste, the treatment of combustion ash is preventing the expansion of use of waste in the industrial field because of a large quantity of chlorine included in the products. 92 refs., 54 figs., 35 tabs.

  15. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research into the trends of low-carbon automotive fuel manufacturing technologies; 1998 nendo jidoshayo teitanso nenryo no seizo gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies are made of optimum materials and methods for manufacturing low-carbon fuels for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. When their thermal dynamic limits and the technological maturity are considered, it is inferred that no extensive improvement will be achieved by merely improving on the efficiency of the existing fuels. The use of various high-efficiency driving power sources utterly different in mechanism from the conventional ones, such as those for fuel cell-powered automobiles, and the promotion of the use of low-carbon fuels such as methanol and methane for all kinds of driving power sources including those for the said fuel cell-powered automobiles, will become necessary. The use will also be necessary of recyclable materials. The biomass resources, in particular, since they absorb CO2 gas in their growing process by virtue of photosynthesis, may be said to be free of CO2 gas emissions. They have their own problems, however, which involve the economy of energy consumed for their production, harvesting, transportation, and conversion into fuels. It is therefore required that their whole life cycle be studied before their greenhouse gas reduction effect may be correctly assessed. The quantities of resources available for the production of automotive low-carbon fuels, manufacturing technologies, etc., are first of all put in order for easy perusal. An effective way is assessed for the whole including the life cycle. (NEDO)

  16. Spray characteristics of dimethyl ether (D.M.E.) as on alternative fuel for diesel engine; Daitai diesel nenryo to shite no dimethyl ether (D.M.E.) no funmu tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, K; Nishida, K; Yoshizaki, T; Hiroyasu, H [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    D.M.E. which was paid attention to as on alternative fuel for a diesel engine, was injected by using Bosch type injection pump and a hole nozzle into a high pressure and high temperature vessel. The spray was observed by using schlieren photography. Spray characteristics, such as, the tip penetration, the cone angle and the volume of the spray were and were compared with a diesel fuel spray. The following thing, and so on were found out as a results. The spray angle of the DME spray of atmosphere pressure Pa=0.1Mpa spreads out large in comparison with the diesel fuel spray, and the way of the change by the pressure is contrary to the case of the diesel fuel spray. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Life cycle assessment for next generating vehicles. Feasibility study of alternative fuel vehicles and electric vehicles; Jisedai jidosha no life cycle assessment. Daitai nenryo jidosha oyobi denki jidosha no feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, T; Iida, N [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To show environmental assessment of introduction of substitute fuel vehicles is important information to formulate the future vehicles policy. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is put forward to simulate such potential, allows us to state the reduction environmental impacts of substitute vehicles on their total life cycle. The purpose of this study is assessment and analysis of the life cycle CO2 emission for substitute fuel vehicles, such as, alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the investigation of alternative gas system and process technologies for dry etching in electronic device manufacturing; 2000 nendo denshi device seizo process de shiyosuru etching gas no daitai gas system oyobi daitai process no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop technologies for saving PFC (perfluoro-compound) and conserving energy in semiconductor manufacturing processes, in particular, in the layer insulation film (SiO{sub 2}) dry etching process. Activities are conducted in the five fields of (1) research and development of technologies for reducing the amount of etching gas consumption, (2) development of a dry etching technology using alternative gas, (3) development of a dry etching technology using a low dielectric constant layer insulation film, (4) research and development of novel wiring structures and a method for fabricating the same, and (5) re-entrusted studies. Conducted in field (5) are studies of novel alternative gas - solid sources to substitute PFC, theory design technologies for low dielectric constant organic macromolecules, low dielectric constant material film fabrication by CVD (chemical vapor deposition), and technology for optical wiring inside chips. In field (2), studies are conducted of low GWP (global warming potential) alternative PFC gas aided etching and decomposition prevention technologies for reduction in PFC emissions, and it is made clear that C{sub 4}F{sub 6} performs excellently as an etchant. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of the substituting gas system and the substituting process of the etching gas used in the electronic device production process; 1999 nendo denshi device seizo process de shiyosuru etching gas no daitai gas system oyobi daitai process no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the dry etching process and the wiring process where PFC gas and electric power are required most in the electronic device production process, an investigational study was conducted with the aim of PFC saving and energy saving, and the FY 1999 results were summed up. In the study, high efficiency etching process analysis equipment was developed, and three kinds of PFC gas quantitative analysis method were comparatively studied. Relating to the substitution of global environmental warming gas, it was found that C{sub x}F{sub y} type gas was effective which includes no oxygen, has a lot of carbon element numbers, and has double unsaturated bond. Further, in the study of the technology of PFC decomposition by plasma, it was indicated that PFC of 98.7% at maximum in exhaust gas could be removed on ideal conditions. In the dry etching technology by non-PFC gas of the organic insulating film, it was found out that NH{sub 3} base gas is more excellent in both shape and speed of etching than the existing O{sub 2} base one. As to the future wiring technology, new concepts of the optical wiring inside chip, etc. were proposed. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the survey of the commercialization of wood biomass energy. Project on the production of wood pellet fuel; 2001 nendo mokushitsu baiomasu energy jigyoka chosa hokokusho. Mokushitsu peretto nenryo seizo jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of regenerating forestry and contributing to the policy for prevention of global warming, a potential study was made of the commercialization of the wood pellet using low-quality wood materials such as thinnings and wood pieces from lumber mill. In the study, based on the survey of raw materials of wood pellet and the demand amount, the scale of pellet production was assumed, and subjects were arranged toward the basic design of plant, evaluation of economical efficiency and commercialization. As a result of the study, the following subjects were extracted. In the study, the supply of lumbers of 2,800 t/y and securing of demand of about 1,600 t/y were set forth as a premise, but the subject was to secure the initial demand. The pellet combustor was higher in price than the kerosene combustor, and for the imported combustion equipment, the combustion of white pellet was supposed. It is necessary to develop combustor of pellets including the bark. In the trial calculation of the unit price of heat utilization (yen/Mcal), the pellet stove was about 3.3 times as high in price as the kerosene stove. It is necessary to reduce the pellet price down to 30 yen/kg or so by decreasing the cost of pellet production. (NEDO)

  1. Report on achievement in the preceding research related to global industry technologies for the global industry technology research and development project. Research on gas systems substituting global warming gases such as PFC used in manufacturing semiconductors; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu. Handotai seizo nado ni shiyosuru PFC nado no chikyu ondanka gas no daitai gas system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present semiconductor manufacturing process uses a great amount of PFC having large global warming coefficients and extremely long atmospheric life. A research was made particularly on reduction of its emission from etching processes. After introducing how the semiconductor industry has been working conventionally on protection of the global environment, this paper makes clear the purpose and positioning of this preceding research, as well as how it is moved forward. The paper also reports the results of analyzing and discussing the exhaust gases from etching devices using several kinds of substitute PFC gases. Survey results are reported on the possibilities of new substitute gases, plasma decomposition and treatment of exhaust gases, reaction process simulation, and in-situ analyzing and evaluating technologies. Investigations were made on the possibility of using no PFC in wiring processes which consume greater amount of PFC, as well as on wiring techniques using inter-layer insulation film with low dielectric rate, a new wiring structure forming technology, new functional elements, circuits and systems in a wide range. Proposals were given on specific research and development themes and plans that begin in fiscal 1999. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 regional consortium R and D project (Regional consortium field). Report on R and D of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials (1st fiscal year); 1998 nendo chiiki konsoshiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki konsoshiamu bun'ya (hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project aims at development of high-strength high- biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy with lower modulli of elasticity composed of non-toxic elements, phosphate calcium ceramics for improving the biocompatibility and coating technology, and establishment of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials. In fiscal 1998, the project promoted the following: Design of high-biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy materials, development of thermomechanical treatment for improving dynamic characteristics of such alloy, survey on practical melting and casting technologies and dental precision casting process, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the alloy by cytotoxicity, selection of tools for precision machining and surface finishing, control of contents, orientation and precipitation of biocompatible crystals such as {beta}- Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} fibers for further improvement of the biocompatibility. This paper also outlines the survey results on the market needs, market size and market share for the feasibility of these materials. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 2nd year (Research and development of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials); 1999 nendo hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Studies are conducted about highly biocompatible {beta}-type titanium alloys and calcium phosphate-based ceramics, high in strength and low in elasticity and constituted of non-toxic alloy elements, and about the technology of providing coatings for these materials. In the designing of such a highly biocompatible titanium alloy and the evaluating of its mechanical properties, studies are conducted about alloy formation into a practical size, fatigue characteristics and micro-structure, methods for improving its wear resistance, etc. In the development of a melting/casting technique for this purpose, studies are conducted about the melting/casting of the alloy into a practical size and about a high-recision casting technology. In the research on biological evaluation of biocompatibility and on the technology of precision casting for dentistry, studies are conducted about the reaction of the alloy with biological tissues and methods for precision casting for dentistry. Studies are also conducted about the development of technologies for precision work and precision finish for alloys. Further studies involve the development of calcium phosphate-based ceramics for the enhancement of {beta}-type titanium alloy's biocompatibility and the establishment of a technology of providing coatings for the alloy. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 1/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 1/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test of the motor-operated valve, individual test of the gasification furnace circulation water pump, individual test of the motor for the same, individual test of the SGC (syngas cooler) circulation water pump, individual test of the coal feeder rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters extraction rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters classifier, individual test of the char feeder rotary valve, individual test of the slag conveyer, individual test of the slag vibrator, individual test of the slag crusher, individual test of the slag separation tank exhaust blower, individual test of the slag separator water pump, test of gasification furnace interlocking, verification test of alert for the same, test of gasification furnace system pressure rise, test of oxygen line ventilation, test of comprehensive purge master sequence, verification test of distribution performance of the distributor, test on char system rock hopper pressure application and pressure release, test of pneumatic actuator valve loop, actual operational test of the soot blower, and an individual test of the receiving conveyer. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 3/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 3/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test operation of the expansion turbine in the air separation facility, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the expansion turbine in the same, test operation of the oxygen compressor in the same, test operation of the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the high pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, performance verification test for the air separation facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage normal pressure coal hopper purge master in the gasification facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage initial coal loading master in the same, sequence test for char system rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for gasification furnace light oil leak check master in the same, sequence test for coal rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for upper/lower coal rock hopper coal reception master in the same, sequence test for slag hopper quenching operation master in the same, and sequence test for gasification steam drum water filling master in the same. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells (Research using pilot test facility - for public release); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2000 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, part of the road in the site was constructed as continued from the preceding fiscal year. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, some of the devices were built, which were the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and the char recovery device, and some of the thus-built devices and procured devices were installed. In the study of the control of the operation of the oxygen-blown coal gasification system, the pilot test facility was divided into unit devices and, for each of the unit devices, detailed procedures for pre-start preparation, start, stop, and for the stop of accessorise were deliberated, and important operating steps were worked out. Timing charts were prepared for the operation of each of the facilities during plant start/stop operations. In the effort to deal with serious accidents, special operation procedures were studied and prepared on the case-by-case basis. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 2/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 2/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include an individual test of the receiving pit hopper vibrator, individual test of the pulverized coal related rotary valve, individual test of the pretreatment compressed air fan, individual test of the coal pulverizer lubricating device, individual test of the coal pulverizer pressure device, individual test of the coal pulverizer, individual test of the coal pulverizer motor, individual test of the coal feeder, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan motor, test of capacity for pulverized coal, individual test of the pulverized coal conveyer blower, test of the sequence of the same, test of pulverizer inert clearing, individual test of the pretreatment condensed water pump in the coal pretreatment device, test of airborne conveyance in the same, verification test of inter-hopper transfer in the same, test of coal pulverization in the same, test operation of the raw material air/low pressure nitrogen compressor in the air separation facility, test operation of the raw material air freezer in the same, and a test operation of the MS adsorber/MS regeneration electric heater. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report (edition B) for fiscal 1999 on development of technology to manufacture coal gas for fuel cells. Studies by using pilot test facilities (Volumes for equipment fabrication and constructions, and trial run design); 1999 nendo seika hokokusho (B ban). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (kisokoji kiki seisaku hen shiunten sekkei hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop a coal gas manufacturing system for fuel cells, research and development has been performed on a oxygen-blown coal gasifier and researches on a technology to purify gases for fuel cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The current fiscal year has performed, among other the pilot plant construction works, execution of the above-the-ground constructions for the operation center and compressor room building, construction of the cooling water tanks, and partial improvement of roads in the plant site. In the gasifier facilities, items of equipment were fabricated, some of the outsourced articles were procured, and the installations thereof were carried out. For the gas purifying equipment, installation of the gas analyzer room was executed. In the trial run design, discussions were given on the systematic improvements in the test items, the gas sampling procedures, the unit protecting interlock, and the facility protecting logic. For the trial run design, establishment has been implemented on the efficient and functional test plans by establishing priority on the tests to be executed, so that the development items demanded in the pilot test and research can be achieved within the limited test processes. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Part 1 - Construction and test operation); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Sono 1 - Koji shiken unten hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2001 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, work involved the road in the site, road illumination system installation in the site, and an unauthorized entry prevention system. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, work involved electrical instrumentation and painting for the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and so forth, and the installation of a series of devices was completed. In July following the completion, power was received and test operations were started, which included the operation of the coal gasification facility alone. Renting was started in August for the coal pretreatment facility, air separation facility, and the slag treatment device. In the study of the operation control technology for the oxygen-blown coal gasification furnace system, test operations were conducted based on the operating procedures prepared in the preceding fiscal year, which included a test operation performed for the pilot test facility alone. Parameters for equipment control obtained through the test operations, and improvements on operating steps carried out as required, were all reflected on the operating procedures. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium field. Third year report. R and D of the manufacturing technology of hybrid type biocompatible hard tissue substituting materials; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium bun'ya. Hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 3 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As instrument materials substituting for hard tissue such as tooth root and artificial hip joint, the technology development is being proceeded with of the use of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys coated by hydroxy apatite. Studies were made in the following 6 fields: 1) design of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys, system control and dynamic evaluation; 2) development of high efficiency calcium phosphate ceramics (hydroxy apatite) and development of surface coating technology; 3) development of melting casting technology of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys; 4) biological evaluation of biocompatibility of high-biocompatible {beta} Ti alloys and completion of dental precision casting technology; 5) basic research on affinity of low rigidity Ti alloys (trial manufacture); 6) development of technology of precision processing and precision finishing processing of alloys. In 5), in the test on affinity of the trial-manufactured alloys, stainless steel and existing Ti alloys, it was verified that the trial-manufactured alloys were excellent in affinity. (NEDO)

  11. Report of the FY 1995 research cooperation promotion projects (overall evaluation). Research cooperation in fuel cell utilization/district power generation system and village type technique for simplified continuous production of raw palm oil; 1995 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo (sogo hyoka) hokokusho. Nenryo denchi katsuyo chiiki hatsuden system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku / sonrakugata kan'i renzoku palm arayu seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The research cooperation project for fuel cell utilization/district power generation system is conducted under the research cooperation agreement between NEDO and Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), to demonstrate a 50 kW pilot plant constructed at EGAT's Bang Pakong power station. The fuel cell reforms self-spouted natural gas into H{sub 2} as the fuel. It has produced a total power of 341,921 kWh under the conditions of cumulative operating time: 8,115.4 hours, longest continuous operating time: 1,100 hours, service factor: 89.64%, load ratio: 86.13% and system utilization factor: 77.20%. The fuel technique will be acceptable for Thailand, if it is economically competitive. The project for producing raw palm oil is for Malaysia. The facilities introduced and tested for the new process are a continuous steam-heated fruit remover, fiber/nut separator, and shell cutter. The new process is evaluated to produce higher-quality raw palm oil in higher yield while consuming less energy. The new process, whose steps are automated, saves operating cost, and suitable for Malaysia which is suffering shortage of manpower. (NEDO)

  12. Report on diagnosis and survey on research cooperation in the research cooperation promotion project in fiscal 1994. Research cooperation on manufacturing clean fuel for consumer use from gasified coal gas / Research cooperation on a method for pulp manufacturing of low-pollution and energy saving type by using non-wood raw materials; 1994 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo 'kenkyu kyoryoku shindan chosa' hokokusho. Sekitan gas ka gas kara no minseiyo clean nenryo seizo ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku / himokuzaikei genryo wo mochiita teikogai shoenegata pulp seizoho ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In solving the problems in developing technologies peculiar to developing countries, Japan will provide cooperation. This paper describes the achievements in diagnosis and survey in fiscal 1994. Development will be made on a manufacturing process for dimethylether (DME), a synthesizable and portable clean fuel, by using coal produced in China. Annual DME production of 10,000 tons will make it possible to supply 50,000 households with the fuel of one year consumption, whereas return on the construction investment and profit can be expected. At the Shanxi Coal Chemistry Research Institute, a 500 tons a year plant making DME from gasified coal gas is scheduled to begin operation. Development will be made on a pulp manufacturing technology in China, in which environmental pollution due to waste water is largely reduced, and operation cost is reduced. Application of the oxygen-alkaline evaporation and decomposition process developed in Japan will be considered, which uses non-wood raw material such as rice straw, wheat straw and megass). The raw materials are immersed continually in low-concentration alkaline solution, dehydrated, and then lignin is oxidized and decomposed by using oxygen in a continuous oxidation reactor to make the material into pulp. China uses non-wood materials as paper raw materials at 80%, whereas effects are expected in waste water pollution prevention, energy saving, resource saving and economics. (NEDO)

  13. Fuel cell heat utilization system; Nenryo denchi netsuriyo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Omura, T. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-04

    In the conventional fuel cell heat utilization system, the waste heat is recovered to be utilized by either the waste heat recovery heat exchanger or the waste heat recovery steam. In the employment of the waste heat recovery heat exchanger system, however, the utility value is decreased when the temperature of the waste heat is lowered. Contrarily, in the employment of the waste heat recovery steam system, the supplementary water requirement is increased corresponding to the amount of waste heat recovery steam, resulting in the cost increase for water treatment. This invention solves the problem. In the invented fuel cell heat utilization system, a pressurized water from the steam separator is introduced into the second circuit to utilize directly the heat in the heat utilization system without employing the heat exchanger. If a blowdown valve is installed between the second circuit heat utilization system and the steam separator, the heat loss due to the blowdown can be reduced, since the low temperature water is blown down after being utilized in the heat utilization system. 4 figs.

  14. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  15. Present developmental conditions of petroleum substituting energies in France; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The French Government most enthusiastically promotes development of bio-gasoline in renewable energy field. EU makes pressure to remove the French Government`s fiscal advantages for bio-gasoline which only benefit French farmers, and the IEA (International Energy Agency) report also estimates no benefit corresponding to the fiscal support cost. Start of the `Eolien 2005` project is attractive in renewable energy field which aims at construction of wind power generation stations of 250-500MW by 2005. The `Eolien 2005` project is mainly supported by Electricite de France (EDF) who guarantees the purchase of produced electric power at a submitted price. In addition to this subsidy activity, EDF decided to positively tackle renewable energy. On R and D efforts for renewable energy, France belongs to the most poor countries among IEA countries, and in addition, the effort is considerably concentrated onto the study on reduction of production cost for bio-gasoline. There were no changes in this situation in 1996. 7 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Petroleum substitution energy measuring analysis survey; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For analytical evaluation of effects of environmental protection measures, energy conservation measures, new energy promotion measures, etc., a very-long term energy supply/demand model was developed and used for a simulational study. The model is composed of the models of macro economics, secondary energy prices, new energy introduction, and energy supply/demand. The feature is that the amount of new energy introduction is measuringly analyzed based on the cost and market scale, and integratedly estimated in a frame of energy supply/demand of the whole Japan. As a result of the simulation, energy source as of 2030 is composed of coal (17%), oil (44%) and nuclear power (15%) in the case of the economic growth as viewed optimistically. Contrarily, in the case of it as viewed pesimistically, energy source is composed of coal (11%), oil (40%) and nuclear power (22%). CO2 emission is -12.4% in the case of the new energy promotion than in the standard case. 7 refs., 79 figs., 107 tabs.

  17. Alternative disinfection technology for water purification systems; Josui shori ni okeru enso daitai shodoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, T. [The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    This paper describes chlorination substituting disinfection technologies used in water purification systems. Chloramine treatment is regarded as effective in reducing trihalomethane (THM). Chlorine is injected in the initial stage in the form of free chlorine to disinfect pathogenic microorganisms in a short time, which is then added with ammonia to convert it into chloramine for further utilization. Chlorine dioxide has not been used in Japan, but introduced in Europe and America to treat THM. Ozone has the strongest oxidizing power, and is used for disinfection, virus inactivation, decomposition of THM precursors, and removal of fungus odor. The ozone treatment will produce aldehyde if an organic matter is present, but aldehyde can be removed by treatment using organismic activated carbon. Ultraviolet ray treatment has an advantage of being difficult of producing byproducts. This system was experimentally compared with free chlorine treatment on disinfection effect, mutagenicity, suppression of producing THM byproducts, and odor removal. In order to assure reliability of microorganismic and chemical safety in tap water supply systems, assurance by considering the entire system is important, not only by operating the disinfection units, but also combining such physical water purifying technologies as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and membrane treatment. The use of chlorine substituting disinfectants is also a part of the conception. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Survey on econometric analysis of oil substitute energy; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the econometric analysis of petroleum substitution energy, a domestic econometric model was developed which can concretely and econometrically grasp and analyze effects of measures taken for environmental policies, energy conservation, promotion of new energy, etc. The model was made so synthetic as to catch a relationship between energy supply/demand and changes of econosocial structures in economic growth, industrial structure, life style, etc. which are extremely important elements for catching future energy demand. The model is composed of a secondary energy price model, a new energy introduction model, and an energy supply/demand model. As case parameters, selected were the price of crude oil, introduction of new energy, GDP and energy conservation, and the following cases were assumed: standard case, high price energy case, new energy introduction promotion case, low economic growth case, energy conservation case, and low energy demand case. The results of simulating each of these cases were indicated. 91 figs., 110 tabs.

  19. Metrical analysis survey of petroleum substituting energy; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper conducted the modeling on the economic/industrial structure giving the economic frame for energy supply/demand forecast, and made some simulations. In the simulation, assumed were a standard case, aging/hollowing case, and technical innovation case. As to macroeconomic models, macro items such as the economic growth rate, prices and IS balance were determined by giving foreign factors, financial factors, population factors, etc. In long-term energy supply/demand models, data on demand by use in commercial/residential and transportation sectors were estimated using various statistics. About the calculation result of a standard case of the former sector, the existing industries which markedly ebbed are primary products, the material system, construction/civil engineering, etc. Contrarily, the production industry such as general machines, electrical machines and automobiles increased the share. New and highly growing industries are new production industries like electronics and communication and new services like finance, insurance and communication. The GDP rate grows by 2.3% per year on average and lowers in each ten years hereafter. 53 figs., 83 tabs.

  20. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Uchida, M; Iwano, H; Oba, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Present situation of the development of petroleum substitution energy (East Europe); Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Too)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In East European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and former Yugoslavia), energy prices were raised as part of the general price reform in the initial stage of the economic reform. Trade regulations on energy products were relaxed, and prices of tradable energy products were made free. Even in countries such as Rumania and Bulgaria where there still remain controls, the governments aim at perfect liberalization. Thus, this paper first considered the energy situation of East European countries where economy and society are now changing. Described were the overall economy situation and energy supply/demand in East European countries. Next, the paper detailed the energy situation in Hungary and Poland. In conclusion, the paper considered energy and international cooperation, and Pan-european Energy Charter which are important future issues in the energy sector of East European countries. 10 refs., 36 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Present situation of the development of petroleum substitution energy (the U.S.); Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper investigates and reports the trend of the development of petroleum substitution energy in the U.S. The Clean Coal Technology Plan is one of the plans which were implemented most successfully in the past several years. The plan made a remarkable reduction in NOx and SOx emissions possible. As for natural gas, importance is placed on improvement of production/storage technology of natural gas and high-effective low-NOx-emission turbines. As to the research on nuclear reactors, importance is now placed on the light water reactor plan, and the target is the design and development of such nuclear reactors as electric power companies pay attention to. The solar cell industry is markedly developing, and the shipment grows 17% per year. However, the price is rapidly declining. The wind turbine and biomass power generation plans are also advanced, and most of the plans are aimed at the development of new fields of application. With regard to geothermal energy, slowness is seen. Concerning electric vehicles, no makers enter into the quantity production, but the research and development are actively being made. 72 refs., 26 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Present situation of the development of petroleum substitution energy (Germany); Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Doitsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper investigates and reports the developmental trend of petroleum substitution energy in Germany. Policies for the technical development and actual introduction of petroleum substitution energy in Germany are concerned with three energies: coal, natural gas, and new energy, except nuclear energy the use of which is against public opinion. Coal is the only abundant domestic resource, but not internationally competitive because of its cost. Brown coal obtained from the open pit mining is an abundant and low-cost domestic resource, but has the environmental problem. The latest technology is actually being introduced in which the thermal power generation is integrated into gasification, and the gas/steam turbine power generation. Natural gas is advancing in the use as energy source for space heating substituting for brown coal. The technology development of new energy is promoted mainly on such wind power and solar energy as are called renewable energy. As to the development of technology using renewable energy for which the rapid increasing use is not expected in near future, the target is directed mostly to CO2 control and the third world where there are no public electric power nets. 30 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Development of materials of `bekko work` using horn; Gyukaku riyo ni yoru bekko daitai zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S.; Nagata, S. [Technology Center of Nagasaki, Nagasaki (Japan); Sakoguchi, A. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-11-10

    The technical art `Bekko` is one of the traditional technologies in Japan, and the materials of `Bekko` are shells of hawksbills. However, the industry of `Bekko Work` has been facing a crisis recently, because the import of turtleshell is restricted. We have therefore tried to develop new materials as substitutes for the turtleshell by utilization of horn. The noteworthy aspects in this study are as follows: (a) It has been clearly established that the horn could be reformed with amber color similar to that of turtleshell by chemical treatment using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). (b) It is also of interest that we produced new materials like `Bekko` by mixing horn powder and turtleshell powder at the appropriate ratio and molding them in the temperature range of 110-120{degree}C. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Exchange of researchers of oil substituting energies in EU countries; EU shokoku no sekiyu daitai energy kenkyusha koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to further promote smoother introduction of oil substituting energies and development of new energies and energy saving technologies, it was intended to exchange and acquire items of information effective to learn the current state and policy trends on research and development of new energies and energy conservation in the EU countries who are the industrialized countries like Japan and enthusiastic in developing oil substituting energies. Therefore, exchange of researchers was carried out with an objective to contribute to research and development of oil substituting energies by deepening mutual understanding on the development efforts and forming efficient cooperative relationship. The researchers who visited Japan are Dr. Robert Durand (France) and Prof. and Dr. Bruno Scrosati (Italy). Dr. Durand has a great knowledge about fuel cells and storage batteries, and Dr. Scrosati about electrolytes and lithium batteries. Both gentlemen have visited the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, NEDO, Toshiba, Sony, Sanyo Electric, Japan Storage Battery, Matsushita Battery Industry, the Industrial Technology Research Institute of Osaka, and Kansai Electric Power Company. Views and information were exchanged and a number of good results were rewarded.

  6. Japan-EU joint research project on petroleum substituting energy; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren kyodo kenkyu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Four EU research workers were invited from Portugal, Italy and France for promoting R & D of petroleum substituting energies in Japan. The joint research on the wide area energy use network system (advanced district cooling and heating) includes the experimental technology for measuring heat transfer acceleration and drag reduction, evaluation of rheological characteristics of fluid, and development and selection of an adequate composition equation of fluid. The joint research on MCFC includes the test method and procedure of components and cells in relation to corrosion by molten carbonate, elution of NiO cathodes, electrode modeling and alternative materials for cathodes. The joint research on geothermal gases includes the research method of fumarolic gases such as volcanic gas and geothermal gas, applications in Italian geothermal fields and the relation of geothermal gases with the origin of fluid, deep conditions and volcanic activity. In addition, the joint research on light energy conversion (energy transfer system between binuclear metal complexes) and the performance and use of metal complexes as catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells was also performed. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1999 research report. Simulation analysis on petroleum substituting energy; 1999 nendo sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on simulation analysis on petroleum substituting energy. The simulation model for analyzing social and energy supply and demand structures comprehensively was established by improving the China and Korea models developed in fiscal 1998 through a use of input-output tables. In simulation of the China model, the reference case showed that a primary energy demand in 2030 reaches 3.3 times as much as that in 1997 (2.9 times in CO{sub 2}), resulting in serious energy and environment problems. Reduction of primary energy and CO{sub 2} is possible by promotion of energy saving and introduction of a carbon tax. In simulation of the Korea model, the reference case showed that CO{sub 2} emission in 2030 reaches 2.2 times as much as that in 1997, showing an annual increase rate of 2.4%. The annual increase rate can be reduced by introducing a carbon tax. The simulation model for automobile energy was also established for major countries in Asia. Automobile energy consumption increases with diffusion of automobiles until 2030 gradually. In particular, the consumption in China reaches that in Japan in 2010. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  9. Present situation of the development of petroleum substitution energy (E.U.); Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper investigates and reports policies for and the developmental trend of petroleum substitution energy in the E.U. The technology of 18 wind turbine makers in West Europe is on a level that they can almost sell MW-class turbines for practical use. The wind turbine industry in Denmark is on a level of No.1 of the world, and occupies approximately 50% of the world market share. The capacity of the wind power generation in Germany which finished the installation at the end of 1995 exceeded 1000 MW. EEWC has recently been established as an organization for using waste as energy. Municipal solid wastes discharged in West Europe are regarded to be equivalent to 5% of all the power demand there. In Spain, biomass is a petroleum substitution energy source which is most used. A target amount for the use set by the government is equal to 427000 tons in oil. Biomass is most used in the residential field, and it is mainly the use of agricultural and forestry wastes as fuel. Rapeseed oil is studied as fuel for bio car. In Denmark, production of rapeseed as fuel use crop is increasing. 14 refs.

  10. Present situation of the development of petroleum substitution energy (The UK); Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Eikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the petroleum substitution energy in the U.K., the paper states measures taken for the development and introduction and the state of spread. Introduced were the U.K., energy policy described by energy field, petroleum and natural gas, coal, nuclear power, electric power, renewable energy (petroleum substitution energy), and the policy on energy conservation and the recent trend. Further, the paper took up the environmental policy relating to global warming which is an environmental problem in close connection with the energy industry and described the present status of exhaust gas such as acid rain gas and ozonospherial destruction gas, target for reduction of exhaust gas, and the present situation of exhaust gas at power plant. Explained were the positioning of and the measures for the petroleum substitution energy which was incorporated into a part of the energy policy in the U.K., especially the recent trend of obligation to use non-fossil fuel. First, the order of priority of the governmental policies was introduced, and then the NFFO order was described which was to give reliable fund base to the development toward the practical use of petroleum substitution energy. The paper also commented on recent topics on the state of the practical use of petroleum substitution energy. 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1991 report. International Fuel Cell Conference; Nenryo denchi kokusai symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Lectures, presentations, and questions given at the event involved items 1) Plenary session, 2) Technology development strategies, 3) Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), 4) Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), 5) Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), 6) Other fuel cells, and item 7) Closing session. Under item 1), current states and prospects of technological development were reported by Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Japan and by industrial technology developing organizations of the U.S. and Europe. Under item 2), a report was given by the U.S. about a fuel cell-driven automobile developing program. Under item 3), a report was given on the exchange of information about plant operation, maintenance, and inspection with importance attached to accuracy. Under item 4), reports were given about a 70kW stack operating program of the U.S. and a 1MW stack pilot plant program of Japan. Under item 5), some NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) projects and a 25kW stack operating test of Westinghouse Electric Corporation were reported. What were learned through participation in this conference are mentioned below. Japan is in the forefront as far as the development of PAFC and MCFC technologies are concerned. The U.S. is ahead of Japan in the development of SOFC while also in Japan efforts to develop element technologies for SOFC are in progress steadily. The U.S. and European countries lead Japan in the development of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). (NEDO)

  13. Water supply method to the fuel cell cooling water system; Nenryo denchi reikyakusuikei eno kyusui hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, S. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-17

    The conventional fuel cell has long cooling water piping ranging from the fuel cell exit to the steam separator; in addition, the supply water is cooler than the cooling water. When the amount of supply water increases, the temperature of the cooling water is lowered, and the pressure fluctuation in the steam separator becomes larger. This invention relates to the water supply method of opening the supply water valve and supplying water from the supply water system to the cooling water system in accordance with the signal of the level sensor of the steam separator, wherein opening and closing of the supply valve are repeated during water supply. According to the method the pressure drop in every water supply becomes negligibly small; therefore, the pressure fluctuation of the cooling water system can be made small. The interval of the supply water valve from opening to closing is preferably from 3 seconds to 2 minutes. The method is effective when equipment for recovering heat from the cooling water is installed in the downstream pipeline of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  14. Hydrogen battery car developed in Matsuda; Matsuda suiso nenryo denchisha wo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Matsuda announced that the hydrogen battery car 'Demio FCEV' was developed by the company. This new type car not only does not need an air humidifying machine, but also supplies the necessary electricity with an ultra capacitor of a large scale condenser. Its maximum output is 40 kw, the highest speed is 90 km per hour, and the accelerating time from the stop state to 40 m is about 5 seconds, the same level as a gasoline car. One time of hydrogen charging serves for 170 km running. As a hydrogen battery car, it is the third one in the world, following the DAIMURA in Germany and TOYOTA. (translated by NEDO)

  15. Development of MCFC and PEFC technologies; Jisedai nenryo denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M; Ozu, H; Sonai, A [Toshiba Corp. Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Next-generation fuel cells under development by Toshiba Corporation are outlined. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) has become stable in performance, which results from the conversion of the matrix group from the {gamma}-type to {alpha}-type LiAlO2. The cathode material is expected to withstand the elution of electrolyte for 20000 hours. The soft structure separator developed for stack constitution is expected to improve electrical contact and reduce the cost of stack. An appliance has been completed to tentatively produce every element concerned. During an actual operation, the structural soundness of the 2-cell stack was confirmed by thermal load tests. As for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), an interior humidification method has been developed using a porous material for supplying water to the polymer film. The amount of moisture can be controlled, which will enable a larger-area cell. A 1kW-class stack with a world-record-level 1200cm{sup 2} electrode area has been developed, which stack has shown that the target output has been attained. Furthermore, the power generation efficiency of the system including fuel treatment has been examined. 10 figs.

  16. Gas replacement system for fuel cell. Nenryo denchi no gas chikan hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T

    1990-02-14

    When stopping the operation of a fuel cell, the gas in the reaction gas system is purged using such an inert gas as nitrogen for inactivation. A gas source such as inert gas bomb must be prepared beforehand for the purpose. This invention relates to a method of production of inert gas from the air collected from atmosphere to use it as the purge gas. The air collected from the atmosphere is passed through an oxygen remover filled with oxidation catalyst to remove oxygen, and dehumidified by a dehumidifier filled with drying agent, the obtained inert drying gas with nitrogen as the main constituent being used as the purge gas. Copper system catalyst supported by silica is used as the oxidation catalyst, and silica gel as the drying agent. After the operation of the fuel cell is re-started, a part of the high temperature fuel gas extracted from the reaction gas system is introduced to the oxygen remover for the reduction of oxidation catalyst and for heat regeneration of dehumidifying agent by the contained hydrogen. 1 fig.

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system. Yoyu tansan prime en gata nenryo denchi hatsuden sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, K; Hatori, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-11-01

    In an indirect internal reforming type molten carbonate fuel cell, the reforming temperature is limited less than the operating temperature of the fuel cell, as the heat source for reforming is depended on the reaction heat at about 650 {degree} C of the fuel cell. To improve the reforming rate at the low temperature range, it is considered to increase S/C (ratio of steam to carbon), but this scheme will cause such problems as to increase the voltage drop of the anode, to drop the heat recovery ratio on the cogenerator, to increase the capacity of the heat exchanger, etc. In this invention, in the power generating plant of a molten carbonate fuel cell the inert gas is added to the reforming raw gas, and in addition to the above the gas is mixed with steam and led into the reforming chamber of the plant. When the inert gas which is not directly concerned in the reforming reaction is added to, total mol number increases and the reforming reaction is acceralated. Consequently, the reforming rate can be raised, though the reforming temperature is low. 2 figs.

  18. Survey on commercial use of fuel cells; Nenryo denchi ni kansuru jitsuyoka no tame no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The basic survey was carried out for the future approach to R & D of fuel cells. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is in the stage of demonstration research and field test supported by subsidy after the end of Sunshine project. Its reliability and durability problems are being solved, and its cost reduction is only one problem for practical use. Distributed systems or on-site systems will be used utilizing its excellent environmental characteristics. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide one (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte one (PEFC) under development were thus surveyed. The following are surveyed: (1) Contribution to a human society such as improvement of energy demand/supply structure and environmental protection, (2) Technological items such as outlook for R & D, validity of developmental issues, comparison between various R & D and significance in industrial promotion, (3) Economic items such as profitability and feasible period, and (4) Social items such as sociability, compatibility to needs, possibility of locations, international meaning, market scale and promotion scenario. 90 refs., 67 figs., 96 tabs.

  19. Methanol as moter fuel in 21 century; 21 seiki no jidosha nenryo to metanoru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, H [Saitama Inst. of Technology, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-01

    When the oil resources situation is taken into consideration, it is important to prepare now for the demand and supply situation of oil in the 21st century. The first method of the preparation is the noble-use of oil. The second method is the development and popularization of energies for transportation equipment which can take the place of petroleum. The candidates are synthetic liquid fuel, natural gas, and electricity (secondary batter). Methanol is the only synthetic liquid fuel which has the possibility of competing with petroleum both technologically and economically. By using methanol, cleaner combustion can be expected as compared with petroleum and coal. Methanol can be produced via synthetic gas not only from coal but also from natural gas, oil sand, oil shale, and biomass. From the technological point of view, innovation of quantity production technology of methanol is the first important subject. The second importance is the development of methanol vehicles and methanol fuel. Presently, methanol vehicles and fuels are in the stage of wide range and long-term verification test by running actual vehicles. 1 tab.

  20. Manufacturing process of rewritable CD and DVD; Kakikae gata CD, DVD no seizo process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, M. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-05

    Development of rewritable DVD is desired which has feedback compatibility with the existing players and ROM drives. The DVD is formed on a substrate with a thickness of 0.6 mm (dummy plate), and is composed of the multilayer film, i.e., protective coating made of UV hardening resin, reflective layer, dielectric protective layer, phase change type recording layer, and polycarbonate layer from the lower in order. A pair of dummy plates are pasted to enhance the mechanical strength, which has the same thickness of 1.2 mm as CD. Since the grooves and prepits are very fine, injection molding is more difficult compared with CD. Since a great stress change occurs during the formation and initialization processes of multilayer of phase change recording medium layer which is particular to DVD manufacturing process, control of warping is significant. Control of warping of the substrate is also significant, which affects the pasting and the whole process. The recording layer, dielectric protective layer and reflective layer are formed by the discharge spattering. The initialization is a particular process to the phase change medium. Complete non-recording state can be obtained by crystallizing the amorphous recording layer after the film formation. 3 figs.

  1. Project of RE123 bulk superconductors fabrication in a microgravity environment; Bishojuryokuka chodensotai seizo purojekuto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, N; Murakami, M [International Superconductivity Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan); Shisa, A [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toky o(Japan); Hirata, H [Institute for Unmanned Space Experiment Free Flyer, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    Large single-grain bulk rare earth element (RE)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors can be used for various applications such magnetic bearings, load trapped field magnets. The magnetic field generated by bulk RE-Ba-Cu-O superconductors is proportional to its radius, however, the growth of a large single-grain bulk with good quality is difficult due to contamination from the substrate or the crucible and also due to liquid loss. Such problems can be solved by growing RE-Cu-O bulk in a microgravity environment, where the bulk can be supported by a seed crystal alone during crystal growth. Such experiments will be conducted in the Unmanned Space Experiment Recovery System (USERS) project. In this paper, the experiment plan and the present status of the system development are reported. (author)

  2. Manufacturing technology for advanced jet engines; Jisedai jetto engine no seizo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, H [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-05

    A part of the latest production technologies for aircraft jet engines is introduced. Outline of the turbofan engine, turbo-prop engine, and turbo-shaft engine are given. Every one of them employs a gas turbine engine comprising a compressor, combustor, and a turbine as the output generator. Increase in the turbine inlet temperature is effective for making the gas turbine engine more efficient. The development tread of heat resisting materials for realizing higher temperature is shown. The current status and future aspect of the manufacturing technology is discussed for each main component of the engine. Technological development for decreasing weight is important because the weight of the fan member increases when the fan diameter is increased to increase the bypass ratio. FRP is adopted for the blades and casing to decrease the weight of the compressor, and studies have been made on fiber reinforced materials to reduce the weight of the disks. The outlines of the latest manufacturing technologies for the combustor and turbine are introduced. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Semiconductor relay and its manufacture method. Handotai relay oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M

    1993-06-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor relay in which a light emitting diode and a photovoltaic element are arranged in the opposite positions and connected with a light connection and aims to present a light transmission path to transmit input signals to the light emitting diode to the side of the photovoltaic element with a negligible light loss effectively. The invention presents a semiconductor relay, in which a light emitting diode loaded on the first lead frame and the light receiving part of the photovoltaic element to drive a MOSFET element loaded on the second lead frame and acting as a switch element are connected through an insulator tube with an opaque outer wall, and the interior of the insulator tube is filled with a transparent insulating filler, so that the invention affords a light transmission path without light leakage from the interior of the opaque insulator tube and with the stability in the form and no light loss. 3 figs.

  4. Supplymentary type semiconductor device and manufacturing method. Soho gata handotai sochi oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Masaaki

    1990-01-08

    As a supplementary type semiconductor device has a complicated structure, it is extremely difficult to construct it in a three dimensional structure. This invention aims to reduce its occupying area by forming p-channel and n-channel transistors in a solid structure; moreover in an easy method of production. In other words, an opening is made in the element-forming region of a semiconductor substrate, forming a gate-insulation film on each of the p-type and n-type semiconductors which are exposed on the two facing surfaces; on it formed a gate electrode; p-type semiconductor surface is used as a channel domain; a drain region of n-channel transistor on one surface and a source region on another surface; the n-type semiconductor surface corresponding to the gate electrode is used as a channel region; a source region of the n-channel transistor is formed on the same surface and the drain region on the substrate surface. Occupied area is thus made less and the production gets easier. 20 figs.

  5. FY 1999 Report on research and development of power generation by solid electrolyte fuel cell. Research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cell; 1999 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu kenkyu seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    This project is aimed at establishment of the module basic technology and commercialization of the solid electrolyte fuel cell in the early stage by designing, construction, operation and performance evaluation of a several kW-class module which incorporates the cylindrical cell fabricated by the wet process. The FY 1999 R and D efforts include (1) cell performance demonstration study: the cylindrical single cell fabricated by the wet process is demonstration-tested to determine the initial performance and durability for continuous operation, thereby comparing the external reforming with internal reforming in output, with the internal reforming rate as the parameter, (2) development of a several kW-class module: the adequate cell arrangement structure within the module is studied by the computer-aided simulation, and the tests for confirming thermal cycle durability of the modified bundle are conducted using the module power generation unit and the several kW-class module is tested, and (3) development of the technology for designing a thermally supported module: the effects of, e.g., air and fuel supply conditions on the module performance are analyzed using the analytical model as the base. Expansion of the module level to the process simulation model has been completed, based on these results. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research on fuel cells (Research on aqueous alkaline solution electrolyte fuel cells); 1979 nendo nenryo denchi no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Arukari suiyoeki denkaishitsu nenryo denchi no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This paper describes achievements in fiscal 1979 in research on aqueous alkaline solution electrolyte fuel cells. Trial fabrication and tests for an oxygen electrode were performed on a catalytic electrode added with silver using carbonblack and graphites as carriers having excellent corrosion resistance and large surface area. Characteristics not inferior to electrodes using activated carbon as a carrier were obtained in both of the initial characteristics and continuous discharge characteristics. A platinum added electrode also showed the same performance as the silver added electrode. A hydrogen electrode containing Zr and iron among those containing Raney-Ni was found to have high oxidation resistance and stability in terms of life. A platinum added electrode using graphite as a carrier provided satisfactory initial characteristics as a hydrogen electrode. Research on a single cell construction has used and tested eight-cell laminated cells with an area of 1,000 cm{sup 2} using bipolar sheets made of carbon. The test verified appropriate the removal of produced water and heat using mainly the hydrogen circulation, which has been discussed in the summary design. The paper describes heat cycles, for which tests of ten and odds times in total were performed to have demonstrated that they are free of any anomaly. Furthermore, a manifold was attached as a means to improve the volume efficiency. Its function was also tested. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1993 report on the results of the commissioned research and development project. R and D of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells); 1983 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SOFC kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The research and development project is carried out for fuel cell power generation technologies and solid electrolyte type fuel cells, and the reports on the FY 1993 results issued by the participant organizations are summarized. For R and D of the modules, Fuji Electric conducted the R and D for the large-area, cell-stacked type, and Sanyo Electric for the composite cell-stacked type. For R and D of the materials and fundamental technologies, Fine Ceramics Center conducted the R and D for microscopic structures of the electrode, Fujikura for electrode structures produced by spraying or the like, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for multi-functional fuel electrodes, Murata Seisakusho for co-sintering technologies, and Mitsui Shipbuilding for current collecting technologies. For R and D of the systems, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry conducted the R and D for the systems, Electric Power Development and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries jointly for designs of the cell peripheries, and the Japan Research and Development Center for Metals for elementary technologies for the peripheral devices. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of liquid fuel conversion technology (Feasibility study project on liquid fuel conversion); 1996 nendo ekitai nenryo tenkan gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ekitai nenryo tenkan kanosei chosa nado jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This article comprises Part 1 on 'surveys of gas fields fit for a new methanol manufacturing process' and Part 2 'reports on overseas surveys of gas fields fit for a new methanol manufacturing process.' In Part 1, surveys are conducted on the existence, exploitation, and the actual utilization of natural gas resources, and on the status of natural gas industry related infrastructures in the Middle East. Proved natural gas reserves in Iran were 742tcf (trillion cubic feet) as of 1996-end, which was the largest in the world next to Russia. As for Kuwaiti natural gas resources, they all accompany oil production, with the proved reserves marking 52.4tcf as of 1996-end or the smallest in the Middle East. In Egypt, there were proved reserves of 20.4tcf as of 1996-end, and further existence of 30-40tcf is predicted. Proved reserves in Yemen are approximately 15tcf. Proved reserves in Oman were 30tcf as of 1996-end. It is expected that there will be a 1.4% increase in the demand for methanol for automobiles. The annual demand for methanol for power generation is 720,000 tons. In Part 2, on-site surveys of infrastructures and the like indispensable for methanol plant installation are reported. (NEDO)

  9. Research on natural gas fuel injection system. Development of high-performance pressure regulator; Tennen gas yo nenryo funsha system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1. Tennen gas nenryo funshayo no koseino regulator kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S; Ishii, M; Takigawa, B; Makabe, K; Harada, S; Ono, H [Nippon Carburetor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    With the aim of further reducing the exhaust emissions of natural-gas vehicles, vigorous research and development work is under way today on multi point gas injection (MPGI) system. In this studies, a high-performance pressure regulator, which is one of the main components of this MPGI system, has been newly developed. The results showed that a significantly better accuracy of the regulated pressure level using this regulator was obtained under the wide range of operating conditions, including instantaneously greater changes of fuel flow rate. In addition, the advanced studies of gaseous fuel injectors (GFIs) would be also conducted. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  10. FY 1992 report on the results of the commissioned research and development project. R and D of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells); 1992 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SOFC kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-05-01

    The research and development project is carried out for fuel cell power generation technologies and solid electrolyte type fuel cells, and the reports on the FY 1992 results issued by the participant organizations are summarized. For R and D of the modules, Fuji Electric conducted the R and D for the large-area, cell-stacked type, and Sanyo Electric for the composite cell-stacked type. For R and D of the materials and fundamental technologies, Fine Ceramics Center is conducted the R and D for microscopic structures of the electrode, Fujikura for electrode structures produced by spraying or the like, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for multi-functional fuel electrodes, Murata Seisakusho for co-sintering technologies, and Mitsui Shipbuilding for current collecting technologies. For R and D of the systems, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry conducted the R and D for the systems, Electric Power Development and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries jointly for designs of the cell peripheries, and the Japan Research and Development Center for Metals for elementary technologies for the peripheral devices. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of liquid fuel conversion technology (Feasibility study project on liquid fuel conversion); 1996 nendo ekitai nenryo tenkan gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ekitai nenryo tenkan kanosei chosa nado jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This article comprises Part 1 on 'surveys of gas fields fit for a new methanol manufacturing process' and Part 2 'reports on overseas surveys of gas fields fit for a new methanol manufacturing process.' In Part 1, surveys are conducted on the existence, exploitation, and the actual utilization of natural gas resources, and on the status of natural gas industry related infrastructures in the Middle East. Proved natural gas reserves in Iran were 742tcf (trillion cubic feet) as of 1996-end, which was the largest in the world next to Russia. As for Kuwaiti natural gas resources, they all accompany oil production, with the proved reserves marking 52.4tcf as of 1996-end or the smallest in the Middle East. In Egypt, there were proved reserves of 20.4tcf as of 1996-end, and further existence of 30-40tcf is predicted. Proved reserves in Yemen are approximately 15tcf. Proved reserves in Oman were 30tcf as of 1996-end. It is expected that there will be a 1.4% increase in the demand for methanol for automobiles. The annual demand for methanol for power generation is 720,000 tons. In Part 2, on-site surveys of infrastructures and the like indispensable for methanol plant installation are reported. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Standardization of FCEVs; 2000 nendo nenryo denchi fukyu kiban seibi jigyo jidoshayo nenryo denchi fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. FCEV hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 activities for standardization of fuel cell powered vehicles and development of the infrastructures related to participation in ISO. Fuel cell powdered vehicles are believed to be the most favored vehicles of the next generation for their low emissions and fuel efficiency. The world leading automakers, including Japanese makers, have announced plans to commercialize these vehicles in 2003 to 2004. Under these situations, the discussion has been initiated to move forward standardization of the fuel cell powdered vehicles at the international conferences, e.g., ISO (International Standardization Organization) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). At ISO/TC22/SC21 (Electric Vehicles) for which the Japan Electric Vehicle Association (JEVA) is in charge as the domestic council, the proposal has been made and approved to begin working towards the standardization at the conference in November 1999. Consequently, FCEV special subcommittee consisting of public organizations (including academic organizations and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), automakers, automotive parts manufacturers and other organizations related to the automotive industry has been established in February 2000 under the JEVA standardization section and started the activities. The Japanese proposals for safety and fuel cell vehicle terminology will be presented to the ISO meetings to be held in May 2001 in Tokyo. (NEDO)

  13. Study on fuel supplying method and methanol concentration sensor for the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol nenryo denchi no unten ni okeru nenryo kyokyu hoho no kento to methanol nodo sensor no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukui, Tsutomu; Doi, Ryota; Yasukawa, Saburo; Kuroda, Osamu [Hirachi, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1990-01-20

    A fuel supplying method was studied and demonstrated, essential to the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol and water were supplied independently from each tank to an anordic electrolyte tank in a circulating system, detecting a methanol concentration and liquid level of anordic electrolyte by each sensor, respectively. A methanol sensor was also developed to detect accurately the concentration based on electrochemical reaction under a constant voltage. A detection control circuit was insulated from a constant-voltage power supply to prevent external noises. The methanol sensor output was compensated for temperature, and a new level sensing method was adopted to send out a command comparing different responses to electrolyte shortage. As the methanol fuel cell was operated with this fuel supplying system, the stable characteristics of the cell were obtained within the variation of {plus minus} 0.1mol/l from the specified methanol concentration. 6 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Research on fuel cells (Research on aqueous alkaline solution electrolyte fuel cells); 1980 nendo nenryo denchi no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Arukari suiyoeki denkaishitsu nenryo denchi no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1980 in the Sunshine Project on developing aqueous alkaline solution electrolyte fuel cells. The oxygen electrode is a silver catalyst electrode using as carriers carbon lack and graphite powders having good corrosion resistance. A continuous discharge test was performed on the electrode for 3,000 hours. Furnace black having large surface area and naturally colloidal graphite showed stable performance. The hydrogen electrode, which is a catalyst electrode made of Raney-Ni containing third elements was given a 3000-hour continuous discharge test, where Zr addition presented stable performance. Activated carbon was found a good carrier in platinum added electrodes. For electrodes operating under high pressure gases, electrodes attached with sintered nickel film are suitable. With regard to prototype cells, laminated cells with high volume efficiency structured mainly with gasket seals were designed and fabricated. The IV characteristics measurement and continuous discharge test thereon revealed no functional problems. Furthermore, cells having electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2} and using bipolar sheets made of carbon were verified capable of withstanding 2000-hour continuous discharge. A non-conductive resin mold was proposed to prevent electrolytic corrosion of the carbon sheets. Discussions were given also on corrosion resistance of bonding agents. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1998 annual report on the development of fuel cell power generation techniques. Research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells (research results); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu. Kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1998 research and development results of solid electrolyte fuel cells. For R and D of the tubular type cell by the wet processing technique, the tests are conducted to evaluate the initial performance and long-term durability for continuous operation of the single tubular cell. For development of the several-kW class modules, computer-aided simulations are conducted. For R and D of material and substrate techniques, the thermal cycle characteristics, cell characteristics and stress of the cell modules are evaluated, in order to evaluate their reliability. The thermal cycle test results indicate that performance of the single-stage cell is unaffected by the thermal cycles. It is found by the stress evaluation that use of the separator plate having a higher thermal expansion coefficient than the electrolyte plate and use of the sealant having a thermal expansion coefficient close to that of the electrolyte plate are effective means to reduce stresses. For the research to reduce costs of the cell materials, their chemical, mechanical and thermal characteristics are evaluated. For the system research, the areas for which the compact systems are suitable and their optimization are studied. (NEDO)

  16. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the EU in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The EU is one of the most advanced places of petroleum substituting energy development. The EU is highly aware of environmental issues. For the COP3 held at Kyoto in December 1997, The EU gave more severe regulation of CO2 emission than the other advanced countries. The EU takes efforts in the development and introduction of energy effective for global environmental protection. In addition, research and development of geothermal, biomass and wave force energy are actively promoted in this place. Energy situations in this place are significant for predicting and analyzing the future trends of energy development and consumption in the other countries. Firstly, this report looks back toward energy demand held in check to a head at the beginning of the 1990`s. Secondly, supply of energy and cover of energy trend are described for recent years from the point of view. Thirdly, competitiveness of energy in EU countries are discussed from a position of energy density. Fourthly, circumstances about environmental issues are considered. Fifthly, the world market of energy is also considered. Finally, development of new energy and a trend of introduction with a sample of Sweden are introduced. 13 refs., 15 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Research report on the trend of preventive measures against global warming by substituting CFCs; Daitai freon no chiku ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper reports the research results on the present state and future trend of protective measures for the ozone layer, and the trend of preventive measures against global warming by substituting CFCs such as HFC, through international conferences, meetings and lecture meetings, and literature survey. In the 8th meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol, it was presented that refrigerator producers in Thailand phased out CFCs from their products earlier than the schedule in cooperation with Japan. The final draft including the approval of essential use from 1997 to 2002 was reviewed, and reported to the technology/economy assessment panel. Reduction of ozone depleting substances was guided in Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines. The latest trend of substituting technologies of HCFC was surveyed, and the control trend of F-containing greenhouse effect gas emission was also surveyed through the conference of the parties of climate change in fiscal 1996. Based on the IPCC report in 1995, the emission amount of greenhouse gases of nearly 10% in contribution such as CO2, methane and fluorocarbon was arranged. R and D on destruction of CFCs was also surveyed. 35 refs., 54 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. International symposium on environmental impacts of advanced alternative to CFC; CFC shinki daitai busshitsu no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru kokusai symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-07

    The international symposium on environmental effects of new CFC substitutes was held in Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Pref. on February 7-9, 1996, and 19 papers were made public. In Session 1 (Plenary lecture), reports were made on Global warming and climate change: a review of recent studies; Stratospheric ozone, CFCs, and CFC-substitutes: an update, etc. In Session 2, Measurements of OH rate constants for advanced refrigerants as well as HCFCs and HFCs; The reaction rate of CFC alternatives with OH radical; Experimental and estimated rate constants: reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons, etc. In Session 3, Measurement of uptake coefficients of some acetyl halides and fluorinated ethers into water; Mass transfer at the air/water interface: removal processes of halocarbonyl compounds; Heterogeneous reactions of fluorinated ethers on allophane or titanium dioxide, etc. In Session 4, papers were reported on model calculations relating to the global warming.

  19. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the USA in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Beikoku))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the last twenty-five years, the level of social recognition for the importance of energy conservation grew progressively from a total nonexistence of concern to the driving force that ensures the future environmental health of the nation and the world. Executive Order 12003, relating to energy policy and conservation, was signed by President Jimmy Carter and dated July 20, 1977. In 1992, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12759 - federal Energy Management. Each agency will prescribe policies under which its industrial facilities in the aggregate increase energy efficiency by at least 20% in fiscal 2000 in comparison to fiscal 1985. Current Federal programs for building efficiency are estimated to result in 31.5 billion dollars in annual energy saving for consumers by 2010. Future trends attract attention. The major programs currently in force to implement these policies and directives include Rebuild America, Million Solar Roofs Initiative, Home Energy Rating Systems, and Weatherization Assistance Program. 37 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  20. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the UK in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Eikoku))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Blair`s cabinet of the UK, as soon as it was formed, started a review of all policies of the past Conservative government, including the area of energy and environment. The Labour Party has already underlined its commitment to promoting petroleum substituting, i.e., renewable energy. The government made clear that the unique British NFFO Scheme to promote sources of renewable energy would continue and in November, 1997 published the policy guide for the fifth round of NFFO bidding. The British energy market is generally considered to be the most liberalized for free competition in Europe and even the retail market for households is going to be completely open for competition in electricity and gas supply by 1998. As to the regulation of the green house gas exhaust, the Labour Party has put forward a target to cut 20% of the exhaust level of 1990 by the year 2010. The government is now preparing measures for its implementation. At present, the EU is debating the draft of the landfill directive. In the UK, the construction of waste incineration and power generating plants with modern technology is now being promoted. 27 tabs.

  1. Present developmental conditions of petroleum substituting energies in the U.S.A; Sekiyu daitai energy no kaihatsu no genjo (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The present developmental conditions of petroleum substituting energies in the U.S.A. were surveyed. The budget related to energy saving and petroleum substituting energies in the U.S.A. is on the increase. DOE`s expenditure on petroleum substituting energies increased from $6.8 billion in 1993 to $8.1 billion in 1995 (from 29.6% to 34.6% of DOE`s expenditure), showing the positive approach to development of petroleum substituting energies. Approaches to environmental protection are also in promotion such as positive use of electrical vehicles by U.S. government and emission regulation of specific pollutants by EPA. The state of California withdrew the regulation which prescribes that 2% of passenger cars sold in the state should be zero emission vehicles after 1998, because development of the battery with both sufficient mileage and output is impossible by 1998 in the present stage. The prospect of practical use of new batteries such as lithium battery is still far from certain for some years. Development of petroleum substituting energies in the U.S.A. is still insufficient. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. FY 2000 report on the measuring/analytical survey of petroleum substituting energy; 2000 nendo sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for effective policy on petroleum substituting energy, measuring models were made for analyzing relations between changes in social structure and energy supply/demand structure. Through the simulation using these models, effects of difference in energy policy on economy and energy supply/demand were studied. Countries for survey were Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, China and Korea. The measuring model is composed of the macroeconomic model and the energy supply/demand model. In the case of Korea, the interindustry-relations model was added. Using the macroeconomic model, asked were fluctuations in various economic activities/industrial structure/price/trade balance such as GDP and crude steel production by inputting overseas indices, population indices and financial indices such as the world trade, crude oil price and exchange rates. In FY 2000, for ASEAN countries, data were collected for analysis of relations between changes in economical/social structure and energy supply/demand structure. Using the pilot model constructed, the simulation was made on the standard case. (NEDO)

  3. Survey report on the development/utilization of petroleum substitution energy in the Pacific region; Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected/analyzed data on petroleum substitution energy in the Pacific region. In fiscal 1996, in addition to collection of the existing energy data, conducted were collection of energy data made retroactive from 1971, and time-series collection of the energy related expanded data including energy related production statistics/social statistics, energy consumption amount by industry, power generation facilities, oil production facilities, and environmental data. As to petroleum substitution energy, the paper took up new energy such as hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, photovoltaic, and wind power generation, and commercial-base renewable energy. As a result of the analysis, the supply of petroleum substitution energy in the whole Pacific region has been stable, 6.6% during 1980-1990, 7.4% in the first half of the 1990s, largely over the primary energy supply. The supply of nuclear power was overwhelmingly large, followed by hydroelectric energy and geothermal/new energy. 15 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Technology assessment on a hydrogen fueled aircraft system; 1980 nendo suiso nenryo kokuki system ni kansuru technology assissment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes technology assessment on a hydrogen fueled aircraft system. Indispensable as technological assignments are structuring different safety systems including prevention of leakage and ignition, not to speak of developing an airframe structure that considers cryogenic and brittle nature of liquefied hydrogen. Operation related industries would be subjected to increased burdens, such as purchase and servicing of new implements and materials, but the liquefied hydrogen industry will have a chance of growing largely with wide repercussions. In the environmental aspect, the aircraft will have less CO and SOx emission in exhaust gas and lower noise than the conventional jet aircraft. Technological problems to be solved in the development include the safety of fuel tanks, safety assurance measures, and liquefied hydrogen of the required amount to be supplied easily and at low cost. To meet these requirements, noticeable progress is demanded in hydrogen manufacturing technologies. What is also required is explosion-proof safety that does not have to require crews to take special considerations in take-off and landing, not to speak of during flight. This also applies to fuel feeding and servicing on the ground. Considerations must be given that rise in operation cost should not be excessive. (NEDO)

  5. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S; Harada, a; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of ceramic roller bush for diesel fuel injection pump; Nenryo funsha pump yo ceramics sei roller bush no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K; Kamiya, S; Fujimura, M; Tsuzuki, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Taniguchi, K [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics have been applied to roller bush for diesel fuel injection pump in order to improve the seizure resistance. It was found that ceramic roller bush made it possible to improve the seizure load by more than three times as compared to conventional metal roller bush when the kerosene was used as lubricant The ceramic roller bush proved to be durable under engine operating conditions. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research on hydrogen production technology (Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical method); 1976 nendo suiso no seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report covers part of the efforts to develop new hydrogen production technologies. Out of many processes involving Cu-halogen and alkali carbonate-iodine systems proposed as novel thermochemical processes, after they are compared with each other, a process of a sodium carbonate-iodine system with nickel in between is chosen. The chosen process is deemed to be the most excellent among the processes disclosed up to fiscal 1975. A feasibility study is conducted for the chosen process from the viewpoint of reaction rate, separation of reactive substances from each other, method for reaction manipulation, materials for device constitution, and thermal efficiency. As for the measurement of reaction rate for each unit reaction, basic reaction data are determined centering about the nickel iodide decomposition reaction and the sodium iodide carbonation reaction, and then reaction conditions which are roughly satisfying are obtained. A larger reaction unit is built in which the amounts of substances that come into reaction are approximately 10 times larger than those in the ones used in basic experiments. The progress of reactions is observed in the reaction unit, with the size enlarged in preparation for future construction of still larger reaction units. Methods for selectively isolating hydrogen out of gases ensuing from the decomposition are evaluated from the viewpoint of energy efficiency. In the selection of a reaction manipulation method, a single unit reaction process is advocated, and its thermal efficiency is estimated. (NEDO)

  8. Manufacture of lightweight aggregates utilizing coal fly ash. Sekitan bai riyo ni yoru jinko keiryo kotsuzai seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1990-11-20

    Processing of a large amount of coal ash is a serious problem in considering the locational conditions of coal firing power generation plants. 46% of the coal ash was effectively used in 1985, and the remaining 54% was disposed at landfills on land and sea. Positive promotion of the effective use of coal ash is the necessity. A production method for an artificial lightweight aggregate utilizing coal ash was established by a joint research. The history of the research and development of this artificial lightweight aggregate (brand name: FA-lIGHT), outline of the manufacturing facilities, physical properties and result of use are introduced. The lightweight aggregates are used not only for the construction of multistoried buildings but also used as most suitable aggregates for making lightweight large scale panels and concrete secondary products such as lightweight blocks. FA-LIGHT is most suitable for use in the production of concrete lightweight aggregates, and can be used for hydroponic agriculture and for the improvement of drainage of land. Spread of its use is expected. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Fabricating method of hydrogen absorbing alloy for alkali storage battery; Arukari chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadokoro, M.

    1996-03-08

    There are many grain boundaries in spherical hydrogen absorbing alloy particles prepared by rapid solidification methods such as centrifugal spraying method and gas atomizing method, and heterogeneous strains are produced at boundaries. When hydrogen absorbing alloy with large heterogeneous strain is used for preparing electrodes, many cracks are produced in hydrogen absorbing alloy to cause pulverization in the charge and discharge cycles. This invention relates to heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing alloys having spherical shape, cannon ball shape, and egg-like shape prepared by rapid solidification method in moving conditions. By this heat treatment, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy particles can be prevented. The methods for moving hydrogen absorbing alloy are vibration or rotation of the heat treatment container in which hydrogen absorbing alloy is held and agitation of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. Furthermore, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy is restricted to reduce homogeneous strain by heat treatment in the range from 700{degree}C to 1,100{degree}C. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Manufacturing method of hydrogen storage alloy powder for battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin funmatsu no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, J.

    1997-04-04

    To produce hydrogen storage alloy powder for battery, ingot of a hydrogen storage alloy is crushed to coarse grains of a suitable size with a crusher and then, finely pulverized to a certain particle size with a ball mill or some other tools. In this pulverization process, the surface of the pulverized alloy powder is oxidized and the surface activity is partially lost to cause a problem of a decrease of the characteristics of the produced hydrogen storage alloy electrode. In this invention, ingot of hydrogen storage alloy is crushed to coarse alloy grains in a non-oxidizing atmosphere followed by mechanical pulverization in a state contact with a solution of sulfites, hypophosphites, hydrogen phosphates or dihydrogen phosphates. This treatment method prevents surface oxidation of the alloy powder during the pulverization process. As a result, the initial activity of the battery is improved and an increase of the internal pressure of the battery on overcharge is suppressed. The use of an aqueous alkaline solution containing cobalt instead of the above-mentioned solution gives a similar effect. 2 tabs.

  11. Novel methodology for the production of carbon nanotubes and their application; Atarashii kabon nanochubu no seizo to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyotani, T; Tomita, A [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly evaluated together with fullerene for their potential use as novel materials. Currently, CNTs can be synthesized by arc discharge with carbon electrodes or by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons in gas phase. However, neither of these processes afford selectively CNTs homogenous in diameter and length. The authors found out that homogeneously sized CNTs are available by using, as templates for depositing carbon, linear micro-pores in oxide film formed by anodic oxidation of aluminum. The diameter, length and density of micro-pores can be easily controlled by changing conditions for electrolysis. Carbon is deposited onto the inner wall of the pore by thermal decomposition of propylene at 800 centigrade in a quartz reaction tube. Thereafter, oxide film is removed by dissolution. CNTs thus obtained are open in both ends and easy for insertion of heterogeneous materials such as metals into pore space. A platinum/CNT one-dimension complex was prepared by inserting platinum. Since complexes such as this may have novel properties that bulk materials would not show, they are expected to be used as novel semiconductors or catalysts. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  12. New bacteria suitable for production of ethanol from maltose. Marutosu kara no etanoru seizo ni tekishita shinki saikin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T.; Taguchi, H.; Nakamura, K. (Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-07

    Bacteria such as Zymomonas atracts attention in production of ethanol from carbohydrates in addition to yeast used for a long time, however, Zymomonas ferments only glucose, fructose and sucrose. After searching microbes in the nature with excellent properties in fermentation ability and salt resistance, a new Gram-negative bacterium has been isolated from a certain tree sap which is suitable for production of ethanol from maltose and starch hydrolyzate. The features of cell morphology of the new bacterium are: bacillus, peritrichous, no sport forming, Q-9 in quinone system, and an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium. It utilizes maltose, sorbitol and maltose and produces [alpha]-glucosidas but no [beta]-galactosidase nor arginine dihydrase. The strain T109 is deposited as FERM BP-3292 to the Industrial Research Institute of Microbiology. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology; Teihin`itan kaishitsu ni yoru CWM seizo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsurui, M; Suto, Y; Asakura, M [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, J; Yui, M; Takano, S [Japan COM Co. Ltd., Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    A CWM manufacturing technology was developed by means of upgrading low rank coals. Even though some low rank coals have such advantages as low ash, low sulfur and high volatile matter content, many of them are merely used on a small scale in areas near the mine-mouths because of high moisture content, low calorification and high ignitability. Therefore, discussions were given on a coal fuel manufacturing technology by which coal will be irreversibly dehydrated with as much volatile matters as possible remaining in the coal, and the coal is made high-concentration CWM, thus the coal can be safely transported and stored. The technology uses a method to treat coal with hot water under high pressure and dry it with hot water. The method performs not only removal of water, but also irreversible dehydration without losing volatile matters by decomposing hydrophilic groups on surface and blocking micro pores with volatile matters in the coal (wax and tar). The upgrading effect was verified by processing coals in a pilot plant, which derived greater calorification and higher concentration CWM than with the conventional processes. A CWM combustion test proved lower NOx, lower SOx and higher combustion rate than for bituminous coal. The ash content was also found lower. This process suits a Texaco-type gasification furnace. For a production scale of three million tons a year, the production cost is lower by 2 yen per 10 {sup 3} kcal than for heavy oil with the same sulfur content. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Treatment of exhaust gas from the semiconductor manufacturing process. 3; Handotai seizo sochi kara no hai gas shori. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukunaga, A. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Mori, Y.; Osato, M.; Tsujimura, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-20

    Demand has been building up for an individual dry type scrubber for treating exhaust gas from the semiconductor manufacturing process. Some factors for the wide acceptance of such a scrubber would be the capability for complete treatment, easy maintenance and safety features, etc. Practical gas analysis and optimum scrubbing techniques would have to be applied, as well as effective monitoring, alarm, and fail-safe techniques. The overall exhaust gas line, i.e. the line connecting the scrubber system and the upstream process, including that extending to pump system, has to be fully considered for enabling effective scrubbing performance. Such factors, which have until now not been given any priority, would have to be fully studied for the development of a practical, individual dry type scrubber. Cooperation on this matter from the semiconductor manufacturing industry would also be essential. 6 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Unit operation in food manufacturing and processing. Shokuhin seizo/kako ni okeru tan'i sosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, R. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Aguriculture)

    1993-09-05

    Processed foods must be produced in mass, cheap and safe and should be suitable for the delicate taste of human being. Food tastes are effected by an outlook on human attitude, and the surrounding environment. And these factors are reflected to unit operation in food manufacturing and processing and it is clarified that there are many technical difficulties. The characteristics of unit operation for food manufacturing and processing are that the food materials are a multicomponent system, moreover, a very small amount of aroma components, taste components, vitamin, physiologically activation materials and so on are more important than the main components, and also inapplicable of the model centering to the most quantitative component. The purpose of unit operation in food manufacturing and processing is to produce the properties of matter matching to human sense, and therefore there are many problems left unsolved. The development of analytical technology also has an influence on manufacturing and processing technology. Consequently, food manufacturing and processing technology must be based on general science. It is necessary to develop unit operation with an understanding of mutual effect between food and human body.

  16. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si sheets by continuous casting method); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (renzoku cast ho ni yoru tei cost Si kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing of low-cost Si substrates by continuous casting method in fiscal 1994. (1) On manufacturing of ingots of 16 piece size, the ingot of nearly 170kg was manufactured by batch process using the Si melt injection unit prepared in last year. (2) On oxygen and carbon contents in wafers, the contents were measured by FT-IR after slicing of the ingot. As a result, the oxygen and carbon contents could be successfully reduced to the targets of 10ppma and 5ppma or less, respectively. (3) The resistivity distribution of the ingot ranged over the target of 1-2ohm-cm. (4) Cells of 100 {times} 100mm{sup 2} wide and 350{mu}m thick were verified by in-house evaluation process. Although lower cell conversion efficiency was found at the center top of the ingot, a vertical efficiency stability was nearly sufficient as a whole. (5) On the crystal growth unit prepared in fiscal 1994, any problems were not found on automatic driving and vibration during moving. 8 figs.

  17. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (Over-layered TCO on tempered glass for solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (kyoka class fukugo tomei doden kiban seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of over-layered TCO on tempered glass in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of heat-resistant over-layered TCO, thermal deformation of TCO substrates was studied by both experiment and numerical computation. The thermal deformation increased with carrier concentration. As the observation result on change in lattice strain of heated TCO films by high-temperature X-ray diffraction, lattice strain was largely affected by thermal expansion. (2) On development of the low-temperature heat treatment method of TCO films, a technological prospect was obtained for fabrication of low-resistance TCO films by heat treatment without strength deterioration of tempered TCO substrates. (3) On development of cost reduction technology, the large-area CVD equipment was devised on the basis of the inline tempering method which tempers substrate glass by air cooling after formation of SnO2 film as fabrication method of tempered TCO. The TCO substrate tempered by air cooling could endure the drop test of 227g and 1.5m. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (technical development for production of high purity silicon); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (taiyo denchiyo silicon seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of manufacturing technologies of Si for solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) P in Si could be successfully reduced to 0.1ppmw by EB melting method. The condition possible to reduce P in Si while continuously supplying metal Si was found. The 20kg class EB melting equipment was also designed and manufactured which can be connected with solidifying rough refining process. (2) Use of a water-cooling copper mold was studied using a small melting equipment for cost reduction in solidifying rough refining process. As a result, the prospect of crucible-free technology for removal of P and solidifying rough refining was obtained. (3) B in Si could be successfully reduced to the target of 0.1ppmw by vapor addition method using a plasma melting equipment. (4) The prototype SOG-Si achieved a conversion efficiency of 14.1% as solar cell. In addition, the advanced solar cell prepared by efficiency enhancement process achieved a conversion efficiency of 15.9%. 3 figs.

  20. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (CdS/CdTe solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (CdTe taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CdS/CdTe solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology for high-efficiency large-area solar cells, high-quality CdTe active layer was studied. S content taken in the active layer at sintering of CdTe decreased with an increase in formed CdTe, resulting in improvement of Voc of cells. (2) On the window layer with wide band gap, the solar cell superior in collection efficiency and photoelectric characteristics could be obtained using the newly developed mixed crystal film of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S. (3) On the forming technology of large-area coating/sintering films, improvement of CdS film quality was studied by pressurized processing of printed CdS films. As a result, improvement of film density and light transmissivity was confirmed. (4) On the leveling process technology of CdTe films, smooth surface films were obtained by experiment using an equipment simultaneously exciting samples in all directions as one of uniform coating methods of films. 7 figs.

  1. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si substrates); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usugata takessho kigan seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing technologies for low-cost high-quality Si substrates in fiscal 1994. (1) On the 220mm square type electromagnetic casting technology, development of fast stable casting technology was studied using the previously installed 220mm square type electromagnetic casting furnace. As a result, continuous stable casting was achieved at high casting speed up to 3.0mm/min. Any degradation of crystalline quality due to high speed casting was not found. (2) On the 350mm square type electromagnetic casting furnace, oscillation circuit constants were analyzed for design of the power source for No.4 electromagnetic casting furnace. In graphite heating experiment using the 350mm square type water-cooling copper crucible heated by 1000kW high-frequency power source, sufficient heat quantity was obtained for initial melting of Si. Any problems in Si melting were not found through Al block melting test. 6 figs.

  2. Survey on construction of the database for new energy technology development. Fuel cell; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the data related to technological development of new energy, the database for fuel cells was prepared. The major international conferences held in fiscal 1996 were reviewed. As the atmosphere of the whole conference, phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is in a stage just before practical use, and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is in a stage of the demonstration study of MW class one. The study on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is in considerable progress. In particular, the application of PEFC to automobiles is in real investigation. For the database, kinds and features of various fuel cells, operation principles, system configurations of FC plants, application fields, and characteristics were arranged. Field test examples for public and industrial uses were separately arranged, and in particular, the application examples of PAFC were presented together with developmental conditions of the other fuel cells. Overseas situations were equal to domestic ones, and their marketability was predicted. The Japanese subsidy policy and some U.S. policies were also arranged. 28 refs., 51 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Achievement report on research and development of direct methanol fuel cell; 1998 nendo direct methanol nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Research and development has been performed on a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to generate electric power through direct chemical reaction of methanol not being given modification as a fuel cell to be used for automotive engines. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. In the research of the membranes to conduct ions for the DMFC, an ion conduction membrane which introduces POSS group as the methanol eliminating functional group was prepared to achieve enhancement in tensile strength, heat resistance, and ion conductivity. In the power generation characteristics of the DMFC, verification was given on power generation performance with as high main power density as 0.1 W/cm{sup 2} by using the available electrolytic membranes and electrode catalysts. The characteristics showed effectiveness of the DMFC as the electric power supply source. In addition, fundamental findings were obtained on factors affecting the power generation characteristics of the DMFC as a result of generating power under different conditions. Research and development was given also on the water-methanol-ion exchange polymeric membrane, ion exchange membranes provided with lipophilic and water repellent electrolyte, solid polymeric membranes having high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability, and a new micro-porous filling type polymeric membrane. (NEDO)

  4. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); 2000 nendo kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    Development of fuel cell power generation technology and R and D of solid oxide fuel cells were carried out, and reports of the FY 2000 results of companies were summed up. As to the R and D of the cell module, the R and D on the wet type cylinder module were made jointly by Toto Ltd., Kyushu Electric Power Co. and Nippon Steel Corp. As to the R and D of materials/basic technology, the following were conducted: evaluation of reliability of the cell module (evaluation of thermal cycle characteristics, etc.) by Chubu Electric Power Co., evaluation of reliability of the cell module (cell characteristics/stress evaluation) by Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., cost reduction of cell materials (evaluation of chemical characteristics) by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, and cost reduction of cell materials (evaluation of mechanical/thermal characteristics) by Japan Fine Ceramics Center. Concerning the system study, study of the system (adaptation fields of the small system and the optimization) was conducted by Nippon Steel Corp. (NEDO)

  5. NEDO fuel/storage technology subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO nenryo chozo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Taro Yamayasu, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, reports fuel and storage technologies, taking reference to the research and development of technologies relating to fuel cell power generation, cell power storage system of a novel type, ceramic gas turbine, superconductor-generated power application, wide-area energy utilization network system (urbane eco-energy system), high-temperature superconductor-supported flywheel power storage, demonstration of a novel method of load levelling, demonstration test for the establishment of a centralized control system, and so forth. Reported also is research and development involving a molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system, current status of distributed cell power storage system development (large lithium secondary storage battery technology development), current status of superconductor-generated power application technology, regenerative cycle type 2-shaft ceramic gas turbine for a 300kW-class cogeneration system, high-density latent heat transportation, and so forth. (NEDO)

  6. Design of hydroprocessing catalyst for the production of ultra clean fuels. Super clean nenryo wo mezashita jushitsu tanka suiso seisei shokubai no kokinoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hiromichi (National Chemical Lab. for Industry,Tsukuba, (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    In order to develop high function catalyst for the ultra clean fuel refining and other purposes, the catalyst was studied in correlation between the function and structure. Hydrogenation power of aromatic ring and hydrogenolysis power of carbon-carbon bonding, which are principal functions of catalyst in the hydrogenation refining, were evaluated with model material. 30 kinds of catalyst were figure shown in classification result of evaluation. As for the mutual operation of molybdenum and carrier, it is necessary for molybdenum sulfide to be highly dispersed on carrier in order to heighten the hydrogenation activity. While the hydrogenolysis activity, as necessitating electrically negative molybdenum type to be formed on carrier, is manifested by the formation of Bronsted acidity point with hydrogen sulfide, adhering thereto. As for the molybdenum sulfide catalyst, mainly hydrogenation activity point, in case that structure, similar to molybdenum disulfide, is dispersed as a single layer on carrier, and hydrogenolysis activity point, in case that it forms a multi-layer structure thereon, are formed in edge part of respective crystal. The lowering in activity under a long time sevre condition, which mainly are carbonic material deposition, matallic adhesion, etc., is also influenced by the structural change in catalyst. 10 refs., 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells; Kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu 1997 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1997 on research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells. Fuji Electric has demonstrated possibilities of film type cells of predominantly metallic flat plate supporting type of a large-area cell lamination system, and seal-less stack structure. Sanyo Electric has discussed making thinner the composite cell lamination type anode, optimization in sintering temperature, and sealing materials. The Fine Ceramic Center has performed a 1,000-hour test on an La(Sr) MnO{sub 3}-YSZ electrode, in which A-site defect amount was decreased to 0.1-0.02 to stabilize micro-structure air electrodes for an extended period of time. Fujikura has discussed functional materials for high dispersion and slanting in a fuel electrode Ni/YSZ. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries has fabricated MgO-based fuel electrodes on a trial basis, and performed internal reformation and power generation tests by using full-size stacks. Murata Manufacturing Company has verified long-term power generation properties and stability of a three-layered co-sintered film of flat plate type. Mitsui Shipbuilding has reached a near final conclusion on the basic structure of gas separator cells. The Central Electric Power Research Institute has completed a conceptual design on a 300-MW class composite power generation system in which SOFC and gas turbines are combined. The Electric Power Development Company has discussed problems in SOFC composite power generation development using coal gasified fuel. (NEDO)

  8. Investigation on preparing data collections related to new energy technology development. Fuel cells; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to put data related to fuel cells systematically into order, related data were collected comprehensively. Reviewing large international conferences impresses dawn of commercialization in phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC), take-off of megawatt-class molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), and remarkable advancement in studies on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). The data collection may be compiled as follows: basic principles, features, operation principles, system configurations, utilization fields, and characteristics were summarized on fuel cell power generation systems using phosphoric acid, polymer, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and alkaline fuel cells; major installation examples in Japan and overseas countries were summarized; investigations were given on developing other fuel cells such as alkaline type and direct methanol type fuel cells; and marketability, subsidies operations in Japan, and states of policy implementation in the U.S.A. were investigated and put into order. 22 refs., 24 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Electrolyte loss mechanism of molten carbonate fuel cells. 1; Yoyu tansan`engata nenryo denchi ni okeru denkaishitsu loss kiko ni tsuite. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, A; Murata, K [Toshiba Research and Development Center, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    During a single-cell disassembly test of molten carbonate fuel cells having been operated for 90 hours to 5500 hours, correlativity was discovered between decrease in the retained amount of electrolyte due to decrease in pore capacity of electrodes and electrolyte plates and the electrolyte loss. The electrolyte loss amount cannot be explained with the conventional mechanisms, thereby a new model was proposed. The cathode has shown very little change in the capacity change in pores with diameters smaller than 2 {mu}m per unit area. The anode has remained almost constant after 1000 hours, but the electrolyte plates have shown remarkable decrease. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that the electrolyte plates should have been the major cause for the electrolyte loss. The result of measuring the electrolyte loss amount agreed well with that estimated using pore capacity curves. This fact suggests that the electrolyte loss can be explained by a new mechanism that hypothesizes the existence of a largest size of retaining pores that can support carbonates and defines that the electrolyte loss is generated from decrease in the pore capacity. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Sintering behavior of porous electrolyte supporting matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells; Yoyu tansan`en nenryo denchi denkaishitsu hojiso no shoketsu kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, A; Murata, K [Toshiba Research and Development Center, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    Considerations were given on pore distribution in lithium aluminate that supports electrolyte in molten carbonate fuel cells under cell operating condition, and its sintering mechanism by measuring time-based change in the linear contraction. The following findings were obtained: Pore capacity in the lithium aluminate layer has decreased in 1000-hour operation, creating pores with diameters greater than 2 {mu}m in which no carbonates have been filled; the cross-leak in reaction gases and ion resistance in the electrolyte retaining layer have increased resulting in degraded cell performance; the lithium aluminate layer has generated initial quick densification as a result of melting of the carbonates, with the more the liquid phase, the larger the linear contraction; and pores with diameters greater than 2 {mu}m are thought to have been generated as the densification of the lithium aluminate due to dissolution and reprecipitation progresses. The densification can be explained well if this is regarded to consist of a slow densification process in association with sintering of lithium aluminate particles, and progress in a sintering mechanism where solid phase has solubility against liquid phase. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T; Iriya, Y; Naito, K; Mitsumoto, H; Iiyama, A [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, T; Harada, A; Sasaki, S; Shimazaki, N; Hashizume, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Tatani, T; Yoshida, H; Takizawa, H; Miyoshi, K; Ikebe, H [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Soot and NOx simultaneous reduction by use of CO2 mixed fuel; Ekika CO2 yokai nenryo ni yoru diesel kikan no susu, NOx no doji teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, J; Yokoyama, T; Ikeda, M; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Ifuku, Y [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We propose the new fuel injection system by use of diesel fuel dissolved with CO2 to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. In this paper spray combustion characteristics of CO2 mixed fuel is reported. It is revealed that flame temperature and KL factor at the CO2 mixed fuel combustion are lower than at the only n-tridecane combustion due to separation or partly flashing of CO2component. And the result of exhaust gas measurement shows the capability that CO2 mixed fuel is able to reduce both soot and NOx simultaneously. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fundamental analysis of thermally regenerative fuel cell utilizing solar heat; Taiyonetsu wo riyosuru netsu saiseigata nenryo denchi no kiso tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Y; Tanaka, T; Takashima, T; Doi, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Aosawa, T; Kogoshi, S [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on a thermally regenerative fuel cell using solar heat. The thermally regenerative fuel cell was devised which is composed of 2-propanol liquid-phase endothermic dehydrogenation at nearly 100degC, and acetone liquid- phase exothermic hydrogenation at nearly 30degC as reverse reaction. This low-temperature dehydrogenation can relatively easily utilize a flat solar heat concentrator. 2-propanol dehydrogenation generates acetone and hydrogen. Generated acetone generates electric power in hydrogenation, generating propanol. This propanol regenerates acetone and hydrogen in dehydrogenation. The activity of Ru and Pt composite catalyst was considerably higher than that of Ru or Pt single catalyst. The activity was also higher in carbon felt or carbon cloth carrier than carbon plate carrier. The open circuit voltage of the fuel cell was estimated to be 110-120mV, nearly consisting with theoretical values. Short circuit current was also estimated to be 9-11mA, suggesting reduction of its internal resistance as an important subject. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of factors causing degradation of phosphoric acid fuel cells; 1994 nendo rinsangata nenryo denchi no cell rekka yoin chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This survey aims to effectively promote studies for evaluating phosphoric acid fuel cell degradation. Data of time-dependent changes in voltage are collected from 58 plants now in operation (for 17,500 hours at the maximum). Half of them exhibit a degradation rate of 0.25-1%/1000 hours while degradation is abruptly accelerated midway in the other half. Causes for voltage drop are not known clearly. Since but a little systematically collected test data are available concerning the mechanism of cell degradation, it is decided that tests be conducted using small test model cells sharing the same specifications. Primary test conditions (combination of temperature, current, and pressure with test reference levels), performance evaluating methods (conditions of data collection), and methods of investigation by dismantling (items and frequency of investigations) are determined, and guidelines are provided for element tests for complementing the said test items and for studying their relations with the degradation mechanism. Based on acceleration-related factors to be obtained by common specification test cells, corporations involved will develop their own accelerated test methods. Small cells are fabricated for testing parameters, and model cells are specified. (NEDO)

  17. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Fuel cells; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this survey is to grasp the trends of technology development of fuel cells and their market, and to provide data required for supporting the introduction and diffusion of fuel cells. This report consists of Part 1 titled as `Trends of development of fuel cells in FY 1997`, and Part 2 titled as `Compiled data`. The Part 1 consists of three chapters, i.e., Chapter 1 titled as `Introduction`, Chapter 2 as `Development trends of fuel cells for on-site power generation`, and Chapter 3 as `Trends of development of fuel cells for mobile objects and fuel cell-powered vehicles`. The introductory chapter not only outlines the development trends but also describes the results of the 5th Grove Fuel Cell Symposium noticed as the major global international symposium on fuel cell in general and the environmental problems discussed at the COP3 Kyoto Conference, both held in TY 1997. The Part 2 contains the principles, system configurations and applications of fuel cells, PAFC, MCFC, SOFC, PEFC, modifier, DMFC, development trend of fuel cell-powered vehicles, and national policies for fuel cells in Japan. The Appendix features a report of the new technique investigation working group and information on fuel cells from newspapers. 100 refs., 4 figs.

  18. FY 1999 report on the survey of the trend of the technology development of fuel cell vehicles; 1999 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi jidosha gijutsu kaihatsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    For the contribution to the introduction/spread of fuel cell vehicles, survey was conducted of the trend of technology development of fuel cell vehicles and the related infrastructure, the situation of the regulation/criteria, etc. As a typical project on the D and R of fuel cell vehicles in the U.S., cited is 'Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV)' which was commenced mainly by the US government and three US automobile manufacturers. The US DOE determined the introduction of a gasoline reforming type and has completed some prototype systems. In Europe, cited are 'Munich Airport Hydrogen Project,' Daimler-Chrysler's 'Transport Energy Strategy,' etc. In Japan, the introduction/promotion are being discussed in 'The New Sunshine Project' and 'The Millennium Project' proposed by former prime minister Obuchi. As to fuel cell vehicles, there are still many uncertain elements in performance, safety, economical efficiency, etc. Accordingly, the continued efforts should be made for the technology development for improvement of power performance, safety and economical efficiency and for the environmental arrangement of the infrastructure, introduction supporting system, etc. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1999 report on the survey of the trend of the technology development of fuel cell vehicles; 1999 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi jidosha gijutsu kaihatsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    For the contribution to the introduction/spread of fuel cell vehicles, survey was conducted of the trend of technology development of fuel cell vehicles and the related infrastructure, the situation of the regulation/criteria, etc. As a typical project on the D and R of fuel cell vehicles in the U.S., cited is 'Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV)' which was commenced mainly by the US government and three US automobile manufacturers. The US DOE determined the introduction of a gasoline reforming type and has completed some prototype systems. In Europe, cited are 'Munich Airport Hydrogen Project,' Daimler-Chrysler's 'Transport Energy Strategy,' etc. In Japan, the introduction/promotion are being discussed in 'The New Sunshine Project' and 'The Millennium Project' proposed by former prime minister Obuchi. As to fuel cell vehicles, there are still many uncertain elements in performance, safety, economical efficiency, etc. Accordingly, the continued efforts should be made for the technology development for improvement of power performance, safety and economical efficiency and for the environmental arrangement of the infrastructure, introduction supporting system, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  1. Effect of oxygenated fuel on premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel nensho ni oyobosu gansanso nenryo kongo keiyu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Because injection timing in diesel engines is early in a premixed lean diesel combustion system using early fuel injection, ignition timing is determined by ignitability of the fuel used. The conventional diesel fuel, which has good ignitability, causes excessively early ignition, thus aggravating fuel consumption. In order to reduce cylinder temperature with an aim of delaying ignition timing to improve the fuel consumption, attempts are being made on using low cetane fuels to reduce CO2 gas supply or compression ratio, and to vary ignitability of the fuels. The present study investigated ignition timing control and properties of exhausts by mixing different types of oxygenated fuels into light oil. Mixing the oxygenated fuels into light oil proved that the ignition timing can be controlled, and mixing such low cetane fuels as ethanol and MTBE achieved improvement in fuel consumption. Trial use of the oxygenated fuels aggravated CO concentration, which is caused because the cylinder temperature was reduced. Numerical calculations suggest that use of fuels with faster evaporation speed and lower cetane number is effective in improving the fuel consumption and the exhausts. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Study of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu keisei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    A study is being made on premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) by means of early fuel injection in diesel engines. The PREDIC makes it possible to largely reduce NOx emission, but has such problems as ignition control and increase in THC and CO generation. In order to clarify the relationship between fuel spray characteristics in the PREDIC and properties of gas mixture and exhausts, the present study has investigated spread and internal structure of the spray by means of spray observation experiment using a pintle swirl nozzle. Based on the result therefrom, simulations were used to investigate effects of spatial dispersion characteristics of the spray on properties of the gas mixture and exhausts before ignition. The pintle swirl nozzle forms conical spray having an air layer inside the spray, where penetration is suppressed even under low atmospheric pressure. By forming hollow spray or solid spray in the conical spray, a possibility was indicated that equivalent ratio distribution of the gas mixture can be controlled and NO emission may be reduced. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. FY 1998 annual report on the conversion of fuel at Igumnovskaya thermal power plant; Igumnovskaya hatsudensho nenryo tenkan 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As part of the industrially advanced countries' joint action on the basis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), a thermal power plant in Igumnovskaya (I-plant), Russia was selected as the candidate for rationalization by conversion of fuel from coal to natural gas and introduction of combined-cycle generation, for investigation of the effect on reduction of greenhouse gas generation. The I-plant is located in one of the Russia's largest chemical industry regions, supplying power and steam to the factories in the region. The draft rationalization plan adopts a combination of a coal-fired 300,000 kWh plant that has not been completed and obsolete facilities in the I-plant as the reference case. The plan is drafted to construct a 450,000 kWh combined cycle unit and 3-200 t/h boilers, while effectively utilizing the existing facilities. It requires an investment of US$340 million. The construction works are scheduled to start in 2002 for the initial start-up in 2004. It is expected to reduce CO2 emissions by 1.8 million tons a year and cumulatively 52.7 million tons in the 30-year period from 2005. (NEDO)

  4. Cavitation characteristics of multihole diesel-fuel nozzles in high-speed oil flows. Diesel kikan yo nenryo tako nozzle no abura cavitation tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, M. (Shimonoseki Univ. of Fisheris, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ito, Y. (Hachinohe Inst. of Tech., Aomori (Japan)); Aoki, H. (Xexel-Gleason U.S.A. Inc., New York (U.S.A))

    1991-07-25

    Recently, since higher velocity and higher pressure are required for diesel injection systems, cavitation behaviors in high velocity oil flows are strongly interested in such as 100 to 500 m/s for oil flow velocity and less than the cavitation factor {sigma} of 0.01. In this paper, oil cavitation characteristics at the injection part of multihole nozzles, especially on the flow characteristics, were studied systematically using fuel injection multihole nozzles for an actual use. As a result, it was clarified that subcavitation area (sub C), transition area, and supercavitation area (SC) could be existing in C{sub d}-{sigma} relation, which was similar to that specified cavitation conditions could be exisiting in the actual working area of multihole nozzles. And it was also clarified that flow coefficient C{sub d} relied on Reynolds number R{sub e} in the transition of {sigma}{ge}{sigma}{sub cr} and in {sub C} area, and mainly relied on {sigma} in SC area of {sigma}<{sigma}{sub cr}. Moreover, it was also confirmed that such tendency was similar to the one of the two-dimensional contraction of an area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study of recent fuel oil cost in air lines (Part 2). Saikin no airline no nenyuhi ni kansuru ichikosatsu (2); Nenryo shohi to hiyo tai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Yoshikazu.

    1989-03-01

    Through an arrangement of published data about American air lines during 1985 through 1987, the overall expense vs. transportation fee (expense vs. effect) was studied as a main viewpoint. As a result, the fuel oil cost, even in case of wide fuselage plane, high in transportation efficiency, was high in ratio, 32 to 52% (3 to 5 times as high as that 12 to 14 years ago), and fluctuated connectedly with the oil price. While the jet fuel price fluctuated connectedly with the oil price per equal volume with 1.3 to 1.4 of price ratio. Further, the flight range ratio was recorded to be approx. 0.06 to 0.24 km/kg. While the transportation efficiency was lower than approx. 5000kg*km/kg with a wide range of overall expense, approx. 9 to 87 cents per compensative transportation ton*km. Because even a sudden decrease in transportation quantity did not decrease the overall expense, it was known to be important in management to secure the transportation quantity. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Heat recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Yamamoto, M. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    NTT is developing a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerators to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We field-tested this fuel-cell energy system in a telephone office. Two heat recovery methods were applied in the test: one uses direct steam heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant to keep the heat recovery temperature high and to avoid requiring a heat exchanger for the recovery; the other uses heat recovery from the reformer exhaust gas that is directly in contact with the heat recovery water to recover heat more economically. Our field tests confirmed that the average efficiency of heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant is 16%, and from the reformer exhaust gas is 9% under 80-kW continuous operation. Maximum total efficiency including electrical power efficiency was confirmed to be about 73% under the condition of 100-kW and an S/C ratio of 2.5 in the winter period: heat recovery from the fuel-cell stack coolant was 23%, from the reformer exhaust gas was 10%, and from electrical conversion was about 40%. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Hear recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system no fuirudotesuto ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Amanuma, H. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories Tokyo (Japan); Uekusa, T.; Waragai, S. [NTT Power and Building Eacilities Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    NTT is developing a phosphoric acid fuel cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerator to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We fieldtested this fuel cell energy system in a telephone office for three years. Heat recovered water from fuel cell stack coolant was supplied to the absorption refrigerator and further extra-heat was recovered by a heat exchanger. The toral heat recovery amount was about 86000 kca/h (the heat recovery efficiency was 20%) under 200kW operation. The absorption refrigerator was supplied about 49000kcal/h of heat and operated with 0.7 of coefficient of performance throughtout the year. The electrical efficiency was maintained more than 38% after 13000h operation. 12 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. FY 1998 annual report on the conversion of fuel at Igumnovskaya thermal power plant; Igumnovskaya hatsudensho nenryo tenkan 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As part of the industrially advanced countries' joint action on the basis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), a thermal power plant in Igumnovskaya (I-plant), Russia was selected as the candidate for rationalization by conversion of fuel from coal to natural gas and introduction of combined-cycle generation, for investigation of the effect on reduction of greenhouse gas generation. The I-plant is located in one of the Russia's largest chemical industry regions, supplying power and steam to the factories in the region. The draft rationalization plan adopts a combination of a coal-fired 300,000 kWh plant that has not been completed and obsolete facilities in the I-plant as the reference case. The plan is drafted to construct a 450,000 kWh combined cycle unit and 3-200 t/h boilers, while effectively utilizing the existing facilities. It requires an investment of US$340 million. The construction works are scheduled to start in 2002 for the initial start-up in 2004. It is expected to reduce CO2 emissions by 1.8 million tons a year and cumulatively 52.7 million tons in the 30-year period from 2005. (NEDO)

  9. Collection of summaries of polymer electrolyte fuel cell research and development reports presented at fiscal 2000 meeting; 2000 nendo kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokukai yoshishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-08

    Contained in this book are the summaries of 26 essays presented at an achievement reporting conference on polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) research and development held in Tokyo on March 8, 2000. In the development of high-efficiency energy systems for transportation and residential/commercial sectors, 6 essays are summarized, involving ion exchange membranes, normal pressure operation type several kW class power source systems for home use, and so forth. For the practical application of high-efficiency fuel cell systems, 12 essays are summarized, involving technologies of PEFC low cost electrodes, PEFC module manufacturing, hydrogen separation type reforming, PEFC system manufacturing, and so forth. In relation to the establishment of technologies for a fuel cell popularization infrastructure and development of key technologies for high-efficiency fuel cells, 2 essays are summarized, involving the construction of a popularization infrastructure and development of evaluation test equipment, and the like, for automotive fuel cells. In relation to the development of key technologies and verification thereof for the practical application of fuel cells, 6 essays are summarized, covering the research and development of hydrogen producing liquid fuels and hydrogen absorbing alloys. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1995 report on the survey of making models for introducing petroleum substituting energy systems. 2; 1995 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy system donyu model sakusei ni kansuru chosa). 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In the promotion of measures taken for energy conservation, it is necessary to give local governments, entrepreneurs, etc. guidance for introducing energy systems which meet with features of the buildings and courses for how to construct infrastructures of towns or cities in case of development, redevelopment, etc. In fiscal 1995, each of the petroleum substituting energy systems was studied more detailedly, and the trend of building facilities for the introduction was studied and arranged. Energy systems by the following were set up paying attention to energy sources, energy conversion and energy transportation as factors composing a petroleum substituting energy system: photovoltaic power generation, use of solar energy, use of wind energy, use of geothermal energy, use of biomass energy, use of waste, use of temperature difference energy, cogeneration, load levelling, wide-area energy supply, etc. Also studied and arranged were energy demand, location, the recent trend, the point of introduction of energy systems, examples of introduction, etc. in relation to indoor sport facilities, hospitals, hotels, multiple dwelling apartments, commercial facilities, offices, plants, etc. 52 figs., 55 tabs.

  11. Report on surveys in fiscal 1998 on the project to invite petroleum substituting energy related experts in Japan and EU; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren senmonka shohei jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In relation with coping with global environmental problems in recent years, needs are increasing more than ever for enhancing fossil energy utilization rates, developing and expanding utilization of petroleum substituting energies that can substitute fossil energies. Since Japan is particularly a large energy consuming country, and cannot escape from depending on import for the majority of its energy resources, it is an urgent issue to enhance the energy utilization efficiency and further promote development and utilization of new energies. To do this, it is indispensable to exchange such item of information as identification of actual status in other countries of handling the petroleum substituting energies. Taking up geothermal energy, fiscal 1998 invited four experts from EU countries. Visits were made for about two weeks on Japanese research institutes and business enterprises related to geothermal energy, and opinions and information were exchanged. A seminar was held on the final day, where the EU experts have made presentations on the current status and future prospects on geothermal research and development in EU. Greatly valuable suggestions were given for the Japan's future geothermal research and development. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 Report on the results of survey on recent situations of global warming mitigation measures related to alternative fluorochlorohydrocarbons; 2000 nendo daitai furon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The recent situations of global warming mitigation measures related to flurine-containing greenhouse gases of HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6} are surveyed. In the meeting of the Parties of Montreal Protocol of 2000, no decision has been made on HCFC phaseout schedule amendment in the developed and developing countries, which is one of the major items. COP-6 has failed to reach agreement on handling CO2 absorption sources. For the international trends in estimation of the emissions of HFC and others, the IPCC's emission estimation methodology guidance for HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6} (translated into Japanese) and the methodologies taken by other countries are introduced. The trends of the emission control measures for HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6} include CO2 refrigerant application for mobile air-conditioners, announcement by Coca-Cola of HFC phaseout by 2004, announcement by the Canadian refrigerant air-conditioner industry of introduction of the surcharge system for promoting refrigerant recovery, and SF{sub 6} emission reduction technologies in Mg fabricating industries. Also introduced are cost evaluation of emission reduction technologies, latest scientific knowledge in the global environments, and harmonization of global warming mitigation and ozone layer protection in the developing countries, among others. (NEDO)

  13. Report on a survey in fiscal 1998 for petroleum substituting energy development and utilization in the Pacific Ocean region; 1998 nendo Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was carried out to make available the information base that can collect, put into order and provide quickly and accurately the energy related information based on global environment problems in the Pacific Ocean region. Fiscal 1998 has performed a substituting energy demand and supply analysis in the Pacific Ocean region by adding the 1996 data, in addition to collection of the normal energy data. For the purpose of analyzing the petroleum substituting energy demand and supply in the Pacific Ocean region, data were collected from 17 countries for fiscal 1997 and the quarterly data for 1998. Retroactive data collection was also continued. The growth rate of primary energy supply in the Pacific Ocean region is 1.8% in average in the 1980's, and 3.8% in the 1990's. In contrast, the growth rate of petroleum substituting energies is 6.4% in the 80's and 6.2% in the former half of the 90's, being far higher than the growth rate of the primary energy supply. The share of the petroleum substituting energies accounting for in the primary energy supply has increased from 6.7% in 1980 to 12.1% in 1996. As the breakdown, nuclear power accounts for overwhelmingly large, followed by geothermal energy and new energies. (NEDO)

  14. Development of two-stage compression heat pump for hot water supply in commercial use. Research of compatibility with alternative refrigerant, HFC-134a; Gyomuyo nidan asshukushiki kyuto heat pump no kaihatsu. Daitai reibai HFC-134a no tekiyosei kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Saikawa, M.; Iwatsubo, T.; Mimaki, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Performance of two-stage compression and cascade heating heat pump cycle was evaluated in the case using alternative refrigerant, HFC-134a, instead of CFC-12 through calculations and experiments. Heat source and heat load temperature conditions of CFC-12, HFC-134a, and HCFC-22 were calculated. As a result, this cycle provided equivalent coefficient of performance to use of CFC-12 and HCFC-22. Especially for HFC-134a, discharge gas temperature from compressor was much lower than that of the others, which prevented the heat decomposition of refrigerant. It was found that HFC-134a was suitable refrigerant for high temperature output equipment like this cycle. To grasp the possibility of hot water supply at 65 {degree}C and behavior of lubricating oil which can not be obtained only from calculations, applicability of HFC-134a was investigated. Experiments were conducted using a small test apparatus with electric input of 2 kW. As a result, satisfactory performance was obtained for each evaluation item. Applicability of HFC-134a to the two-stage compression cycle was confirmed. 9 refs., 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999 for trends in policies on prevention of global warming by use of substitute fluorocarbons; 1999 nendo daitai furon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper summarizes mainly on HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6} the trends in the last one year in technologies and regulations that can make compatible the ozone layer protection and the global warming prevention. Activities of the HFC/PHC task force established jointly by TEAP and IPCC are very important in deciding the future positions of HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6}. This paper reports the status of activities taken during fiscal 1999. IPCC reviewed the method of calculating the quantity of greenhouse effect gas emission. The paper introduces from its draft the gist of calculating the discharge quantity of HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6}. Introduction is given from the HFC/PFC task force report the actual status of using coolants, foaming agents and aerosols using HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6}, and the trends of developing substitution technologies. The paper introduces a fluorocarbon destruction technology as an international trend in discharge suppression measures. The paper reports movements of COP-5 in fiscal 1999 for gases other than the three gases including HFC. Chlorobromo-methane was indicated as a new substance, and n-propyl-bromide was decided to continue with measurement of ozone destruction coefficient. (NEDO)

  16. Research report of fiscal 1997. Joint research project on petroleum substituting energy between Japan and the EU; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren kyodo kenkyu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Four researchers were invited from EU countries to promote R & D of petroleum substituting energy in Japan, and the joint research was made in institutes of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology related to each theme for 50 days. On the research on deep geothermal prospecting based on volcanic halocarbon group, it was showed that halocarbon discharged from volcanic or hydrothermal system is an important window to survey activities within the earth. On the research on catalyst for hydrogenation of coal-derived liquid, XPS data was reported, and some preliminary conclusions were obtained. On the research on oxide system anode material for Li secondary cells, a method for improving the state of host to ion moving in 1-D to 3-D networks by diffraction method was showed. In particular, the method was effective to offer electronically sensitive environment to moving ion system. On the research on hydro-dechlorination of hydrocarbon halide, the theme related to environmental measures against waste hydrocarbon halide (depletion of the ozone layer) was studied. 83 refs., 32 figs., 20 tabs.

  17. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Joint research project with researchers related to petroleum substituting energies in the EU countries; 1998 nendo EU shokoku no sekiyu daitai energy kanren kenkyusha tono kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    It was intended to invite researchers related to petroleum substituting energies from the EU countries to perform joint researches at research organizations under the auspices of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology having deep relations with research themes of the invited researchers, to deepen the mutual understanding, and to form efficient cooperative relationship. The intention is also to contribute to research and development of petroleum substituting energies to be used in Japan in the future. The research themes, researchers, their research organizations, and the receiving research organizations are as follows: (1) evaluation of reservoir impedance in high-temperature rock experimental fields by Mr. Ralph Weidler (Germany) at Ruhr University received by the Resource and Environmental Technology Research Institute; (2) changing the particle boundary structure of ceramics by using the alkoxide process by Dr. Ramon Torrecillas (Spain) at Institute Nacional del Carbon received by the Nagoya Industrial Technology Research Institute; (3) research on corrosion in metallic materials for molten carbonate type fuel cells by Dr. Giuseppe Calogero (Italy) at Institute for Transformation and Storage of Energy received by the Osaka Industrial Technology Research Institute; and (4) estimation of behavior of deep geothermal reservoirs with high enthalpy by Dr. Enrico Maranini at Universita' Di Ferrara received by the Geology Survey Center. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey report on development and utilization of alternative energies for oil in Pacific region; 2000 nendo Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted, with environmental matters taken into consideration, for building an information gathering infrastructure for the countries in the Pacific region, capable of promptly and accurately collecting and offering energy related information. Conducted in this fiscal year were regular data gathering, review of oil supply and demand and alternative energy supply and demand in the Pacific region, on-site survey of alternative energy development and utilization in Vietnam, quarterly analyses of trend of energy demand, and the like. The supply of primary energy in the Pacific region increased by 2.3% per year in the period 1980 through 1998. The rate of increase was the lowest with oil, and the highest with hydroelectricity, atomic power, and recoverable energies such as geothermal energy. The Vietnamese Government is promoting its efforts to develop power sources by use of recoverable energies for farm village electrification. Efforts are being earnestly exerted to develop its rich natural gas resources and it is expected that there will be a remarkable achievement in the use of alternative energies due to an increase in natural gas consumption. In the field of data collection, various data were registered with the database. (NEDO)

  19. Research report of fiscal 1997. Invitation project of specialists on petroleum substituting energy between Japan and the EU; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren senmonka shohei jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Specialists were invited from EU countries for information exchange to promote R and D of petroleum substituting energy in Japan. In the seminar on the present and future trend of R and D of fuel cells in EU countries, the present R and D state of fuel cells in Italy, the present state and future R and D plan of fuel cells in ANSALDO group, the state of SOFC R and D in Germany and by international cooperation, and R and D of polymer electrolyte fuel cell in Fraunhofer institute for Solar Energy Systems were reported contributing to mutual understanding between Japan and the EU. Exchange of opinions and information was also made between 4 fuel cell specialists of EU countries and Japanese specialists. The report on such an exchange includes the outline of Japanese fuel cell technologies, and the present R and D states of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), and polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The specialists visited some government organizations, semi-government organizations, institutes and private enterprises related to promotion, support and verification of R and D of fuel cells. 2 tabs.

  20. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the trend of global warming protection measures of substituting freons; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (daitai freon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The trend survey was conducted of global warming protection measures by participation in international conferences, scientific society meetings and lecture meetings, and by literature surveys. We participated in the international conference on ozonosphere protection measures. In the 9th meeting of the nations which concluded the Montreal Protocol, the strengthening of restrictions on methyl bromide was decided on. In the UNEP solvent technology selection conference and the OORG conference of the World Bank, reports were made on substituting solvents in Japan, activities supporting developing countries, and the developmental trend of urethane use foaming agent. In the international conference on ozonosphere protection measures, introduced were the present status of Japan`s ODA for developing countries and examples of success of the substitution in the solvent field. The paper included nine reports on CFC destruction technology related literature made public in the past one year. The paper also introduced a comparative study of de-HCFC substituting technology at U.S. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. EPA`s prediction of emission of fluorine 3 gas, the predicted value of HFC emission and trial calculation of contributing rate in all greenhouse gases by IIR, Green Peace and Elf Atochem, and NOAA`s measured data on SF6 in the atmosphere. 49 refs., 46 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1994 report on the survey of making models for introducing petroleum substituting energy systems; 1994 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy system donyu model sakusei ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In the promotion of measures taken for energy conservation, it is necessary to give local governments, entrepreneurs, etc. appropriate and concrete guidance for introducing energy systems which meet with features of the areas and buildings and courses for how to construct infrastructures of towns or cities in case of development and redevelopment. Recently, also in local governments, etc., there are seen attitudes toward positive study of introduction of energy conservation systems and petroleum substituting energy systems in case of redevelopment, and the situation is that the spread and expansion are expected by giving appropriate guidance for the introduction. Accordingly, the study makes analyses of the trend and characteristics of developmental projects and makes/arranges models of promising petroleum substituting energy systems, aiming at contributing to promotion of guidance for the introduction to local governments, entrepreneurs, etc. Approximately 20 models of petroleum substituting energy systems were made which are thought to be promising. For each, the following were arranged: outline of system, introduction target, introduction effects, the point of promotion of the introduction, related subsidy systems, actual results, etc. 22 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Comparison of the toxicity of wastewater disinfected with the alternatives to chlorination by bioassay using seaweed (Porphyra yezoensis conchospores); Kaiso (susabinori gai hoshi) wo mochiita seibutsu kentei ni yoru toshi gesui no enso daitai shodoku shorisui no dokusei hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, T.; Maruyama, T.; Suzuki, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kaiga, N. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miura, A. [Aomori University, Aomori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-11-10

    The technique now in use for disinfecting municipal sewerage is the free chlorine method, and the free chlorine reacts with ammonia in the treated water for the formation of NH4Cl. The resultant compound is strongly toxic and harms aquatic organisms, this creating a knotty problem to solve. In this report, a bioassay utilizing Porphyra yezoensis conchospores is performed, and the toxicity reducing effect is discussed of the seaweed on water specimens disinfected by free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and ultraviolet rays. Porphyra yezoensis is easy to acquire, and the bioassay evaluates the toxicity of the water specimens by evaluating the survival rate of conchospores discharged by free-living conchoceles and the rate of inhibited sprouting. The outcome is summarized below. The injection dose required for inactivating 99.9% of the groups of coli bacteria in the treated water and the trend of fluctuations in the concentration level are obtained. No inhibition of conchospore sprouting occurs even with the addition of 100% of treated water in the chlorine-disinfected specimen or chlorine dioxide-disinfected specimen. 19 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of development and utilization of energy substitutes for oil in the Pacific region; 1999 nendo Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific region is a densely populated region where economy is developing at a high pace with China and other newly industrialized economies at the core. When energy balance in the region is studied, it is found that China and some others have already turned pure importers of energy and that probabilities are high that, along with development of economy and improvement on living standards, all the nations in the region will become pure importers. Accordingly, in the presence of urgent problems of global pollution and oil resources depletion, it is important to make sure that data particularly about the development of substitute energies for oil in this region be collected and duly dealt with for accurately predicting future developments. In this survey, a database is to be built to grasp the trends of energy supply and demand with attention focused on substitutes for oil which are available at hand. In this fiscal year, data for 1997 were added to the database for analysis into demand and supply of substitutes for oil in the Pacific region, and energy data were gathered for this purpose. Detailed tables of balance were compiled, broken down by energy source. Other detailed tables of balance were also prepared, these broken down by ultimate consumption department. (NEDO)

  4. Joint Research. Report on the results of developing commercialization of a technology of process wastes and re-utilize them by using petroleum substituting energy; Kyodo kenkyu. Sekiyu daitai energy riyo haikibutsu shori saishigenka gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A study was conducted on a technology to melt shredder dust and non-combustible wastes directly by using coal, reduce their volume and re-utilize them. The elementary study on a high-temperature melting and treating technology set such targets as optimizing the melting and treating technology in correspondence with properties of materials to be treated, by using a small melting test plant, achieving a volume reduction rate of 1/200, and reducing treatment cost. In order to make innoxious the different kinds of environmental loading materials contained in exhaust gas from a high-temperature gasification and direct melting system, discussions were given on an optimum control condition for the exhaust gas system facilities. Furthermore, physical properties of discharges (slags nd metals) were investigated to discuss material re-utilization. In discussing optimal systems, three kinds of systems including two types utilizing fuels were proposed as high-temperature gasification and melting treatment process from a viewpoint of technology and cost. Respective systems were compared with each other on treatment cost, and their priorities were identified. 56 refs., 50 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of high-reliability CdS/CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Cost reduction for the above-named solar cells is the aim of this effort. On the basis of the results of past studies, a technology is established of fabricating a thin CdS film by subjecting a CdS film to organometal pyrolysis, and this brings about a decrease in photoabsorption loss in the range of waves shorter than 500nm and a decrease in in-film reflection loss for an increase in short-circuit current density. A proximity sublimation method is used for CdTe film fabrication, which improves on film quality and film adhesion. These efforts result in the achievement of a conversion efficiency of 16.0% which is the highest in the world. Studies are promoted in a process nearer to the ultimate form, and a 30cm times 60cm large CdTe solar cell is fabricated on the basis of a patterning technique, and the product attains a conversion efficiency of 9.8%. In fiscal 1998, studies center about the establishment of a film fabrication process for a medium-are substrate and about the enhancement of its conversion efficiency, and facilities capable of dealing with large-area substrates are introduced and operated. In a typical achievement, a CdTe solar cell is experimentally fabricated in a process which is wholly under normal pressure, and the product with an aperture area of 1376cm{sup 2} exhibits a conversion efficiency of 10.5% according to JQA (Japan Quality Assurance Organization). (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on developing practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems under the New Sunshine Project. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, and development of technologies to manufacture new type amorphous solar cells; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, shingata amorphous taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Development will be made on high-performance a-solar cells as part of developing practical application technology for a-solar cells for electric power use. Development will be also made on a low-cost process technology. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. Quality improvement has been realized by using a high RF power hydrogen dilution process on a-Si films for front cells of lamination type cells. Four times faster film forming speed was obtained even by using the VHF plasma CVD process, with film quality equivalent to those made by using the conventional RF process maintained. By optimizing the light enclosing construction, the short circuit current was enhanced by over 20%. Discussions were given on forming homogenous a-Si films by optimizing the conditions for forming films on large-area substrates, which resulted in forming film of 30 cm times 40 cm size with good homogeneity at a film forming speed three times faster than the conventional speed. A surface electrode was formed successfully with good uniformity on a substrate with a size of 60 cm times 90 cm. Productivity greater by over three times the conventional productivity was achieved in patterning of transparent electrodes by using high-output laser. Simultaneous and collective patterning and very small and long size collective patterning were realized in a-Si film selection patterning by using the plasma CVD process. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for production of thin-film solar cells and low-cost, large-area modules (Development of technologies for high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for production of low-cost, large-area modules of CdTe solar cells by the high-quality film-making process and high-function patterning, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The research program for the large-area TCO film-making technologies involves investigations on improvement of SnO{sub 2} film quality by the mist method and continuous film-making, which lead to continuous, stable production of 34 substrates of low resistance of 9.7{omega} on the average. The program for production of the large-area, thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells involves production of TCO and CdS by the mist method, and patterning of the laminated TCO/CdS film by laser scribing. The CdTe film is formed by the atmospheric pressure CSS method, and treated with CdCl{sub 2} to improve its crystallinity. The CdTe film is patterned by sand blasting, and provided with the carbon and silver electrodes by screen printing, to complete the cell. The process is totally effected at the atmospheric pressure, needing no vacuum device. The CdTe solar cell assembly (130 cells connected in series, opening area: 5,413cm{sup 2}), fabricated on a trial basis, achieves a conversion efficiency of 10%. (NEDO)

  8. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to develop high-performance solar cells, optimum device designs including an advanced light confinement structure or the like were studied, and a 25% reduction in the total power generation layer thickness and a 7% increase in efficiency in power generation were consistently achieved in an a-Si/a-SiGe solar cell. In the effort to develop low-cost process technologies, as the result of studies involving the optimization of high-speed film fabrication requirements such as hydrogen dilution and a high-speed/high-precision patterning method and the like, an initial conversion efficiency of 11.2% was attained, which was the world high for a 90 cm times 90 cm-large a-Si/a-SiGe solar cell. This being equivalent to a post-stabilization efficiency of 10%, the fiscal 2000 target was achieved. A solar cell module production cost assessment was performed based on the result, and a module cost of 133 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was realized, which again meant the achievement of the fiscal 2000 target. (NEDO)

  9. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  10. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to improve cell efficiency, experiments were conducted for enhancing bottom a-SiGe cell efficiency for the embodiment of an enhanced-efficiency multi-junction cell, for improving crystallinity in microcrystalline silicon through the application of VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition), for texturizing metal electrodes on a film substrate, and so forth. In the effort to increase the film fabrication rate, a VHF plasma CVD device was used for studying the effect of the discharge frequency on film deposition and quality, Vpp between the electrodes, and so forth. Studies about the high-throughput production technology centered on the film substrate solar cell process technology and the designing of an optimum geometrical pattern for SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) cells. Production cost was estimated for the SCAF structure film substrate solar cell manufacturing process, and a production cost of 147.1 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was obtained as achievable under the currently available conditions. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of material/substrate manufacturing technology - Development of high-quality amorphous material/substrate manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A microcrystalline Si thin film is used to form the i-layer of a narrow gap a-Si based thin film solar cell. Since a microcrystalline p-layer is to act as the seeding crystal layer for the microcrystalline i-layer, it has to be very high in crystallinity and therefore is produced under high hydrogen dilution conditions. In this process, a problem arises of the darkening of the underlying transparent SnO{sub 2} electrode. Since this is due to chemical reaction on the SnO{sub 2} surface layer, blackening is prevented by shortening the film fabrication time, and then an excellently microcrystalline p-layer is obtained. Furthermore, by inserting a microcrystalline i-film buffer layer of low fabrication rate into the p/i boundary, plasma damage on the microcrystalline p-layer is inhibited for the fabrication of a microcrystalline i-layer high in crystallinity at high film fabrication rates. A high Voc is then obtained even when the microcrystalline p-layer is very thin. If the hydrogen dilution rate is too low when the i-layer film fabrication rate is high, the initially fabricated layer turns out to be thick to the detriment of film performance. On the other hand, the p-layer or the buffer layer will be etched when the hydrogen dilution rate is too high. The problem is solved by continuously varying the hydrogen dilution rate from high to low during i-layer fabrication. (NEDO)

  12. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost and large-area module manufacturing technologies, and new type amorphous solar cell manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to put amorphous solar cells for power use into practical use, research and development has been performed on a low-cost mass production technology for modules with large area and less deterioration using film substrates. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing an efficiency enhancing technology, development of an a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple cell structure was launched, and discussions were given on band gaps, film forming conditions, and film thickness. In developing a film forming speed enhancing technology, systematic experiments were performed, as well as theoretical analysis on the film forming mechanism in the plasma CVD process. In developing the process technology for film substrate solar cells, with regard to an a-Si production device of the multi-chamber arranged stepping roll system, six plasma CVD chambers were increased to 13 chambers to improve the electrode forming speed and such processes as drilling low-cost substrates, and laser patterning. In trial fabrication of a triple cell, a module in which one row of the SCAF cell is laminated provided an initial efficiency of 9.64%. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of material/substrate manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon-based high-quality material/substrate manufacturing technology); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - amorphous silicon kei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The project aims to enhance the stability of amorphous solar cells. For elevating TCO (transparent conductive oxide) substrate transmittance to an ultrahigh level and for obtaining amorphous layers less to suffer photodegradation, efforts were made to develop substrate materials stable upon exposure to plasma and low in defect density. In the study of TCO, a high-transmittance glass substrate was employed and TCO was made thinner, and the specimen achieved transmittance of 91.3% or 6.3% over that of the conventional type. In the study of low reflection films, it was found that their transmittance came to be stable and remain so after 150 days after a weatherproof test. In the study for stability enhancement, optimization was carried out for a plasma resisting Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-added ZnO film for the manufacture of a substrate material capable of properly behaving in a high-speed a-Si film fabrication process. Low-temperature film fabrication was studied to enable low-cost manufacturing, and it was learned that a 4 times 10{sup -4} ohm/cm low-resistance film was obtained by sputtering Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-added ZnO where magnetism was intensive at room temperature, that films excellent in crystallinity were obtained by the same method even at low temperatures, and so forth. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for fabrication of thin-film solar cells/materials and substrates (Development of technologies for fabrication of high-quality amorphous materials and substrates); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for the amorphous/microcrystalline solar cells with the thin microcrystalline silicon film as the i layer, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The fabrication technologies are investigated for the microcrystalline silicon solar cells of pin or nip structure by RF or VHF plasma CVD using SiH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} as the stock gases. The tests are conducted for evaluating characteristics of the thin microcrystalline silicon film, to investigate the effects of film-making pressure, power and hydrogen dilution rate on the characteristics at a constant film-making temperature of 180 degrees C. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of pin structure confirm that use of VHF plasma CVD improves crystallinity, electrical and optical characteristics of the p-type thin microcrystalline silicon film. The researches on the fabrication technologies for the microcrystalline solar cell of nip structure covers transparent substrates, film-making speed of the p layer, power and substrates, and a conversion efficiency of 7.5% is realized by the solar cell formed on a texture substrate. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Manufacture of high-reliability CdTe solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The target is a low-cost CdS/CdTe solar cell of a large area (60cm times 90cm), the establishment of mass-production technologies for the cell, and the enhancement of production efficiency. A thin film formation technology of subjecting CdS film organic metal to pyrolysis is established, which reduces photoabsorption loss in the shortwave domain of wavelength of not longer than 500nm, reduces reflection loss in the film, and improves on short-circuit current density. Improvement is also achieved on CdTe film quality and junction quality by use of a proximity sublimation method in a vacuum, when a conversion rate of 16.0% (1cm{sup 2}) is attained which is the highest in the world. Based on the results of the above-said efforts, a 3.3mm-thick glass substrate is employed for CdTe film to develop into a 30cm times 60cm-large size, with the film thereon uniformly thick over a large area thanks to a normal pressure proximity sublimation method. Studies are made toward a process nearer to the ultimate product and, using the patterning technique, a 30cm times 60cm-large CdTe solar cell is tentatively built realizing a conversion rate of 9.8%. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture materials and substrates (development of technology to manufacture high-quality amorphous materials and substrates)); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu amorphous kei zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to develop technologies to manufacture with improved quality the silicon-based thin film solar cells. In order to analyze manufacturing conditions for micro crystal silicon thin films as the narrow-gap amorphous silicon-based films, films were manufactured in the vicinity of borders of amorphous/micro crystal silicon film manufacturing conditions. The present film manufacturing did not present effects of suppressing deterioration of hydrogen diluted light. In order to elucidate the light deterioration mechanism in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and study the suppression thereof, discussions were given on impurities in the film, including oxygen. By using an ultra high vacuum plasma CVD having a thoroughgoing baking system, an oil-free exhaust mechanism, and a raw material gas refining mechanism, impurities were added to and removed from a reaction vessel, and an ultra-high purity Si:H film was manufactured, which has been removed of impurities from the raw material gas, resulting in reduction of O, C and N standing no comparison. According to the result of a light irradiation experiment on an ultra-high purity film obtained under an accelerated deteriorating condition by using a pulse laser, the model assuming the light induced defect and the pair of impure atoms has been denied. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of static micro-concentrator solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An acorn type concentrator is a 2-dimensional system and realizes relatively high magnification power, but it requires a special assembly process for modularization because the cells and the concentration system are quite small. Under the circumstances, studies are conducted on a prism array concentrator (PAC) which will demand a smaller burden for modularization. A PAC system is basically a 1-dimensional concentrator in terms of light collection performance. The cell to be attached to one plane in the longitudinal direction of the long triangular prism is so small as 5mm in width, yet it may be as long as 50-100mm, and the conventional flat plate assembly process may be made use of. A concentration efficiency of 82% and a conversion efficiency of 10.9% were obtained from a minimodule with a light intercepting area of 5cm times 4cm. Furthermore, a conversion efficiency of 19.7-21.4% was obtained when a small 5mm-wide cell applicable to a PAC type concentration was used. Since a prism type concentrator optical system will cost much for its molding and strengthening when it is built of glass, inexpensive EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) was utilized as an adhesive filler. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project intends to improve on large-area amorphous silicon solar cell performance and to develop high-throughput manufacturing technologies for a reduction in the cost of modules. A film substrate type amorphous solar cell structure of the serial connection type named SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) is contrived. Under this method, film formation using a stepping roll system newly developed for glass substrates may be applied, and the number of manhours required is allowed to be less than under conventional serial connection forming processes. The new technique is characterized in that serial connections are established via through-holes provided in plastic substrates. Making use of the technology, progress is attained in the development of high-throughput process technology for film substrate type amorphous solar cells and of efficiency enhancement technology. In fiscal 1997, an electron beam unit for plasma generation aiming at the elucidation of reaction processes in plasma was introduced, and technologies based on the equilibrium discharge technique were developed enabling high-speed a-Si film formation without degradation in film quality. The effect of trace boron addition to the tandem cell bottom I layer was investigated, and a stabilization rate of 8.05% was achieved using a 40cm times 80cm large SCAF cell. In fiscal 1998, endeavors were exerted for similar developments. (NEDO)

  19. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (Substitution No.2). Report on achievements in developing technologies to produce oil-alternative energies from fibrous material based biomass and industrial wastes; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.2). Sen'ishitsukei biomass oyobi sangyo haikibutsu kara no sekiyu daitai energy seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Development has been advanced on technologies to manufacture methanol efficiently by combining a technology to convert selectively fibrous material based biomass into sugar under high concentration sulfuric acid condition with the immobilized enzyme flash fermentation process, both being developed in the United States. Activities have been taken in the following three fields: 1) establishment of an optimal biomass treatment condition by using concentrated sulfuric acid, 2) chromatographic separation of sugar and sulfuric acid, and 3) discussions on conditions to apply the immobilized enzyme flash fermentation process. In Item 1), discussions were given, using rice straw and waste woods as the object, on effects of biomass particle size, sulfuric acid to biomass feeding ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature and time on the cellulose to hemicellulose reaction ratio and the sugar conversion factor, whereas it was revealed that the governing factors are the biomass/sulfuric acid contact area and the reaction temperature. In Item 2), a chromatographic device filled with anion ion exchange resin was used to set the sugar recovery rate of 100% and the sulfuric acid recovery rate of 93%. (NEDO)

  20. Preparation of. beta. -spodumene glass-ceramics from blast furnace slag. Koro slag wo genryo to shita. beta. -spodumene kei kesshoka glass no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. (National Kaoshing Institute Technology, Kaoshiung (Rep. of China)); Hon, M. (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Rep. of China))

    1990-07-01

    Li {sub 2} O-CaO-Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} -SiO {sub 2} (LCAS) glass-ceramics were prepared from blast furnace slag by quenching in water after heating at 1,450 {degree} C for 3 hours. Blast furnace slag (40.0wt%) containing CaO, MgO, Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} and SiO {sub 2} as major components was used as a raw material, and batch compositions were modified by mixing blast furnace slag with Al {sub 2} O {sub 3}, SiO {sub 2} and Li {sub 2} CO {sub 3}, and a nucleating agent TiO {sub 2}. The A specimen with TiO {sub 2} of 7.4wt% and B specimen with 4.6wt% were prepared, and the crystallization process of the glass was examined with X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and so forth. As a result, a major crystalline phase was {beta} -spodumene (Li {sub 2} O-Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} -4SiO {sub 2}), and the average thermal expansion coefficients of A and B were 40.1 and 47.2 {times} 10 {sup {minus} 7} / {degree} C in the temperature range from 25 to 700 {degree} C, respectively. A small amount of titanite was also observed in A as a sub-phase. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system /development of technology to manufacture solar cells/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture materials and substrates (development of technology to manufacture silicon crystal based high-quality materials and substrates)); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (silicon kesshokei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gujutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to develop thin film solar cells capable of mass production with high photo-stability and at low cost. Thus, the objective of the present research is to analyze the growth process of micro crystal silicon based thin films, the crystal being a high quality silicon crystal based material, and develop technology to manufacture high-quality micro crystal silicon thin films based on the findings therefrom. It was found that, when silicon source is available in cathode, pure hydrogen plasma forms micro crystal silicon films by using the plasma as a result of the chemical transportation effect from the silicon source. It was revealed that the crystal formation due to hydrogen plasma exposure is performed substantially by the crystals forming the films due to the chemical transportation effect, rather than crystallization in the vicinity of the surface. The crystal formation under this experiment was concluded that the formation takes place during film growth accompanied by diffusion of film forming precursors on the surface on which the film grows. According to the result obtained so far, the most important issue in the future is particularly the control of crystal growing azimuth by reducing the initially formed amorphous layer by controlling the stress in the initial phase for film formation, and by controlling the film forming precursors. (NEDO)

  2. Cement manufacture and sludge; Semento seizo to gesui odei. Semento kojo deno antei shori {center{underscore}dot} yuko riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Yoji; Yamazaki, Masayasu; Hashimoto, Koichi [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    There was the percussion of the sludge processing from the Kitakyushu City in 1995. Within various waste treatment technology cultivated to it, the technology (direct combustion system) of cement raw material by the direct injection of sludge dehydrated cake to cement baking furnace was adopted. It became dealing with in cement baking furnace of the Kurosaki factory in our company. Through the processing by the present, it is not completely finding even in cement quality of the product, environmental side and on the problem. It was confirmed to be the processing technology of sewage dewatered sludge in which this technology was safely stabilized. In addition, the superiority in much global environmental protection has also been confirmed. (NEDO)

  3. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for metal-hydride alkaline storage battery its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu aruakri chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, it is proposed to employ the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means of rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. So that the utilization of the hydrogen storage alloy is limited. This invention solves the problem. The rare earth-nickel system hydrogen storage alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 20 micrometers on open surface side. The above said alloy is ground to average particle size of 25 - 70 micrometers to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Hydrogen storage alloy for battery, manufacturing method and nickel-hydorogen secondary battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin, sono seizo hoho oyobi nikkerusuiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, T.; Sawa, T.; Inada, S.; Kawashima, F.; Sato, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Okamura, M.; Arai, T.; Hasimoto, K.

    1997-04-08

    The invention relates to a hydrogen storage alloy for a battery which has a high electrode capacity, and particularly can realize a long battery life. The hydrogen storage alloy of the LaNi5 type with the general formula: ABx is used in the invention. Here, A comprises La, Ce, Pr and Nd, and La and Nd in A account for 70 to 90 wt % and less than 5 wt %, respectively; B is at least one of the elements selected from Ni, Co, Fe, Cr, Mn, Cu, Al, Ga, Si, Ge, Bi, Sn, In, P, V, Nb, Ta, Mo and W; x shows the atomic ratio in the range, 4.5{<=}x{<=}5.6. Since rare earth elements constituting the alloy, and types and compositions of the elements substituting Ni are properly determined, the hydrogen storage alloy for a battery with excellent hydrogen storage characteristics and corrosion resistance is obtained. When the alloy is used as an anode material, the battery capacity is expanded, the alloy pulverization and deterioration are prevented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Production method of hydrogen storage alloy electrode and hydrogen storage alloy for rechageable battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutaki, F.; Ishimaru, M.

    1995-04-07

    This invention relates to the hydrogen storage alloy electrode in which the misch metal-nickel system hydrogen storage alloy is employed. The grain of the hydrogen storage alloy is controlled so as to reduce the dendrite cell size. Since the hydrogen storage alloy having such small dendrite cell size has no part where the metal structure is too brittle, the alloy has a sufficient mechanical strength. It can stand for the swell and shrink stress associated with the sorption and desorption of hydrogen. The disintegration, therefore, due to the cracking of the alloy is hardly to take place. In addition, the quenching of molten alloy at a cooling rate of 1000{degree}C/sec or faster suppresses the occurrence of segregation of any alloy element at the grain boundary, making it possible to produce the homogeneous and mechanically strong alloy. In other words, it can be achieved to produce a hydrogen storage alloy electrode having an excellent cycle property. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode of metal hydride alkaline storage battery and its production method; Kinzoku-suisokabutsu arukari chikudenchiyo no suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Y.; Nogami, K.; Kimoto, M.; Higashiyama, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Yonezu, I.; Nishio, K.

    1997-03-28

    Recently, a proposal was made of employing the hydrogen storage alloy produced by means f rapidly solidifying single roll method, i.e., a method of projecting the molten alloy onto the surface of roll rotating in high speed as for the negative electrode material of the metal hydride alkaline battery. However, the hydrogen storage alloy produced by the single roll method has a heterogeneous grain size. This invention solves the problem. The Mm{center_dot}Ni{center_dot}Co{center_dot}Al{center_dot}Mn alloy ribbon with average thickness of 0.08 - 0.35 mm is produced by means of single roll method. The grain size of the alloy is over 0.2 micrometer on roll surface side and below 18 micrometers on open surface side. The alloy is ground to be used for the hydrogen absorbent. The general formula of this alloy is MmR(x) (Mm = mischmetal, R = Ni, Co, Al, Mn). In this way, the metal hydride alkaline battery with excellent high rate discharge characteristic at the initial stage of charge-discharge cycle, excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristic, and excellent inner pressure characteristic can be produced. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1998 research achievement report. Development of key technology for high-efficiency semiconductor manufacturing process; 1998 nendo kokoritsu handotai seizo process kiban gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    In the development of large-aperture/high-density plasma technology, research and development was carried out for balanced electron drift plasma technologies for uniform control of plasma density and the like, such as an excited plasma source and plasma drift to enable wide-range plasma generation in a chamber. In the development of high-efficiency exposure technology, studies were made for stable generation and control of short wavelength excimer laser and for higher-speed large-aperture mask writing by use of an electron beam. In the development of higher-speed processing and energy-efficient technologies, research and development was conducted involving probe card technology for increasing the speed of semiconductor inspection, software-aided virtual tester technology, local energy-efficient cleaning technology in wafer processing and transportation, sheet-type flexible manufacturing system, and the like. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This research aims to achieve a conversion efficiency of 13% and a manufacturing cost of 140 yen/Wp with a 30cm times 30cm Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell submodule. Ga and sulfur are combined and a film fabrication technology was developed which would improve on Voc. Concerning Ga, a laminated precursor layer was fabricated and evaluated, which comprised a Cu-25wt%Ga alloy layer and a Ga source which was a Cu-48%Ga alloy layer. Concerning sulfur, the vapor phase selenization temperature and the selenization retention time in an H{sub 2}Se gas atmosphere was allowed to vary for a change in Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} calcopyrite crystallinity for the study of relations between the amount of sulfur taken in and the solar cell characteristics, and the relations were assessed by EPMA (electron probe microanalyzer). Technologies were developed for the fabrication of high-resistivity buffer layers by solution growth, for the fabrication of window layers (transparent, conductive ZnO film) by sputtering, and for their patterning. Submodules of a ZnO/Zn(O,S,OH)x/Mo structure were fabricated, 10cm times 30cm and 30cm times 30cm in size. The former achieved 12.5% in conversion efficiency, and the latter 11.6%. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell / low-cost and large-area module / next-generation thin-film solar cell (Manufacture of thin-film polycrystalline solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fiscal 1997 is the first year of another 4-year-long research and development phase. In addition to researches for improving on thin-film polycrystalline Si cell efficiency that have been under way, new efforts are started, which include the development of practicality-conscious thin film producing technologies aiming at higher throughput and yield and the development of modularization process technologies which are necessary for putting thin-film cells to practical use. Concerning the formation of a power generation layer on a polycrystalline Si thin film formed by the ZMR (zone-melting recrystallization) process, studies are conducted for improvement on its throughput and yield using a new CVD (chemical vapor deposition) unit. A method of modularization is evaluated, which involves a laminate of a thin-film cell attached to a resin-coated, reinforced glass substrate and an EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) back film. A remarkable achievement is earned toward the practicalization of technologies of thin film formation enhanced in quality and throughput and technologies of thin film modularization. (NEDO)

  10. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon/thin film poly-crystalline silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon / usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on large-area low-cost manufacturing technologies on hybrid thin film solar cells of amorphous silicon and poly-crystalline silicon. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a texture construction formed naturally on silicon surface, and thin film poly-crystalline silicon cells with STAR structure having a rear side reflection layer to increase light absorption. The research achievements during the current fiscal year may be summarized as follows: the laser scribing technology for thin film poly-crystalline silicon was established, which is important for modularization, making fabrication of low-cost and large-area modules possible; a stabilization efficiency of 11.3% was achieved in a hybrid mini module comprising of ten-stage series integrated amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystalline silicon; structures different hybrid modules were discussed, whereas an initial efficiency of 10.3% (38.78W) was achieved in a sub-module having a substrate size of 910 mm times 455 mm; and feasibility of forming large-area hybrid modules was demonstrated. (NEDO)

  11. Survey on the possibility of international cooperation on production technology of biohydrogen; Bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    R and D on the production technology of hydrogen by biotechnology is one of the effective projects for worldwide energy supply technology and global environment protection technology in the 21st century. The research trend of various institutions promoting R and D on production technology of biohydrogen in the U.S.A. and other countries was surveyed together with the possibility of international cooperation. The production technology of biohydrogen is being watched over the world. Various researches are in promotion corresponding to environmental conditions as follows: search of not only photosynthetic bacteria but also such bacteria with hydrogen productivity as algae and anaerobic bacteria, and the gene engineering study for improving the hydrogen productivity of target microorganisms. All the institutions visited for this survey have great expectations in wide cooperative study in the future. On the possibility of international cooperation on the production technology of biohydrogen, the further precise survey should be promoted for developing more effective technologies based on the previous survey results. 156 refs., 10 tabs.

  12. Fabrication of low cost high performance large size composite structures by electron beam curing (EBC); Denshisen koka (EBC) ni yoru tei cost koseino ogata fukugozai kozo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, K.; Parrot, P.

    1996-03-15

    This article introduces the electron beam curing (EBC), which is high speed non-heating cure technique for the high performance resin for structures, conducted by Aerospacial Co., Ltd. In this technique, very strong electron beam and X-ray are used in response to the thickness of curing region of members, and the muzzle has energy of 10 MeV as permeation control energy and power of 20 kW as cure time control power. Advantages of fabrication of composite products by EBC is derived from the elimination of exoergic and heating curing processes and the local cure molding. For the EBC, the residual stress is not generated, the size is stable, the insertion of different materials is easy without mismatch of thermal expansion between the composites and metals, the homogeneous bridge can be obtained to stabilize the material quality, the processing time can be shortened, it is suitable to mass production, and the cure of products can be controlled. About 30% to 40% of the cost of products can be reduced. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by a pressurized hot-briquetting method. Netsukan kaatsu seikei ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Noguchi, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of Carbonaceous Resources Conversion Technology); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Rapid production of metallurgical coke from non- and slightly coking coals was studied by pressurized hot-briquetting method. Coal specimens were filled into the mold after pulverizing, and heated at a constant temperature rise rate up to caking temperature under loading pressure to obtain caked coal specimens. Such specimens were then carbonized in nitrogen gas at 800[degree]C. As a result, the coke obtained was superior in compressive strength as compared with commercial cokes, however, its CO2 reactivity was very high requiring heating up to 1,000[degree]C to decrease it, while the reactivity was strongly dependent on coal kind. The optimum processing conditions for slightly coking coal were as follows; loading pressure: 10 [times] 10[sup 5] Pa or more, temperature range under loading pressure: 300-450[degree]C, temperature rise rate: 2-100[degree]C/min, and caking temperature: nearly 500[degree]C. No coke could be produced from coking coals because no volatile matter could be removed from it in a short time under pressure. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Properties of board made from wood powder with phenol-formaldehyde-powder resin; Mokufun wo genryo to shita board no seizo to zaishitsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Yamada, M. [Shizuoka Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1998-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to acquire fundamental knowledge about the factors for production and the physical properties of boards when wood powder is used as the main material and powder adhesive is used as the binder in the formation of wood boards under heat and pressure. The effects of temperature for pressing, specific gravity of board, and the ratio of adhesive on bending strength, internal binding force, and size and stability against moisture are investigated. The temperature behavior at the central area of boards under heat and pressure shows similar tendency of stagnation near 140degC which increases thereafter irrespective of the temperature of the hot plate in this experiment. The bending property increases linearly when the resin content is low, and shows the tendency of leveling off gradually when the resin content is larger than 20%. Linear relation with specific gravity if obtained in the 0.6 to 1.0 specific gravity range. Wood powder boards have high internal size stability in the thickness direction than ordinary wood boards. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Welding in Singapore; Singapore no yosetsu jijo. Sekai no 40% no seizo kichi (2010 nen) (Tonan Asia no doko) donoyonishite ibunka no kabe wo koeruka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S. [Singapore Welding Society, (Singapore)

    1997-07-01

    From the position participating as a president of the Singapore Welding Society invited from Japan, the author of this paper introduces the welding situation in that country with emphasis placed on technical exchanges. South East Asia consists of a number of countries in which different kinds of races are present with different cultures. The region is now accomplishing a transfiguration into the manufacturing base of the world. Singapore exists as its core, and is carrying out lubricating functions for industrial growth of the region. It is an important matter how technical transfer will be made from industrialized nations such as Europe, America and Japan into Singapore to meet the above functions. Being different from Japan where a homogeneous society is viewed more importantly, welders, for example, change their place of employment from one to another despite the fact that welders are qualified for their skills by companies independently. Therefore, people concerned with welding in oil refineries, the government agencies and academic societies have developed extensive committee activities for unification of standards for welding skill examinations and for preparation of common implementation law bills. They have spent two years only for preparing the drafts. As a result, a network covering different kinds of business was successfully realized to exchange human resources and information and perform skill management. 4 figs.

  16. Survey report on an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products; Kankyo chowagata kagaku seihin seizo system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As part of establishing an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products, study and survey were made on PET bottles. Using the life cycle analysis method (LCA), a study was made for proposing a material recycle (MR) method which is environmentally and economically excellent in the stage of recycling waste PET bottles. The total cost of recycling can be reduced by 34% supported by a decrease in equipment cost and improvement in yield if there is no mixture of foreign substances such as aluminum caps and PVC bottles. However, the ratio of the amount obtained from the reduction to the total production cost is small, and it is necessary to take measures from a viewpoint of the cost in a total production process and environmental loads. In a survey in Kawaguchi city, PET bottles discharged from the business sector occupied 41% of all the discharge amount. In a survey in Yokohama city, very important data were obtained on PET bottles appointed as the second type under the recycle law. The quality of PET bottles to be brought to the recycling plant is important for effectively processing PET bottles in MR method. For achievement of MR which is low in cost and small in environmental load, needed were cooperation by citizens, the shipping management system in autonomous government, and changes in design and material quality to be made by the industrial circle. 8 refs., 64 figs., 68 tabs.

  17. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of thin film poly-crystalline solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a high throughput forming technology and a modularization technology for thin film poly-crystalline solar cell modules. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the high throughput forming technology for a high-quality thin film, research has been made on a low-cost VEST process to re-utilize substrates by separating the thin film from the substrate. In the melting re-crystallization process, it was discovered that plasticity deformation of the substrate can be reduced greatly by raising the substrate heating temperatures. It was also found out that substrate warping amount can be reduced to about one-fifth of the conventional amount by making the thickness greater than 1.5 mm and raising the heating temperatures higher than 1300 degree C. In developing the thin film modularization technology, it was indicated that the property improving effect remains the same even if the hydrogen passivation method is changed from the hydrogen ion injection to the hydrogen plasma processing. In the trial fabrication of the thin film modules, a conversion efficiency of 13.1% was achieved in nine-cell structured modules. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of thin-film polycrystalline solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to realize the practical application of the above-named solar module expected to exhibit higher efficiency and reliability and achieve cost reduction through consumption of less materials. In fiscal 1998, 1) technologies were developed to reduce substrate warpage during recrystallization for the higher-throughput fabrication of high-quality thin films and 2) technologies were also developed for the realization of higher-throughput fabrication of thin films and for efficiency improvement for thin-film modules. Under item 1), experiments were conducted by simulation for reducing warpage to occur in thin-film polycrystalline Si substrates during fabrication by melting and recrystallization. Under item 2), for the development of thin-film cell high-throughput technologies, studies were started on a more practical hydrogen plasma process to challenge the conventional process of crystal defect inactivation by hydrogen ion injection with which achievement of high throughputs is difficult. For the development of technologies for the enhancement of thin-film module efficiency, efforts were exerted to realize a 10cm times 10cm square shape for the enhancement of efficiency in the process of filling modules with cells. These efforts achieved a great step toward future practical application. (NEDO)

  19. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihtsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a technology to manufacture CIS-based thin film solar cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research of a large-area light absorbing layer manufacturing technology, investigation was made on light absorbing layers in manufacturing sub-modules with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. With regard to the temperature condition in the light absorbing layer forming process, it was found that the cooling rate affects particularly the adhesion in the connecting interface of the light absorbing layer and the Mo rear electrode layer. In addition, it was revealed that the sulfur take-in amount can be increases by extending the retention time at the sulfurizing temperature and by decreasing the temperature to turn the gas phase into selenium. In the research of elementary technologies to establish the mass production process, developments were performed on the high-resistance buffer layer manufacturing technology, the high-quality window layer film manufacturing technology, and the technology to manufacture rear electrode layer made of high-quality metals. In developing the patterning technology, two kinds of the existing patterning devices were modified and adjusted for patterning the substrates with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. In addition, a processing device was installed in the conventional manually operated process for module finishing. (NEDO)

  20. Development of the super coke oven for productivity and environment enhancement toward the 21st century (SCOPE 21); Sekitan kodo tenkan cokes seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nakashima, Y; Nishioka, K; Otsuka, J [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Serious shortage is predicted on cokes for blast furnaces in the first half of the 21st century. In order to deal flexibly with the fluid world market in the future, it is necessary to have a technology developed, by which coals from coking coal to non-coking dust coal can be used. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation and the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan are working on research and development of a new process with enhanced environmentality and economy (SCOPE 21) as a coke manufacturing process to respond to the requirements arisen from the above situation. The process is assessed basing on basic technological seeds such as rapid coal heating and high-speed carbonization and reformation of middle to low temperature cokes. The organizations are moving forward an eight-year development program which has started in fiscal 1994. This paper reports the summary of the development, and results of investigations and researches performed during fiscals 1994 and 1995. Rapid heating tests, middle to low temperature coke reformation tests, and tests for plug transportation of high-temperature coal have been performed. It has been verified, for example, that rapid coal heating can improve coke strength. The development work is being promoted toward grain size distribution and upscaling problems. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1998 R and D report on environment-friendly hydrogen production technology; Kankyo chowagata suiso seizo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 1998 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient oil-free environment-friendly production of hydrogen necessary for oil refining process and effective use of CO{sub 2}, this project develops the efficient hydrogen production techniques by using a capacity of microorganisms. On the R and D on improvement of screening and breeding for photosynthetic microorganisms, introduction of different hydrogenases, acquisition of hydrogen uptake negative strains, control of photosynthetic pigment expression, breeding of PHB synthesis negative strains were carried out continuously, and some problems were arranged confirming the contribution to increasing a hydrogen production capacity. On the R and D on large-scale cultivation techniques, engineering data were collected by using a module continuously. Based on the engineering data collected by the module test, the feasibility study was made on a possibility as industrial technology from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental harmony. Screening of bacterial strains suitable for 4 kinds of wastewater and capable of producing hydrogen under extreme conditions, and basic studies on photoreactor and cultivation technique were conducted by outside research organizations. (NEDO)

  2. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made with an objective to achieve conversion efficiency of 13% in a 30 cm times 30 cm size submodule of a CIS-based thin film solar cell, and to develop a manufacturing technology that can achieve 140 yen/Wp. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. In fiscal 1997, based on the achievements reached during the previous year, a submodule with a size of 10 cm times 30 cm was fabricated for an attempt of improving the open voltage and short circuit current density. Simultaneously, the applicability thereof to a module with an area as large as 30 cm times 30 cm was evaluated. As a result of experimental discussions, enhancement in the open voltage was verified by increasing amount of Ga or sulfur, but it was not possible to achieve 600 mV or higher. In the research of component technologies to establish a mass production process, research and development was made on a high-resistance buffer layer film forming technology, a high-quality window layer film forming technology, a high-quality metallic rear electrode film forming technology, and patterning technologies. The outdoor exposure test was continued on laminated mini-modules with a size of 10 cm times 10 cm. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon/thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to manufacture the above for the development of low-cost high-efficiency practical cells. Technologies were developed to homogeneously fabricate films with an average efficiency of 10% or more in a 100mm times 85mm area in a STAR (naturally surface texture and enhanced absorption with a back reflector) structure thin-film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) solar cell. The texture shape was improved for a higher light trapping effect and a STAR structure cell highly sensitive to long wavelengths and fit for use for a hybrid cell bottom layer was obtained. Various cells were examined for temperature characteristics, and it was found that thin-film poly-Si cells present a temperature coefficient equal to or less than that of bulk single-crystal silicon systems, and hybrid cells a temperature coefficient similar to that of a-Si systems. The technology was applied to a hybrid solar cell in which an a-Si cell was placed on STAR structure thin film poly-Si cells, and a resultant 3-layer a-Si/poly-Si/poly-Si cell exhibited a stabilization factor of 12.0% after 550 hours of optical irradiation. (NEDO)

  4. WE-NET. Substask 4. Development of hydrogen production technologies; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Under the hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy system technology project WE-NET (World Energy NET Work), researches were conducted aiming at the establishment of a hydrogen production technology through electrolysis of polymer electrolyte solution. In fiscal 1998, element technologies were developed for the development of high-efficiency/large-capacity water electrolyzing plants using electrodeless deposition and hot pressing, research and investigation of optimum operating conditions were conducted, and a service plant conceptual design and a polymer electrolytic membrane were developed. In addition, literature was searched for the current state of ion exchange membranes and water electrolysis, both indispensable for the hydrogen production technology discussed in this paper. In the field of lamination of large cells (electrode surface:2500cm{sup 2}), an excellent energy efficiency level exceeding 90% set as the target for a large laminated cell performance test was achieved - 92.6% by electrodeless deposition and 94.4% by hot pressing. As for polymer membranes capable of resisting high temperatures, a membrane with an ionic conductivity of 0.066S/cm at 200 degrees C was newly developed. (NEDO)

  5. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology (Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Jisedai hakumaku taiyodenchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyodenchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was carried out for the production of a Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell submodules, having a conversion efficiency of 13% and an area of 30 cm times 30 cm, at a cost of 140 yen/Wp (at a production rate of 100 MW/year). In the effort to fabricate a large-area photoabsorption layer, reproducibility was improved by the introduction of a technique for controlling the Cu/III group ratio in and the thickness of the metal precursor film by the use of ICP (inductively coupled plasma) analysis. A maximum conversion efficiency of 12.93% and a reproducibility of 85% were achieved, which meant that the production cost goal was achieved. In the effort to develop a high-resistance buffer layer fabrication technology, a fabrication method was developed in which a lower limit was specified for solution transparency enabling the completion of the film fabrication process with no colloid formation occurring in the solution. For preventing the high-resistance buffer layer fabrication process from growing too complicated, the steps were integrated into one for the MOCVD-ZnO:B window layer. As the result, the film fabrication process subject to the film fabrication control based on solution transparency was simplified for a great increase in reproducibility. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on fuel cell (Research on high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell); 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi no kenkyu (koon kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Relative to the research and development of technologies for fabricating, and assessing, materials for the constitution of high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cells, stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte fuel cell manufacturing technologies are developed by use of thin film formation techniques such as high-frequency sputtering, plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition), and the thermolysis of organic zirconia compound coating. As the result, it is found that high-frequency sputtering produces thin film which is satisfying in terms of cost efficiency. Furthermore, it is found that defects in solid electrolytic thin film formed by the high-frequency sputtering method, that is, pinholes and cracks, will be remedied when the coating thermolysis method is jointly applied. In the research on fuel cell power systems, column-type high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cells are built, and a power generation test is conducted. The test is successfully completed when the output of a fuel cell of the 9-column module structure gradually increases until a maximum output of 110W is achieved. (NEDO)

  7. Report on achievement in developing fuel cell power generation technology in fiscal 1998. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system (Test of the research result report); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes the text of the research result report in the separate volume II-1 from among the fiscal 1998 report on the achievement made on researching and developing a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power generation system. For the AC-DC type system whose high performance and large capacity stacks are being developed, detail designs were made on 250-kW class stack module assembly and installation procedure. At the same time, processing and forming were continued on such main components as electrodes, electrolyte plates and separators. The cells were assembled as modules, sintered, installed and adjusted. Aids were given by the process and control (PAC) test on devices and piping of the fuel cell system block. Cell life extension is also under study. For the parallel flow type stack, two 250-kW stacks were fabricated, and an overall adjustment test was begun thereon in March. For the reformer, an internal reforming system was developed for the 200-kW class system, whose adjustment test is scheduled for April 1999. Capacity increase is also under discussion. For practical use of MCFC, stack life of 40,000 hours is said required. The current status is at the level of exceeding 10,000 hours, but the necessity is seen in suppressing voltage drop associated with lapse of time. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on joint research to develop fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers. Research on evaluating life of phosphoric acid fuel cells; 1997 nendo toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Rinsangata nenryo denchi jumyo hyoka kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This paper discusses life evaluation on phosphoric acid fuel cells of urban energy center type for regional energy supply and on-site type to be installed in buildings. Operation characteristics tests and disassembly checks allow to identify factors for voltage decrease, and estimate the life therefrom particularly if the voltage decrease is caused from catalyst activity. The time before 10% decrease value is reached is now about 40,000 hours. The creep analysis method that has been developed recently can predict deformation in full-size reformers nearly exactly, and is effective in operating the reformer and evaluating the life at the design stage. Creep buckling is the critical value, which is caused by ecliptic deformation of internal tubes in the second catalyst layer. In a heat exchanger for fuel gas preheating, carbon in the reformed gas is carbonized and deposited due to catalytic action of nickel in the brazing material that bonds plates and fins in the heat exchanger. Iron also has a possibility of performing catalytic action. In the on-site type 1,000-kW class fuel cells, no structural problems have been presented even after the operation has been stopped. In order to extend time interval between phosphoric acid supply into the cells, it is necessary to reduce difference in the remaining phosphoric acid amounts in the stack lamination direction and in the cell flat surface. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Part 2-1. Development of fuel cell power generation technologies (Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system); 1999 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2-1. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This research and development project is aimed at modification and improvement of the stacking technologies, to improve service life and performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system and reduce its cost. For the cross-flow type stack, optimization of the anode firing conditions leads to controlled reduction of the fine pores, and incorporation of the cathode with MgO successfully leads to controlled elution of NiO and Ni short-cut. For the separator, the service life is extended by treatment of the material with Al and controlling its rigidity. The cell life prediction method is improved to enhance its accuracy. The cell life of -4.3mV/1,000h is achieved by these technologies. For the parallel-flow type stack, the electrodes are improved to achieve the cell life of -1.4mV/1,000h, the technologies for producing the separator for a 1m{sup 2} class unit are developed, and the basic structures of a large-capacity stack are designed. For the internal reforming type, a 200kW class reforming stack is constructed, and operated for 5,259 hours. The causes for electrolyte loss are analyzed by developing the relationships between operating temperature and electrolyte loss, electrolyte mass and sustainability of the cell characteristics, and steam partial pressure over the cathode and electrolyte loss, and also by testing the Ni short-cut. (NEDO)

  10. General report on the results of the development of fuel cell technology such as urban energy center. Evaluation study of life of phosphoric acid fuel cells (fiscal 1995 and 1996); Toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu kenkyu seika sogo hokokusho. Rinsangata nenryo denchi jumyo hyoka kenkyu (1995 kara 1996 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Receiving subsidies from MITI, NEDO carried out this project in fiscal 1995 and 1996 as a joint research with Technology Research Association for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Generation System and others. The project aimed at developing the accelerated test method which can evaluate in a short time the cell life of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) and the lowering of characteristics. The accelerated test method of PAFC life is thought to be a tool indispensable for the promotion of commercialization, but the accelerated test method like the usual material evaluation has not yet been established. To solve this problem, procedures were developed to rationally plan the accelerated test on short stacks of full scale based on the small cell test data. Here, to rationally estimate the operational state under actual conditions based on the data on the accelerated test, it is necessary to fully understand the mechanism of deterioration of PAFC. By conducting in parallel the element study for the basic elucidation of cell deterioration phenomena, obtained was the useful information/knowledge which back up the results of the accelerated test scientifically. 168 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1997 development of fuel cell power generation technology. Part 3. Supplementary explanation to R and D of molten carbonate fuel cell and power generation system; 1997 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu hosoku setsumeisho. 3. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A supplementary explanation was compiled for the results of a commissioned project reported in fiscal 1997 (development of fuel cell power generation technology, and R and D (3) of molten carbonate fuel cell and power generation system). The supplementary explanation was given on the development of parallel flow stack, design/manufacturing of 250 kW stacks, design and manufacturing of 250 kW stacks in connection with installation/adjustment. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of power generation using fuel cells. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell (II-2, text of the achievement); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (II-2, kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The effort aims at developing a 1000kW-class power plant and also at using gasified coal as fuel in the future. The fuel system facilities include a high-temperature blower. The exhaust heat recovery facilities comprise a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a turbine compressor. As for the electrical system facilities, an inverter is installed, tested, and adjusted. Control system facilities are also tested and adjusted. In relation with the operation of the plant, coordination is conducted about technological and process-related matters with the Kawagoe thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., where the fuel cell power plant is to be constructed, which is for the smooth execution of a test run. Ceramic-based cathode materials are being developed, which is for the fabrication of stacks improved in performance, higher in current density, longer in life, and lower in cost. Also exerted are efforts at developing multiple-function electrolyte plates and metallic materials (for example for separator plating). The extent of the acceptability of impurities concentration and gas refining systems are also under study, which is to prepare for future coal gasification. Reference is also made to the study of a total system. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 report on the results of the infrastructure construction project for spreading high-efficiency fuel cell systems/development of test apparatuses for evaluation of fuel cell systems for automobiles; 2000 nendo kokoritsu nenryo denchi system kiban gijutsu kaihatsu / jidoshayo nenryo denchi system hyoka shiken sochi no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project studies the testing/evaluation methods for spreading fuel cells for automobiles. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. The problems involved in evaluation of the single cell units are classified into those involved in the cell construction and methods of evaluating the operation performances of the single cell units. These problems are analyzed mainly by literature survey. The mode simulation tests will be greatly simplified, if the system can be tested on the bench without being actually boarded on the vehicle. Therefore, this project is aimed at development of a comprehensive mode simulator which can be automatically operated corresponding to the running modes of various countries, to test the performance of FCEV and to examine the effects of each component independently on the vehicle performance. The factors required to reproduce the actual driving states of an FCEV on the bench are analyzed, and the conceptual designs are drawn for the controlling algorithms. It is necessary to standardize the stack and reformer testing methods, in order to evaluate the fuel cell system components. For these objects, the prototype units are constructed to evaluate 10kW direct hydrogen type stacks and 5kW methanol reformers. The units are also constructed to evaluate the high-pressure (1MPa) reformer reactors and hydrogen separation membrane systems. (NEDO)

  14. Report on achievement in developing fuel cell power generation technology in fiscal 1998. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system (Summary of the research result); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kenkyu seika no yoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Based on the achievement made in the second term plan of researching and developing a molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system, attempts are made on extending the service life, improving the performance, and reducing the cost. At the same time, lamination, cooling and operation technologies will be established, and a 1000-kW class power generation plant will be developed. Realization of use of coal gasified fuel in the future is aimed. Stack materials and their processing technologies will be developed, the cell durability will be improved, and the total system research will be carried out. This paper describes the achievements made during fiscal 1998. A process and control (PAC) test was performed on the fuel system facilities in the 1000-kW class generation plant, and its result was analyzed. The fuel system facilities had the test program using simulated fuel cells set from the system side digested nearly completely, verifying that actions can be taken for operation using actual fuel cells to be executed in fiscal 1999. Analysis of the test result presented raw material conversion rate of 96.6% or higher, generation of hydrogen plus CO of 740 m{sup 3} N/h, and NOx generation of 10 ppm or less. Stable combustion of a low calorie gas (500 kcal/m{sup 3} N) was achieved, completing all of the research objectives planned for fiscal 1998. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Development of the infrastructure to spread stationary polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems; 2000 nendo nenryo denchi fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. Teichiyo kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no fukyu kiban seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 studies on development of the infrastructures necessary for introduction and spread of stationary polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems. This project is aimed at establishment of testing and evaluation methods for safety, reliability, performance and so on, and collection of the data, both domestic and foreign, for drafting rules and standardization. The methods are studied to collect the data for the start-up/shut-down operations and rated-load/partial-load operations; establishing the methods for safety evaluation when inert gas purging is dispensed with; and dependence of the cell stack on current, carbon monoxide concentration and cell temperature to establish the basic performance testing methods. The makers are independently developing the stationary PEFC systems, and the data of the selected systems are collected individually as the test systems. The cell stacks also adopt different humidification and cooling methods by makers, and they are tested and their data are collected and analyzed, in order to establish the common testing methods. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of power generation using fuel cells. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell (II-2, text of the achievement); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (II-2, kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The effort aims at developing a 1000kW-class power plant and also at using gasified coal as fuel in the future. The fuel system facilities include a high-temperature blower. The exhaust heat recovery facilities comprise a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a turbine compressor. As for the electrical system facilities, an inverter is installed, tested, and adjusted. Control system facilities are also tested and adjusted. In relation with the operation of the plant, coordination is conducted about technological and process-related matters with the Kawagoe thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., where the fuel cell power plant is to be constructed, which is for the smooth execution of a test run. Ceramic-based cathode materials are being developed, which is for the fabrication of stacks improved in performance, higher in current density, longer in life, and lower in cost. Also exerted are efforts at developing multiple-function electrolyte plates and metallic materials (for example for separator plating). The extent of the acceptability of impurities concentration and gas refining systems are also under study, which is to prepare for future coal gasification. Reference is also made to the study of a total system. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Establishment of the base data for fuel quality standardization; 2000 nendo jidoshayo nenryo denchi no fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. Nenryo seijo kikakuka no tame no base data chikuseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at studies on the effects of impurities and additives in hydrogen and methanol fuels, to establish the base data for fuel quality standardization and thereby to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. Literature survey is conducted for the effects of the impurities on performance of the cells and hydrogen-occluding alloys, and various additives for improving safety, e.g., odorants, flame visualizers for hydrogen, and fuel colorants and flame visualizers for methanol. Under the present standards, the cell and alloy performance may be affected by the impurities, e.g., CO and sulfur compounds. The commercial products are sampled, to analyze the impurity components and their concentrations. Hydrogen produced by various processes contains a high proportion of CO before being refined, which may adversely affect the performance. Methanol sampled from less frequently used refilling stations contains high proportions of carbonyl compounds, and it is necessary to confirm their effects of the reformer. In order to investigate the effects of impurities, the performance tests are conducted using the test apparatuses for performance evaluation of power generation by fuel cells and hydrogen-occluding alloys. Propane is found to be an effective flame visualizer for hydrogen, but should be contained at 5% or more to visualize the flame. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Part 1. Development of fuel cell power generation technologies (Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system); 1999 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenknyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This research and development project is aimed at development of the stacking, cooling and operating technologies for the molten carbonate fuel cell power generation systems, to improve service life and performance of these systems and reduce their cost, based on the results obtained so far by the FY 1993. The R and D efforts are directed to (1) technologies for improving stack performance, (2) development of the plant system by operating a 1,000kW class power generation system, and (3) support technologies, e.g., those for stack materials. The item (1) studies 3 stack types, cross-flow, parallel-flow and internal reforming types, including the electrodes, electrolyte-supporting bases and improvement of performance and service life by separator reforming for the cross-flow and parallel-flow types, and installation and operation of a 200kW class stack system for the internal reforming type, where cells are assembled into the system and tested for their operability, after the auxiliary units are PAC-tested. The item (2) installs a 1,000kW class plant, which is operated, after clearing the requirements set by the related laws, e.g., Electric Utility Industry Law, for starting the operation, to achieve the intended targets. The item (3) includes development of the technologies for stack materials, technologies for handling gases produced by coal gasification, and studies on the total systems. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study of the hydrogen production technology (Study of the hydrogen production technology by thermochemical method); 1974 nendo suiso no seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    For the purpose of developing a new hydrogen production technology, a feasibility study was made of the copper-halogen system and alkali carbonate-iodine system processes presented as a new thermochemical process from viewpoints of the progress of reaction, side reaction, reaction yield, thermal efficiency, etc. The study went forward smoothly, has achieved the target in the early stage, and has been finished. In the study of optimal conditions of the process, the progress of each unit reaction was experimentally confirmed. By measuring the reaction yield, optimal reaction conditions for expediting the reaction were found out. As a result, it was found that the proposed processes proposed both advance rather easily, and was thought that those are worthy of making further engineering study. In the study of improvement and optimization of the process, since some altered processes are considered for the processes presented, an investigational study was made on a method to calculate thermal efficiency which is one of the standards for the process evaluation, and thermal efficiencies in various processes were trially calculated, based on the calculating method. As a result, it was thought that this process is equal to other processes. (NEDO)

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Development of energy usage rationalizing silicon manufacturing process (Development of manufacturing technology for mass production of silicon for solar cells); 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo silicon ryosanka seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on manufacture of raw material silicon for solar cells with regard to boron removal, solidification, finishing and refining of metallic impurities, refining of unutilized silicon scraps, and making them into wafers and solar cells after refining. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. With regard to purity deterioration due to contamination by boron containing silica powder generated during the boron removal in the manufacturing process, the facilities were modified resulting in the reduction thereof to 0.04 ppmw or less. Regarding the repetitive use of boron removing crucibles, the experiment identified the possibility of using them for more than three times. In trial fabrication of samples by using the solidification refining and cast integrated process, ingots of 550 mm square and about 300 mm high were obtained, which were sliced into 10-cm square materials for use as wafers. Measurement of the conversion efficiency has resulted in 13% or more which is almost equivalent in the center and edges of the ingot. It was revealed that solar cell wafers may be fabricated by using this process, which can use either the p-type low-resistance silicon scraps or the metallic silicon as the starting material. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Survey and study of analysis of commercialization of solar-grade silicon material manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Taiyodenchiyou silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The trend of technology development, problems harbored therein, trend of the market, and the like were investigated for supporting the development of technologies for the mass production and commercialization of solar-grade silicon materials. Concerning the future of production enhancement and cost reduction in the manufacture of polycrystalline silicon solar cells, studies were made from the technological viewpoint. The results are shown below. It is estimated that approximately 4,500 tons of material silicon will be necessary in 2005 and 6,500-10,700 tons in 2010. Since the melting purification method of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) now under development step by step toward commercialization as well as the conventional source will provide the necessary amount of material silicon, it is inferred that the development of solar cells will go on without any restraint originating in the semiconductor industry. With the commercialization of the technologies so far developed and the development/commercialization of the fast-acting high-performance solar cell technology, probabilities are high that the polycrystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing cost in 2010 will be as low as to be on the 100 yen/W (93-118 yen/W) level which is the level now held up as the goal. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement Report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Development of silicon mass-production manufacturing technology for solar cells; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Taiyo denchiyo silicon ryosanka seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to manufacture silicon for solar cells, development is intended on a technology to manufacture silicon (SOG-Si) for solar cells by means of metallurgical methods using metallic silicon with purity generally available as an interim starting material. The silicon is required of p-type electric conductivity characteristics with specific resistance of 0.5 to 1.5 ohm per cm, to be sufficient even with 6-7N as compared to silicon for semiconductors (11-N), and to be low in cost. While the NEDO fluid bed process and the metallurgical NEDO direct reduction process have been developed based on the technology to manufacture silicon for semiconductors, the basic policy was established to develop a new manufacturing method using commercially available high-purity metallic silicon as an interim starting material, with an objective to achieve cost as low as capable of responding to small-quantity phase production for proliferation purpose. Removal of boron and phosphor has been the main issue in the development, whereas SOG-Si was manufactured in a laboratory scale by combining with the conventional component technologies in fiscal 1991 and 1992. The scale was expanded to 20 kg since fiscal 1993, and a five year plan starting fiscal 1996 was decided to develop the technology for industrial scale. Fiscal 1997 has promoted the development by using the 20-kg scale device, and introduced facilities to develop technology for mass-production scale. (NEDO)

  3. Development in fiscal 1998 of silicon manufacturing process to rationalize energy usage. Surveys and researches on analysis of practical application of technology to manufacture silicon raw materials for solar cells; 1998 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to develop a mass production technology to manufacture silicon raw materials for solar cells, and assist its practical application, surveys and analyses were performed on trends in development of the related technologies, the problems therein , market trends and industrial trends thereof. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1998. The worldwide production amount of solar cells in 1998 is estimated to have achieved 150 MW, and the silicon consumption reached the level of 2,300 tons. In spite of the economic recession environment, there was no change in the expansion trend. In developing an SOG-Si mass production and manufacturing technology, construction of pilot plants for each process has been completed, and entered into the operation research phase. In developing a technology to manufacture high quality poly-crystalline silicon substrates, fabrication has been completed on the on-line ingot cutting equipment and the plasma heating equipment, and the stage is now in operation research of continuous electromagnetic casting process. The conversion efficiency of the poly-crystalline silicon solar cells is 14 to 16% at the mass production level, whose enhancement requires indispensably the improvement in quality of the substrate. Discussions are required on the ingot manufacturing conditions in coordination with improvement in the cell manufacturing technology. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Investigation and research on analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the achievement in fiscal 1997 of analyzing practical application of a technology to manufacture solar cell silicon raw materials. Silicon consumption for solar cells in fiscal 1997 has increased to 2000-ton level, and the supply has been very tight. For drastic improvement in the demand and supply situation, development of SOG-Si manufacturing technology and its early practical application are desired. The development of the NEDO mass-production technology using melting and refining has completed constructing the process facilities in fiscal 1998, and will enter the stage of operational research. However, insufficiency in the basic data about behavior of impurities is inhibiting the development. In the substrate manufacturing technology, discussions have shown progress on use of diversifying silicons outside the standard by using the electromagnetic casting process. For slicing and processing the substrates, development of a high-performance slicing equipment and automatic rough rinsing machine is under way. Properties required on silicon raw materials vary considerably widely because of difference in cell making systems and conditions, which is attributable to unknown impurity behavior. When 1GW production is assumed, the cell module manufacturing cost is calculated as 137 yen/W, for which low-cost mass production for its realization, slicing productivity enhancement, and cost reduction are required. The paper also describes site surveys in overseas countries. (NEDO)

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of silicon manufacturing process to rationalize energy usage (Development of mass production technology for solar-grade silicon); 1998 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo silicon ryosanka seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the proliferation stage of solar cells, a technology is required to manufacture low-cost SOG-Si that can handle small quantity production. Development is being made on a manufacturing technology using high purity metallic silicon (99.5%) as the raw material. Considering that the subject impurities are P, B and metallic impurities (Fe, Ti and Al), a manufacturing method consisting of the following processes is being developed: metallic silicon/phosphorus removal, solidification and rough refining/boron removal, solidification and fine refining. Discussions are being advanced on phosphorus removal by using a large electron beam fusion equipment, and at the same time, the discussions are supported by fabricating and installing a large equipment intended of removing boron and the metallic impurities. Boron is removed by oxidizing it with steam. Therefore, the basic mechanism of the equipment is to spray argon plasma added with steam onto the molten silicon surface. In boron removal, diffusion of boron onto the reaction interface in the primary reaction determines the rate. A boron removal rate for B/10 to 0.1 ppm of 45 kg/h as maximum was achieved. The derived silicon has met the requirement. (NEDO)

  6. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (CuInSe2 based PV cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (CuInSe2 taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CuInSe2 based PV cell in fiscal 1994. (1) On formation of high-quality CIGS thin films by bilayer method, Mo film was deposited on a glass substrate by sputtering, and CIGS film with different Ga/In ratios was next formed on the substrate by quaternary simultaneous deposition at different In and Ga deposition speeds. In addition, CdS film was deposited on the CIGS film, and ZnO and ITO films were finally deposited on it by sputtering to complete solar cell. This solar cell offered the maximum conversion efficiency among cells using CIGS film. (2) On formation of high-quality CIGS thin films by three-stage method, a certain correlation was found between substrate temperature and CIGS film composition by monitoring substrate temperature in film forming process. This phenomenon allowed rigorous control of CIS film compositions important for CIS thin film solar cells. (3) On low-cost process technology for thin film formation, Cu(In,Ga)S2 solid solution film was fabricated by expanded selenic process. 3 figs.

  7. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (development of fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (usumaku takessho silicon kei taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of high-quality Si thin films, the new equipment was studied which allows uniform stable melting recrystallization over a large area. The new equipment adopted a heating method based on RTP system, and is now under adjustment. (2) On the fabrication technology of light/carrier confinement structure, degradation of hydrogen-treated thin film Si solar cells by light irradiation was examined. As a result, since any characteristic degradation was not found even by long time light irradiation, the high quality of the cells was confirmed regardless of hydrogen-treatment. Fabrication of stable reproducible fine texture structure became possible by using fabrication technology of light confinement structure by texture treatment of cell surfaces. (3) On low-cost process technology, design by VEST process, estimation of cell characteristics by simulation, and characteristics of prototype cells were reported. 33 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and dessolution deposition process); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu (yokai sekishutsuho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to manufacture low-cost large-area solar cell modules, developmental research has been performed on a film manufacturing technology using the dessolution deposition process. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a technology to form a thin silicon film directly on carbon substrates being substrates of different kinds, without using seed crystals. The researches made up to the previous fiscal year has made possible to form the film onto a substrate of about 5-cm square, has fabricated cells although with a small area, and indicated the importance of reducing concentrations of impurities in the solvent metals used. The researches performed during the current fiscal year executed modifications to reduce the temperature distribution in the substrate surfaces, including size increase in the heater, and improvement in the cooling heat conduction mechanism. As a result, films were formed successfully on 7.5-cm square substrates. In reducing the process temperatures, it was made clear that films can be formed at lower than 700 degrees C by using zinc as a solvent metal. Furthermore, the purity enhancement in the solvent metal achieved a conversion efficiency of 11.6% although the area is as small as 3.73 cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement Report for fiscal 1997 on developing a silicon manufacturing process with reduced energy consumption. Development of technology to manufacture high quality solar cell silicon substrates; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu. Kohinshitsu taiyo denchiyo silicon kiban seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to establish an energy saving type mass production technology to manufacture solar cell substrates by using the electromagnetic casting process. This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1997. Preliminary experiments were performed for high-performance slicing processing and post-slicing rinsing to reduce the cost by enhancing productivity in the slicing process. Since there is a problem of mixing of contaminating raw materials due to diversification in raw materials, resistance and impurity concentration must be determined on each raw material as the materials for the Czochralski method. Then, the raw materials are sorted out referring to the determination results, and they can be used for the electromagnetic casting process upon optimizing them. As a result of having sliced an ingot of 15-cm square with a length of 40 cm by using a mass-production wire saw, an accuracy of 22.8 {mu}m was attained as intra-face variance when the required cutting time was 476 minutes and the substrate thickness is 348 {mu}, thus having obtained prospect for achieving the standard. Development was made on a water jetting rough cleaning machine to separate and remove slurries (oil and grinding particles) from the substrates after slicing, and an arm robot to accommodate substrates into cassettes, which provided processing velocity of 9 second per substrate. A problem of raising the speed remains to be solved. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Dissolution/deposition method); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to manufacture the above at low cost by a dissolution/deposition method. Under this method, a film is fabricated containing crystals high in quality and large in size though the film area is very small. In fiscal 1998, an effort to fabricate a film to cover a 10cm square substrate failed. The failure is explained by that the heater was too small for the substrate area and that the failure to uniformly heat the substrate resulted in an inplane temperature distribution greater than expected. The furnace was modified in a minor way to narrow substrate temperature distribution as much as possible. Another attempt was made to fabricate a larger-area film on a 5cm square substrate, and then crystals grew to cover approximately the whole surface of the 5cm square substrate. Efforts will continue to achieve the goal. As for the mechanism of film fabrication on substrates of different kinds, self-coating is now described by difference in heat conductivity between a carbon substrate and silicon substrate. Thanks to individual control in a small film fabricating unit, a film thickness of approximately 100 micrometers was achieved. The distance of diffusion was 30 micrometers or more in the case of a small area, and the efficiency of a solar cell using this film was found at 10.2%. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on the development of silicon manufacturing process rationalizing energy utilization. Research and study on analysis to put silicon raw material manufacturing technology for solar cells into practical use; 1999 nendo energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchi silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In order to support the development and practical application of a mass production technology for manufacturing silicon raw materials for solar cells, research and study were performed on trends of developing the related technologies, and movements in markets and industries. This paper reports the achievements thereof in fiscal 1999. Markets for solar cells are growing favorably, and the worldwide solar cell production in 1999 was 200 MWp, of which 80% or more is occupied by crystalline silicon solar cell. While development of the manufacturing technology for SOG-Si mass-production is in the stage of operation research of pilot plants, it has been verified that problems of impurity contamination was resolved, and high-purity silicon can be manufactured. In developing the silicon scrap utilization technology and a technology to integrate silicon refinement with casting, a conversion efficiency of 14% or higher was acquired in prototype sample substrates. It has been verified that a variety of raw materials can be dealt with by using the above technology, which has a possibility of cost reduction. In developing a substrate manufacturing technology, a great progress has been made in enhancing the productivity and reducing the cost by developing the continuous casting in the electromagnetic casting and the automation technology. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Development of silicon substrate manufacturing technology for high-quality solar cell); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Kohinshitsu taiyodenchiyou silicon kiban seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for enhancing productivity and energy conservation by rendering continuous and automatic the electromagnetic casting process for manufacturing polycrystalline silicon substrates for solar cells. In the manufacture of ingots for substrates by continuous electromagnetic casting, the chuck type system for feeding power to the melt plasma was replaced by a roller type system, and the power feeding position was moved to the high temperature region. Also, an on-line ingot slicing technique was established. In the manufacture of substrates at a slicing rate of 300 {mu}m/minute, productivity of 115,000 wafers/month, yield of 98%, and thickness tolerance of 30 {mu}m were achieved. A high-speed cleaning technique was developed using a jet stream, by which the cleaning time was reduced to 5 minutes and the slurry recovery rate was elevated to 95%. Based on these, substrate-related costs in the case of 100 MW/year production was calculated, which resulted in a cost of 98.8 yen/wafer (target: 103.3 yen/wafer) for manufacturing 15 cm square substrates from ingots and in a 15 cm square substrate slicing and cleaning cost of 135.1 yen/wafer (target: 135.4 yen/wafer). (NEDO)

  13. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules (dissolution and deposition process); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed by noticing on the plasma spraying method as a process that can manufacture thin poly-crystalline silicon films at a high speed. Fiscal 1997 has established a technology that can form a silicon film directly without using seed crystals in an area of 2-cm square on a carbon supported substrate by using a small film manufacturing equipment using the dissolution and deposition process. The size of the crystal is as very large as several hundred {mu}m, by which a possibility of making high-performance solar cells was verified. Discussions were given to apply this technology to large-area substrates, whereas a device was developed, which is capable of forming a film in an area corresponding to 10-cm square. According to a film forming experiment using this device, the film has begun being formed on part of a 10-cm square substrate, verifying the effectiveness of this method. While the film thickness is about 100 {mu}m, it was confirmed that the crystal size will not change even if the thickness is made mechanically as thin as about 50 {mu}m. Further discussions were given on enhancement of wettability by means of coating, and light enclosing structure. (NEDO)

  14. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new structure and development of high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shin kozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kokoritsu hybrid gata usumaku / sheet taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop low-cost and high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells, research and development has been performed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research is related to a hybrid construction, in which the upper cells of amorphous silicon thin film are formed on the lower cells bonded with micro-crystalline silicon thin film relative to a poly-crystalline silicon sheet. In the technology to form the upper cells, a pin-construction using amorphous silicon thin film made by using the plasma CVD process was adopted, whereas an open circuit voltage of 1.45V, a short circuit current of 13.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a conversion efficiency of 13.5% were obtained. In the technology to form the substrate for the lower cells, formation of flat silicon thin plate that can be peeled off was identified as a result of adopting the construction in which a graphite substrate is provided on a rotating cooling body of 12-prism type. With regard to the technology to bond and form the lower cells, electrical properties of hetero-bonded cells were discussed, and an open circuit voltage of 0.605V and a conversion efficiency of 14.3% were obtained as a result of enhancing the film quality and optimizing the film thickness. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of high-quality film enlargement technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to establish a manufacturing process that enables both high-quality CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) film solar cell enlargement and cost reduction and to develop a device structure which uses less heavy metal for the purposes of increasing the CIS thin-film solar cell size and efficiency and decreasing environmental impact. Several element technologies have been established for increasing the area of high-efficiency Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. Concerning the enlargement of the photoabsorption layer which is to assume the most important role, it is found that a high-quality CIGS film, which is near homogeneous though within a 10cm times 10cm area, is fabricated by an in-line vapor deposition method. As for dead area reduction and high-speed patterning, it is found that laser scribing works effectively in the patterning of the window layer and photoabsorption layer. As for reduction in the use of heavy metal, a high efficiency of 16.2% is attained in a cell not using a CdS film as expected in the case of a cell using a CdS film, this thanks to a CIGS film surface reforming technique. The technique of junction formation for CIGS solar cells is improved, and then a true efficiency of 18.5% is achieved. (NEDO)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells/development of technology to manufacture low-cost large-area modules/development of technology to manufacture next generation thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction); 1997 nendo tiayoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module esizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A thin film single crystal silicon solar cell module is developed, in which a porous silicon layer is formed on the surface of a long-sized single crystal silicon substrate, a single crystal silicon film is integrated on the layer by epitaxially growing the film thereon to form a solar cell, and the solar cell is peeled off from the silicon substrate and transferred to a plastic film substrate. The achievements during this fiscal year may be summarized as follows: simultaneous formation of a porous silicon layer on a silicon substrate, reduction of anode formation current density from 200 mA/cm{sup 2} to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, development of a silicon epitaxial device using a carbon heater, and attainment of aperture conversion efficiency of 11.8% in a thin film single crystal silicon solar cell. Three kinds of methods were developed to peel off the solar cell. A method was developed to grind silicon substrate surface from which the solar cell has been peeled off. A technology was developed to obtain a long-sized silicon substrate of about 30 cm times 10 cm times 0.1 cm from a 4-inch silicon ingot by using a wire saw. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture silicon crystal based high-quality materials and substrates / survey and research on analysis of practical application); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (zairyo kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / silicon kesshokei kohinshitsu zairyo kiban no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a plan to develop technologies to manufacture materials and substrates for thin film solar cells, it is intended to reduce defect density, enhance film forming speed, largely improve the photo-electric conversion efficiency and increase manufacturing productivity. These goals will be realized by establishing methods to control defect density, crystal particle diameters and crystallization rate in silicon crystal systems. A technology to form micro-crystal silicon-based thin films will be developed, that have superior photo-stability, and are capable of realizing low cost and mass production. Discussions will be given on a high-density plasma control technology, a fundamental property evaluation technology for micro crystal silicon thin films, and a device design simulation technology. A technology will be developed to form amorphous silicon layer on a stainless steel substrate by using the plasma CVD process. At the same time, discussions will be given on optical annealing and thermal annealing as reformation methods. Fiscal 1997 has surveyed component technologies to identify and analyze quickly and accurately the technical trends inside and outside the country, and to mass produce thin film solar cells. The Material and Substrate System Technology Subcommittee (silicon crystals) was held to deliberate the four-year development program and its progress. (NEDO)

  18. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture application type thin film solar cells with new structure (development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystal silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed with an objective to manufacture amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystal silicon hybrid solar cells with large area and at low cost, being a high-efficiency next generation solar cell. The research was performed based on a principle that low-cost substrates shall be used, that a manufacturing process capable of forming amorphous silicon films with large area shall be based on, and that silicon film with as thin as possible thickness shall be used. Fiscal 1997 has started research and development on making the cells hybrid with amorphous silicon cells. As a result of the research and development, such achievements have been attained as using texture structure on the rear layer in thin poly-crystal silicon film solar cells with a thickness of two microns, and having achieved conversion efficiency of 10.1% by optimizing the junction interface forming conditions. A photo-deterioration test was carried out on hybrid cells which combine the thin poly-crystal silicon film cells having STAR structure with the amorphous silicon cells. Stabilization efficiency of 11.5% was attained after light has been irradiated for 500 hours or longer. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - Development of production technology of thin film solar cells. Development of production technology of application type new structure thin film solar cells (Development of production technology of high efficiency hybrid thin films/sheet solar cells); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Oyogata shinkozo hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, (Kokoritsu hybrid gata hakumaku / sheet taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of realizing low cost and high efficiency hybrid thin films/sheet solar cells, the R and D were carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. As to the formation technology of the upper cell, the following technologies were developed and the results contributory to the heightening of efficiency were obtained: technology for improvement of cell characteristics by gap widening of p layer, technology for optimization of formation conditions of i layer corresponding to the hybrid solar cell, technology for heightening of current by the intermediate ZnO layer just under the upper cell. Relating to the development of formation technology of high quality microcrystal thin films, it was indicated that the microcrystal silicon thin film had the conformity effective also for polycrystal silicon, and at the same time, the conversion efficiency of 12.8% and release voltage of 0.579V were obtained by the cell using the cast polycrystal board. In the thin film/polycrystal sheet hybrid solar cell in which all these technologies were integrated, the conversion efficiency of 12.0% was achieved, and the possibility was verified of achieving the target efficiency of 14% by further improvement of FF. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 2000 research report on the energy consumption survey for popularizing stationary fuel cell systems; 2000 nendo teichiyo nenryo denchi no fukyu wo mokutekito shita energy no shohi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted about the current state of domestic energy consumption for studying the feasibility of a stationary energy system using the polymer electrolyte fuel cell. A study relative to domestic energy consumption dealt with transition in the energy consumption rate, dependence on locality, and the effect of the makeup of residences. The monthly and hourly patterns of demand for heat for hot-water supply were referred to power consumption data broken down by time zone, and it was found that approximately 1kW output would be suitable for this purpose. A study was made about the pattern of operation that such a fuel cell system should follow, and it was learned that a pattern in which 'the system operates according to the imposed load starting at seven o'clock in the morning when the electricity rate switches to the higher and the output does not exceed what is necessary to meet the daily demand for heat.' This method was found to assure the most efficient way of operation covering more than 80% of the need for hot water and electricity. In a study of consumption of energy for business, feasibility was suggested to exist in the installation of systems of 30kW or less at small hotels, barber shops and beauty parlors, restaurants, schools equipped with minor-scale food service, small hospitals, clinics, and the like. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1998 annual report on the fuel/storage working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo nenryo chozo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the fuel/storage working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, outlined the R and D activities for development of techniques for fuel cell power generation, development of decentralized cell power storage systems, demonstration of new load-leveling techniques, development of techniques for superlow-loss type power system components, development of techniques for ceramic gas turbines, pioneer R and D for MGC superhigh-efficiency turbine system techniques, demonstration tests for establishing centralized load controlling systems, development of techniques for network systems utilizing wide-area energy, development of techniques for application of superconductor-aided power systems, R and D for power storage aided by a high-temperature, superconducting flywheel, R and D for basic techniques for applying superconductors, and pioneer R and D for basic techniques for AC superconducting power equipment. The individual NEDO's researchers reported their results, which include outline of the fuel/storage technique development group, and current statuses of fuel cell technique development, new cell-aided power storage technique development, and superconductor technique development. (NEDO)

  3. Research on the general analytical method of fossil fuel cycle from a viewpoint of the global environment. 3; Chikyu kankyo kara mita sogoteki kaseki nenryo cycle bunseki hyoka shuho no chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The general analysis/assessment method of a fossil fuel cycle was studied. Seven kinds of power generation plants such as LNG cycle and coal cycle ones, and four kinds of transport and treatment systems of recovered CO2 such as ocean and underground systems were studied as case studies on life cycle analysis. As data necessary for life cycle analysis, the database was constructed which stores the facilities and operational energy required for a total energy system from mining of fossil fuel to treatment of recovered CO2, and the quantity of environmental waste such as CO2 emission. As a result, the decrease rate of energy balance defined as ratio of input energy to power plant output was estimated to be 14-43% and 20-60% in LNG cycle and coal cycle, respectively. Even if the recovery rate of CO2 in power plants reached 80-90%, reduction of total CO2 emission was limited to only 20-40% because of CO2 emission during mining, liquefaction and transport of fuel. 168 refs., 48 figs., 102 tabs.

  4. NEDO Forum 2001. Session on hydrogen/PEFC (Toward realization of hydrogen/fuel cell society); NEDO Forum 2001. Suiso PEFC session (suiso nenryo denchi shakai no jitsugen ni mukete)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-20

    The presentations made at the above-named session of the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) forum held in Tokyo on September 20, 2001, are collected in this report. Introduced in a lecture entitled 'March toward hydrogen/fuel cell society' were NEDO's PEFC (polymer electrolyte fuel cell) related project of its hydrogen energy technology development office and the WE-NET (World Energy Network) hydrogen program. Reported in a lecture entitled 'Toward the practical application of PEFC' were Yamanashi University Clean Energy Center's achievements in the study of polymer electrolyte film, electrodes and separators for PEFC, removal of carbon monoxide by selective oxidation, and so forth. Discussed in a lecture entitled 'Development of high efficiency energy system technologies for transportation and residential/commercial sectors' were the development of a hydrogen-fueled 1kW stack and the result of efforts to develop element technologies for power generation systems fueled by natural gas, methanol, etc. Explained also were the outline and the progress of the project in relation with the fuel cell popularization infrastructure construction project and the fiscal 2001 research and development and the future outlook in relation with the 2nd-phase technology development for WE-NET. (NEDO)

  5. Simulation of PV/FC power hybrid system. Change of system capacity with load form factor; Taiyoko hatsuden nenryo denchi hybrid system no simulation. Fuka keijoritsu ni yoru system yoryo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, N.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study is conducted of a photovoltaic/fuel-cell hybrid system whose power storage is a hydrogen storage that uses a hydrogen absorbing alloy. In a simulation in this research, the solar cell conversion efficiency is changed from 15.0% to 21.0% and the fuel cell power conversion efficiency from 40.0% to 50.0%, and the resultant changes in the capacity and operation rate are investigated for each of the devices in the system. The findings follow. A 1.0% change in the solar cell conversion efficiency results in a 4.8kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 1.6-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. With a 1.0% change in the fuel cell power conversion efficiency, there is a 14.7kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 5.3-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. The fuel cell capacity is not dependent on the solar cell conversion efficiency or fuel cell power conversion efficiency but on the maximum load in each of the load form factors. The rate of occurrence of an operation rate of less than 30% is 54.7% both in DC/DC converter and hydrogen generator, 24.6% in fuel cells, and 16.7% in the DC/DC inverter. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Dynamic programming for reduction of fuel consumption in a photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system; Doteki keikakuho ni yoru taiyoko/furyoku/diesel hatsuden system no nenryo shohiryo no sakugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Dynamic programming is employed in the study of the operation of the diesel engine in a photovoltaic/wind-force/diesel-engine power generating system, which aims at reduction in the system fuel consumption and at determining an optimum system constitution. The parameters set in this system are the photovoltaic/wind-force supply rate, photovoltaic/wind-force power generation ratio, and battery capacity. An island in Ise Bay, with an annual load power of approximately 1.59-million kWh and mean daily load power of approximately 4336kWh is assumed as the location for the system. Observation data of Ommaezaki Weather Station are utilized for the calculation of the amount of photovoltaic/wind-force power generation. It is found as the result that the fuel consumption of the diesel engine in this system decreases to 82-84% when the natural energy supply rate is 20%. It is also found that the fuel consumption of the system records the minimum at a photovoltaic/wind-force ratio of 60/40, irrespective of the battery capacity or natural energy supply rate, and this ratio is the optimum ratio. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Activation of charcoal made from japanese cypress as oxygen electrode in fuel cell by deposition of Pd-metal/Heteropolyacids of the micropores; Kinzokuparajiumu-heteroporisan no bunsan tanzi niyoru hinoki mokutan no nenryo denchisansokyoku to shiteno kinouka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumine, Takuya.; Kominami, Hiroshi.; Kera, Yoshiya. [Kinki University, osaka (Japan); Abe, Ikuo. [Osaka Municipal Technology Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Pd- and Pt-metal were observed by TEM to be highly disperdsed on charcoal prepared from Japanese Cypress [Hinoki] at 900degreeC (Pd, Pt/H2). Nafion-sheet was hot-pressed with Pd/H2 and Pt/H2 disc-pellets placed in the other sides to make a fuel cell-electrode unit. The 1-V curve in the H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} fuel were measured : The voltage certainly grew with increase in the amount of Pd-metal (1{yields}13wt%) and with a mixing of [Nafion] powder (11wt%). The discharge character was greatly improved with the addition of heteropolyacid (H{sub 3}PMo{sub 11}VO{sub 42};PVMo{sub 11}). When a charcoal prepared from Hinoki at 2400degreeC (HG) was used, the inner resistivity was about 10-times lower than the case of H2 used, although the dispersed states of Pd-metal became considerably poor on HG rather than H2. The actuvuty also increased further with the addition of Nafion and PVMo{sub 11}. (author)

  8. Fiscal 1996 survey report. Data collection and evaluation analysis in the project on field tests on the fuel cell generation; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Nenryo denchi hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper installed fuel cell power generation equipment experimentally at various facilities which are the final diffusion form of the new energy power generation, conducted long-term operation under the actual load, collected/analyzed various data, arranged them as data useful for full scale introduction/diffusion, aiming at forming the base for general diffusion of the fuel cell power generation. The number of the systems installed for field test execution has been 24 places/28 units since the start of the project, and the system capacity totaled 4,250kW. The actual operation hours in five years are 6,000-28,000. In fiscal 1996, the average cumulative accumulated operational rate was approximately 68%, a little over that in fiscal 1995, 65%. The average load factor was 69% in fiscal 1995 and 70% in fiscal 1996. The utilization rate increased as a whole to about 57% on average if seeing only fiscal 1996, as compared with that in fiscal 1995, about 48%. The power generating efficiency was approximately 34% on average. As to the status of shutdown of the fuel cell power generation, the paper surveyed the average interval of failure, the rate of frequency of shutdown, the analysis of shutdown, etc. 250 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Secretive production of long-chain fatty acids, triacylglycerols and n-alkane-2-ones by fermentation processes; Hakkoho ni yoru ekitai nenryo no seisan wa kanoka (shishitsu no bunpi seisan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, S. [University of Fukuyama, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-20

    Secretive production of lipids, which are useful source for engine-driving fuel, by microbial process using carbohydrate biomasses as substrate has been investigated in our laboratory. This review consists of four parts concerning breedings and selection of lipid-secretive microorganisms : (1) breedings of long-chain fatty acid-secretive strains from Candida lipolytica L-1 by a step-wise mutagenesis process, (2) selection of a triacylglycerol (TG)-secretive and accumulative yeast strain Trichosporon sp. SH45Y, (3) breedings of mutants, SH45Y-derivatieves, having potent ability to produce TG secretively from glucose, a typical biomass charbohydrate, and (4) selection of microorganisms which produce liquid-n-alkane in culture medium by utilizing long-chain fatty acids and TG; a strain of Penicillium decumbens can produce liquid alkalis with a yield of approximately 60 % in weight from palm kernel oil, a commercial TG. 10 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Attempt of lean burn of a 4 cycle gasoline engine by the aid of low pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection; Tonai kuki nenryo funsha ni yoru lean burn no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S; Kondo, M; Sekiya, Y; Murayama, T [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Comparable performance and exhaust emission with conventional carburetor was obtained by a low Pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection system. And lean burn of idling and light load operation till A/F=70 was realized by installing a spark Plug and a reed type injection nozzle in a divided combustion chambaer of a 4 cycle gasoline engine. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of liquid fuel conversion technology (Development for practical application of a new production process); 1996 nendo ekitai nenryo tenkan gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinseizo process jitsuyoka kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The research and development aims to establish, through verification tests, practical application technologies for two methods, namely, a 'low-temperature liquid phase method' by which cost will be reduced thanks to simplified plant facilities and a 'vapor phase fluidized bed method' in which a composite reforming process may be combined for better economics of scale with a vapor phase fluidized methanol synthesizing method whose facilities may be built to be very large. For the former method, development efforts are made to enable catalyst performance characterization and low-temperature liquid phase methanol production using a small pyrolysis reactor. In the research on pyrolysis reaction, a Raney copper/KOMe/MeOH-based catalyst is used, and this attains a raw material gas conversion efficiency of 92.7%. In the construction of a low temperature liquid phase process, it is found that a single spun conversion efficiency of not less than 90% may be achieved using a heterogeneous catalyst. For the latter method, studies are conducted for the development of, and for the establishment of technologies for designing, synthetic gas production technologies in the development of a heat exchanger type composite reforming furnace and a fluidized bed methanol production process, the development of a catalyst manufacturing technology for fluidized bed practical application, the development of a fluidized bed methanol production technology, and the optimization of the process and its economic efficiency. (NEDO)

  12. Survey for making a data book related to the development of new energy technology. Fuel cell; 1999 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To proceed with the systematical arrangement of the new energy related data, this survey collected the data relating to fuel cells, and systematized them with the aim of making a data book related to fuel cells. Further, fuel cells are still developing, and therefore, the trend of development in this one year was roughly seen to make it the data toward the future development. This data book is composed of Part 1 (the world development trend in FY 1999) and Part 2 (data book). Part 1 was divided into the fixed power system (Chapter 1), fuel cell vehicle (Chapter 2), and selection of fuel (Chapter 3). The book has a big feature that the selection of fuel was added as an individual chapter, which is a difference from that of FY 1998. In the description of the developmental trend of fuel cell vehicle (FCV) in Chapter 2, the results of the present development and the trend were described in line with the subjects in achieving the commercialization of FCV. Part 2 is a data book which indicates the state of technology development of each of various fuel cells such as actual results of the demonstrative operation of fuel cells in Japan and abroad. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen-fueled engine; 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Suiso nenryo gendoki no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The research aims to acquire data necessary for designing an engine, which is fueled by hydrogen stored in metal hydrides, for an automobile power plant. It covers the characteristics of hydrogen and their theoretical examination, basic studies on the turbulent mixing and combustion of hydrogen, research using a single-cylinder engine, changes brought into engine performance upon addition of hydrogen, etc. When hydrogen is burned in a spark ignition engine, flashback to the induction system is prone to occur. But this is prevented by directly injecting nothing but hydrogen into the cylinder. In the case of hydrogen fuel, there is the problem of thermal NO generation. Since a hydrogen/air flame is higher in temperature than flames in the case of other fuels, it generates more NO. As techniques for lowering the flame temperature, there are lean fuel combustion, water vapor injection, delayed ignition timing, etc. For the improvement of power and performance, increasing the engine revolution and pressurizing the inlet air are the methods, but both have their own shortcomings. An engine equipped with a third valve is experimentally constructed in this research, which is theoretically free of flashback, suppresses a reduction in the inlet air volume, and necessitates no high-pressure injection system. (NEDO)

  14. Report for fiscal 1998 on results of research and development of silicon-based polymeric material. Material research for the liquid methane fueled aircraft engine; 1998 nendo keisokei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research was conducted for the purpose of establishing basic technology concerning molecular design, synthesis, material formation, and evaluation of silicon-based polymers which are expected to provide superior electronic/optical functions, high heat/combustion resistance and dynamic properties. The research subjects were such as following: research and development of silicon-based polymeric materials with sea-island microstructures; research and development of silicon-based polymeric materials with sea-island microstructures; research and development on IPN formation with silicon-based polymers; research and development of hybrid silicon polymers with organometallic compounds; research and development of silicon containing polymer materials with ring structures; general committee for investigation and research; the optimized low-temperature Wurtz synthesis and modification of polysilanes; study of unsaturated and hypercoordinate organosilicon compounds; basic studies on the synthesis and properties of silicon-based high polymers; studies of new monomer-synthesis and their polymerization reaction; studies on new method of preparation and functionalization of polysilanes; novel applications of silicon-based polymers in imaging devices for information display, memory, and recordings; and molecular design of silicon-containing {pi}-conjugated and {sigma}-conjugated compounds. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on data collection for development of new energy technology (fuel cell); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (nenryo denchi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report is composed of Part 1: the development trend of fuel cells in fiscal 1998, and Part 2: the collected data and appendices. Part 1 includes 4 chapters, (1) The outline of the development trend, (2) Stationary fuel cell, (3) The development trend of fuel cell vehicles, and (4) The development trend of small transportable fuel cells. The report newly includes the development trend of small-capacity fuel cells and the report on 1998 Fuel Cell Seminar notable as an international conference on fuel cell summarizing the trend of fuel cells in fiscal 1998, as compared with the fiscal 1997 report. Part 2 is the collected data on domestic and foreign demonstration operation results of fuel cells, and technical development of every fuel cell. In addition to various collected data on the whole of fuel cells and their use techniques, Part 2 includes the principle, features, system configuration, performance simulation technique, application and market analysis of fuel cells, and the national policy and concerned laws on a subsidy system for introduction of fuel cells, for example. (NEDO)

  16. Numerical simulation of growth of flames formed in two-dimensional mixing layer. 2nd Report. Effect of dilution of fuel; Nijigen kongo sonai ni keiseisareta kaen no seicho ni kansuru suchi simulation. 2. Nenryo no kishaku ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, S [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Hashimoto, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, T [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-07-25

    The effect of fuel dilution on growth of flames formed in 2-D mixing layers was studied by numerical simulation. The methane mass fraction of fuel was adjusted to 1.0, 0.3 and 0.2 through dilution by nitrogen, while the oxygen mass fraction of an oxidizer was fixed at 0.27. Flame structure was complicated due to the flows separated by flame at the leading edge of flames, and three peaks of the second Damkohler number were observed. Fuel dilution by nitrogen caused blow-off of flames, and the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames was essential to blow-off of diffused flames. In the case where vortices were observed in a flow field, the first Damkohler number was important which was determined by the hydrodynamic characteristic time of coherent vortices and the chemical characteristic time of flame propagation based on the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames. The diffused flames were elongated by shearing force, and an exothermic reaction was suppressed and a flame stabilization decreased with a decrease in second Damkohler number. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Stability of diffusion flame formed in a laminar flat plate boundary layer. Effect of fuel dilution; Soryu heiban kyokai sonai ni keiseisareru kakusan kaen no anteisei. Nenryo kishaku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Ueda, T; Mizumoto, M [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Amari, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    A stability limit of the diffusion flame with fuel injection from a porous wall in a laminar flat plate boundary layer is measured as functions of fuel (CH4) concentration of CH4/N2 injectant mixture ({chi}) and its injection velocity (v). The free stream velocity (U{infinity}) is set as 0.6 m/s. The thermal condition at the wall is controlled by setting temperature at the upstream end of the porous wall as a reference temperature. When v >20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the separation of leading flame edge with decreasing {chi}. The value of {chi} at the stability limit is constant without regard to v as long as the wall temperature is kept constant. As the wall temperature is decreased the value of {chi} increases. The separation is supposed to take place as a result of the limit of the reaction rate. When v <20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the oscillation. The value of {chi} at the stability limit increases drastically with decreasing v. The oscillation takes place mainly due to the repeat of the extinction due to heat loss to the wall and the flame propagation in the combustible layer. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Electrolyte loss mechanism of molten carbonate fuel cells. 2.; Application to the cell with matrix electrolyte layer; Yoyu tansan`engata nenryo denchi ni okeru denkaishitsu loss kiko ni tsuite. 2.; Matrix gata denkaishitsuso wo yusuru denchi eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, A; Murata, K [Toshiba Research and Development Center, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    A single cell of molten carbonate fuel cell using a matrix electrolyte layer fabricated by using the doctor blade process has been operated for several thousand hours, measured of electrolyte loss amount, and analyzed by using a new electrolyte loss mechanism. The result may be summarized as follows: according to a result of measuring the matrix layer pore distribution, the average pore size has increased little by little; pores with diameters greater than 2 {mu}m at which no electrolyte retention becomes possible remain at nearly constant ratio up to 1800 hours, but increased after 2500 hours; the pore capacity in ports with the largest electrolyte retaining diameter of 2 {mu}m or less showed slight decrease with time in the anode, and an initial decrease followed by flatness, and then a sharp decrease after 1800 hours in the matrix layer; the electrolyte loss measurement values have remained nearly constant for 25 hours to 1800 hours, but increased sharply thereafter; and the electrolyte loss in this single cell due to pore capacity decrease in pores as power generating parts with diameters smaller than 2 {mu}m was explained quantitatively by a new electrolyte loss mechanism. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  19. FY 2000 report on research and development of combustion technology utilizing microgravity conditions for fuel diversification; 2000 nendo bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita nenryo tayoka nensho gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of optimum combustion technology with diversified fuels, e.g., naphtha and LCO, for gas turbines and others as power sources for topographical energy supply. The combustion under the microgravity is also investigated using the underground facilities at Japan Microgravity Center. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. For construction of combustion model and simulation, the combustion reactions for various liquid fuels are simplified to calculate ignition delay, adiabatic flame temperature and laminar burning velocity with an error less than about 3%. The microgravity combustion experiments are conducted for spray dispersed into a cylinder, to find flame propagation velocities changing with the vaporization characteristics of liquid fuels, and also to construct the combustion models. The premixed turbulent combustion simulation program is developed using a probability density function and analyzed. Development of new combustion technologies includes the study themes of flame propagation and combustion of the air mixture of the multi-component fuel in which the spray exists, combustion characteristics of the droplets of diversified fuels, and combustion of gas turbines with diversified fuels. A propane/air mixture shows different flame propagation characteristics whether it contains kerosene or LCO droplets. The effects of electrical field intensity in the combustion zone on combustion of fuel droplets are elucidated. (NEDO)

  20. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  1. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of internal flow characteristics in the injection nozzle tip of direct-injection diesel engines; Sanjigen suchi kaiseki ni yoru DI diesel kikan no nenryo funsha nozzle nai ryudo tokusei no kaimei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H; Matsui, Y; Kimura, S [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of direct-injection diesel engines, it is essential to optimize the fuel injection equipment closely related to combustion and emission characteristics. In this study, three-dimensional computation has been applied to investigate the effects of the injection nozzle specifications (e.g., sac volume, round shape at the inlet of the nozzle hole) and needle tip deviation on internal flow characteristics. The computational results revealed that the effects of the nozzle specifications and needle tip deviation with a smaller needle lift on internal flow characteristics and a general approach to optimize the injection nozzle specifications were obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Injection and spray characteristics of a variable orifice nozzle applied the jerk type fuel injection pump for DI diesel engine; Jerk shiki nenryo funsha pump wo mochiita kahen funko nozzle no funsha funmu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T; Matsui, K; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Y [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Variable Orifice Nozzle (VON) by changing a cross-sectional area of the nozzle injection hole, for improving a rate of injection and injection duration, has been developed to study its injection and spray characteristics. The nozzle geometry was optimized to analyze a nozzle internal flow by computational method. Results show that, injection and spray pattern responded to the nozzle orifice cross-sectional area which is changing larger to smaller in the part load range. This results suggest to contribute a combustion improvement which decreasing NOx and soot. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  4. FY 1994 report on the results of the R and D of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); 1994 nendo SOFC kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Development of fuel cell power generation technology and R and D of solid oxide fuel cells were carried out, and reports of the FY 1994 results of companies were summed up. As to the R and D of the cell module, R and D were conducted of 'large area cell' by Fuji Electric Corporate R and D, Ltd. and 'combined cell module' by Sanyo Electric Co. As to the R and D of materials/basic technology, the following were conducted: 'R and D of the electrode micro structure' by Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 'R and D of the electrode structure by thermal spraying method by Fujikura Ltd., 'R and D of the multi-functional fuel electrode' by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 'R and D of the cofiring technology' by Murata Mfg. Co., and 'R and D of the current collecting technology' by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Concerning the R and D of the system, 'the system study' by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry' and 'development of element technology for periphery devices' by The Japan Research and Development Center for Metals. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1999 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on community-oriented practical photovoltaic power systems (Practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems); 1999 nendo metan hakko gas nenryo denchi hatsuden system no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the research cooperation with developing countries on practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems in 1999-2002. This research aims to construct the methane gas fermentation fuel cell power facility using livestock excreta which can supply power to the facility and peripheral areas. The facility controls various substance concentrations in waste water within environmental standards, and uses waste as compost. This project is very promising in use of environment-friendly energy, effective use of unused energy and power supply to unelectrified areas for China under serious conditions such as rapid increase in energy demand and various environment problems. There are such various issues to achieve this target as securing livestock (pig breeders) and excreta, and fermentation and recovery of suitable methane gas necessary for fuel cell power systems from excreta. This report is composed of 2 parts, (1) Current use of energy resources and use of unused energy in Guangdong province, and (2) Technical requirements for practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems. (NEDO)

  6. FY1992 research report on the evaluation and analysis of data collected in fuel cell power generation field test project; 1992 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1992 in the field tests on fuel cell power generation systems. The three locations subjected to the present analysis are all installed with 50-kW systems, whereas power generation efficiency of around 35% such as 35.3, 34.2 and 34.6% was obtained when the systems were operated at the rated output. When the load gets to below a certain load band (about 30 kW), the power generation efficiency decreases proportionately with the load. The overall efficiency including heat supply was 77.8, 70.7 and 80.3% respectively at about the rated output, showing a trend that the higher the thermal efficiency, the higher the overall efficiency. The case of generating both electric power and heat simultaneously has higher efficiency than the case of heat supply alone. The contribution rate of the fuel cell as a base load was 2.8, 4.6 and 13.6%, respectively. The system with as high value as 13.6% takes a power load following type operation mode, in which power is generated during a time band with large load during weekdays, and no power is generated at nighttime and in holidays when load is smaller, playing a role of peak responding power supply. Only one trouble has occurred in an auxiliary generator in the heat recovery system. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1994 Report on the results of the joint research project for optimum introduction of development of fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers; 1994 nendo toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu saiteki donyu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Described herein are the FY 1994 results of the joint research project for optimum introduction of development of fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers or the like. The necessary economic conditions for introduction of a fuel cell system to be competitive with the conventional system which individually supplies electric power and heat are 250,000 yen/kW as the construction unit cost, 0.10m{sup 2}/kW as the installation area, 5 years as the cell body life, use of an inexpensive fuel gas (2 to 6 yen/Mcal). Moreover, it is an indoor system which shall have the operational characteristics to follow daily demand fluctuations while operating under the optimum conditions in the urban redevelopment area considered. A 5,000kW-class fuel cell plant burning fuel gas (2 yen/Mcal) will need a total floor area of approximately 400,000 m{sup 2} in an energy-intensive office type demand area. These conditions shall be met in order to economically introduce the 5,000kW-class plant. It is also necessary to compare the plant with the competitive cogeneration plants. The specifications for the prototype now under consideration are sufficient for the energy-saving effect, and it is premised that these specifications and characteristics are secured. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. For safety and environmental factors; 2000 nendo jidoshayo nenryo denchi no fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. Anzensei shuhen kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 activities for safety and environmental factors involved in fuel cell powdered vehicles. The current technical standards and specifications for CNG and LPG fueled vehicles are investigated, to extract the factors necessary to establish the safety evaluation guidelines when these fuels are replaced by hydrogen fuel. The rules extracted and studied include those related to collision and resultant fuel leakage, removal of spark and hot sources, leakage in the fuel system, leakage into containers and passenger rooms, and materials. For the rules on test methods of fuel tanks, the investigated items include fire resistance, impact resistance and permeation loss of fuel from the tanks. For system safety, the investigated items include possible unusual situations, leakage of the electrolytes and electrical shock. The basic data are collected for destruction of the fuel tanks, spout of hydrogen from and electrification of the hydrogen-occluding alloys, flame retardancy of high-voltage wires for automobiles, and hydrogen diffusion simulation. The safety-related technical trends are followed by hearing the related organizations, including automakers. Literature survey and hearing are conducted to investigate the environmental effects of radio wave interference and noise. (NEDO)

  9. Assessment of effects of maturity of Japan`s economy and society and improvement in automotive fuel consumption on demand for automotive fuels; Nippon keizai shakai no seijukuka to nenpi kaizen ga jidoshayo nenryo juyo ni ataeru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper evaluates impacts of the maturity of Japan`s economy and society and the improvement in automotive fuel efficiency on the demand for automotive fuels by FY 2010. Standard case and lower order case were examined. When the traffic volume of passenger cars in FY 1995 is assumed to be 100, it become 121 and 119 in standard and lower order cases, respectively. The traffic volume of lorries become 106 and 102 in standard and lower order cases, respectively, which showed a rather small growth. Deterioration rate of the fuel consumption was estimated by considering the difference in fuel consumption of new cars and existing cars. Although the fuel consumption will be lowered by FY 2000 when the cassation rate of ordinary passenger cars will rapidly increase, the impact will be lowered after that. For lorries for commercial use, the running fuel consumption will be gradually lowered due to the increased carrying capacity and vehicle weight a lorry with improving the transportation efficiency. Decreased running speed by traffic jam is also a cause of the deterioration of fuel consumption. When a policy of improvement in the fuel consumption is promoted in a background of CO2 issues, the fuel consumption of each vehicle will be gradually improved. The peak of fuel demand will be in FY 2005 by considering the changes in economical and social structures and the improvement in fuel consumption for the environmental protection. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Technologies for simulation improvement of NOx and PM emissions and fuel consumption of future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks; Shorai no ogatasha diesel engine ni okeru NOx, PM, nenryo shohi no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, M.; Shimokawa, K.; Uchida, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Yokotaa, H.; Hosoya, M. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks are required to have significantly low NO{sub x} and PM emissions and fuel consumption characteristics. In order to improve these characteristics, various technologies including high pressure fuel injection systems, combustion optimization. high boost pressure turbocharging, EGR homogeneous charge compression ignition combined with multiple injections, and aftertreatment are discussed. As each technology has a number of challenges to overcome, it will take long before engines with these technologies are commercially available. In this paper, the research activities accomplished to date are reported. (author)

  11. New concept for low emission diesel combustion. 2nd Report. Combustion improvement by applying EGR and oxygenated fuel; Teikogai diesel engine no nensho concept. EGR, gansanso nenryo ni yoru nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, H.; Nakajima, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Described herein are performance of a new concept of premixed, multiple injection combustion, in which part of the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber at the early stage and the remainder is injected in the ordinary manner, and characteristics of the exhaust gases. Also described are the effects of EGR and oxygenated fuel on reduced HC emissions and fuel consumption. The ordinary premixed, multiple injection combustion system has problems related to fuel efficiency, and HC and particulate missions. When combined with an EGR system, this system reduces HC emissions to one-third. MTBE shows an effect of improving fuel efficiency, when mixed with diesel fuel. No particulate matter is exhausted and fuel efficiency is improved by 6%, when MTBE is present in the fuel at 30% by weight. The pre-mixture is less homogeneous in the absence of EGR and oxygenated fuel, producing a luminous flame observed in the fuel-rich region. No such a flame is observed, when MTBE is added to the fuel and suction air temperature is increased to the level corresponding to that associated with EGR, conceivably resulting from increased suction air temperature and lower boiling point of MTBE, which together make the pre-mixture leaner and more homogeneous. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Study on initial stage of diesel spray formation. Effects of the condition inside the nozzle sac; Diesel funmu no shoki keisei katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sac nai nenryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, N.; Tsujimura, K. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Komori, M.

    1996-06-25

    To realize clean diesel exhaust, it is very important to clarify the atomization phenomena of the fuel spray. In this study, the initial stage of the atomization process of a diesel injection fuel spray was analyzed with a high-speed image converter camera under the conditions of atmospheric gas pressure and room temperature. As a result, it was found that the initial spray formation was greatly affected lay the condition inside the nozzle sac. In the case in which fuel existed in the sac, pin-like structure spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. This phenomenon was not observed in the case in which no fuel was present in the sac, and a widely spread fuel spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. The relatively low-speed fuel spray injected in the initial low-sac-pressure condition was pushed away by the subsequent fuel spray injected in the high-sac-pressure condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. FY 1994 report on the results of the R and D of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); 1994 nendo SOFC kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Development of fuel cell power generation technology and R and D of solid oxide fuel cells were carried out, and reports of the FY 1994 results of companies were summed up. As to the R and D of the cell module, R and D were conducted of 'large area cell' by Fuji Electric Corporate R and D, Ltd. and 'combined cell module' by Sanyo Electric Co. As to the R and D of materials/basic technology, the following were conducted: 'R and D of the electrode micro structure' by Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 'R and D of the electrode structure by thermal spraying method by Fujikura Ltd., 'R and D of the multi-functional fuel electrode' by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 'R and D of the cofiring technology' by Murata Mfg. Co., and 'R and D of the current collecting technology' by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Concerning the R and D of the system, 'the system study' by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry' and 'development of element technology for periphery devices' by The Japan Research and Development Center for Metals. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1993 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology (Advanced materials for extreme environments - Development of methane fueled aeroengine); 1993 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Efforts were exerted to develop advanced materials for use under extreme environments, which were intermetallic compounds and fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials excellent in heat resistance, specific strength, oxidation resistance, or the like. For the development of intermetallic compounds, efforts were made to develop Ti-Al-X (X=metal) high specific strength intermetallic compounds and Nb-Al-X (X=metal) high melting point intermetallic compounds. Ternary phase diagrams were prepared and the effect of added elements on basic characteristics was investigated. Basics of element technologies (texture control, melting, casting, and isothermal rolling) for manufacturing panel materials were studied and, in the case of Ti-Al-X systems, Ti-Al thin panels were fabricated. In the case of Nb-Al-X systems, items were experimentally fabricated by casting in an effort to study precision casting technology optimization. For the development of composite materials, efforts were made to develop SiC based and SiMC (M=metal) based fibers, and studies were carried out to complex them with Ti-Al based matrices. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1999 report on the model project on the effective utilization of waste-base biomass fuels. Basic survey for the feasibility; 1999 nendo haikibutsukei biomass nenryo yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Survey on the waste biomass was conducted for Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, Nepal, Butan, Myanmar and Cambodia to study feasibility of the project for the concrete utilization of biomass resources. In Thailand, it is expected to construct large-scale model plants for biomass resources such as rice hulls, bagasse, wood waste and oil palm. In Malaysia, expected are the cogeneration at 5MW class palm oil plant, large-scale power plant using wood waste, plant using the biomass from waste palm oil, etc. In Indonesia, there is a great potentiality, but it is necessary to handle it carefully in consideration of the unstable situation of the society. In Vietnam, the detailed survey of feasibility is needed on the project for efficiency heightening at state-run plants, the assumed national plants (recommended by the government), etc. In Laos, small-scale power generation using the forestry waste such as sawdust is expected. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems. Development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems (Development of technology for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems); 2000 nendo kokoritsu nenryo denchi system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no shutsuryoku yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of technologies for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems and waste heat, to spread cogeneration systems incorporating PEFC systems for residential purposes. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. The program for high-efficiency peripherals for residential PFEC systems attempts use of GaN-FET as the semiconductor device of wide band gap and high breakdown voltage to realize conversion efficiency over 90% by improving inverter efficiency. Two types of the prototype heat recovery systems are developed for the PEFC, one incorporating a latent heat cooling system and the other a water cooling system, to improve heat recovery efficiency and increase heat recovery temperature. The program for technology to fit PEFC output to energy demand develops hot water supply systems provided with a hot water storage function for stable supply of hot water irrespective of the heat recovery conditions, and also with a back-up function with burners. The program also develops the PEFC system of fine load following characteristics, for which pure hydrogen is used as the fuel to allow the system to instantaneously follow fluctuating loads. The program for high-efficiency partial load operation technology studies a 1kW-class residential PEFC cogeneration system incorporating a power storage device for high-efficiency operation at partial loads, where the former operates in a high output mode while the latter absorbs fluctuating loads. (NEDO)

  17. Report on results of development of fuel cell power generation technology 1998. Research and development on polymer electrolyte fuel cell (technological development of element, research on ion exchange membrane for practicability of high performance cell); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu, kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu, yoso kenkyu kaihatsu (koseino denchi jitsuyoka no tame no ion kokan maku ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper explains the results during fiscal 1998 of ion exchange membranes in the development of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Studies were made on three kinds of standard and two kinds of experimental membranes selected among the Flemion membranes, which are perfluorosulfonic acid membranes made by Asahi Glass Co.,Ltd., and also on the Nafion membranes by Dupon as reference. As the resistance evaluation of the environmental cycle for the membranes, a temperature cycle test was carried out, with the characteristics measured such as moisture content, membrane resistance, mechanical properties, and gas permeability, so that the effects were examined of the temperature cycle on the membranes. Evaluation was also commenced on the water permeability, an important substance-moving characteristic of ion exchange membranes. In the evaluation of the characteristics of membrane-electrode assemblies, the environmental cycle test was performed by joining electrodes to membranes, with the evaluation similarly made as for the membranes alone. On the basis of a correlation between the water permeability and the cell performance, studies were made on the effect of thickness of the membranes on the cell performances. A continuous stability/durability operation of 3,500 hours was verified using Flemion R. As for membrane reinforcement, studies were continued on the cloth and fibril reinforcements as in the previous year.(NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1996 result reports of the researches under consignment from NEDO. Developments of fuel cell technology, polymer electrolyte fuel cell, fuel cell power generation system technology, and high-voltage type several tens kW class distributed power source system; Shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko itaku gyomu 1996 nendo seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu, kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu, hatsuden system gijutsu kaihatsu, koden`atsugata suju kW kyu bunsan dengen system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper precisely reports the research result on development of fuel cell technology in fiscal 1996. On verification of cell durability, the cell test result in hydrogen including CO of 100ppm using Pt-Ru catalyst as CO resistant catalyst showed that the loss percent of cell voltage decreases with an increase in Ru content. On development of stack technology, the carbon humidification plate superior in chemical stability was developed as one of the parts for layered stacks. The separator with a water- permeable carbon plate and serpentine flow fields was fabricated for highly layered stacks, and achieved the target performance in single cell power generation test. On establishment of design basis for compact fuel processor, the bench-scale test was conducted of Ru/{gamma}-Al2O3 and Pt-Ru/{gamma}-Al2O3 catalysts as advanced CO selective oxidation catalyst for CO reducers. On demonstration test for the several tens kW class stationary power plant, the system configuration of power generation plants using natural gas as fuel was studied. 106 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Eileen Gray: a child of Japonism?

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Exhibited at the Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 12th 2008 My interest is in Gray's lacquer work and the influences on that work in the context of nineteenth-century fashion of Japonisme. Gray (1878-1976) had an appreciation of the Japanese characteristics of lacquer - perhaps absorbed from private and public Irish collections of Japanese art. Gray also had a twenty-year working collaboration with Seizo Sugawara (1884-1937) from Jahoji, Japan - a town famous for its lacquer work. Suga...

  20. Hydrogen energy technology development conference. From production of hydrogen to application of utilization technologies and metal hydrides, and examples; Suiso energy gijutsu kaihatsu kaigi. Suiso no seizo kara riyo gijutsu kinzoku suisokabutsu no oyo to jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-02-14

    The hydrogen energy technology development conference was held on February 14 to 17, 1984 in Tokyo. For hydrogen energy systems and production of hydrogen from water, 6 papers were presented for, e.g., the future of hydrogen energy, current state and future of hydrogen production processes, and current state of thermochemical hydrogen technology development. For hydrogen production, 6 papers were presented for, e.g., production of hydrogen from steel mill gas, coal and methanol. For metal hydrides and their applications, 6 papers were presented for, e.g., current state of development of hydrogen-occluding alloy materials, analysis of heat transfer in metal hydride layers modified with an organic compound and its simulation, and development of a large-size hydrogen storage system for industrial purposes. For hydrogen utilization technologies, 8 papers were presented for, e.g., combustion technologies, engines incorporating metal hydrides, safety of metal hydrides, hydrogen embrittlement of system materials, development trends of phosphate type fuel cells, and alkali and other low-temperature type fuel cells. (NEDO)

  1. Manufacturing facilities of pharmaceutical products and measures for purification of its environment. Validation for sterilizing grade filter; Iyakuhin no seizo shisetsu to kankyo seijoka taisaku. Mekkin`yo firuta no barideshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, M.

    1994-07-31

    Validation is defined as firm establishment of a documentary evidence showing the system concerned is functioning as designed. Validation for sterilizing grade filter is not limited only to validation of the filter itself, but evaluation of its extract as well as adsorption and the sterilizing condition of the filter and system are the items to be examined. It is necessary to make validation of the filtering system as a whole taking into consideration any kind of element of composition in order to reach the target. In this article, in order to avoid description on diversified subjects, only validation for the filter is focused and its technique is introduced. The procedure for executing validation is stated first, and concerning validation for the sterilizing grade filter, a bacterial retention test is explained in detail, then with regard to an integrity test, sterilization of the devise concerned and pharmaceutical suitability/extract tests, the points which call special attention and testing items are introduced. Finally self inspection and evaluation of operating performance qualification are described. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Research and development of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method; 1978 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-31

    This paper describes a summary design of an iodine cycle experimenting equipment as one of the achievements in fiscal 1978 on research of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method. The object of the equipment is a reaction to derive Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgI{sub 2} from MgO being the first reaction of the cycle, and iodine. The by-product (Q-phase) is produced according to composition of the aqueous reaction solution. The occurring reaction and composition of the produced materials vary depending on which contact system the reactor type uses, countercurrent flow or concurrent flow. Discussions were given on both types. Hydrogen generation rate of 1 Nm{sup 3}/hr was assumed as the equipment size to derive material balance and heat balance. Furthermore, types considered applicable were selected from different types of the solid-liquid reaction equipment, and summary design and calculation were performed. Process simulation provided a prospect of achieving thermal efficiency that can compete with the electrolytic process. As a study on materials for a magnesium iodate pyrolytic equipment as the second reaction, corrosion tests were carried out in a gas mixture composed of iodine, oxygen and steam. Using 26 kinds of metallic materials as the objects, the tests were executed at 100 and 300 degrees C for 100 hours. Long-term durability tests were also performed on materials judged to have good corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. R and D of the hydrogen production technology by the thermochemical method; 1974 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    In relation to the R and D of the hydrogen production technology by the thermochemical method, the paper summed up the results of the research conducted in FY 1974. The items for study are as follows. (1) Basic model making for process simulator. (2) Type of facility on the assumption of pilot plant size, and rough selection of equipment structural materials. (3) Extraction of engineering study subjects and working-out of study plans. In (1), the basic model of simulator was established, case studies of various Fe-Cl cycles were made, and a calculation method for the balance of the whole process was established. In (2), it was concluded that in the normal pressure reaction experiment, the oxygen emits extremely little in amount in Mark 9 No. 2 reaction, and therefore, it is very doubtful whether the closed cycle will be completed using this reaction. It was also found out that No. 3 reaction is low in reaction completion degree and it is the problem in point of thermal economy. Accordingly, possibilities of reaction were reviewed, and 6 cycles were found as Fe-Cl cycle. For these reaction cycles, a process flow sheet was made. Comparative studies among processes were conducted, and the cycle structural elementary reaction in Fe-Cl process was specified. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on hydrogen production technology mainly by photo- semiconductor; 1975 nendo hikari handotai wo shutai to suru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-28

    In fiscal 1975, to study the possibility of photochemical decomposition as new hydrogen production technique based on the research result in the preceding fiscal year, study was made on some materials useful as electrode for photocells among various semiconducting materials with large solar photo-electromotive force. Study was made on the kind and combination of electrode materials, and electrolyte composition for photocells through measurement of photocell characteristics by various combinations of semiconductor electrodes. As for the impact of light sources, study was made on the photosensitization phenomenon by xenon light, solar light and xenon lights with various spectral profiles through specific filters, and the relation between a light intensity and hydrogen efficiency. As useful semiconductor photocell electrode systems, combinations of n-type GaP or n- type GaAs and p-type GaP or p-type GaAs were most efficient. As preventive technique of semiconductor electrodes from dissolution, coating technique of various materials showed insufficient results. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. R and D on hydrogen production technology by high-temperature high- pressure water electrolysis; 1975 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-29

    This report details the research result in fiscal 1975. Part 1 'Outlines' includes the research target, the summary of fiscal 1974 research results, the summary of fiscal 1975 research results, and responsible researchers. Part 2 'Details of the research' includes the fiscal 1975 research results. Chapter 1 reports 'Study on constant-load high- temperature high-pressure (multi-electrode type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 2 reports 'Study on Teflon system diaphragm for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis tanks' promoted by Yuasa Battery Co. through Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 3 reports 'Study on variable-load high- temperature high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 4 reports 'The first detailed design of the electrolysis tank for a small test plant' promoted by Hitachi Zosen Corp. through Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 5 reports 'Research on the applicability of water electrolysis systems to various fields' promoted by Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. through Showa Denko K.K. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1974 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature and high-pressure water electrolysis; 1974 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    The goals at present are to clarify conditions for the realization of the water electrolysis process relative to various primary energy sources and to experimentally construct a small practical electrobath to operate at high temperature and high pressure for the attainment of high economic efficiency. Efforts in this fiscal year are mentioned below. Surveys and studies are conducted about hydrogen production by water electrolysis and about achievements in the past and problems at present concerning hydrogen production by water electrolysis in Japan and overseas. The expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources is also studied and evaluated. For a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis bath conceptual design (small test plant, bathing temperature 120 degrees C, pressure 20atm, hydrogen production rate 2Nm{sup 3}/h), studies are conducted about a constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath and a variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath. Surveys and studies are also conducted about the expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources, and the role is evaluated. (NEDO)

  7. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, D; Yamagami, Y; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using thermochemical method; 1976 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    The research and development centers on the details of the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle. The items studied in this connection are (1) the development of a process simulator, (2) an experimental study of the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle, and (3) the recapitulation of the Fe-Cl-based cycle. The outcome of the comparison of Fe-Cl-based cycles widely conducted in the past enables a conclusion that the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle is at present is the most practical, technologically as well as in the way of thermal efficiency. The achievement on the first reaction (hydrolysis of ferrous chloride) of fiscal 1975, and then what is reported in literature on the fifth reaction (reverse Deacon process), are incorporated into the experiment of fiscal 1976, and this completes the acquisition of basic data necessary to develop the Fe-Cu-Cl-based cycle into an application process. Using optimum conditions chosen out of these basic data, a flowchart is compiled and the details of the process are calculated. As the result, a thermal efficiency of 30-33% is obtained, and the figures are deemed to indicate that the thermochemical method is sufficiently superior to the electrolytic method. (NEDO)

  9. Accomplishments hitherto achieved regarding the development of solar cell manufacturing technologies and the future course. Annex; Taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu kaihatsu no koremade no seika to kongo no hoko. Fuzoku shiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    Collected in this paper are the results of evaluation and studies which were conducted, regarding the development of solar cell manufacturing technologies, by the Solar Cell Manufacture Evaluation Sub-Committee at its 4 meetings held in the period from May to August, 1985. For the development of technologies of manufacturing solar cells under the Sunshine Program, the development of technologies for manufacturing crystalline solar cells and amorphous solar cells is required. The Industrial Technology Council, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, in August, 1982, set intermediate goals to be achieved by fiscal 1985. To be developed for the practical application of crystalline silicon solar cells are a low cost experimental silicon refining system and an experimental solar panel manufacturing system. To be carried out for amorphous solar cells are basic studies including a study of physical properties, the development of a large-area high-efficiency solar cell manufacturing technology, and the development of a low cost monosilane manufacturing technology making use of molten salt electrolysis in a closed cycle. In fiscal 1984, 90% of the goals were attained, and now it is expected that almost all will be complete within fiscal 1985. (NEDO)

  10. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Research on manufacturing next-generation gas generating agent for air bag); 1998 nendo jisedai air bag yo gas hasseizai no seizo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Sodium azide has been used for many years as a gas generating agent for automobiles. However, sodium azide has strong toxicity, and is doubted of carcinogenicity. Bistetrazole having no such a drawback is now noticed as the next-generation gas generating agent, and substitution to gas agents having less toxicity is being advanced worldwide. The present research is intended to develop a method to manufacture bistetrazole (BHT) which does not by-produce wastes in a large amount, is friendly to environment, and economical. Research and development works were performed on manufacturing dicyanide as the raw material by using the electrolytic process and by using the catalytic process, while both processes were found successful. In the reaction to synthesize BHT from the manufactured dicyanide and sodium azide, high crystalline purity and yield as high as 94.5% have been achieved. As a result of having discussed improvement on the one-pot process that synthesizes BHT directly, not going through handling of the produced dicyanide, solution was made on a method to remove impurities, and conditions to produce BHT at high yield were discovered. This new catalytic process provides a total yield of 80%, successfully reducing the manufacturing cost. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis; 1976 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Basic data are collected for the construction of a high-temperature high-pressure membrane-assisted water electrolysis test plant of the constant load type and another of the variable load type. To collect the data, basic experiments are conducted on a small water electrolysis unit, diaphragms are fabricated and tested for performance, design calculation is performed using a computer, a test unit for testing electrolysis bath constituting materials is built for the construction of a gas/liquid separation unit. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis test apparatus. The first part of this report is titled 'Outline' and states the objectives of this research, summarizes the achievements of fiscal 1974, 1975, and 1976, and mentions the names of officers responsible for the execution of the research and development, etc. The second part is titled 'Contents of research' and reports the details of the research conducted in fiscal 1976. The subjects taken up in the second part are 'Research on constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on Teflon-based diaphragms for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis baths,' 'Research on variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on small test plant electrolysis bath design,' etc., which are being undertaken by Showa Denko K.K. and four other corporations. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1975 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using thermochemical process; 1975 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-28

    Research and development is conducted about the Fe-Cl-based cycle from an engineering viewpoint, and endeavors are focused on four items, which are (1) the development of a process simulator, (2) the comprehension of the characteristics of reaction of Fe-Cl system elements when placed under pressure, (3) the basic plan of a solid/gas reaction unit, and (4) process improvement for the Fe-Cl-based cycle. Under item (1), the initial goals which are the simplification of data origination, the enlargement of the scope of objects of computation including hybrid processes, tempering with separation energy, setting of computation conditions, and alteration made easier to perform, etc., are satisfied as the result of extensive expansion of the system. Under item (2), pressure tests up to 30kg/cm{sup 2}/G are conducted for the hydrolysis of ferrous chloride and high-temperature chlorination of triiron tetroxide, and basic data are acquired for building an apparatus to work under pressure. Under item (3), a basic plan is worked out for a multi-stage fluidized bed test unit of the heat medium particle circulation type. Under item (4), an Fe-Cu-Cl cycle is found in which chlorine generation is replaced by cupric chloride decomposition. A conclusion is reached that the technology is promising in terms of thermal efficiency. (NEDO)

  13. Sintering systems for recycling plant fly ash and bottom ash from incineration plant. Production of artificial aggregate and permeable block by sintering method. Toshi gomi shokyakubai hibai no saishigenka gijutsu. Nenshoho ni yoru jinko kotsuzai to tosuisei block no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, T.; Masuno, K.; Kaneko, M. (Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-07-20

    With the background that making the incineration residue of municipal waste nonpollutant or recycling the residue have been an urgent problem, Japan's first incineration ash recycle experiment pilot plant was built in the Nanbu Waste Incineration Plant of Funabashi City in 1993. In this paper, the outline of the one-year plant operation has been introduced. This plant consists of an artificial aggregate production line and a permeable block production line. In the former line, the incineration or fly ash is combined with plasticizer (clay) and then added by moisture. After the mixed material is extruded and pelletized, the pellets are sintered in a rotary kiln to be artificial aggregate. The sintering temperature is 1200[degree]C at a maximum and throughput of the raw materials is 130 kg/h. The evaporated and dispersed salt or low boiling point heavy metals are mixed in the flue gas and collected with bug filters. To produce the permeable block, the following processes are executed: the artificial aggregate is crushed and combined with powdered glass, a binder. The resulting material, after press-molded, is sintered at the temperature of up to 1050[degree]C. The test results showed that the products and plant waste represent satisfactorily acceptable level. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. R and D on hydrogen production technology by high-temperature high- pressure water electrolysis; 1975 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-29

    This report details the research result in fiscal 1975. Part 1 'Outlines' includes the research target, the summary of fiscal 1974 research results, the summary of fiscal 1975 research results, and responsible researchers. Part 2 'Details of the research' includes the fiscal 1975 research results. Chapter 1 reports 'Study on constant-load high- temperature high-pressure (multi-electrode type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 2 reports 'Study on Teflon system diaphragm for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis tanks' promoted by Yuasa Battery Co. through Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 3 reports 'Study on variable-load high- temperature high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 4 reports 'The first detailed design of the electrolysis tank for a small test plant' promoted by Hitachi Zosen Corp. through Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 5 reports 'Research on the applicability of water electrolysis systems to various fields' promoted by Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. through Showa Denko K.K. (NEDO)

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - Development of production technology of thin film solar cells. Development of production technology of low-cost/large-area modules (Development of production technology of application type new structure thin film solar cells/Development of production technology of amorphous silicon-thin film polycrystal silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Oyogata shinkozo hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Amorufasusilicon hakumaku takessho silicon hybrid hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the application type new structure thin film solar cell that is low-cost, high-efficient and practical, a developmental study was made of production technology of amorphous silicon/thin film polycrystal silicon hybrid thin film solar cells, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In the study of the heightening of efficiency of the small area hybrid cell, a structure was adopted in which a transparent intermediate layer was installed between a-Si cell and bottom poly-Si cell, and the initial efficiency of 14.0% was obtained in the small area cell 1cm square. As to the large area hybrid module, the initial efficiency of 11.7% and maximum output of 44.9W were achieved in the large area substrate module with a size of 910 x 455mm. In the indoor/outdoor evaluation of the output of hybrid modules, conducted were the outdoor measurement and the output measurement made every season under the mock spectral light in two-light simulator. In summer, F.F. was improved by spectral gain and anneal effect, and the effective output about 8% higher was recognized in the module after stabilization. (NEDO)

  16. Report on achievements in fiscal 1984 on research and development commissioned from Sunshine Project. Studies on hydrogen manufacturing utilizing solar beam; 1984 nendo taiyoko riyo ni yoru suiso seizo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a technology to manufacture hydrogen effectively from water utilizing solar beam and using an organics oxidizing and reducing system as the intermediary, and its achievements in fiscal 1984 was reported. With regard to the process in hydrogen generation stage as the first step, water dissolvable rhodium complex was synthesized to improve the process having been developed in the previous fiscal year. Its photo-hydrogen generation capability was discussed. In the rhodium complex of ligand having sulfonic acid group for water solution, a system using only water as a solvent was discovered to show the photo-hydrogen generation capability equivalent to or greater than the system of organic solvent and water using non-water dissolvable rhodium complex. In the stage of reduction of oxidized type organics by water as the second step, discussions were given on photo-electrochemical behavior of iron oxide sintered electrodes. Photo-hydrogen generation was investigated by retaining the electrode potential to a potential generated by beam irradiation onto the iron oxide sintered electrodes, and using a system of water dissolvable rhodium complex and rhuthenium complex. As a result, a possibility of recycling the materials was discovered. (NEDO)

  17. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Survey on analysis for practical use; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the manufacturing technology trend of thin substrate solar cells for practical use in fiscal 1994. In production of Si raw material, as electron beam melting and ingot production are combined, C, P, Ca and Al are removed by evaporation, while Fe and Ti by solidifying segregation. As the basic technology of continuous casting for substrate production, a drop coagulation method for Si melt is under investigation which is more advantageous in unidirectional solidification and cell conversion efficiency than conventional methods. The cost and future of single crystal Si and polycrystal Si were compared on the basis of document survey. Every institute commonly uses FZ substrates to produce single crystal Si cells, and SiO2 for surface passivation. New cell structure, hetero-structure, thin cell, crystalline defect and lifetime are under investigation for ultrahigh-efficiency solar cells. The technology trend was also surveyed through academic societies and conferences. 5 tabs.

  18. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Survey on the commercialization analysis; Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the technological trend, safety and latest technologies of thin film solar cells in fiscal 1994. As the fabrication technology for amorphous film solar cells, three-electrode plasma CVD was surveyed as fabrication method for high-mobility materials, and hydrogen radical CVD as fabrication method for high-photostable films. Current foreign and domestic reliability tests were surveyed for reliability evaluation of solar cells. In order to ascertain the performance, efficiency, physical properties and optimum structure of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells, previously reported test results on physical properties such as carrier concentration, carrier lifetime and mobility of films were surveyed together with device simulation results. In addition, technologies for high-efficiency CuInSe2 system and CdTe system solar cells, technologies for cost reduction and mass production, and environmental influence were surveyed. Estimation of production costs for cell modules, and safety of thin film solar cells were also surveyed.

  19. Fiscal 1997 survey report on a feasibility of international collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the production technology of biohydrogen is an option effective for the world energy supply technology and the world environmental preservation technology in the 21st century. At present, a project named `R and D of the environment harmony type hydrogen production technology` tackles the R and D of the hydrogen production technology using photosynthetic microorganisms, and promotes the R and D in this field from both aspects of a basis and application as seen in a workshop held including interchanges with researchers and research institutes overseas. With the recently increasing interest in bio-hydrogen production technology also overseas, search and bleeding/improvement of microorganisms related to the hydrogen production and utilization technology of biomass have been advancing. For development in this field, it is necessary to construct a widespread research network and promote the comprehensive research and development. In this survey, most of the research institutes visited recognized an importance of international cooperation in this field and agreed to make future research interchanges in a wide range. Based on the survey, a feasibility of concrete international collaboration is searched. 146 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study of the hydrogen production technology mainly using photoconductor; 1974 nendo hikari handotai wo shutai to suru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    Among semiconductor materials which absorb solar light and produce great photoelectromotive force, materials usable to the electrode of photoelectric cell were sought, the photoelectrode reaction of various electrode materials was investigated, and the photosensitization phenomenon in the solar light region was studied. As to electrode materials, semiconductor materials were sought which have a characteristic of band gap of 1-3eV, and the photosensitization polarization characteristic of a part of the semiconductor materials was measured. Concerning photoelectric cells, the photoelectric cell characteristic was measured by the combination of semiconductor electrode, for the study of the structure of photoelectric cell such as kinds, combination, etc. of electrode materials. As electrode materials, various semiconductors were acquired such as TiO{sub 2}, CdS, GaP, GaAs, Si, Ge, etc., and the electrochemical base photoelectrode characteristic under light irradiation was measured. It was confirmed that GaP and GaAs have good photosensitization polarization characteristics. As the result of the measurement of photoelectric cell characteristics, n-type GaP and n-type GaAs showed good characteristics to anode, and p-type GaP and p-type GaAs to cathode. It was confirmed that there is a possibility of hydrogen production in the solar light wavelength region by the measurement of photoelectric cell characteristics of xenon light and the filter penetration light of xenon light. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Upgrading of energy utilization in the cement production process; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cement seizo kotei ni okeru energy kodoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of a project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the steam injection gas turbine generator to production facilities of the Siam Cement Industry Corporation (SCI) in Thailand. In the project, studies were made on the following: no purchases of electric power by introduction of the steam injection gas turbine generator; additional heating by gas turbine exhaust gas by introduction of the kiln combustion air heater; remodeling of the preheater of raw materials, and the partial calcination before kiln sintering by introduction of the calcination furnace. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 1,200 toe/y, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 8,000 t-CO2/y, which led to the reserve power for increased production of clinker by about 18%. The size of investment was 314.5 million Baht in total. As to the evaluation of economical efficiency of the investment, the actual period of ROI was a little less than 5 years, and the internal earning rate was 17.7%, which substantially met with SCI's standards for equipment investment. However, there are problems on the gas supply infrastructure, recovery of the white cement demand, etc. (NEDO)

  2. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

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    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  3. FY 1996 report on the results of the R and D of the environmentally friendly type hydrogen production technology. For public use; 1996 nendo kankyo chowagata suiso seizo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

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    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the efficient hydrogen production technology using the hydrogen generation ability of microorganisms, the R and D were conducted, and the 1996 results were summed up. As to the R and D of the screening and breeding improvement of photosynthetic microorganisms, the following were conducted: measurement of hydrogen generation ability by the experiment on artificial solar simulated irradiation, characterization of breeding improvement strains, breeding of blue-green algae, survey/study of correlations between PHB metabolism and hydrogen metabolism, breeding improvement of photosynthetic bacteria by genetic characterization of hydrogen generation enzyme and genetic recombination, etc. Concerning the R and D of the quantity culture technology, a two-step experimental device combined with the photosynthetic bacteria multiplication process and the hydrogen generation process was fabricated, and functions were confirmed by the experiment using sugar-containing waste liquid. Also conducted were the acquisition of the data on the quantity culture test on anaerobic bacteria and photosynthetic bacteria using waste water containing cellulose, etc., fabrication/experiment of the quantity culture module reactor of photosynthetic bacteria using sewage sludge, experiment on the quantity culture of photosynthetic bacteria using raw refuse, etc. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on research under Sunshine Program. Basic research on high-calorie gas production technology; 1981 nendo sunshinte keikaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

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    1982-03-01

    Test and research are conducted for acquiring basic data regarding coal gasification. In the basic research for the development of a high-calorie gas production process, a small moving bed gas furnace is improved, and a high-calorie gas of a heating value of approximately 5,100kcal/m{sup 3} is stably produced at a rate of approximately 20m{sup 3} per diem. The carbon conversion rate turns out to be approximately 37% for the gas, approximately 53% for the residual char, and approximately 10% for a mixture of tar, naphthalene, benzene, phenol, etc. Hydrogen is produced making use of the residual char when a small amount of coal is added, and it is deemed that the first experiment for the development of a moving bed hydrogasification process has been successfully completed. In the study of the mechanism of hydrogasification reaction, the result of a preliminary experiment in a fixed bed pressurized gasification furnace is compared with the data from a continuous gasification experiment, and the relationship is determined between the coal feed rate and the reaction rate. Conducted besides are a basic study of problems relating to operation, basic research on a reaction mechanism (carbonization by rapid heating), estimation of the equilibrium composition of gas generated by coal gasification, etc. (NEDO)

  5. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules, development of technologies to increase high-quality film area; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

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    1998-03-01

    With an objective to improve efficiency and reduce cost of CIS-based thin film solar cells, research and development has been made on technologies to increase high-quality CIS film area and technologies to increase speed in the manufacturing process. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. The research covered development of technologies to form high-grade Cu (In, Ga) Se{sub 2} (CIGS) film by using the multi-dimensional deposition process, component technologies for forming a rear electrode, a buffer layer and a transparent electrode, and patterning technologies. As a result of the research, thickness of the CIGS film was reduced to half as much as that of the conventional films, having achieved conversion efficiency of 13.1%, which corresponds to about 90% of the conventional CIGS solar cells. In addition, elucidation was made on the effect of an MoSe{sub 2} layer existing on interface with CIGS/Mo in a CIGS solar cell imposed on solar cell characteristics. In developing an Mo film laser scribing technology, intensity dependence of laser energy was made clear, the energy being required for scribing according to surface condition of the Mo film. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Formation of low-temperature film); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usukau taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (teion maku keisei gijutsu kaihatsu)

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    1998-03-01

    A polycrystalline Si thin film formation technology is developed, which uses the flux process in which a reaction occurs between the target crystal and a flux component which is eutectic. Using this process, a crystal grain relatively large in diameter is obtained at a relatively low temperature. This method is now attracting attention as one of the technologies for producing crystalline Si film for use in thin-film polycrystalline Si solar cells. Especially when Al is used for flux, since Al is automatically doped into the target crystalline Si film, it is expected that the resulting film will serve as the ground for a photoactive layer provided with the BSF (back surface field) function which is important for the improvement of solar cell efficiency. A polycrystalline Si thin film is formed on a 2cm times 2cm-large glass substrate at a temperature not higher than 600 degrees C. It is recognized that films selectively oriented towards the (111) or (100) plane are acquired when other processes are employed. It is expected that the said Al-doped film provides a ground on which a BSF function-provided photoactive layer will be formed. (NEDO)

  7. Industrial science and technology research and development project of university cooperative type in fiscal 2000. Report on achievements in semiconductor device manufacturing processes using Cat-CVD method (Semiconductor device manufacturing processes using Cat-CVD method); 2000 nendo daigaku renkeigata sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu project. Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process seika hokokusho (Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process)

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    2001-03-01

    The catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) method is a low-temperature thin film depositing technology that can achieve improvement in quality of semiconductor thin films and can perform inexpensive film deposition in a large area. The present project is composed of the basic research and development theme and the demonstrative research and development theme for the Cat-CVD method. This report summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 centering on the former theme. Discussions were given on the following five areas: 1) simulation on film thickness distribution in the Cat-CVD method, 2) life extension by preventing the catalyst converting into silicide and development of a catalyst integrated shear head, 3) vapor diagnosis in the film forming process by the Cat-CVD method using silane, hydrogen and ammonia, 4) a technology for high-speed deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films for solar cells using the Cat-CVD method, and the low-temperature silicon oxide nitriding technology using heated catalysts, and 5) discussions on compatibility of transparent oxide electrode materials to the process of manufacturing thin-film silicon-based solar cells by using the Cat-CVD method. (NEDO)

  8. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Volume 1. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules and survey and research on analyzing how to put products into practical use); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1))

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    2000-03-01

    With an objective to assist research and development to put thin film solar cells for power use into practical use and a research to put thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies into practical use, survey and research have been performed on trends in the technologies inside and outside the country. Characteristic points in thin film solar cells during the current fiscal year include: expansion of production scale of amorphous silicon solar cells, rapid progress in poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cell technologies, and enhancement of performance in large-area modules in the a-Si, CIGS, and CdTe systems. In the trends in research and development of amorphous systems, expectation is heightening on elucidation of optical deterioration phenomena, and establishment of suppression technologies thereof. Although the highest efficiency was not renewed in thin film solar cells of small areas, progress was seen in the post-stabilization efficiency in large-area modules. A thin film solar cell manufacturing plant having an annual production capacity of 20 MW was put into operation in October in Japan. Micro (poly) crystalline silicon based solar cells have high possibility of being compatible in cost reduction and performance improvement, and energetic researches are being carried out on them in recent years as the most promising candidate of the next generation solar cells. (NEDO)

  9. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (substitution No.3). Report on achievements in research related to industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.3). Gas hydrate gijutsu no sangyo riyo shakai system ka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

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    2001-03-01

    Activities have been advanced to establish necessary basic technologies by making clear the possibilities and problems in applying gas hydrate technologies to industrial fields. Activities have been taken in the following three fields: 1) industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies, 2) conceptual design of gas hydrate utilization technologies, and 3) researches on basic technologies to utilize the gas hydrate technologies in industries. In Item 1), discussions were given on significance of social systematization of the gas hydrate technologies, conditions for social systematization of the gas hydrate technologies, the current status of natural gas development and industrial utilization of the gas hydrate technologies. In Item 2), discussions were given on utilization of gas containability (application to natural gas transportation and storage processes), utilization of cold heat storage performance (utilization to suction air cooling of gas turbine generators), and utilization of gas selectivity (application to gas separation processes and acidic gas (CO2, SOx) separation). (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1998 research report on the demand forecast of rare element minerals, recycling technology of rare elements from waste, and substitute rare element minerals; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kisho genso koseki no juyo yosoku, kisho genso no haikibutsu kara no kaishu gijutsu oyobi daitai kisho genso koseki nado ni kansuru chosa

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    1999-03-01

    Rare element mineral is indispensable material for functionalization of high-tech raw materials. Its deposit is poor, an increase in its future demand is expected, and its information disclosure is insufficient because of strategic important material. To solve these problems, the following were studied systematically, and urgent research themes on rare element minerals were clarified: (1) High-efficiency recycling technology of rare elements, (2) Waste treatment system after recycling of rare elements from the viewpoint of environmental measures, (3) Establishment of the database of rare element minerals, and development of new substitute rare element minerals, and (4) Design method of substitute materials possible to generate various existing functions without any rare elements. Among them, in particular, precise separation of 46 kinds of rare elements from waste of high-tech raw materials, and recycling of rare elements from zinc refining waste and pyrite ore deposit containing copper were pointed out as important themes. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of environmentally friendly chromium-free plating technology and research on its practical application; 1999 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kankyo ni yasashii kuromu daitai mekki gijutsu kaihatsu to sono jitsuyoka kenkyu

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    2001-03-01

    In this research, the seeds provided by Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture and Nomura Plating Co., Ltd., relative to their plating processes using ion exchange membranes and metal anodes are utilized. Efforts are made to prolong the bathing life of the Ni-W alloy plating solution, to put the plating bath in an enclosure, to develop a chromium-free plating technology wherewith bating life is longer, environmental impact is smaller, and resistance to corrosion is higher, and experiments and tests are conducted for industrialization and for the practical application of the developed technologies. At Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, electrolytic Ni-W alloy plating was taken up. An insoluble anode separated from the plating solution by a cation exchange membrane and plural metal anodes were brought into a new process and, into the same, novel technologies were further introduced, which were a metal ion supply method in which the distribution of current to 3 anodes was regulated and the employment of a sacrificial anode decomposition agent. The new process was investigated for its validity and difficulties. Furthermore, Ni-W-P alloy plating was studied and a mirror-like Ni-W-P alloy plate was developed in a phosphorous acid added bath without detriment to the non-waste solution plating process, and the plate exhibited high corrosion resistance in a CASS (copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray) test. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 2000 survey report on rationalization project for international energy conservation, technological dissemination project for international energy conservation, and Green Helmet Project. Japan-China alternative energy seminar/waste disposal; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo, kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado gijutsu fukyu jigyo, green helmet jigyo chosa hokokusho. Nicchu sekiyu daitai energy seminar haikibutsu shori

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    2001-03-01

    This paper explains the Japan-China alternative energy seminar (February 28 and March 1, 2001, at Beijing). The purpose of the seminar is to introduce systematic and three-dimensional or land/sea/air measures for waste disposal including recycling in Japan, to provide guidance of measures in improving recognition and methods for waste disposal in China, and also to contribute to the dissemination and promotion of a model project for effectively utilizing waste heat from rubbish incineration, a project being implemented in Harbin City now. The activities of NEDO were introduced, with emphasis placed on a model program, called Green Aid Project, for managing heat from waste incineration. On the subjects of sustainable development, urban environment, and energy, the policy of China's tenth five-year plan was demonstrated, and the treatment of wastes in China was also explained. The present state of waste processing in Japan was introduced, as was its maintenance of the facilities. Concerning Japan's waste processing technologies and characteristics of the equipment, there were presented non-incineration processing including crushing/separating, RDF, compost, methane fermentation, etc.; incineration plants; and each of the technologies such as combustion, exhaust gas, ash treatment, use of remaining heat, and gasification melting. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Substitution No.1). Achievement report on development of biogasification process for low coalification degree coal; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.1). Teisekitankadotan no biogas ka process kaihatsu seika hokokusho

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    2001-03-01

    In this biogasification process, coal is subjected to pretreatment and then experiences methane fermentation. The aim is to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} per unit thermal equivalent to be generated by low coalification degree coal. The electrolytic oxidation technology for coal pretreatment is developed jointly with ESC (Electrosynthesis Company, Inc.), U.S. For the development and improvement of electrolytic oxidation technology, the experimenting electrolytic tank of ESC and a small-scale electrolytic oxidation unit developed by the same are used. Using the developed electrolytic oxidation technology, coal is made meltable at a rate of 2.93%/min, which means that 80% or more of the coal turns meltable in 30 minutes. The technology has its own problem, however, that the power consumption rate is high. The report comprises nine chapters, including (1) the goal and background of research and development, (2) enhancement of research and development, (3) electrolytic oxidation of low coalification degree coal, (4) methane fermentation, (5) prospect of practical application, (6) reference materials and list of literature, and (7) reports on research tours overseas. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on project to develop technology related to new recycled products. Research and development of cover soil replacement process utilizing waste magazine papers for final disposal facility and soil flow-out prevention process; 2000 nendo zasshi koshi wo riyoshita saishu shobunjo muke fukudo daitai koho oyobi dojo ryushutsu boshi koho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

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    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a cover soil replacement process utilizing waste papers for final disposal facility and a soil flow-out prevention process. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In evaluating waste paper fibers and waste paper binder films, the safety level was assumed sufficiently high if the fibers are used for the cover soil replacement process for final disposal facility. However, films may have a possibility of destruction if force is applied by such as heavy machines running on the films, hence it must be avoided. According to the on-site scattering test using unattended mixed slurry spraying machine capable of being remotely controlled, the coverage was found good, and scattering of incineration residues can be prevented completely. With regard to monitoring of hydrogen sulfide gas, a system having a hydrogen sulfide sensor and GPS mounted on a slurry spraying machine capable of remote control operation was completed, and its usefulness was verified. By using a wastes disposal facility simulating device, investigations were performed on effects on seepage water and wastes when the cover soil replacing material utilizing waste papers is used, and on changes in the properties of the cover soil replacing material. (NEDO)

  15. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (substitution No.3). Report on achievements in research related to industrial utilization and social systematization of gas hydrate technologies - Separate volume; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.3). Gas hydrate gijutsu no sangyo riyo shakai system ka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (bessatsu)

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    2001-03-01

    Investigations were performed on important properties when utilization of gas hydrates to industries is discussed, such as production and decomposition speeds and storage stability. Activities have been taken in the following two fields: 1) experimental studies on production and decomposition of gas hydrates, and 2) summarized view on research related to gas hydrate self-retention effect. In Item 1), a production device of stirring system using rotating blades with gas circulation holes (self-suction type) was fabricated to have discussed the production and decomposition speeds. It was made clear that the production speed is governed by the over-cooling degree under the appropriate gas circulation and appropriate stirring conditions, and that the decomposition speed becomes abnormally high unless the self-retention status is maintained. In Item 2), following the introduction, seven researches were introduced, including the first observation of abnormal reaction of gas hydrate under the decreased pressure condition, the research by Yu. P. Handa related to gas hydrate decomposition below zero degree C, and the research by E. Mayer and A. Hall Brucker related to unexpectedly stable nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide and argon clathrate gas hydrate formed from amorphous solid water. (NEDO)

  16. New Sunshine Project FY 1996 report on the results of development of photovoltaic power generation system commercialization technologies. Research on commercialization of the technologies for production of thin-film photovoltaic cells (Development of fabrication technologies of high-quality CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cells); 1996 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu (kohinshitsuka gijutsu (CuInSe{sub 2} taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu))

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    1997-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1996 results of development of fabrication technologies for high-quality CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaic cells. The Cu-Ga alloy/In-stacked precursor film is prepared for production of the high-quality thin-film absorber applicable to large-area module fabrication, and selenized by the vapor-phase selenization in a H{sub 2}Se gas atmosphere to produce the thin light-absorbing film in which In and Ga are present at graded concentrations. Increasing Ga alloy content in the CIGS-based thin-film photovoltaic cell fails to widen the forbidden band and improve V{sub oc}, and further optimization works are needed. The method is developed for production of thin-film buffer layer of sulfur-containing Zn compound which can give the cell characteristics equivalent to those of CdS generally used for CIS-based thin-film photovoltaic cell. It is clarified that the photovoltaic cell characteristics can be improved by use of a transparent electroconductive ZnO film of stacked structure, produced by a combination of RF sputtering and DC sputtering. For the patterning technologies necessary for forming series connection on a mini-module, the laser scribing method is applicable to the metal base-electrode, and the mechanical scribing method to the light absorber and window layer. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - Development of production technology of thin film solar cells. Separate Volume 1. Development of production technology of low cost/large area modules (Investigational study on the commercialization analysis); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu {sup H}akumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu{sup -} Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu) - 1

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    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of supporting the study of commercialization of thin film solar cells for electric power use and the study of production technology of thin film solar cells, survey of the technical trend of the thin film solar cell was conducted, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The typical Si system thin film solar cell is the amorphous Si solar cell, and the quantity production has already started in Japan and abroad. Further, with the aim of making use of characteristics of the amorphous Si solar cell and also making its defects up, the development of Si thin film solar cell using microcrystal Si and polycrystal Si is greatly expected. Among those, attention is paid to the hybrid type that was proposed for the remarkable improvement in the conversion efficiency of amorphous Si solar cell. In the compound thin film system, the Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}(CiGS) solar cell was put on the market as product by SSI, though the market scale is small. Further, as to the CdTe thin film solar cell, trial manufacture of the large area module was made in view of the housing use. In addition, there was seen great progress in the color sensitized cell and organic semiconducting solar cell mainly in the U.S. and Europe. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Comprehensive study of hydrogen use subsystem and study on the periphery technology (Study on fuel cell system); 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi system kenkyu

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    1975-03-01

    In this paper, surveys were conducted on 'the developmental situation of the body of fuel cell' and 'the performance required for the inverter connecting fuel cell and electric power system and the peripheral device, and fuel cell.' However, the economical evaluation was to be made at an appropriate time, and the FY 1974 survey was limited to the technology. The results of the investigational study made based on the above-mentioned policy were described in and after Chapter 2. In Chapter 2, described were the prospects of fuel cell and the guide for this fiscal year. In Chapter 3, the relative evaluation of various kinds of fuel cells in terms of the following: electrode structure, catalyst, cell stack, auxiliary machine, dynamic characteristics of cell, efficiency, life, reliability, maintenance, safety, environmental safety, construction cost, maintenance/running cost, and material cost. In Chapter 4, the present technical situation of inverter and the peripheral device, and the situation of the future R and D in Japan and abroad. In Chapter 5, the positioning of the fuel cell system in the hydrogen energy system, and various kinds of performance required for structural elements. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1990 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Development of methane fueled aeroengine); 1990 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

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    1991-03-01

    Research efforts went on for the development of advanced materials, that is, intermetallic compounds and fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials. Activities were conducted in the four fields of (1) high specific strength intermetallic compounds, (2) high melting point intermetallic compounds, (3) fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials, and (4) a comprehensive survey. In Field (1), ternary phase diagrams (Mo, Nb) were prepared for Ti-Al-X (X=metal) systems, and studies were conducted of systematic methods for developing Ti-Al based high specific strength intermetallic compound materials. In Field (2), work was started to prepare binary phase diagrams for Nb-Al systems, and studies were conducted about their basic characteristics and characteristic governing factors. A powder manufacturing tester was designed and built, and basic tests were started for powder manufacturing. In Field (3), a success was attained in fabricating a low oxygen fiber rendered infusible by electron beam irradiation, and the infusible fiber was found to be high in quality. Studies were started of coatings for the fiber to achieve still higher performance. In Field (4), technical trends were surveyed, coordination was effected between various technology developing activities, and the results were put to proper management and then disseminated. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1995 annual report on research and development of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. Pt. 2. Research and development of methane-fueled engines for aircraft; 1995 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

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    1996-03-01

    Described herein are the R and D results of FY 1995 for the total system as part of R and D of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. For R and D of the intake, researches on aerodynamic flow passages at a combined intake design point of Mach 5 are conducted, in which the effects of the boundary layer are taken into consideration, and the wind tunnel tests are conducted for the combined intake. For R and D of the nozzle, experiments are conducted to establish the techniques for designing exhaust nozzle variable schedules in the turbo region, aerodynamic force in the turbo and ram regions, cooling systems, and composite liners. For R and D of the turbojet engines, the second phase engine tests are conducted with the engine of improved designs and two-dimensional variable exhaust nozzle. The tests produce good results in terms of engine endurance and mechanical soundness of the low-pressure systems. For R and D of the combined cycle engine incorporating the turbojet and ramjet engines, the model tests are conducted to understand aerodynamic characteristics when these engines are switched to each other. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on research and development of multifunction members structure control technologies. Development of advanced surface treatment technologies for methane-fueled aero engines (1. Microstructure control technologies for ultrahigh temperature members); 1998 nendo fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu (chokoon buzai mikuro kozo seigyo gijutsu)

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    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials (C/C composites) strong at ultrahigh temperatures are taken up. So as to improve on its resistance to oxidation, corrosion, and abrasion as well as on its strength at ultrahigh temperatures, an ion engineering-assisted technique is used to reform the C/C composite surface layer and a technology is developed for thin coating formation on the C/C composite surface. Next, technologies are developed for multifunction coating formation on top of the surface, for defect prevention or removal from the C/C composite, and for adhesion enhancement between the C/C composite fibers and the matrix. Technologies are further developed for evaluating hostile environment withstanding capabilities at ultrahigh temperatures. In this fiscal year, in the study of microstructure controlling multilayer coating technologies, development is conducted of technologies of ion engineering-assisted surface control and reform and of technologies of forming multifunctional coatings high in reliability and resistance to corrosion. In the field of microstructure control composition, 3-dimensional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials are manufactured by way of trial and evaluated, and their behavior under rigorous conditions is evaluated. (NEDO)

  2. Research report for fiscal 1998. Development of advanced surface processing technology for methane-fueled aircraft engine members (Laser-aided advanced processing system technology); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu (Laser oyo senshin kako system gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the research and development of erosion-resistant abradable materials for the methane-fueled aircraft engine front section, a laser-aided surface reform technology was developed for Ti alloys and the like. In relation with the article 'Intermetallic Compound Coating Formation Technology,' an NiTi sprayed coating containing excess Ni solid solution was found to be quite high in resistance to erosion, and similar to Ti-6Al-4V in resistance to oxidation at 300 degrees C. Furthermore, an MCrAlY erosion-resistant coating was formed capable of resisting oxidation at temperatures higher than 1000 degrees C. In relation with the article 'Spraying Phenomenon Evaluation Technology,' studies were made of combustion synthesis reaction during plasma spraying and of the prediction of flight trajectories of different powders, for which optical fiber dichroic temperature measuring, 2-dimensional imaging, and LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) were applied in combination. Concerning the spraying of intermetallic compound coatings, a temperature rise occurred when heating by laser was performed simultaneously with the laser-induced combustion synthesis reaction. In relation with the article 'Technology of Multiple Spraying on Curved Substrate,' it was found that the gas cooled method works effectively when spraying an erosion-resistant coating onto a thin Ti alloy made turbine blade. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1991 report on the results of the demonstration test on the methanol conversion at oil-fired power plant. Feasibility study of a new system for the stabilized supply of fuel use methanol; 1991 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken. Nenryo you metanoru kyokyu antei ka no tameno shin system no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    As a part of the project on the demonstration test on the methanol conversion at oil-fired power plant, feasibility study was made of a new system for methanol production by using abundant hydraulic power energy overseas and by combining water electrolysis and coal gasification technology, and the FY 1991 results were summarized. As a result of the survey, the following were selected as water electrolysis facilities: high efficiency/high current density/simplification system and solid polyelectrolyte electrolysis system with a high purity of hydrogen gas. As the coal gasifier, the oxygen blown furnace was selected which has a high carbon utilization factor, is able to gasify coal at high pressure, has no unnecessary N{sub 2}, and is being used in the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power system. As methanol synthesis facilities, the MGC/MHI method super converter was selected. Assuming the output of hydroelectric power generation to be 4,000MW, conceptual design of the optimum system was made. The methanol cost was estimated under the conditions written below: cost of hydroelectric power generation at site: 2-5 yen/kWh, coal unit price at site: 5,000-6,000 yen/t, transportation distance: 5,000-10,000 km. (NEDO)

  4. Current statuses of international cooperation activities, and research and development activities, based on IEA's Implementing Agreement for a Program on Research and Demonstration of Advanced Motor Fuels; EIA jidoshayo senshin nenryo jisshi kyotei ni motozuku kokusai kyoryoku katsudo oyobi kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Described herein are current statuses of international cooperation activities, and R and D activities, based on IEA's Implementing Agreement for a Program on Research and Demonstration of Advanced Motor Fuels. This agreement is aimed at efficient implementation of researches, demonstration tests and information exchanges for advanced motor fuels by promoting international cooperation. It raises future environment-compatible diesel fuels and new fuels for new engines as the major R and D themes, which cover information exchanges for engines/vehicles of heavy- duty vehicles, motor fuel information services, toxicity assessments of bio-diesel fuels, feasibility studies on possibility of dimethyl ether as diesel fuel, surveys on barriers in alternative fuel markets, surveys on biodegradable lubricant oils, and effects of new heavy-duty vehicle techniques on the environments. Some of the results reported in FY 1997 are those for comparison between current motor fuels and dimethyl ether in toxicity, analysis of the failure mode effects of dimethyl ether tank in vehicles, and surveys on barriers in alternative fuel markets. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 Report on technical results. Part 2 of 2. Research and development of supersonic transportation aircraft propulsion systems (Development of methane-fueled aircraft engines); 1998 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2/2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The research and development project is conducted for (1) ramjet systems, (2) high-performance turbojet systems, (3) instrumentation/control systems and (4) total systems, in order to develop methane-fueled supersonic transportation aircraft engines, and the intended targets are achieved. This project has ended with preparation of the overall plans of the target engine. Described herein is the R and D of the combined cycle engine, following the results described in Part 1 of 2. This program includes designs and development of (1) the turbojet engine, and (2) combined cycle engine. The item (1) includes studies on cycles, preparation of the overall plans and studies on the systems, and the item (2) includes the designs, ground and altitudes function tests, and ground noise tests. (NEDO)

  6. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Development of the new field of usage of Orinoco oil for fuel of gas turbine combined power generation; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Gasu tabin fukugo hatsuden nenryo muke Orinoko oil no shin yoto kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    For the purpose of spreading the usage of Orinoco crude oil which is suffering from sluggishness in the export and heightening the economical efficiency in Venezuela, research cooperation was made for a project for reduction of the power cost and environmental loads in Japan by producing the advanced gas turbine use fuel oil from Orinoco oil and exporting it to Japan. In this project, conducted were the technical verification that the gas turbine use fuel oil (GTF) can be produced from Orinoco oil and the economical verification based on the result thereof. As a result of the technical verification, it was confirmed that from the Orinoco crude oil which is heavy, high in sulfur and high in heavy metal concentration, a refined oil satisfying the following properties of the advanced gas turbine fuel oil could be trial-produced using the distilling unit, SDA unit, desulfurizer and de-metaling unit: vanadium concentration: 0.5 wtppm or below; sodium + potassium concentration: 1.0 wtppm or below; viscosity: 20 cSt or below at 135 degrees C. Further, from the economical verification, the good result was obtained that the price was lower than the LNG price and the domestic price of A heavy oil/C heavy oil. (NEDO)

  7. 1998 Annual Study Report. Research and development of solid polymer type fuel cells (Development of techniques for power generation systems and several tens kW class, distributed power source systems); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden system gijutsu no kaihatsu / koden'atsugata su 10kW kyu bunsan dengen system no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The cells are tested using a CO-containing synthetic reforming gas in 1998, to verify the long-term characteristics of the solid polymer type fuel cells. The cells, equipped with the anode catalyst developed therefor, are tested for extended periods, to confirm the performance and stability in the synthetic gas flow. For development of the catalyst, the optimum content of Ru in the Pt and Ru alloy composition is determined. For the cell tests, the single- and 3-cell units are tested for extended periods. For verification of commercial viability of the stacked cell systems, the cell-humidifying techniques are developed, which can uniformly humidify each cell in the stacked unit with a number of cells, after investigating the effects of temporal changes in water permeability, pretreatment conditions and film thickness. These techniques are used to develop and operate a 10kW, stacked cell unit, which successfully generates power of 10.6 kW at the rated current density, exceeding the target of 10 kW. For development of design bases for compact fuel treatment system, the techniques which allow reduction of CO concentration to 10 ppm or less at high repeatability are developed. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium research on energy (Research and development of biofuel production using highly functional bioreactor - 2nd year); 1999 nendo kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Microbes capable of a high biodiesel fuel (BDF) yield from moisture-containing oils assumedly waste oil are investigated. Lipase attributed to Rhizopus oryzae exhibits a high reaction rate of not lower than 90%. The process functions even when microbes are immobilized by BSPs. BDF does not affect driving performance, and black smoke is reduced. A process basic to industrial production is developed by use of a fixed bed reactor. In the production of ethanol from starch thanks to plural kinds of glucoamylase producing yeast, ethanol is produced at a rate of 7-8% under microaerophilic conditions in both proliferation and fermentation periods, which means a success achieved in growing arming yeast equipped with enhanced functions. A 20-liter class bench plant is installed and immobilization by BSPs is tested, when no problem is detected. In a reaction involving these immobilized microbes, a reaction rate near 16% is achieved. In the production of ethanol by yeast immobilized by BSPs, use of a fuzzy control system is studied, and it is found that prolonged stability is available when glucose concentration is sustained at 10-20g/liter. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1976. Comprehensive discussion on hydrogen utilizing subsystems and researches on peripheral technologies (Research on fuel cell systems); 1976 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This paper discusses hydrogen fuel cell systems. In the economic performance of fuel cells, the ratio of fuel cost accounting for in the power generation cost is as very high as 66% or higher to 82%, if hydrogen unit cost is in the range of 20 to 50 yen per Nm{sup 3}. Enhancing the power generation efficiency contributes more greatly to reduction of the power generation cost than by reducing the construction cost. There should be no much influence on the power generation cost if a system lasts four to five years. The paper also discusses the discrete type power generation system. Discussions were given on a waste heat recovering fuel cell system using as the model an office building of 16 stories above the ground, with one basement and a total floor area of 16,000 m{sup 2}. If the system can be constructed in such a way that the fuel cell capacity is made slightly larger than that corresponds to power load, and whole air conditioning load can be taken care only by waste heat by using a heat pump, the auxiliary heat source can be made smaller, and the overall fuel conservation ratio can be larger, thus the fuel was found saved by 40% than in existing systems. In using hydrogen in automobiles, weight problem will emerge if high-pressure hydrogen or metallic hydride is used for hydrogen storage. Liquefied hydrogen is light in weight, but large in volume. Development is desired on high-performance hydrogen absorbing alloys. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the Super/Hypersonic Transport Propulsion System Research and Development Project. 1/2. Development of methane-fueled aeroengine; 1997 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1/2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to develop a ramjet engine for hyper/supersonic transport planes to fly at Mach 2.5-5. A combustion test is conducted and the targeted NOx emission level is attained. It is now expected that the application of heat resistant composite liners to the combustor will lead to a successful cooling structure. In the modification of the design for an increase in engine thrust, a net thrust of 1132N is achieved. In the study of turbojet elements, a success is attained in avoiding resonance at a design point in fan static vane natural oscillation. Concerning the low-pressure turbine, the targeted adiabatic efficiency of 90% is attained at the design point expansion ratio. In the study of a combined intake that exhibits high performance across a range of plane take-off through Mach 5 flight, shock waves are controlled with stability in a wind tunnel test. Targeted levels in noise control are attained in a flight simulation noise test using a fiscal 1997 reduced scale model. The compatibility of metal materials peripheral to a real engine with lubricating oils and their carbonization at high temperatures are evaluated. A lubricating oil is finally selected, and the temperature domain for its use is determined. The experimentally built combined cycle engine is found to be mechanically sound presenting no problem for instance in relation to methane fuel ram ignition performance. (NEDO)

  11. 1998 Annual Study Report. Research and development of solid polymer type fuel cells (Development of techniques for power generation systems and several tens kW class, distributed power source systems); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden system gijutsu no kaihatsu / koden'atsugata su 10kW kyu bunsan dengen system no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The cells are tested using a CO-containing synthetic reforming gas in 1998, to verify the long-term characteristics of the solid polymer type fuel cells. The cells, equipped with the anode catalyst developed therefor, are tested for extended periods, to confirm the performance and stability in the synthetic gas flow. For development of the catalyst, the optimum content of Ru in the Pt and Ru alloy composition is determined. For the cell tests, the single- and 3-cell units are tested for extended periods. For verification of commercial viability of the stacked cell systems, the cell-humidifying techniques are developed, which can uniformly humidify each cell in the stacked unit with a number of cells, after investigating the effects of temporal changes in water permeability, pretreatment conditions and film thickness. These techniques are used to develop and operate a 10kW, stacked cell unit, which successfully generates power of 10.6 kW at the rated current density, exceeding the target of 10 kW. For development of design bases for compact fuel treatment system, the techniques which allow reduction of CO concentration to 10 ppm or less at high repeatability are developed. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Rinsangata nenryo denchi no kasoku jumyo shiken hoho no hyojunka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for fuel cells, which are expected as a new clean energy, the R and D are being proceeded with in various fields of the world, but the standardization has not been made both in Japan and abroad. In Japan, the situation is that the information on technical terms, indication method, performance test method, and environment/safety test methods of the phosphorous acid fuel cell power generation is publicly spread. In relation to the international promotion of fuel cells to be predicted, it is necessary to internationally standardize cells themselves which are a key component of fuel cell power generation facilities. Phosphorous acid fuel cells are expected of the earliest commercialization of all, but the common test method to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack has not been established yet. In the R and D, for the purpose of internationally standardizing test methods to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack, a study on the acceleration life test method of phosphoric acid fuel cells was conducted in terms of the technical trend, data, standard, etc. A plan was prepared on general rules of the method to test acceleration life at the cell reaction part of the small cell, and activities also were started for setting up a technical committee for the fuel cell power system in President`s Advisory Committee on Future Technology. 29 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 1994 report on technological results. Development of fuel cell technology such as urban energy center (Survey for practical development of optical system of decentralized power source for residential use); 1994 nendo toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Minseiyo bunsangata dengen saiteki system jitsuyoka kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Feasibility study was conducted on the technology for practical application of a several kW class fuel cell for the people's livelihood, particularly, for residential use. The study was made in six areas consisting of study on the present state of technology, conceptual design of a small fuel cell, survey on a promising market, basic concept of cell for residential use, feasibility study on application and on introduction. There is no record of development of the several kW class; while the fuel cell excels in the efficiency of energy utilization and the environmental conservation, its performance greatly deteriorates by start and stop under the present technology. Accordingly, it is a prerequisite that the equipment is for an electric heat combined type and for system interconnection. Also, while it is proper that the cell is phosphate type and that the fuel is natural gas, an innovation is necessary in the technology for reforming the cell and the fuel. The conceptual design revealed the possibility of a power generation system having a generating efficiency of 32%, exhaust heat recovery rate of 30%, and dimension of 75x65x150 cm. On the basis of a feasibility study on the application to the combination of a house and a beauty parlor, an advantage was recognized in the fuel unit cost of 5 yen/meal and the equipment cost of 200-250 thousand yen/kW, with demand estimated for 2.5 million installations nationwide including 950 thousand in natural gas supply districts. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1993 R and D project for industrial science and technology. Report on results in developing methane-fueled aircraft engine (R and D on silicon-based polymeric material); 1993 nendo methane nenryo kokukiyo engine kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Keisokei kobunshi zairyo no gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    R and D was conducted on silicon-based polymeric materials for structural use, for the purpose of establishing fundamental technologies such as molecular design, synthesis, material forming and evaluation method concerning silicon-based polymers, with the fiscal 1993 results summarized. In the studies of synthesis technologies of silicon-based polymeric materials having a sea-island structure, a series of polymers with an Si-C main chain structure were prepared by ring-opening polymerization of the cyclic monomers. In the studies of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure forming technologies, polycarbosilanes with superior thermal stability and solvent solubility were synthesized through structural control based on molecular design. In the studies of composite structural materials between organic metallic complex and silicon-based high polymer, the compounding was carried out by introducing or blending organic metallic complex into the main chain of silicon polymer, with evaluation made on the heat resistance. The studies of silicon polymer structural materials having a ring structure were conducted on high heat resistant polymers that were obtained by dehydrocoupling polymerization with magnesia as a catalyst. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 6. Development of fuel cell of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 6. Junsuiso kyokyu kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for research and development Task-6. The objective is to verify performance and reliability, by means of field tests, of a power generation plant using fuel cells of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type with power transmission terminal efficiency of 45% and output of 30 kW. The fuel cells were developed by using the cathode humidification process as a humidification method suitable for operation at high utilization rates. With a three-cell stack made by using this humidification process (having an effective area of 289 cm{sup 2}), verification was made on the current density of 0.2A/cm{sup 2}, the characteristics of 0.75V or higher, and the uniform voltage distribution performance being the immediate targets. In order to mitigate the hydrogen utilization in the fuel cells, discussions were given on the serial flow system that divides the laminated cells into two blocks. Thus, operation was found possible with the utilization rate in each block reduced to about 80% by selecting an adequate division rate even if the hydrogen utilization rate is 96% in the entire stack. Stable operation has been performed in the 5-kW class power generation test using the cathode interior humidifying system. Specifications for 30-kW class power plant, system configuration, safety, and material balance were discussed. The basic design was made on the hydrogen gas humidity adjusting system. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 6. Development of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell supplied with pure hydrogen; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 6. Junsuiso kyokyu kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on development of element technologies for a pure hydrogen fuel cell power system of nearly 45% in efficiency at terminal, and demonstration test result on the 30kW class polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system supplied with pure hydrogen. On cell voltage characteristics in high-utilization operation, study was made on degradation and corrosion caused by short supply of hydrogen by using a single cell. As a result, it was found out that reverse polarization of -3.0V has small effect, however, that of -0.7V causes corrosion and deterioration of cell characteristics in a short time. In operation using actual-size cells for the 30kW class plant, it was effective to wet cells on the air side. On hydrogen high-utilization operation technique, study was made on hydrogen recovery and recycle operation, anode outlet line closed operation, and anode recycle operation. In addition, some studies were made on specifications of auxiliary facilities for fuel cells, safety measures for fuel cells and humidity control of supplied hydrogen gas. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for quick-effect type international standards for creating new industries (Standardization of quality and testing methods of automobile fuels and lubricants); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Jidoshayo nenryo nado no seihin hinshitsu shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is conducted for the method of evaluating the effects of fuel oils on automobile engines (combustion chamber deposit), testing of valve trains of diesel engines, and testing the effects of gasoline engine oil on oil seal rubber (oil seal compatibility), with the objective to propose the international standards. In the study of the combustion chamber deposit, the combustion chamber deposit method is applied to the road running mode, to clarify that this method is well correlated with the market conditions. In the study of wear of the valve train of diesel engines, the two diesel engine oils, now adopted by the European valve train wear testing method, are applied to the JASO testing method, to clarify that the JASO method is internationally applicable. It is concluded that these two methods can contribute to the international standardization. In the study of the oil seal compatibility, the effects of testing period and engine oil type are investigated, to clarify that this method should be further developed to serve as the international standard. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1992 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Development of methane fueled aeroengine); 1992 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    Research and development was carried out for intermetallic compounds and fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials for use as advanced materials at high temperatures. Activities were conducted in the four fields of (1) high specific strength intermetallic compounds, (2) high melting point intermetallic compounds, (3) fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials, and (4) a comprehensive survey. In Field (1), Mo, Nb, and Cr were added to Ti-Al systems and ternary phase diagrams were prepared for them, and isostatic forging was combined with heat treatment for the collection of basic data for achieving an optimum microstructure. Basic technologies were established for the manufacture of sheets by isothermal rolling. In Field (2), Ti, Ta, and W were added to Nb-Al systems and partial ternary phase diagrams were prepared for them. Specimen materials were subjected to a high-temperature compression test, when a specimen containing 10% of W recorded 230MPa at 1,600 degrees C. In Field (3), a silicon carbide based fiber was developed and it demonstrated the excellence of low oxygen fibers with respect to thermal properties after being rendered infusible by electron beam irradiation. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies (Research on fuel cell system); 1975 nendo suiso riyo subsystem no sogoteki kento to shuhen gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    In fiscal 1974, the domestic and overseas developmental states of fuel cell bodies were surveyed, and some problems on the interconnection between a fuel cell system and power system were studied. Since the maximum outputs of conventional fuel cells are only nearly 10kW, however, those from several hundreds kW to several ten thousands kW are required for buildings or commercial power facilities, in the fiscal 1975, some supposed problems derived from such scale- up of fuel cells were extracted to study their solutions. Study was made on 4 kinds of fuel cells such as alkaline electrolyte, acidic electrolyte, molten salt electrolyte and solid electrolyte fuel cells, and fuel modifier for generating hydrogen. As preliminary modeling work for dynamic performance analysis of fuel cell systems, study was made on scale of the model, DC devices and equipment for customers, environmental impact, power supply reliability, various characteristics and problems in load variation including start and stop, and kinds of accidents and their measures. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1998 Report on technical results. Part 1 of 2. Research and development of supersonic transportation aircraft propulsion systems (Development of methane-fueled aircraft engines); 1998 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1/2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The research and development project is conducted for (1) ramjet systems, (2) high-performance turbojet systems, (3) instrumentation/control systems and (4) total systems, in order to develop methane-fueled supersonic transportation aircraft engines. For the item (1), the ram combustor for the target engine is designed to evaluate its performance, and the shock-position within the dummy intake is successfully controlled by the variable exhaust nozzle. For the item (2), the R and D efforts are directed to the fans and low-pressure turbines, the former covering the studies on the single-stage elements for the fans of high flow rate, and the elements for the 2-stage, high-efficiency, high-load fans. For the item (3), the R and D efforts are directed to the electronic control systems and electro-optical measurement systems, the latter including development of the improved optical positioning and rotational sensors operating at high temperature of 350 degrees C. For the item (4), the R and D efforts are directed to intake nozzles as the total system component, noise reduction technology, and cooling and new material application technologies. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on area consortium research and development business, 1st year. Area consortium energy research and development (biofuel production by advanced function bioreactor); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies were made to produce ethanol directly from starch and cellulose and to collect biodiesel fuels from waste oil by an enzymatic method. For an increase in the yield of biodiesel fuel production, lipase enzymes were explored and optimum reaction conditions were sought for. Starch decomposition was quick for conversion into the target material in a system with the co-expression of amylase and glucoamylase present on the yeast cell surface layer. There was dramatically rapid progress in the increase of enzymatic activity in the cell, although dependent on cell membrane surface treatment conditions. In the generation of acetaminophen by recombinant cohesive yeasts, highly active and expressive yeasts were automatically fixed in the porous support (intelligent bioreactor) while those deactivated or dead were automatically removed. For the construction of a fuzzy control system for this reaction, basic models were investigated, built on the basis of the enzymatic model of reaction and substance balance. A high-precision structural analysis was conducted for the exploration of secondary structure stabilizing factors in protein and peptide and for the elucidation of correlations between structure and function. (NEDO)

  2. Survey report on the status of new energy in the U.S. On-site research centering on fuel cell, hydrogen energy, and wind energy (4th World Energy Engineering Congress); Beikoku shin energy jijo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi, suiso furyoku energy wo chushin to suru jicchi chosa (dai 4 kai World Energy Engineering Congress)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-02-01

    A survey group dispatched by the New Energy Industrial Forum technical development committee conduct researches into the status of technologies in the U.S. relative to fuel cells, hydrogen energy, and wind energy. The group also attend the 4th World Energy Engineering Congress. As for the research and development of the phosphoric acid fuel cell, it is undertaken by the United Technology Corporation, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and the Engelhard Corporation, each having its own peculiar technologies and thereby avoiding competition with others in one and the same domain. As for the molten carbonate fuel cell, the Argonne National Laboratory is entrusted with the control of technology development, and the Laboratory in turn requests the United Technology Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation to develop technologies and systems. As for the solid oxide fuel cell, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is entrusted with its development through the intermediary of the Argonne National Laboratory. As for hydrogen energy, the General Electric Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation develop hydrogen production systems and the Brookhaven National Laboratory develops hydrogen storage systems using metallic hydrides. As for wind power generation, a Bendix-made 3,000kW wind power plant is visited and discussion is held on it. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1992 report on the results of the demonstration test on the methanol conversion at oil-fired power plant. Feasibility study of a new system for the stabilized supply of fuel use methanol; 1992 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken. Nenryo you metanoru kyokyu antei ka no tameno shin system no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    An investigational study was made of potentiality of a new system for methanol production by using abundant hydraulic power energy overseas and by combining water electrolysis and coal gasification technology, and the FY 1992 results were summarized. In this fiscal year, survey was made of the potential water power and coal in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil, and case study was also made. As a result of the study, the cost of methanol was 7.1 yen/10{sup 3}kcal in case of Malaysia, 8.6 yen/10{sup 3}kcal in case of Canada and 8.9 yen/10{sup 3}kcal in case of Brazil. It was found out that the cost was economically less advantageous as compared with the present methanol price of 3.0-5.5 yen/10{sup 3}kcal. In a comparison between the existing coal/oil/LNG thermal power generation and this system from viewpoints of the energy balance/CO2 emission amount, the energy balance of this system is worse than those of the above-mentioned power generation when adding the coal thrown, but the CO2 emission amount of the system was less than those of coal/oil thermal power generation. In conclusion, this system seems to be an effective means in the light of the promotion of development of the undeveloped hydraulic power, effective utilization of renewable energy and global environmental preservation. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of polymer electrolyte fuel cell module (Development of 10kW-class transportable power source system of high current density type); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu, kodenryu mitsudogata 10kW kyu kahangata dengen system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the development by the end of fiscal 2000 the above-named system which will operate on methanol/air (normal atmospheric pressure) yielding 0.3W/cm{sup 2} or more, efforts are exerted about a high-lamination type PEFC (polymer electrolyte fuel cell) module and a lamination type methanol reformer, this project carried over from fiscal 1997. In relation with the PEFC module, platinum loading was reduced (by 60% from the amount in fiscal 1997) by catalytic layer improvement, cell characteristics were improved, continuous load imposition was performed using a reformed simulation gas, life test was conducted consisting of frequent starts and stops, lamination was built using shaping separators, and a 2kW-class stack was built and evaluated for performance. Next to come is a test run of a 5kW-class stack. In relation with the lamination type methanol, element components were tested. A reformer section and a catalytic combustion section were designed, manufactured, and tested, and a vaporizer section and a CO reduction section were evaluated for performance and life. A 2kW-rate lamination type methanol reformer was designed and built by integrating the said element components, and was subjected to a test run for performance evaluation. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1995 annual report on research and development of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. Pt. 1. Research and development of methane-fueled engines for aircraft; 1995 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Described herein are the R and D results of FY 1995 for ramjet, high-performance turbojet, control/measurement and total systems. For R and D of the ramjet system, the combined component test is conducted, using a dummy intake which simulates the flow pattern downstream of the intake throat, ram combustor and variable exhaust nozzle. The first free jet test is successfully conducted at a combustor exit temperature of 1900 degrees C. For R and D of the high-performance turbojet components, the experimental researches are conducted on fan components, a combustor, and high-performance, variable, low-pressure turbine. For R and D of the control/measurement system, the system developed is improved by incorporating a dual redundant FADEC. The engine test produces good results. For R and D of the total system, the R and D efforts are made for the intake, nozzle, noise reduction, cooling and application of new materials, and combined cycle engine. (NEDO)

  6. Survey report on the status of new energy in the U.S. On-site research centering on fuel cell, hydrogen energy, and wind energy (Westinghouse Electric Corporation); Beikoku shin energy jijo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi, suiso furyoku energy wo chushin to suru jicchi chosa (Westinghouse Electric Corporation hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-02-01

    Under the auspices of the New Energy Foundation and the New Energy Industrial Forum technical development committee, a survey team is sent to the U.S. and conducts investigations there about fuel cells, hydrogen production, wind power generation, etc. Visited in the U.S. are the Advanced Energy System Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. As for the phosphoric acid fuel cell, research and development is under way so that two 7.5MW demonstration plants will start service operation by 1987. As for the solid oxide fuel cell, a performance test has completed for a 15-cell model, and a life test is now under way. There is a plan to construct a 500kW plant in 1988. In the production of hydrogen by means of the sulfur hybrid decomposition process, a laboratory model with a capacity of 2L/min was built in 1978, and a life test is now under way for the constituent materials and catalysts. In the field of wind power, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a 200kW generator, which is now in operation in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Hawaii. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the Super/Hypersonic Transport Propulsion System Research and Development Project. 2/2. Development of methane-fueled aeroengine; 1997 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2/2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaiahtsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A technology is developed of integrating a turbo system and a ram system into a combined cycle engine. In fiscal 1997, an experimentally built engine is subjected to its first ground test and attains the expected result, and preparations are made in full swing for a high-altitude performance test scheduled for fiscal 1998. No problems relative to design criteria and mount structure load are detected in a total oscillation analysis and fan blade off analysis, this verifying the reasonableness of the design. The heat transfer module as designed is also found equipped with sufficient strength. The engine attains the maximum rotation speed in the ground test, and is found stable in operation. Although the vibration of the shaft and outer shell stays in a domain not suggesting a trouble, yet the vibration of the low-pressure turbine blade is beyond the limits in a certain domain. Tests are repeated after defining a domain where sustained rotation is forbidden. The secondary air system operation is found normal. The newly added MSV (mode selector valve), and the variable system and ram fuel control of FVABI (front-variable area bypass injector: important for switchover from turbo mode to ram mode), are also found normal in operation. The function, ignition, and zoning sequence of the ram combustor are found valid. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1991 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Development of methane fueled aeroengine); 1991 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Research and development was carried out for intermetallic compounds and fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials for use as advanced materials. Activities were conducted in the four fields of (1) high specific strength intermetallic compounds, (2) high melting point intermetallic compounds, (3) fiber reinforced intermetallic compound composite materials, and (4) a comprehensive survey and research. In Field (1), ternary phase diagrams (Mo, Nb) were prepared for Ti-Al-X (X=metal) systems, and studies were made of alloy designs for Ti-Al based high specific strength intermetallic compounds. In Field (2), binary phase diagrams were prepared for Nb-Al systems, and the effect of phase and structure on their basic properties were investigated. A powder manufacturing tester was designed and built, and basic powder manufacturing tests were conducted. In Field (3), studies were made of heat treatment and surface coating technologies, and a silicon carbide based fiber was developed, excellent in oxidation resistance. In Field (4), technical trends were surveyed, and studies were made as to basic technical tasks to discharge for the development of materials for aeroengines. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1999 Results of research and development project for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Development of high current density type 10kW class portable power source systems; 1999 nendo kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kodenryu mitsudogata 10kW kyu kahangata dengen system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1999 results of the research and development project aimed at development of multi-stacked PEFC modules and plate-stack type methanol reformers, and researches on portable power source systems, for development of methanol-air 10kW class (over 0.3W/cm{sup 2}) PEFC systems for portable use by the end of the FY 2000. The programs for the multi-stacked PEFC modules include improvement of tolerance against CO by improvement of catalyst bed and gas passage structures; development of a multi-stacked 5kW class stack structured to prevent fuel starvation; endurance tests conducted at a constant load using a simulated methanol reformate gas; and development, on a trial basis, of the stack using a formed separator. The programs for the plate-stack type methanol reformers include development, on a trial basis, of reforming catalysts integrated with flow passages, combustion catalysts and CO oxidation catalysts, and endurance evaluation tests for the reformer elements. The researches on portable power source systems include studies on, e.g., system control/behavior and efficiency, and basic system designs. The performance and environment endurance tests are also conducted for auxiliary equipment, e.g., blowers. (NEDO)

  10. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (fuel change plan for No. 1 and No. 9 Irkutsk Heat and Power Co-Generation Plants, Irkutsk, Russia); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Roshia renpo Irkuktsk shu dai 1 go oyobi dai 9 go Irkutsk netsu heikyu hatsudensho nenryo tenkan keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A research is conducted to find out if efficiency will increase and greenhouse gas will decrease when fuel is changed from coal to gas at the above-named plants, and the economics of the plan is reviewed. The No. 1 plant comprises 18 coal-fired boilers with a total design capacity of 2985 tons/hour, and 8 steam turbine generators rated at 185MW, constructed in the 1940s. The No. 9 plant was constructed in the 1960s and 1970s. Four different modifications programs are drafted to study the fuel change plan. As the result, it is found that the addition of natural gas burning facilities to the existing heat and power co-generation plants and the modification of the existing boiler-related facilities will be low in earning rate and reliability, though excellent in budget size and cost efficiency; and that to dismantle the existing plants and to newly construct heat and power plants operating on gas turbines will bring about a higher earning rate, fuel cost reduction effect, and reliability, though such will cost more. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. Research on a hydrogen manufacturing technology by using thermo-chemical method. (Research on equipment materials for iodine system cycle); 1980 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle no sochi zairyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes research on materials of equipment for the second stage reaction in relation with development on a hydrogen manufacturing technology by using the iodine system cycle in the thermo-chemical method. The second stage reaction produces MgO, I{sub 2} and O{sub 2} by decomposition of Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} at 600 to 650 degrees C. Corrosion tests were carried out by using 25Cr-20Ni steel and Ni-50Cr alloy having shown relatively high corrosion resistance in the researches to date, which were added with trace amount of different alloy elements. The tests were performed in gas mixture of I{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at 600 to 700 degrees C for 48 to 192 hours. The average corrosion rate of 25Cr-20Ni steel was reduced by adding Y(0.2%), Ca (0.2%) or Si+Al (1%Si+1%Al), by which relatively uniform corrosion pattern was shown, and the corrosion resistance was improved remarkably. The average corrosion rate of 25Cr-20Ni steel showed a trend of increasing by adding Si and Nb, and non-uniform corrosion like pitting has occurred, revealing that it is not preferable from the aspect of corrosion resistance. The average corrosion rates of the tested materials tended to become somewhat greater under heat insulated condition than under continuously heating condition. Effect of Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} deposition is very small. (NEDO)

  12. Report on 1978 results. R and D on coal gasification technology (R and D on manufacture of low calorie gas for electric power generation); 1978 nendo sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden'yo teikarori gas no seizo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-01

    The subject research has been conducted, since fiscal 1974, on the development of a pressurized fluidized-bed low calorie gasification furnace and on the various problems concerning a combined cycle power system, with the aim of establishing a technology for manufacturing fuel gas for power generation from coal and a power generation system linked with the technology. At the end of fiscal 1974, a test equipment was completed in Yubari for the development of gasification process with a coal processing capacity of 5 t/day, operating the gasification furnace for a total of 1,506 hours and gasifying Pacific coal for a total of 185 tons. The gasification reaction conditions were varied within the range of 0.3-1.5 mm coal grain size, 850-1,050 degrees C temperature, and normal to 8 atmospheric pressure, with a continuous test conducted for 48-96 hours, and with basic operation data obtained capable of producing gas having 1,200-1,400 kcal/Nm{sup 3} calories. In addition, through feasibility study, research and investigation were carried out for technologies relating to the practicability of a gasification power generation plant in 30 MW and 500 MW class. Implemented this year were studies for grasping various operating conditions by the 5 t/day gasification equipment, manufacture of a 40 t/day gasification equipment, and foundation work for construction in the Yubari test site. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Tandem type solar cells are developed, in which solar cells with different band gaps are stacked for effectively utilizing optical energy across the entire range of solar spectrum. A material gas supply control device for multiple epitaxial growth was added to a large-area GaAs film epitaxial growth unit, and a film thickness homogeneity of {+-}1% was achieved. A GaInP epitaxial layer fabricated in the same way was also enhanced in homogeneity. A low-carrier concentration layer was inserted into the top cell GaInP p-n junction for the construction of a p-i-n structure, and this improved on the short-circuit current. Furthermore, a p-p-i-n structure was constructed having two emitter layers, and this improved on spectral sensitivity for the achievement of a conversion efficiency of 13.6%. Studies were conducted about the tunnel junction which plays an important role in the stacking of cells, and the tunnel peak current was increased to 7.41A/cm{sup 2}. Fabrication is now under way of a GaInP/GaAs stacked cell, which is expected to exhibit a conversion efficiency of 25% or higher. In the case of a GaInAs cell to serve as the bottom cell, a conversion efficiency of 5.1% was achieved. Consequently, it is safely expected that a 3-junction stack of GaInP/GaAs//GaInAs will exhibit a conversion efficiency of 30% or higher. (NEDO)

  14. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of ultra-high efficiency cultivation system for Hyphomycetes, and application of the system to plant device to manufacture fermentative foods); 1998 nendo itojokin no chokoritsu tairyo baiyo system no kaihatsu to kinosei hakko sho0kuhin seizo plant kiki eno tekiyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project has noticed the membrane surface liquid culture method, and researched and developed the following themes with an objective to commercialize the membrane surface liquid culture system and develop novel fermentative foods using this system. Cultivation of Beni-koji bacteria (solid culture of M. pilosus k) is taken up in the model cultivation system. (1) establishment of the membrane surface liquid culture system and development of devices, (2) elucidation of cultivation characteristics of the membrane surface liquid culture system and optimization of the cultivating conditions, and (3) development of fermentative foods. In Item (1), such problems were solved as automation of bacteria planting, long-term pasteurized cultivation, and assurance of clean cultivation broth. In Item (2), it was discovered most suitable that maltose concentration is about 5%, glutamic acid concentration is about 50 mM, the initial culture medium pH is about six, and the cultivation temperature is 30 degree C. In item (3), as a result of mixing this red coloring matter containing cultivation broth into preparation of Miso (bean paste) and soy sauce, products having high {gamma}-Aminobutyric acid and monacholin k content were developed. In addition, while Beni-koji made by solid cultivation had peculiar taste and odor, this drawback was eliminated by using this coloring matter containing cultivation broth. This has made differentiation from conventional products possible. (NEDO)

  15. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of technologies to manufacture ultra-high efficiency crystalline compound solar cells; 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on laminated cells comprising of GaInP/GaAs//GaInAs using poly-element compound semiconductors. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the technology to manufacture large-area ultra-high efficiency cells, fabrication of 5-cm square GaAs cells was worked on, and a conversion efficiency of 24.7%, which is equivalent or better than that for 1-cm square cell, was achieved by using the epitaxial growth temperature for the GaAs cell structure of 600 degrees C, by adopting the p-on-p structure and by making the electrode thicker by using the plating method. Furthermore, trial fabrication was performed on 5-cm square cells also on GaInAs as the bottom cell. A conversion efficiency of 4.6% was obtained in a 5-cm square cell as a result of high level homogenization of film thickness and composition by optimizing the gas flow in growing GaInAs onto an InP substrate, and using a growth temperature of 550 degrees C. In developing the technology to form GaInP/GaAs laminated cells, discussions were given by using 5-mm square cells on especially improving the GaInP crystallinity and reducing the series resistance in the window layer. GaInP/GaAs-2 bonded lamination cells were fabricated, whereas a conversion efficiency of 19.63% was obtained without using a reflection preventing film. (NEDO)

  16. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for development of an energy use rationalizing technology. Development of a basic technology to design and fabricate an innovative light-weight structure; 1999 nendo kakushinteki keiryo kozo sekkei seizo kiban gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of a basic technology to design and fabricate an innovative light-weight structure. Taking CFRP and aluminum alloy having excellent specific strength as the main object materials, weight reduction and reliability enhancement in aircraft structure are intended, while reducing largely the number of parts. In particular, the wings, the nose and the leading edge construction of civilian aircraft are of the structure assembled with a large number of parts, and are suitable as the research objects. A new conception will be introduced that structural members are fabricated by utilizing the characteristics of integrally formed CFRP, which will be assembled into a whole structure. Large structural metallic members currently used have such drawbacks as the use of great number of parts, complexity in manufacturing processes, low reliability, weight increase and corrosion due to rivet jointing. In order to solve these problems, development will be made on technologies for thin-wall large-size precision casting, and high-accuracy high-quality welding. To combine different kinds of members, and optimize strength, weight and economic performance of the entire structure, high-efficiency integration technologies will be discussed, and prototype full-size structure will be fabricated. The current fiscal year has started up the technology committee and its operation, analyzed technological problems in the entire structure, and established the action programs. An investigation was performed on the technological trends in overseas countries. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on development of 'technology to promote reduction of discharge of dioxins and development of technology to suppress discharge of dioxins in aluminum product manufacturing processes'; 1999 nendo dioxine rui haishutsu sakugen sokushin gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Aluminium seihin seizo kotei ni okeru dioxin rui no haishutsu yokusei seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been performed with an objective to reduce discharge of dioxins in aluminum product manufacturing processes. With regard to the quantity of chlorine used in aluminum molten metal refining process, the refining tests using 100% chlorine gas and the mixed gas (nitrogen gas mixed at 80%) revealed that either gas has approximately the same degassing performance, and the use of the mixed gas can reduce the amount of chlorine used. Dioxin concentrations in the gas discharged from the refining process were measured under the refining condition using less amount of chlorine. As a result, it was verified that, in the case of using 20% chlorine gas plus 80% nitrogen gas, the concentrations of dioxins decrease to about l/6, or 0.6 ng-TEQ/N{sup 3}. The studies on suppressing the discharge of dioxins from the facility to wash chlorine treatment exhaust gas discovered that dioxin concentration in the scrubber circulating solution can be suppressed to 1/10 or less by means of gravity precipitation and separation of the suspended liquid. It was also made clear that pH should preferably be controlled to 10.5 to separate suspended substances from the precipitated solution. (NEDO)

  18. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the glycocluster controlled biological molecule synthesizing under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme [university collaborated type]. Bio-fiber manufacturing technology of glycocluster utilizing type; 1999 nendo glycocluster seigyo seitai bunshi gosei gijutsu seika hokokusho (glycocluster riyogata bio sen'i seizo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of the technology to manufacture glycocluster controlled biological molecules, particularly bio-fibers. It was made clear for the first time that the method for synthesizing glycoside and sugar chain using solid ultra-strong acid can be a new method for polysaccharide synthesis (polycondensation reaction) which is extremely simple and versatile as a result of using the solid ultra-strong acid. It can also be applied to general glycoside synthesis. In glycopeptide synthesis of the regular sequence type using high-functional condensation reaction, such a condensation agent as diphenyl phosphoryl azide was found effective in polymerization reaction without protection of glycopeptide, which has been impossible conventionally, and was found to have high versatility as a method for synthesizing mucin glycoproteins widely distributed naturally. In simplified synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide, notice was given to tyrosine which is not glycosylated in the natural world, even though having hydroxyl groups in side chains as in serine and threonine. A method was established to introduce sugar chains into this hydroxyl group. This method exhibits power also in the synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide of non-natural type. The paper describes also the comprehensive survey. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Production of catalyst and development of the evaluation technology in Kuwait; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kuuweto ni okeru shokubai seizo oyobi hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    For the purpose of strengthening the economic infrastructure of Kuwait and also strengthening the relation between Japan and Kuwait by bringing up the catalyst production industry in Kuwait as one of the key industries, the research cooperation was made with Kuwait Catalyst Co. (KCC). In this research cooperation project, the following were conducted: survey of the catalyst production environment in Kuwait, survey of the actual condition of oil factories in Kuwait and the Middle East, trial production of the catalyst to meet the needs of Kuwait, evaluation of the catalyst suitable for oil factories in Kuwait and the Middle East and evaluation of the application conditions, development of technology for production/evaluation/application of the catalyst to meet the needs of Kuwait, etc. As to the trial catalyst production at KCC, the trial products for heavy oil desulfurization and light oil desulfurization stood comparison with the catalysts produced in Japan. KCC started trial operation in fall 2000, and the commercial production is smoothly continuing. In September 2001, the catalyst for heavy oil desulfurizer of KNPC, user, was delivered. The delivery to other users was also planned to be made. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical process (Research on materials for devices for iodine-based cycles); 1982 nendo netsu kagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle no sochi zairyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    The research involves tests and studies conducted for the evaluation of corrosion resistance of various metallic materials in molten iodine and for the selection of materials to stay usable under iodine-handling conditions. In fiscal 1982, an iodine transportation system is studied, and corrosion tests are conducted for panels of carbon steels, various stainless steels, titanium, niobium, tantalum, etc., of the grade available in the market, under the conditions where the temperature is 113-170 degrees C, I{sub 2} contains 0-10wt% H{sub 2}O, and the gas phase is of N{sub 2}+O{sub 2}. It is made clear as the result that the effect of water present in I{sub 2} is fairly grave while the influence is but a little of the intensity of temperature and the amount of O{sub 2} gas on the corrosion rates of the respective materials, that materials other than niobium and tantalum are not usable as corrosion resistant materials, etc. In a real device, it is recommended that composite materials be used in the form of a liner or the like because both niobium and tantalum are high-cost materials and therefore create economic disadvantages if employed for the construction of pipes, heat exchangers, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report. Improvement project of low-grade coals in Chongqing City, China for CO{sub 2} reduction (Feasibility study on the production business of coal- biomass briquette); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. CO{sub 2} sakugen no tame no Chuka Jinmin Kyowakoku Jukei chokkatsushi no teihin'i sekitanshitsu no kaizen project (Bio briquette seizo jigyo no chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on the effect of introduction of production technology of coal-biomass briquette (Japanese coal improvement technology) in Chongqing City on reduction of greenhouse effect gases and acid rain causative substances, and sustainable economic growth. The study result on the feasibility of this project and reduction of greenhouse effect gases was summarized. In this feasibility study, Japan-China joint field survey, and both proximate and ultimate analyses of obtained raw materials were carried out. Based on the experimental result in the pilot briquette plant in Chongqing City, study was made on the necessary of the 1 Mtons/y class pilot plant in the pilot area including Nantong coal mine in Chongqing City, and the location, investment, production cost and distribution means of the plant. Based on the evaluation result on CO{sub 2} reduction effect, economical efficiency, environment effect and social effect, its urgency and effectiveness as international cooperation project by yen credit were also confirmed. It is extremely important to promote localization of the plant in the future. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 8. Development of hydrogen production technology; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 8. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was carried out to establish a hydrogen production technology in the electrolysis of water using the solid macromolecular electrolyte method expected to be more efficient and less costly than the conventional hydrogen production methods. In the development of large area electrolysis cell lamination, a lamination comprising ten 2,500cm{sup 2} cells was fabricated, and a value exceeding the target energy efficiency of 90% was achieved. In the fabrication of stacks for hydrogen service stations, a lamination of ten cell stacks of 1,000cm{sup 2} was built, which achieved energy efficiency of not less than 90% at the an electrolysis temperature of 100 degrees C. A hydrogen production plant conceptual design was prepared under the conditions of hydrogen generation amount: 10,000Nm{sup 3}/h, electrode area: 10,000cm{sup 2}/cell, current density: 2.5A/cm{sup 2}, operating temperature: 120 degrees C, cell voltage: 1.705V, total number of cells: 976, stack constitution: 122/stack, and the number of stacks: 8. The result of studies placed the plant construction cost at 2.18-billion yen including building and civil engineering costs, and the hydrogen production unit cost at 28.4 yen/Nm{sup 3}. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen production technology using electrolysis; 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Denki bunkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    The electrolysis of water is a hydrogen production technology known since early days. But the efficiency of a commercial electrolytic bath is found at 60-70%, which is too low to prepare for future energy systems. A high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis process is being studied for improving on the efficiency. For the realization of energy efficiency of 90% or higher, the conventional operating conditions of 90 degrees C or lower, 20A/dm{sup 2}, and 1.8-2.0V bath operating voltage will be improved to be higher than 120 degrees C, 20kg/cm{sup 2}, and 40A/dm{sup 2}, and the electrodes will be modified to work down at 1.65V. The tasks to discharge involve the materials (of diaphragms etc.) for constituting electrolytic baths, electrode catalysts, and electrode shapes. Tests are under way using a test plant capable of producing hydrogen at a rate of 4m{sup 3}/hr. In the analysis of water in a solid polymeric electrolyte, a combination of a cation exchange membrane and a catalytic electrode directly junctioned to the membrane operates as a unit cell. Development is under way with a view to realizing a bath operating voltage of 1.65V or lower at 100A/dm{sup 2}. Since this process still wants much basic research and the materials for bath construction for the process are expensive, further development endeavors will have to be exerted. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of semiconductor CVD chamber cleaning systems for electronic device manufacturing using new alternative gas instead of SF6, PFCs, and other gases; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SF6 tou ni daitaisuru gasu wo riyo shita denshi debaisu seizo cleaning system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The efforts aim to develop a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) mechanism cleaning gas with less environmental impact such as global warming and a CVD process using the same. The candidate gas synthesizing study for the development of such a gas continues from the preceding fiscal year. In addition, various candidate gases and tentatively synthesized gases are evaluated for their cleaning performance using a simplified experimental system. As the result, patent applications were filed for three novel alternative gases low in environmental impact and high in cleaning performance. In the research and development of CVD processes, a verification test process is developed for the evaluation of alternative gases at the real system level using a large CVD evaluation system. Studies are also made in which some existing gases are utilized to improve on CVD cleaning efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the process, one domestic patent application is made, and three essays are presented at an international conference on electrochemistry in the United States. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical process (Research on cycles of Fe systems etc.); 1974-1980 nendo suiso energy seika hokokusho. Netsu kagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu (tetsukei cycle nado no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Collected in this report are the results of efforts of the Government Industrial Research Institute, Osaka, in the 7-year period that began in fiscal 1974. The Institute, after looking for basic reactions in thermochemical cycles which are promising, has come to propose a new cycle in which iron and bromine are the reactants. In the research, the Fe-Br reaction is divided into a hydrogen generating loop and an oxygen generating loop, both to be developed into devices. Problems in developing them into a cycle are isolated, and solved. In the hydrogen generating loop, the use of a molten salt is contrived for the prevention of reduction in the reactivity of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to be generated, and now it is expected that the problem will be solved. No problem is detected in the oxygen generating loop. The process is now accepted as a superb one. As for the materials for the Fe-Br-based cycle apparatus, important tasks have to be undertaken since existing materials cannot be used as is. Besides, thermal efficiency etc. are estimated for a new As-Br-based hybrid cycle and the Fe-Br-based cycle. (NEDO)

  7. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system. Green helmet project for briquette production plant - Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo chosa hokokusho. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru green helmet jigyo (Thai koku Mae Moh tanko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This Green Helmet Project is intended to suppress generation of environment polluting substances in association with coal utilization in Thailand by demonstrating and improving the proliferation infrastructure for the clean coal technology to be used widely in Thailand. The project is also intended to serve for stabilized assurance of energies for Japan. The demonstration project related to briquette manufacturing facilities executed as one of the 'Projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system' is intended to manufacture at low cost a briquette which is low in odor, free of smoke, and suppressed largely of sulfur oxide generation. The briquette is made by adding clayish minerals, sulfur, a fixing agent and a binder into brown coal being a low grade coal. The project implements proliferation of the technology to reduce environmental load associated with coal utilization in developing countries according to the situation and needs of the counterpart countries. The present project has performed the site surveys and guidance of operation and maintenance techniques as follow-up works of the demonstration project having been completed by cooperation between Japan and Thailand. It is considered that what had been intended in the beginning has been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies (Research on equipment materials for iodine system cycle); 1979 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle no sochi zairyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    From among researches on hydrogen manufacturing technologies using thermo-chemistry in the Sunshine Project, discussions were given on equipment materials, with the second-stage reaction in the iodine system cycle as the object. This paper describes achievements in fiscal 1979. The reaction produces MgO, I{sub 2} and O{sub 2} from Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Corrosion tests were performed by using test pieces made of Ni alloy, iron-Ni-Cr alloy, Ti alloy, Zr alloy, Nb and Ta. These materials are thought to have excellent corrosion resistance in high temperature gaseous phase composed of iodine, oxygen and water. Corrosion tests were carried out also by using sheet formed test pieces of 24 kinds of alloys and six kinds of commercially available non-ferrous metallic materials in different temperatures and atmospheres, mainly the iodine plus oxygen plus H{sub 2}O mixed gas atmosphere at 600 degrees C. The corrosion resistance of the tested materials can be divided into three ranks. Materials having relatively good resistance were Ni-50Cr alloy and Co group alloy. Materials having good corrosion resistance are very little affected by water content. The higher the temperature, the more the metal corrosivity has increased. Preliminary discussions were given on pipe formability in materials having good corrosion resistance as the equipment piping materials. Their mechanical properties were also tested. This paper also describes corrosion resistance tests under heat transferring condition by using pipe-formed test pieces. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1999 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Phase 2 R and D (Task 8) - development of hydrogen production technology; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 8. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    R and D was conducted with the view of establishing hydrogen production technology based on the solid high polymer electrolyte water electrolysis method, which presumably offers higher efficiency and lower cost than conventional methods. This year, as well as implementing development of large-scale cell lamination (electrode area 2,500 cm{sup 2}, 10 cells) by using two hydrogen production methods (electroless plating method and hot press method), work was started for developing cells (electrode area 1,000 cm{sup 2}) for hydrogen stations. In the research on longterm durability improvement, with a 50 cm{sup 2} membrane electrolyte or cell, the evaluation test results were obtained of stable electrolytic performance showing more than 93% energy efficiency after 400 hour operation, under the conditions with electrolysis pressure 0.4MPa and electrolysis temperature 120 degree C. In a test of 1,000 cm{sup 2} prototype cell for hydrogen stations, the evaluation result was obtained for energy efficiency of 92% under the conditions with electrolysis pressure 0.5MPa and electrolysis temperature 120 degree C; thus, this year's target efficiency of over 90% was achieved. Further, enhancement of the quality was contrived for example by improving the electroless plating method and remodeling a roll press machine. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1999 achievement report on the project on the R and D of university-cooperation industrial science technology. Semiconductor device production process by Cat-CVD method (Development of the technology to rationalize energy utilization); 1999 nendo Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the results obtained by FY 1999 of the semiconductor device production using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. As to the application to Ga-As integrated circuits, a guide was acquired for the accumulation speed over 40nm/min. The 5% thickness distribution of inner film of 4-inch wafer, refractive index distribution of 1% or less, and 2D electron gas concentration change of 1.5% could be realized. The experimental device for commercialization was designed and manufactured. Concerning the application to ferroelectric integrated circuits, the accumulation temperature condition was refined as 200 degrees C or less, which resulted in succeeding in forming Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} film at low temperature of 120 degrees C (accumulation speed: 20nm/min.) Relating to the application to Si integrated circuits, a machine to cope with 8 inches was developed. The 6-inch film thickness distribution of 5% and the refractive index distribution of 1% were realized. In regard to the leak current, extreme-thin film was superior to thermal oxidation film. About the application to the formation of high-quality thermal insulation thin films for low temperature polycrystal Si thin film transistor use, poly-Si films with a Hall effect mobility of approximately 10cm{sup 2}/Vs which is relatively high could be formed. In addition, the design/manufacture of Cat-CVD device with a large area were made. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1999 achievement report on the project on the R and D of university-cooperation industrial science technology. Semiconductor device production process by Cat-CVD method (Semiconductor device production process by Cat-CVD method); 1999 nendo Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the results obtained by FY 1999 of the semiconductor device production using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. As to the thermal fluid simulation modeling in the thermal insulation thin film formation process, elucidated were the decomposition rate (40%) of SiH{sub 4} gas on catalyst body and the gas use efficiency (60% in two collisions with catalyst body). The range where the gas flow has effects was made clear. In researches on the substrate temperature control and catalyst body structure, thermal radiation effects from catalyst body were evaluated, which led to a success in high-speed deposition of high-quality a-Si. Concerning the optical monitor technology in film deposition, the identification of decomposition species (Si, etc.) and temperature of decomposition species could be made clear. Effects of pollutant removal were also monitored. Relating to the basic technology for thermal insulation thin film formation, conditions for Si nitride film formation were made clear, and stoichiometric composition films of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were acquired at low temperature of 300 degrees C. Also acquired were high etching resistant/high wetting resistant films. As to the ultra-high purity thin film formation, it was successful to find out the metal pollution resource and remove it. In regard to the Cat-CVD application on to metal oxide ferroelectric substances, low temperature Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films could be formed at deposition speed of 20nm/min. by making the temperature condition (200 degrees C or less) clear and controlling the substrate temperature. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system (development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (surveys and researches on analyzing practical application )). Volume 1; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is intended to identify and analyze quickly and accurately the technological trends inside and outside the country on thin film solar cells, to reflect the results effectively on research and development of practical application of the thin film solar cells for power use, and to aid the research on practical application of the technology to manufacture the thin film solar cells. This fiscal year introduced the new project of researching and developing the poly-crystal silicon-based thin film solar cells. Discussions were given on designing the solar cells, including setting of thickness of an active layer required to improve efficiency of the silicon-based thin film solar cells, the light confining technology, and surface passivation. Comparisons and discussions were given on the new amorphous/poly-crystal silicon thin film manufacturing method and the conventional plasma CVD process. A research development program was introduced for a super laboratory to aid establishing the practical application technology for the silicon-based thin film solar cells. Chalcopyrite compounds including CuInSe2, and CdTe have not shown deterioration even in a long-term outdoor exposure test, hence they are noted as materials for high-efficiency solar cells and studied actively. Although still small in area, the net conversion efficiency was found in the order of 17%. Technological development has started to search mass production processes and commercialization possibility in the future. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report for 1st phase (fiscal 1974-80) Sunshine Program research and development - Hydrogen energy. Research on hydrogen production technology using thermochemical method (Research on iodine-based cycle etc.); 1974-1980 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Yosokei cycle nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Iodine-alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca) cycles are discovered, and the one with Mg is found excellent. The reaction consists of four stages, that is, Stage (1) where 1/5Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}+MgI{sub 2}(aq) is obtained from 6/5MgO+6/5I{sub 2}, Stage (2) where 1/5MgO+1/5I{sub 2}+1/2O{sub 2} is obtained from 1/5Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Stage (3) where MgO+2HI is obtained from MgI{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O, and Stage (4) where H{sub 2}+I{sub 2} is obtained from 2HI. Since there is much iodine and water at Stage (1), MgO thrice MgI{sub 2} in mol is added for reforming and concentration. At Stage (4), where the decomposition rate is as low as 17-27% with the equilibrium dissociation reaction proceeding at 300-700 degrees C, hydrogen is selectively separated by permeation through a porous diaphragm for the acceleration of the reaction. As for materials for the device, they are narrowed down to high-priced ones, that is, Ta and Nb for Stage (1), Ni-50Cr for Stage (2), and Mo etc. for Stages (3) and (4). Under the circumstances, a study is started for the development of a chemical vapor plating process which is high in corrosion resistance. Other cycles such as sulfur-based cycles and hybrid cycles are also investigated. (NEDO)

  14. Reports on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on high calorie gas manufacturing technology (molten salt/lime slurry bath gasification method); 1977 nendo kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyuen sekkai slurry yo gas ka hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    The following results were obtained by fundamental studies on molten salt/lime slurry bath gasification method. A comparison between a gasification process in a literature and the subject process shows the characteristics as follows. It is necessary to withdraw a high temperature molten salt slurry from under pressurization to atmospheric pressure and to separate only the ash content from other components; however, a large burden of this operation is a problem. In addition, CaO reacts with a part of the ash, making complete recovery of CaO difficult. From these two reasons, the subject gasification process has disadvantage, compared with the fluidized-bed process, against coal that contains much ash content. The gasification process, however, has the following advantage. It can reduce oxygen usage. It is unaffected by the grain size and caking of coal. The reaction rate of CaO in carbonation is several times greater in molten salt than in a fluidized bed. The heat of reaction of CaO for carbonation is an exothermic reaction and can supply several tens of percentages of the heat of reaction in coal gasification. The desulfurization effect of CaO is great. Molten salt has a catalytic effect, making particularly the reaction rate of methanization several times greater. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1983 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen production technology using electrolysis (Research on electrolysis of water using alkali type solid polymer electrolyte); 1983 nendo denki bunkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Arukarigata kotai kobunshi denkaishitsu suidenkai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    The report covers the outcome of the research conducted for the establishment of basic techniques for the electrolysis of water using the alkali type solid polymer electrolyte. This fiscal year, following the previous fiscal year, anode materials fit for the electrolysis of water by the AZEC method are investigated, and a medium-size cell, high-temperature cell, and test unit are built. As the result, it becomes clear that the Raney Nickel electrode is relatively active as anode as well as cathode and that it is excellent in durability. The Raney Nickel electrode, with its activity further improved by modification using rhodium and rhenium, is durable, and exhibits the lowest overvoltage. As for the medium-size cell, a cell structure excellent in outgassing while maintaining electrode flatness is sought for, and it is found that it is capable of electrolytic performance similar to that of a small-size cell. As for the high-temperature cell, studies are conducted about the impact of temperature and pressure on the bath voltage. The pressure control system experimentally built in this research is found to be excellent in transient response too. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1993 report on the results of the technology development for the commercialization of the photovoltaic power system. Development of the solar cell use compound semiconductor production system - development of flight use testing machine; 1993 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo kagobutsu handotai seizo sochi kaihatsu (hikoyo shikenki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For a new breakthrough of the technology of the photovoltaic power generation, the paper aims at developing a combined heating furnace, a focal heating furnace and a single heating furnace which are necessary to produce crystals of the substrate of compound semiconductors for high quality solar cell under the microgravity environment obtained in the space, and also the systems related to the functions indispensable to the operation of the above-mentioned furnaces. This report is Vol. 2/3, and described the mission operation in Chapter 7, repair of PFM battery in Chapter 8, mechanical system ground support equipment and maintenance/inspection in Chapter 9, and electrical system ground support equipment and maintenance/repair in Chapter 10. In Chapter 7, described were the arrangement of operation of electrical furnace, operation manual of electrical furnace, procedures for operation, database, training, rehearsal plan, etc. In Chapter 8, of the battery repair plan, the paper carried out the repair design/repair work of battery, and described the state where a test to accept the test specifications is possible. In Chapter 9, indicated were the documents for application and reference of the maintenance/inspection of MGSE. In Chapter 10, the paper reported on the repairs for adaptation for the maintenance and lunching work of EGSE. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business fostering regional consortium in its 2nd year--Creation of key industries (Development of manufacturing system for multiple applications of biological resources); 1998 nendo yuyo seibutsu shigen no tamokuteki riyo no tame no kako seizo system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development is conducted to collect intermediate products from Okinawan herbs for the production of antioxidant products usable for various purposes. Substance-producing plants are screened and the substances they offer are assessed for antioxidant activity, extracted, processed, prepared for market, and checked for safety. At the Okinawa Industrial Technology Center, a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)/microplate method has been established, which promptly measures the antioxidant activity of the substances. Using this technology, the divisions concerned of industrial, academic, and governmental organizations cooperate with each other over the optimization of herb cultivation technology, development of a herbal ingredient analyzing technology, efficacy of herbs, development of a safety assessment system, development of a technology for the effective extraction, processing, and preparation of herbal ingredients, and the development of a technology of assessing antioxidant intermediate products for their efficacy. As the result, a technology is established of producing intermediate antioxidant products from Guava, Ryukyuyomogi, and Ukonisomatsu. They are unique Okinawan products, and sell at 40,000-50,000 yen. Since the prices are equal to or lower than the prices of other antioxidant intermediate products, probabilities are very high that they will get into markets in Japan proper. (NEDO)

  18. Industrial science and technology research and development project of university cooperative type in fiscal 2000. Report on achievements in semiconductor device manufacturing processes using Cat-CVD method (Development of technology to rationalize energy usage); 2000 nendo daigaku renkeigata sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu project. Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process seika hokokusho (energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) method is a low-temperature thin film depositing technology that can achieve improvement in quality of semiconductor thin films and can perform inexpensive film deposition in a large area. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 in the demonstrative research and development theme of the present project, centering on the following five areas: 1) discussions on application of the Cat-CVD method to the mass production process for gallium arsenide integrated circuits, 2) studies on the possibility to apply the Cat-CVD method to the process to fabricate nitrided silicon protective film for ferroelectric memory devices, 3) formation of nitrided silicon films for silicon integrated circuits by means of the Cat-CVD method, and development of a chamber cleaning technology, 4) fabrication of high-mobility poly-crystalline silicon thin film transistors formed by using the Cat-CVD method and large particle size poly-crystalline silicon films by using the catalytic chemical sputtering process, and 5) discussions on properties of amorphous silicon thin film transistors formed by using the Cat-CVD method and formation of large area films by using a catalyst integrated shower head. (NEDO)

  19. FY 2000 Immediate-effect type project for research and development for international standards supporting information technology industries. Standardization of the methods of electronic trading of the integrated systems from the designing to production; 2000 nendo joho sangyo shien sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekkei kara seizo made no ikkan system no denshiteki torihiki hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at standardization of, e.g., terminology for preparation of the dictionary of the measuring instruments manufactured by the Japan Electric Measuring Instruments Manufacturers' Association (JEMIMA) members, as the first step for realizing the e-Business of the related industry. The FY 2000 efforts are directed to the standardization of terms, classification, description of properties and basic semantic units (BSUs) for making the measuring instruments dictionary including flow meters, thermometers, level meters, meters, wattmeters, indicators, transducers, recorders, temperature transmitters, special instruments for steel making, and so on. Document type definition (DTD) is also standardized for flow meters, thermometers and level meters for information exchange by XML. The applications are also developed for electronic catalog creation support system, electronic catalog registration and revision support system, instrumentation selection support system, and instrumentation retrieval and viewing support system. They are installed in the clients' server systems, to implement the performance tests. Creation/registration and use of the electronic catalogs on the Internet are demonstrated for flow meter, thermometers and level meters. (NEDO)

  20. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on technical development to recycle waste building materials and glasses. Development of waste building material recycling technology (Research and development of wooden board manufacturing technology using demolished building lumbers); 2000 nendo kenchiku glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenhciku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu (kenchiku kaitai mokuzai wo mochiita mokushitsu board seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a wooden board manufacturing technology re-utilizing demolished building lumbers and waste plastics with an intention of saving resources and reducing wastes. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the technology to re-use demolished building lumbers, a method for removing metals attached to demolished building lumbers was established by using a magnetic separator and a metal detector, with which it was verified that iron can be removed nearly 100%. With regard to waste plastics, simultaneous use of specific gravity separation utilizing centrifugal force and electrostatic separation provided a prospect that metals and plastics of high melting points can be removed from mixed resins in waste household electric appliances, and that polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and ABS can be classified at high accuracy. In manufacturing waste wood and waste plastic boards, pilot plants were built to use the 'melt spray method', 'melt blow method', and 'laminating method' as the means to spray molten resin onto wood raw materials, wherein trials were performed on mixing molten resins with wood flakes, and on board forming. (NEDO)

  1. FY 1993 report on the results of the subsidy project for the Sunshine Project. Development of coal use hydrogen production technology (Support study of pilot plant - Trial development of materials of plant use equipment); 1993 nendo Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu (Plant yo kiki zairyo no shisaku kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As to the development of coal use hydrogen production technology, the paper made the test study on the improvement of gasifier use materials and evaluation of the characteristics, the evaluation test in the environment using the actual machine, etc., and the FY 1993 results were reported. The results of the study were as follows. Concerning the shaped refractory for gasifier hearth, it was found that high chromia base and picrochromite base refractory development materials had much more excellent coal slag resistance than other existing component-system materials. It was shown that the development materials began to deteriorate under the coal gasification environment at temperatures of about 1,500 degrees C or higher. As to the mullite ceramics, a possibility was shown of improving the slag permeation resistance by making the crystal grain coarse by long-time sintering. By the survey of the state of damage of the proposed materials (refractory and iridium) used in the operational environment of the pilot plant, the outlook for use limit was made clear. In the environment test using the actual machine on the proposed metal base alloy of the typical equipment of the pilot plant, the correspondence between the operational environment and material corrosion was made clear. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1996 Report on the results of development of photovoltaic power generation system commercialization technologies. Development of device for producing compound semiconductors for photovoltaic cells (Development of flying tester); 1996 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyo denchiyo kagobutsu handotai seizo sochi kaihatsu - hikoyo shikenki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The compound semiconductor production process is tested under a microgravity by the space experiment/observation free flier (SFU), to reduce the photovoltaic power generation cost. Described herein are the FY 1996 results. The device is confirmed to work as planned by the full-scale test conducted in FY 1995, when it stood on the orbit and was recovered by the space shuttle STS-72 January, 1996. The recovered SFU-carried devices, including the electrical furnace and related subsystems, were found to normally function, and it was concluded that they could be evaluated and analyzed after the flight. The comprehensive evaluation and analysis of their electrical, mechanical, thermal functions have confirmed that they functioned and showed performance as planned, demonstrating validity of the designs and production procedures. The test samples were taken out of the recovered combined furnace, focus furnace and single-heat furnace for the space environment utilization tests. The other samples had much more uniform compositional distributions than those produced on the ground. (NEDO)

  3. Load leveling of the Tohoku Electric Power Co. Development of ice storage cold-water manufacturing unit/solid organic waste treatment equipment using midnight power for cold district; Tohoku Denryoku no fuka heijunka. Kori chikunetsu reisui seizo unit no kaihatsu, shin`ya denryoku riyo kanreichi muke kokei yuki haikibutsu shori sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An ice storage cold-water manufacturing unit that can manufacture cold water at a stable temperature near 0degC by using midnight power and a solid organic waste treatment facility were developed. The high-speed melting of ice is required to stabilize the cold-water temperature. Therefore, experimental investigation was performed. A piece of flake-shaped ice whose surface area and storage quality are balanced was used. A system that melts ice using the melting tank installed outside an icebox, and a high-speed melting system of ice based on the mixing unit installed in a melting tank were also used together. In the validation test of a prototype for smaller food factories, the following was confirmed. Manufacturing of cold water at about 1degC, amount of cooled water, stability of output water temperature for a change in water temperature, and good storage of ice in an icebox. In the prototype developed for a solid organic waste treatment facility, satisfactory performance was confirmed for following. Temperature in a fermenter when wastes were put, moisture content in a fermenter, pH value, net loss when the refuse of fish is put, and saving of an electricity rate. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Core industry creation type. Development of technology for manufacturing large-size, optionally shapable, totally oxide type continuous fiber ceramic composite; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. All oxide ogata nin'i keijo renzoku sen'i kyoka ceramics no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This research and development endeavor is based on Tokyo University's technical seeds and aims to put on the market Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based CFCC (continuous fiber ceramic composite) materials. They do not break down and are shapable into large or complicate forms as required, which features are not to be expected from a single ceramic material, and are usable in a high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. High purity alumina fiber and alumina-silica fiber containing 70% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were selected, and woven. The resultant cloth was baked at a low temperature for burning away organic impurities. The cloth was then immersed in a zirconia sol containing 30wt% of the stock solution, and was allowed to dry at 105 degrees C. An alumina slurry was prepared containing a dispersant and a binder, and was applied to the zirconia-soaked cloth until it was as thick as desired. The cloth was kept at 800 degrees C for 1 hour for degreasing, and was baked at a low temperature where no heat caused degradation of the ceramic fiber would occur. Specimens stand long use when the temperature is 1,300 degrees or lower for high purity fiber and approximately 1,150 degrees or lower for alumina-silica fiber. They withstand 30-100MPa, dependent on the manufacturing conditions and the kind of fiber used. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. R and D of hydrogen production technology by the high-temperature/high-pressure water electrolysis method (outline); 1974 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-30

    As the R and D of hydrogen production technology by the high-temperature/high pressure water electrolysis method, this paper outlined (1) the concept design and the investigational research on the constant load type high-temperature/high-pressure (multi-pole type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank (in charge of Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd.); (2) the concept design and the investigational research on the load variation type high-temperature/high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis equipment (in charge of Showa Denko K.K. and Hitachi Zosen Corp.); (3) the investigational research on the role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources and the evaluation (in charge of Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc.). In (1), the concept design of a small test plant was made, and the detailed design and test plan on the material test equipment were drew up. In (2), Showa Denko K.K. is running the water electrolysis plant. As a result of studying the electric power unit and operational conditions of hydrogen production, it was concluded that high-temperature/high-pressure operation should be tried for making the water electrolysis tank highly efficient. Hitachi Zosen Corp. made the study of the multi-pole type pressurized filter system high-pressure water electrolysis equipment which was developed for submarine and the design of the bubble behavior observing tank and material test tank for the concept design of load variation type test plant. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology; 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop a GaInP/GaAs-based compound semiconductor solar cell built on an Si substrate, the Si substrate being lower in cost, higher in mechanical strength, lighter in weight, and higher in heat conductivity than a GaAs or Ge substrate. Fiscal 1999 studies involved improvement on GaAs/Si heteroepitaxial growth and the evaluation of crystallinity in thus grown layers, improvement on cell characteristics, fabrication and evaluation of an n{sup +}/p structure cell, and so forth. As for crystal growing technologies, a 980 degree C 5-heat-cycle annealing method was applied, and the density of dislocation was reduced to 5 times 10{sup 6}cm{sup -2}. In the fabrication of cells, an n{sup +}/p structure cell was studied, and the cell achieved 12.5mAcm{sup -2} in short-circuit photoelectric current over 9mAcm{sup -2} of the conventional p{sup +}/n structure GaInP cell. Without any special effort to optimize the structure, a GaInP/GaAs layer-built cell on a GaAs substrate achieved 23.7% in conversion efficiency. When it is taken into consideration that conversion efficiency on an Si substrate is approximately 80% of what is achieved on a GaAs substrate, it is deemed that the achievement of 23.7% suggests that near 20% in conversion efficiency may become available on an Si substrate. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization-entrusted projects - Sunshine Program. Development of photovoltaic power system practical application technologies (Research on the practical application of low-cost monosilane production technologies); 1984 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost monosilane seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Low-cost monosilane production technologies are studied for film formation on amorphous solar cells. In fiscal 1984, the monosilane generation system modified in the preceding fiscal year is subjected to an extended operation for stability test for improvement on the process. The purity of monosilane produced during the stability test operation is found to satisfy the target level, and this means that the system operates at high efficiency. As for electrolysis, important problems arise with detriment to the practical application of this method. Though a solution is found for each of the problems, yet the problem of how to prove their effect remains to be solved. As for technologies for monosilane purity evaluation, a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) proving furnace is built, and research is started as to how to perform purity estimation using the characteristics of silicon layers epitaxially grown on high-resistance silicon substrates. The monosilane is examined, and it is found that its has a spreading resistance of 1,000 ohm-cm against the 2,000 ohm-cm of monosilane available on the market. Since the characteristics determined in this way are greatly affected by the conditions set for CVD, it is necessary to make further efforts to enhance optimization. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report. Improvement project of low-grade coals in Chongqing City, China for CO{sub 2} reduction (Feasibility study on the production business of coal- biomass briquette); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. CO{sub 2} sakugen no tame no Chuka Jinmin Kyowakoku Jukei chokkatsushi no teihin'i sekitanshitsu no kaizen project (Bio briquette seizo jigyo no chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on the effect of introduction of production technology of coal-biomass briquette (Japanese coal improvement technology) in Chongqing City on reduction of greenhouse effect gases and acid rain causative substances, and sustainable economic growth. The study result on the feasibility of this project and reduction of greenhouse effect gases was summarized. In this feasibility study, Japan-China joint field survey, and both proximate and ultimate analyses of obtained raw materials were carried out. Based on the experimental result in the pilot briquette plant in Chongqing City, study was made on the necessary of the 1 Mtons/y class pilot plant in the pilot area including Nantong coal mine in Chongqing City, and the location, investment, production cost and distribution means of the plant. Based on the evaluation result on CO{sub 2} reduction effect, economical efficiency, environment effect and social effect, its urgency and effectiveness as international cooperation project by yen credit were also confirmed. It is extremely important to promote localization of the plant in the future. (NEDO)

  9. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Project of research and development of regional consortium (Development of energy saving type manufacturing process of smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function utilizing microwave-hydrothermal process); 1999 nendo micro ha - suinetsuho wo riyoshita denjiyha kyushu kino wo yusuru smart zairyo no sho energy gata seizo process no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present research is aimed at developing an energy saving manufacturing process of a smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function in conventionally undeveloped bands as high as 30 MHz to 60 GHz. The process is composed of design, synthesis and forming of hybrid electromagnetic wave absorbing materials in which such magnetically permeable substance and conductive substance as ferrite is covered on fabrics having large dielectric loss through controlling the particle diameters and membrane thickness by using the microwave-hydrothermal process. The following researches have been performed: (1) development of smart material design and hybrid process technology, (2) evaluation on the electromagnetic wave absorbing function, (3) development of a manufacturing process for a smart forming material, and (4) development of a process for processing fabric material surface utilizing ocean resources. In Item (1), electromagnetic wave shielding function of 30 dB or higher was found provided in 200 MHz to 2 GHz bands. Calcium silicate and ferrite were manufactured by using the microwave-hydrothermal process, and calcium silicate was formed with energy being saved by using the hydrothermal curing process. In Item (2), TR17301A made by the Advanced Corporation was used to structure a system to evaluate the field in the vicinity of electric field and magnetic field. In Item (3), a ferrite forming material manufacturing process was developed. In Item (4), an attempt was carried out on forming ferrite by using reactions of nickel salt and iron salt. (NEDO)

  10. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (improvement of conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells after degradation); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi no shoki rekkago koritsu kojo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on technological development for qualitative improvement of a-Si solar cells after initial degradation in fiscal 1994. On the fabrication technology of light-stable a-Si films, the film formation method possible to control combined hydrogen by repetitive formation/treatment was developed. The obtained high-quality light-stable a-Si film was featured by low defect density in a wide optical band gap range, and defect density of nearly 3 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup -3} after light irradiation. The light degradation rate of the cell where the a-Si film was applied to i layer was relatively stable by 10% or less. The a-Si/a-Si double-layer tandem cell fabricated by this technology produced a high conversion efficiency of 10.5%. By applying {mu}c-Si material to photoactive layer as narrow band gap material, the cell with optical sensitivity even in long wavelength ranges more than 1000nm was obtained. The a-Si/{mu}c-Si double-layer tandem cell produced an initial efficiency of 8.0% and an efficiency after degradation of 7.5%. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Takessho cell module tei cost ka yoso gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of elementary technologies for mass production, fast surface machining, fast electrode forming and fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were studied. Surface machining by rotating grindstone was studied as fast cutting of fine grooves on Si substrates, resulting in possible fast machining superior in shape accuracy. Electrode properties equivalent or superior to previous ones were obtained by fast electrode forming using a fast printing/sintering equipment even at transfer speed 7.5 times as high as that of conventional methods. Simultaneous fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were achieved by heat treatment after deposition on Si substrate surfaces while heat-decomposing Ti and P compound gas. (2) On development of module structure, an optimum cell group angle, low reflection rate at glass surface, and fast wiring were studied. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business raising type regional consortium - small business creating base type (Control of gene expression by ligands for nuclear receptors and its application to medicine manufacture - 2nd year); 1998 nendo kakunai juyotai ligand ni yoru iden joho hatsugen no seigyo to iyaku seizo process eno oyo seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Studies are made about ascochlorin and its derivatives which are expected to be effective in the treatment and prevention of lifestyle diseases such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, etc. The current goal is to definitely prove at the cell culture stage that ascochlorin and its derivatives act as ligands for nuclear receptors. As the result of the effort to prove their activation of nuclear receptors, it is clarified that they activate not only PPARr, which is the initial target of the research, but also PPARa, PXR, and ER. A computer simulation of interaction between ascochlorin derivatives and PPARr is conducted, and now it is predicted that the helix 10 cubic structure is transformed so that co-activators may connect to the structure. It is also found that AS-6 inhibits almost completely the appearance of type II diabetes in the db/db mouse lacking leptin receptors and type I diabetes in the NOD (non-obese diabetes) mouse. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 4 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen production technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 4 suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a WE-NET subtask, a study has been conducted of the solid polyelectrolyte water electrolysis method by which higher efficiency and lower cost hydrogen production is expected than in the conventional hydrogen production method. Production methods of electrode, electrolyte, etc. were studied. In the electroless plating method, the manufacturing process of membrane-electrode assemblies was realized in a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} by the porous-surfaced method by studying manufacturing conditions for slurry membrane/membrane assembly/electroless plating processes. In the hot-press method, the refining degree and dispersibility of iridium dioxide powder were studied to improve characteristics of anode catalyst. A method was developed to form polyelectrolyte coatings homogeneously on the surface of electrode layer catalytic powder, and a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} was realized. Beside the performance test using large single cells, FS was conducted to discuss optimum operating conditions and optimum structures of plants. Both methods indicated the performance exceeding the energy conversion efficiency of 90%, a WE-NET target, at current density of 1A/cm{sup 2} and electrolysis temperature of 80degC. A key was found to a bench-scale development (electrode area of 2500 cm{sup 2}, about 5 layers) to be planned in fiscal 1998. 136 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business fostering regional consortium--Creation of key industries (Research and development of next-generation die manufacturing process); 1998 nendo jisedai kanagata seizo process ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Utilizing element technologies provided by Iwate University, Tohoku University, and Iwate Industrial Research Institute concerning the manufacture of dies, studies are conducted about designing techniques, ultrahigh-precision machining technology, anti-corrosion technology, molding releasing lubricants, dies, and the systematization of the process of manufacturing press-formed plastic compacts. In the development of technology of simulating coagulation in a molding die, a comparison is made between the result of a software-aided analysis and experimentally manufactured compacts in terms of tendency toward deformation, and a technique for reducing the amount of deformation is proposed. In the high-precision truing of grinding stones, the tip radius of the wheel can be 20{mu}m, and this suggests possible commercialization. In relation to direct cutting by an end mill, an experiment is conducted by means of CAD (computer-aided design)/CAM (computer-aided manufacture)-aided manufacture, and a comparison is made between 2.5-dimensional CAD/CAM and 3-dimensional CAD/CAM. It is then found that they are both effective. In the research and development of anti-corrosion technology for dies, it is made clear that the corrosion of real discharge-aided cutting-wire machine tools results from a trace of sulphate ions present in the working fluid. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1999 research report on long-term energy technology strategy. Basic research on industrial technology strategy (Individual technology strategy). Machine industry technology field (Semiconductor equipment); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijutsu senryaku) kikai sangyo gijutsu bun'ya (handotai seizo sochi bun'ya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 basic research result on industrial technology strategy of a semiconductor equipment field, viewing until 5-10 years after. For the future semiconductor industry, the favorable cycling of creation of new demands through performance improvement, and further technology innovation through market expansion is essential absolutely. Since technology development is followed by investment, not only the performance of each equipment but also the higher productivity and cost balance of the whole factory are essential. Self-intelligent function and networking are thus necessary for the equipment. As measures for environment preservation and energy saving, such innovative technologies are required as recycling, reuse, reaction process improvement and alternative technology. Because of diverse final products and a short life time of products, a large-scale collective investment is becoming difficult. A mini-line sequential investment production system according to demand scales is under investigation. Some issues such as micro-technology, realization of 300mm wafer, modularization, CIM, reliability and standardization are also described. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1999 report on the results of a feasibility study on a system for producing useful chemical substances by utilizing CO2-containing natural gas fields. II; 1999 nendo CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper studied the solar energy use methanol synthesis using CO2 as raw material in the natural gas field with which a large quantity of CO2 is associated. This is a report on the FY 1999 survey. It was found that comparatively many natural gas fields containing CO2 exist also in Asia/Oceania regions. It was also found that when considering the climate and the transportation to Japan, Australia has more advantages in terms of the effective desert area, etc. and is the best site for solar system construction. Various solar concentrating/collecting methods now under development are roughly viewed to extract characteristics and developmental conditions. As to the reforming reaction furnace, it is necessary not only to absorb the world technology, but to develop Japan's original one. The conceptual design and assessment of the system were conducted. About the associated CO2, a limit of the concentration for use was estimated at 25%. In the study of elements of system structure, examined was the thermally combined simulation of heat flow and chemical reaction in the solar heat reaction furnace, and simple models were calculated and subjects were extracted. In a comparison with the conventional methanol synthesis method, this system was found to be excellent in conservation of fossil fuel resources and reduction in CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1999 results of the regional consortium R and D project/the regional consortium energy R and D. 1st year. Development of the energy-saving type production technology of high-purity/transparent silica glass; 1999 nendo kojundo tomei sekiei glass no sho energy gata seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the remarkable energy conservation, high accuracy and low cost in the production of high-purity/transparent silica glass, the developmental research was conducted on slip casting method. In the development of technology to synthesize silica powder by the sol-gel method, monodisperse - polydisperse high-purity colloidal silica was obtained. In the development of technology to make silica power ultra-highly pure, a process was found out in which silica particles can be obtained by applying moderate amounts of ammonium bicarbonate and aqueous ammonia to the solution of silicic acid for heating. In the slip cast forming, a high-density forming body with a mean particle size of 1.5{mu}m was obtained. In the trial manufacture of reflector model, a translucent silica glass sintered body was obtained by transcribing the gypsum type dimensional shape in high purity. Besides, experimental researches were conducted on the examination of gypsum type/resin type and evaluation of physical properties, heat deterioration characteristics of the actual multi-layer film and trial manufacture of the heat resistant film, analysis/evaluation of trace impurities inside silica glass, conditions for the manufacture of dense silica glass sheets, etc. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey and research on practical application - Volume 1); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsauden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A 'Sub-committee for investigation of crystalline compound semiconductor solar cells' was established with the participation of experts from the industrial, bureaucratic, and academic circles to support the manufacture of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cells, and a survey was conducted about technical trends relating to III-V group compound solar cells. In the study of the trends and tasks of the state of the art technology, it is stated that the III-V group compound semiconductor multi-junction solar cell was steadily improving in efficiency, that the InGaP/GaAs 2-junction cell on a Ge substrate and InGaP/GaAs/Ge 3-junction cell in particular were moving toward mass production, and that the target for the 4-junction cell to achieve was 40% or higher in efficiency. For cost reduction, investigations were made into the heteroepitaxial technology, dimensional enlargement, mass production, raw material cost reduction, feasibility of the polycrystalline thin-film technology, light concentration, etc. For efficiency improvement, boundary layer control, structure designs, etc., were studied. Investigations were also conducted into nitride semiconductors, superlattice construction, etc., which related to new materials for thin films. TPV (thermophotovoltaic) power, etc., were reviewed for their practical application. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1993 report on the results of the subsidy project for the Sunshine Project. Development of coal use hydrogen production technology (Support study of pilot plant - Study using the small equipment); 1993 nendo Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu (Kogata souchi ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As to the development of coal use hydrogen production technology, the paper studied the reactivity of char and ignition characteristics of various coals in the use of electric furnace and the participation in pilot plant test and the improvement, and the FY 1993 results were reported. In the study of reactivity of char, it was found that the reactivity was the same, regardless of the equipment and kind of raw coal, if considered of the ratio of the total oxygen amount (the char-containing oxygen amount added to the oxygen supply amount) to the carbon supply amount in char. In the test on ignition characteristics of overseas coals, the same characteristics as those of the Taiheiyo coal conventionally tested were obtained and it was found that it was good to use the same method for start-up of gasifier as conventionally used. In the pilot plant test in the previous year, slag and ash stuck to the outlet of the gasification part and heat recovery part and developed, which hindered the continued operation. To improve it, the following were carried out: model study, study of ash sintering, study using the synthetic test equipment, analysis of the deposit in gasifier, etc. Based on these results, the plant was improved, and the continued operation of 1,149 hours was stably achieved in RUN8. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2001 report on the results of the survey of the formation promotion subsidy project on the environmentally friendly type energy community. Survey of the commercialization of high efficiency power generation using fuel of waste such as waste construction materials; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy komyuniti keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. Kensetsu haizai tou haikibutsu nenryo ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden no jigyosei chosa chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper studied a system for power generation and heat utilization using wood chips such as waste construction materials, used paper inappropriate for recycling and plastic refuse from neighboring local governments as fuel and assessed a potentiality of the commercialization. As to the system, the following were conducted: selection of the optimum combustor in the waste power generation, survey of the state of corrosion of boiler tube in the steam conditions and waste properties, selection of the optimum quality of boiler materials, etc. In the assessment of a potentiality of the commercialization, the commercialization was studied as in-house power generation/heat utilization business with a power generation scale of 9,950kW and a steam supply scale of 31.5t/h. As a result of the study, the energy conservation effect was found to be expected as follows: reduction of 33,000kL/y crude oil equivalent and reduction of 16,000t-CO2/y emission. As a result of studying the economical efficiency of business, the unit price of wood chip purchase and the unit price of waste plastic treatment which are required to recover the difference of the initial investment within 5 years were greatly different from the level as an aim. For the realization as business, a subsidy of 15% and more cost reduction were requested. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy field. Final year report. R and D on the bio-fuel production by high functional bio-reactor; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (saishu nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A system was developed for producing automobile fuel from the recycled paper and waste cooking oil using high functional intelligent yeast. Element technology is the functional yeast creation technology and the online intelligent control technology of the process into which the fixed bio-reactor was inserted. Studies were made on the following: 1) creation of high activity lipase production/ethanol production yeasts; 2) bio-fuel production by intelligent bio-reactor; 3) process optimization control technology by fuzzy control; 4) stabilization of bio-fuel production yeast; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, the results were obtained as written below: development of the stable lipase coming from rhizopus japonicus, fixed bacterium using rhizopus oryzae fungus body which can be used more than ten times, direct ethanol fermentation from starch by developing the multi-copy glucoamylase manifestation yeast, operation of a 20L capacity bench plant, etc. (NEDO)

  3. FY 2001 report on the survey of the formation promotion subsidy project on the environmentally friendly type energy community. Potential survey of the introduction of a processing/power generation system using ASR in the South region of Tochigi Prefecture; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy komyuniti keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. Tochigi ken nanbu chiiki ni okeru ASR (Shuredda dust) wo nenryo to shita shori hatsuden system no donyu kanosei chosa chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the consistent processing of waste automobile in Tochigi Prefecture and the neighboring area, survey/study were made of the thermal recycle using shredder dust, ASR (automobile shredder residue), as fuel as well as the material recycle. As to the amount of material recycle of waste automobile, the amount of potential recycle of iron, copper, plastic, etc. was estimated, and it was found out that the potential recycle of parts such as engine was 40-45%, that of iron scrap 35-40%, and that of ASR 20-25%. The amount of fuel (ASR amount) to be thrown into the gasification power generation system was set up at 150t. As the gasification power generation system, the pyrolysis gasifier and shaft kiln gasification melting furnace were selected. In the study of economical efficiency of the gasification power generation system, the following were considered: ASR processing price, plant cost, subsidy, running cost, char receiving price, power selling price, etc., but even in the case of the pyrolysis gasifier with highest valuation, both payback years and IRR did not reach the target. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of silicon-based polymeric materials (development of liquid methane fueled aircraft engine); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo / Shin energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Keisokei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This R and D aims at establishing the basic technology on the molecular design, synthesis, use as materials, and evaluation of silicon-based polymers, of which excellent electronic/optical functions, high heat-resistance/combustion-resistance/dynamic characteristic are expected. The paper introduced the results of the fiscal 1997 R and D of them. The themes are as follows: technology of synthesis of silicon-based polymeric materials with sea-island microstructures, interstitial type structure forming technology, composite materials with organometallic complexes and silicon-based polymers, silicon-based polymer structural materials with ring structures, optimization of the Wurtz`s synthesis method of silicon-based polymers, unsaturated and hypercoordinate organosilicic compounds, function of silicon-based polymers, synthesis and polymerization of new silicon-based monomers, development of a new synthesis method of polysilane and the function, development of new application of silicon-based polymers in imaging devices for recording/memory/display of information, molecular design of {pi}-conjugate and {sigma}-conjugate compounds including silicon, and conformation and electronic state of silicon-based polymeric materials. 186 refs., 141 figs., 68 tabs.

  5. Report on the results of the FY 1999 R and D of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Development of the power system technology (Development of high voltage several 10 kW class dispersed generation system); 1999 nendo kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden system gijutsu no kaihatsu (koden'atsugata suju kW kyu bunsan dengen system no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the results of the FY 1999 development of polymer electrolyte fuel cell and several 10 kW class dispersed generation system. The humidification of the cell body is the internal humidification method in which water is directly supplied to cell, which makes the cell life long. The cooling using latent heat of vaporization of the water supplied makes the temperature distribution inside the cell face homogeneous. In the test for long life, the system was stably operated at voltage lowering speed of 11mV/1000h. The optimization of water supply structure in the stack increases the latent heat cooling amount and makes the temperature distribution inside the cell face homogeneous. The reduction of CO concentration in reformed gas is extremely important for improvement of cell performance and long-term stabilization of cell voltage. By the two-stage structure selective oxidation device, the CO concentration at inlet, 5,000 ppm, can be reduced to below 10 ppm at outlet. In the demonstrative experiment on the several 10 kW class dispersed generation system, efforts for reduction in size of structural equipment and package were made, and a possible size of 200*150*180cm was obtained. Based on the chart of 30kW class system flow, the heat material balance was analyzed, and the power generation efficiency of 40% at a.c. sending end and overall efficiency of 80% were confirmed. (NEDO)

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of transportation use and residential/commercial use high efficiency energy system technology. R and D of polymer electrolyte cells (Research on ion exchange membranes for commercialization of highly durable cells); 2000 nendo unyu minsei you kokoritsu energy system gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (Kotaikyusei denchi jitsuyoka no tame no ion kokanmaku ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to ion exchange membranes for fuel cells, the R and D were made with the aim of clarifying the characteristics of the membrane required to realize highly durable modules and of demonstrating durability of membrane, and the FY 2000 results were reported. Concerning the low ion exchange capacity thin membrane, the following were confirmed: in perfluorosulfonic acid with ion exchange capacity of 0.84-1.0, the lower the ion exchange capacity is, the greater characteristics of mechanical strength are improved; the optimization of membrane thickness makes the design which satisfies cell characteristics and mechanical strength characteristics possible. In the durability test by medium-/long-term continued operation using each of small unit cell and large unit cell, the results of the stable operation of 5,000 hours using S1102 and S1201Q membranes were obtained. About effects of methanol, changes were observed in creep characteristics and piercing strength in the test on the environmental cycle at -40 degrees C to 80 degrees C. The membrane of low ion exchange capacity kept high elastic modulus even after the treatment at 120 degrees C, which indicated its usability for the higher temperature operation. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Power generation No.14). Achievement report on joint research for utilizing Russia's now-unused high-viscosity crude oil as fuel for power generation; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.14). Russia miriyo konensei gen'yu no denryoku nenryo riyo kyodo kenkyu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Russkoye high-viscosity oil field is located in the western part of Siberia, Russia. Joint research is under way to develop a technology for reducing the viscosity for the collection of crude oil through the utilization of a gas condensate discharged by a neighboring gas field. This report comprises eight chapters, namely, (1) the background, purpose, and contents of the research, (2) Russia's oil resources and oil industry, (3) high-viscosity oil fields in Russia, (4) analysis of Russkoye crude oil and gas condensates yielded in Russia, (5) methods for viscosity reduction, (6) evaluation of combustibility, (7) scenario for developing the Russkoye oil field, and (8) research results as summarized and future tasks. Studied in chapter (5) are approaches to viscosity reduction, methods for emulsification, and a method for viscosity reduction by use of a gas condensate. These are tested and the results after analysis clearly show that the Russkoye crude oil, when blended with a gas condensate, will turn transportable and will provide a fuel equivalent to fuel oil C. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use unused hydrocarbon resource, technology of solid electrolyte fuel cells for high-efficient electric vehicles); 1993 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kokoritsu denki jidosha no kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) solid electrolyte fuel cell (SOFC) technology for high-efficient electric vehicles. In 1), bio-remediation is a choice as the result of trially using technologies for remediation of the environment polluted by pollutant, but it is not a technically completed one, but one which will be improved by trial and error. By the application of gene engineering, the use of gene recombination enables wide spread of decomposition genes. In 2), technical subjects were studied such as superheavy distillate, oil shale, coalhead methane and methane hydrate. In 3), designed were cylinder type and planar type SOFC of 850degC operation and 10kW output. Accumulation and weight of a total SOFC system are 81 liters and 100 kg in cylinder type and 136 liters and 200 kg in planar type. The vehicle can be equipped with the SOFC. 171 refs., 72 figs., 54 tabs.

  9. FY 1993 research and development of the technology for controlling structures of functional composite members. R and D of advanced surface processing for methane-fueled aircraft engine members (Technology for controlling the microscopic structures of superhigh-temperature members); 1993 nendo fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu). Chokoon buzai micro kozo seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1993 research and development project, implemented for development of the technologies for modification of material surfaces and interfaces, with the objectives to develop the optimum members for methane-fueled aircraft engines. For R and D of multi-layered films with controlled microscopic structures, the tests are conducted for forming thin-film layers by, e.g., ion implantation, ion mixing and implantation of large quantities of ions as the surface controlling/modification techniques based on, e.g., ionic techniques. The tests are conducted for, e.g., chemical vapor-phase reaction evaporation and low-pressure plasma spraying as the technologies for forming multi-functional films of, e.g., high reliability and resistance to corrosion. For development of the technologies for controlling/compositing the microscopic structures, the tests are conducted for, e.g., selection of the matrix materials, and prevention/removal of defects by the chemical vapor-phase reaction penetration treatment effected for extended periods. For development of the technologies for evaluation of the characteristics under superhigh-temperature environments, the tests are conducted to investigate the mechanical characteristics of isotropically uniform metallic materials under multi-dimensional stresses and evaluation thereof, and mechanical and thermal characteristics of carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon composites and evaluation thereof. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1999 Report on results of development of high-efficiency energy system technologies for transportation and domestic use. R and D of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, power system technologies, and several kW class domestic power systems operating at normal pressure; 1999 nendo un'yu minseiyo kokoritsu energy system gijutsu kaihatsu, kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu, hatsuden system gijutsu kaihatsu, joatsu sadogata su kW kyu kateiyo dengen system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1999 results of the research and development project aimed at development of fuel cell systems for power source systems suitable for domestic use. The programs for development of fuel cell body include improvement of the anode forming method for increasing its CO tolerance, enhancing cell performance at 0.5mg-metal/cm{sup 2} as the catalyst quantity to a level almost comparable to that obtainable at 0.9mg-metal/cm{sup 2}. The programs for development of the fuel supply system include studies on endurance of the elements, e.g., starting-up/shutting-down of the Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, using a microreactor, confirming that it is serviceable for at least 1,000 hours. The natural gas reformer is developed and operated, on a trial basis, achieving stable supply of steam and fuel, and thermal efficiency of 82.7%. The operation researches include development and operation of a 1kW class module, achieving the performance surpassing the FY 1999 targets (average cell voltage: 0.70V, output: 1.27kW) with a simulated reformate gas at an air utilization rate of 20% and current density of 0.3A/cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the research cooperation for the commercialization of the regional adaptation type photovoltaic power generation system, etc. Research cooperation for the commercialization of the methane fermentation gas fuel cell power generation system; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Chiiki tekigogata taiyoko hatsuden system to no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (Metan hakko gas nenryo denchi hatsuden system no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research cooperation for the commercialization of methane fermentation gas fuel cell power generation system was made in a stock farm in Guangzhou city, China, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the project, the methane fermentation gas is recovered from animal faces, and a power generation system by fuel cell using the gas as fuel is constructed, and at the same time the waste is made compost and used as manure. In this fiscal year, the starting ceremony was made at the stock farm in Guangzhou city in June, and the main body of fuel cells was carried in and assembled. The trial operation of the system was successfully made in March 2001. At the same time, survey of the waste water from the farm and methane fermentation was made with accuracy. Survey was further made of the actual state of the recent energy supply/demand and the present situation of renewable energy as measures taken for non-electrification areas and environmental problems. As a result, the importance of further cooperation with the China side was emphasized in terms of the securing of animals/faces, optimum methane fermentation/recovery from animal faces, optimization of electric power of the area and environmental response, etc. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Research and survey of peripheral element technologies (Research on practical application of set solar cell); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (shisshiki taiyo denchi jitsuyoka kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Possibility of practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (Graezel cells) is discussed. Fine titania particle preparation conditions and titania thin-film electrodes were optimized and an energy conversion efficiency of 7.7% was accomplished. The screen printing method was applied to the manufacture of dye-sensitized electrodes, and performance governing factors were grasped. The use of the screen printing method resulted in a conversion efficiency of 6-8.4% when the factors were optimized. Though lower than the 10% in the Graezel report, values near that were obtained. The status of latest research and development is compiled involving studies about electron transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells, manufacture of sensitizing dyes and mesoscopic metal oxide thin-film, electron transfer layers and their physical properties, and solidification of hole transfer layers. Research was conducted aiming at their practical application, and tasks and problems in each of the said items were point out. A logical approach to achieve high conversion efficiency was deliberated, and studies were made about how to propel forward endeavors involving design guidelines for high-performance sensitizing dyes, design and preparation guidelines for thin film for electrodes, analysis of stability, solidification of the redox electrolyte, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium research and development of energy in its 2nd year (Development of energy conservation assisting measurement control technology for electronic equipment manufacturing process--Designing and tentative construction of IMI); 1999 nendo denshi kikirui seizo process no sho energy shien keisoku seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. IMI no sekkei to shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the research and development of IMI (intelligent micro instrument) substrate devices, a designing method is established and, using the method, device manufacturing technologies are tested and evaluated and the results are reflected on the experimental construction of a sensor and an IC probe. In the research and development of a sensor and a sensing system, efforts are focused on a chlorine gas sensor, and a prototype No. 1 is designed and fabricated. In a test conducted in the presence of gas of 0-10ppm concentration, the prototype transmits signals that indicate excellent linearity and responsiveness. In the research and development of a probe for measuring electronic devices, efforts are made to put to practical use an IC (integrated circuit) probe of 40{mu}m pitch times 400 arrays, and specifications to develop for the probe are defined. A tentatively built cantilever structure shows values that justify its practical application. In the research and development of an IMI electronic circuit, a prototype No. 1 of a system for processing and transmitting sensor signals by radio is manufactured, which operates on the carrier frequency of 2.4GHz and sampling frequency of 4kHz. The prototype performs to achieve the goal. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of environmental adaptation of next-generation solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - jisedai taiyo denchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys are conducted of photovoltaic power system development projects and their utilization in Japan and overseas, and a discussion is made on the progress, technical challenges, effects, and implementation systems relating to the solar cell application technology development project under the New Sunshine Program. Compiled in the report are the results of surveys of the research and development of photovoltaic power systems and their diffusion in the U.S. and European nations, and the research and development strategies for and the trends of the development of various types of solar cells in these countries. The trends of research and development of non-conventional type solar cells are also collected, which include 3 cases of TPV (thermophotovoltaic) devices, 5 cases of new inorganic materials, 1 case of new organic materials, and 4 cases of dye-sensitized solar cells. In relation to the status of resources of crystalline compound-based solar cell materials, raw materials for solar cells other than silicon are taken up, and their reserves, manufacturing methods, quantities yielded and consumed, costs, etc., are surveyed. These are all taken into consideration in discussing the basic approach to the study of future research and development as it ought to be. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1994 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Development of the coal utilization hydrogen production technology. Ninth year - Part 2. Study using a pilot plant (Design/construction/operation study of the pilot plant and the dismantling study); 1994 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo Dai 9 nenji bun seika hokokusho - 2. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu (Pilot plant no sekkei kensetsu unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In the R and D of the high temperature coal gasification technology by the entrained bed system which is the core technology of the coal utilization hydrogen production technology, the paper carried out the dismantling study of pilot plant and the summarization of the results. About the summarization of the results, as the results of the HYCOL operation study, there were insufficiencies in expansion of the coal kind used and acquisition of scale-up data, but it was verified that the conceptual design of the HYCOL method was fully applicable to the higher gasification efficiency, higher reliability, adaptability to many kinds of coal and compactness of facilities (low construction cost) which were the final subjects for the realization of commercial plant. This was highly evaluated. Especially, the greatest characteristic of the HYCOL method is the freedom in selection of temperature difference between the upper stage and lower stage, that is, temperatures can be controlled to temperatures they want in each of the upper stage and lower stage in the one-chamber gasifier according to coal properties and slagging control. The verification of this freedom was the base of the total results. Moreover, a reputation was being made that the gasification efficiency and process reliability are at the world's highest level. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of fast-acting innovative energy-environment technology (Development of fast-acting high-efficiency solar cell technology - Development of high-quality ingot manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko itaku kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (Sokkogata kokoritsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu - Kohinshitsu ingot seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted of a technology for manufacturing an ultrathin polycrystalline silicon solar cell capable of efficiency enhancement and cost reduction earlier than the types of polycrystalline solar cells now available on the market. In this fiscal year, a silicon melt/solidification experimenting apparatus was built for manufacturing high-quality silicon ingots. Using an apparatus with its performance similar to the newly built one, a preliminary experiment was conducted involving high-purity silicon ingot manufacturing. In the experiment, boron was added to 75 kg of silicon for semiconductor devices so that its resistivity may be 0.5 ohm-cm. The silicon was melted in a quartz mold, and then subjected to unidirectional coagulation at 0.13 mm/min that started at the bottom to proceed upward. The result was a silicon ingot 44 cm times 44 cm times 17 cm (height). The ingot thus obtained exhibited 0.4-0.8 ohm-cm in resistivity distribution. Solar cells produced from the ingot showed a conversion rate of 16.9%. (NEDO)

  17. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Surveys of environmentally-friendliness enhancement for next-generation solar cell development); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa, Jisedai taiyodenchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Though the trends of solar cell development are becoming increasingly diverse across the world, yet none has emerged to promise a stable solar cell supply in the future. Under the circumstances, studies were conducted to clarify strategies for solar cell technology development which would be well adapted to Japan's social environments, with the trends of development in the United States and European countries taken into consideration. The surveys covered the research and development and diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the United States and European countries, and their solar cell research and development strategies and trends of development were put together. Surveys were also conducted into the research and development of unconventional types of solar cells, such as the dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, conjugate polymer solar cell, and the polymer/C{sub 60} based solar cell, and into the status of resources of materials for solar cells such as gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium, indium, selenium, and germanium. Regarding the future of photovoltaic power generation research and development, it was concluded that commercialization technology development and basic research and development should continue. Also pointed out was the importance of the enlargement of the market for photovoltaic power generation systems. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy field. Second year report. Development of the energy saving manufacturing process of smart materials having electromagnetic wave absorbing function using the microwave-hydrothermal method; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki contortium energy bun'ya. Micro ha - suinetsuho wo riyoshita denjiha kyushu kino wo yusuru smart zairyo no sho energy gata seizo process no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of electromagnetic wave absorbing materials (board) which dispersed carbon fiber as conducting material and ferrite as magnetic material to matrices such as resin and cement. With the multi-layer structure as a basis, the material has wave absorbing ability in the area of 300MHz-60GHz band. The material is presumed to be applied to wall construction use materials and bodies of electronic equipment since it prevents the radio wave reflection caused by structures such as bridges. Ferrite was synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method (500kPa, 2.54GHz). Further, carbon fiber was covered with ferrite for improvement of absorption characteristics. Studies were made in the following 5 fields: 1) design of smart materials and development of hybrid process technology; 2) study on the evaluation of wave absorbing function; 3) R and D of the manufacturing process of smart forming materials; 4) development of the fiber surface processing process using ocean resource; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In 1), study was conducted on relations among electromagnetic shielding characteristics of the ferrite-covering carbon fiber, fiber length and fiber content. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of novel voltaic cell structure solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present state and trend are surveyed of organic ferroelectric thin films, new carbon materials, fullerene compounds, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power. In the study of organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells, the effort still remains at the basic stage, with the conversion rate as low as 3% in Europe and 2% in Japan. The progress of basic studies, however, is worth attention. It is deemed that 15% is the photoconversion rate to be currently expected from new carbon material solar cells. Fullerene compounds include some semiconductors whose bandgap values may be controlled across a 0.75-1.95eV range, and they may find their place in thin-film solar cells. However, their physical properties are not fully known, and their development into devices such as solar cells is scarcely reported. The research and development of TPV in the U.S. is led by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), with their efforts concentrated on the development of portable power sources utilizing combustion heat. In Europe, TPV application to small-scale residential cogeneration systems is under study. (NEDO)

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of immediately effective and innovative energy environment technology. Part 1. Development of immediately effective and high-efficiency solar cells, and development of technology to slice and manufacture thin-type large-area polycrystalline substrates; 1999 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sokkogata kokoritsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu (usugata daimenseki takessho kiban slice seizo gijutsu kaihatsu 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective of decreasing silicon usage quantity for the purpose of reducing the solar cell production cost, development is being performed on an ingot cutting technology to cut a silicon ingot to Kerf loss of 150 {mu} m and thickness of 150 {mu} m, and in which the produced wafers can withstand the cell making. Investigations revealed that a wire saw is suitable as the cutting system, and the wire used must have a diameter of less than 120 {mu} m, and a strength of more than 3850 N/mm{sup 2}. A prototype wire was fabricated, whose diameter is 120 {mu} m, and in which the strength is distributed between 3870 and 4110 N/mm{sup 2}. It was found possible that a wire of 160 {mu} m can be used to slice an ingot having a cross section surface of 150 mm square and a length of 300 mm into a slice having a Kerf loss of 200 {mu} m and a thickness of 180 {mu} m. This wafer had the in-plane distribution of the substrate thickness at {+-} 12.5 {mu}, swell of 120 {mu} at maximum, and surface roughness of 5 {mu}. Making ten of these wafers into a cell resulted in a yield of 60%. Assignments are the clarification of the properties of the cutting wire, the preparation of a thin wire with homogeneous quality, and the establishment of a technology to cut Kerf loss of 150 {mu} and substrate thickness of 150 {mu}. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Final year report. Development of the measuring control technology supporting energy conservation in the manufacturing process of electronics (Design and trial manufacture of IMI); 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Denshi kikirui seizo process no sho energy shien keisoku seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu - IMI no sekkei to shisaku (saishu nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As measures taken for energy conservation in the manufacturing plant of electronic devices/equipment such as IC, the development was proceeded with a chlorine gas radio sensing system and a liquid crystal driver IC probe, according to the survey results that it is possible to control energy consumption in air conditioning by completely furnishing poisonous gas monitor in clean room and conserve energy related to the manufacture of IC and LSI tester by using Si for IC probe cards. The following four were carried out: 1) development/trial manufacture of chlorine sensing system; 2) development/trial manufacture of LCD (liquid crystal driver) IC probe; 3) support of trial manufacture of key element technology; 4) comprehensive investigational study of IMI (Intelligent Micro-Instrument). In FY 2000, study was focused on 1) and 2). In 1), a planar type micro-structure sensor was developed, and the trial-manufactured system brought favorable results in sensitivity, response speed and reproductivity. (NEDO)

  2. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Surveys of environmentally-friendliness enhancement for next-generation solar cell development); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa, Jisedai taiyodenchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Though the trends of solar cell development are becoming increasingly diverse across the world, yet none has emerged to promise a stable solar cell supply in the future. Under the circumstances, studies were conducted to clarify strategies for solar cell technology development which would be well adapted to Japan's social environments, with the trends of development in the United States and European countries taken into consideration. The surveys covered the research and development and diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the United States and European countries, and their solar cell research and development strategies and trends of development were put together. Surveys were also conducted into the research and development of unconventional types of solar cells, such as the dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, conjugate polymer solar cell, and the polymer/C{sub 60} based solar cell, and into the status of resources of materials for solar cells such as gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium, indium, selenium, and germanium. Regarding the future of photovoltaic power generation research and development, it was concluded that commercialization technology development and basic research and development should continue. Also pointed out was the importance of the enlargement of the market for photovoltaic power generation systems. (NEDO)

  3. Research and development project of regional consortiums in fiscal 1998. Research and development of regional consortium energy (development of measuring technology to aid energy conservation in electronic device manufacturing processes (design and trial production of IMI) (Report on the result in the first year)); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Denshi kikirui seizo process no sho energy shien keisoku seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu (IMI no sekkei to shisaku) (dai 1 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes the development of intelligent micro instruments (IMI) inaugurated in fiscal 1998 as the wide-area consortium project for the Tama area. Research and development will be carried out on the following items: IMI substrate elements utilizing micro machining technology, applicable to micro sensors and micro probes, semiconductor process sensors, electronic device measuring probes, signal processing and communication circuits for wireless sensing. This paper describes the achievements during fiscal 1998. Technologies were transferred from the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on silicon micro machining and PZT piezoelectric thin film formation. An IMI research laboratory was installed at the Tokyo Metropolitan University. In developing the IMI substrate elements, different beams applicable to sensors and probes were fabricated on a trial basis, and their mechanical properties were measured. For the semiconductor process sensors, discussions were given on micronization on a chlorine ion analyzer. In developing the electronic device measuring probes, the target was placed on measurement of in-situ characteristics of IC chips on a wafer. A prototype transmitting and receiving circuit board was fabricated for developing the wireless sensing. (NEDO)

  4. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  5. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Feasibility study of wet-type solar cell commercialization); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - Shissiki taiyo denchi jitsuyoka kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell commercialization was studied for feasibility. Studies were made about photoelectric conversion efficiency and various factors supposedly to affect the life and other properties, and a wet-type (dye-sensitized type) solar cell was fabricated. In an endurance test, the dye-sensitized solar cell retained its initial performance after 3,500 hours of continuous irradiation. A 16 cm{sup 2}-large integrated type Graetzel cell was fabricated, and it achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.6%. Furthermore, in the study of Graetzel cells, possibility of the creation of new electrolytic solutions was discussed, a non-TiO{sub 2} dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated based on the self-assembled electrodeposition of the ZnO dye, and the feasibility was deliberated of a dye-sensitized solar sell using a composite oxide semiconductor. Concerning their development in the future, it was concluded that dye-sensitized solar cells including the Graetzel cell were equipped with the basic characteristics of a next-generation solar cell that would be requested to be low in cost and high in performance. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1998 joint R and D project on industrial science and technology with university. Research report on the production process of semiconductor devices by Cat-CVD (Development of practical technology for rational use of energy); 1998 nendo daigaku renkei sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu project. Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process seika hokokusho (energy shiyo gorika kankei gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Cat-CVD method is in verification test to establish it as production process of various semiconductor devices such as Ga-As IC, ferroelectric IC, Si IC, and TFT. This paper outlines the research results in fiscal 1998. Study was made on concept design of the Cat-CVD equipment for formation of Ga-As protective film, and basic technology for formation of SiN{sub x} film. Although reducing gas is used for deposition of SiN{sub x} film, anxious modification of oxide ferroelectric materials was avoided by substrate temperature control. Design and fabrication of the CVD equipment for Si ICs were also studied. The equipment was made of Al to control degassing as low as possible. As for production of TFT for LCD, formation technology of high-quality insulating thin film for low-temperature poly-Si TFT by CVD method, and formation of advanced insulating thin film and advanced poly- Si thin film were studied. A large-size deposition method of TFT insulating film, and low-temperature formation technology of poly-Si were also studied. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology (research on a pressurized and fluidized gasification system for coal and heavy oil mixed materials); Sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan oyobi jushitsuyu kongo genryo no kaatsu ryudo gas ka hoshiki no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in developing a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology for coal gasification in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Pulverized coal and heavy oil are heated and stirred to make it a slurry, which is forced into a fluidized bed gasification furnace together with spraying steam, and pyrolyzed by using a unique slurry feeding system (a hydrohoist). Carbon-like material as a by-product (char) is partially oxidized (burned) by steam and oxygen at the lower part of the gasification furnace. The material is gasified in the furnace, where the generated heat is sent to the pyrolysis zone in the upper part by the gas and fluidized bed media particles (char), and utilized as a heat source for the slurry pyrolysis. The produced gas is cooled by an indirect heat exchanger of the fluidized bed system and a scrubber to separate tar, dust and unreacted steam. Part of the sensible heat is recovered as steam. Thus, high-calorie gas of 6,000 kcal/Nm{sup 3} can be obtained, which is rich in methane, CO and hydrogen. Fiscal 1981 has performed a continuous test by using an internal heat type low-pressure gasification equipment to evaluate its compatibility to the diversification of materials. (NEDO)

  8. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Surveys and studies of peripheral key technologies/Surveys of ultrahigh-efficiency solar cell application fields); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi tou oyo bunya kaitaku chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted in order to make propositions concerning the fields of application wherein the merits of ultrahigh-efficiency solar cells would be fully utilized. A questionnaire was held about solar cell application fields, and studies were made about new systems based on the need in the market for specific solar cell goods and capable of supporting their mass diffusion. Proposed as the result was the establishment of a rental (lease) system for photovoltaic power systems, a local photovoltaics advisory system, a market for used photovoltaic power systems, and so forth. In the feasibility study of photovoltaic power generation on unused land in agricultural villages, surveys were conducted concerning energy problems, the energy structure, the actual state of energy consumption, the abandoned farm and its utilization, and so forth. Propositions involving photovoltaic power feasibility were then made, which covered power consumption for greenhouse culture, energy supply for producing methanol out of biomass, power sources for insect incapacitating yellow fluorescent lamps, power sources for livestock barn air-conditioning, power sources for animal excretion treatment, and so forth. (NEDO)

  9. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Research and development of immediately effective and innovative energy environment technology (Development of immediately effective and high-efficiency solar cell technology, development of high-quality ingot manufacturing technology, and development of high-efficiency cell making technology); 1999 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sokkogata kokoritsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu (kohinshitsu ingot seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / kohinshitsu cell ka gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been made on improving quality of ingots for substrates, manufacturing high-quality thin type substrates, and making high-efficiency cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the high-quality ingot manufacturing technology, discussions were given on a method for assessing impurities and crystal defects by using the total reflection scattering type infrared tomography, and on the optimal solidifying and cooling conditions during the ingot manufacturing by using simulation calculation for solidification. As a result of analyses and discussions, such findings were found effective that the ingot should be solidified through making the solid-liquid interface shape flat, and the temperature falling rate in an ingot should be maintained constant. In developing the high-efficiency cell making technology, discussions were given on the optimal construction based on a simulation that assumes the light sealing structure using the RIE method, and on the optimal construction of polycrystalline silicon solar cells by using a device simulator (PCID). The important factors in achieving a conversion efficiency of 20% are the light sealing structure, surface passivation, and substrate thickness. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Research and survey of peripheral element technologies (Research and survey for development of solar cell of new power generation device structure); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Attention is paid to behavior at the molecular level with reference taken to the photosynthetic mechanism, and a behavioral mechanism is proposed, which incorporates, in place of the conventional band model, a concept of a molecular structure based on electron transfer, excitation energy transfer, and reactions of oxidation and reduction. Discussion is then made on elements of technology development for the embodiment of high-efficiency organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells. The elements taken up include the feasibility of organic ferroelectric thin-film cells, photoelctric conversion systems of plants and photosynthetic bacteria, solar cells using donor-acceptor type dyes, organic thin-film solar cells using conductive polymers, and efficient photoexcitation of organic dyes. Fullerene compounds are semiconductive and their band gaps may be controlled to stay within the range of 0.75-1.9eV, and this justifies a hope that they will serve as solar cells. As for TPV (thermophotovoltaic) conversion, it is under development mainly at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) as a transportable power source based on heat of combustion. Efforts are also being exerted since 1990 in five European countries to develop TPV systems for small-scale cogeneration. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D field. First year report. Development of the production technology of clean hydrogen, etc. by direct methane reforming method; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu bun'ya. Methane chokusetsu kaishitsuho ni yoru clean suiso nado no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (dai 1 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the hydrogen production method using the zeolite-base methane dehydrogenation cyclization catalyst with the specific porous structure. In this production method, there is no emission of process CO2, and hydrogen can be produced by supply of energy of 1/10 of that in the conventional technology. In FY 2000, the following were conducted: 1) conceptual design of a demonstrative experiment plant; 2) development of catalyst processing technology; 3) development of element technology such as improvement of catalyst performance. In 1), design/specifications for demonstrative experiment use plant were fixed by design estimation and process analysis using the mid-term fluidized bed experiment device. It was decided that the mid-term fluidized bed experiment device will be constructed to evaluate the methane reforming performance of catalyst and that the reaction tower should be the stationary fluidized bed type. In 2), a catalyst activity experimental device 100 times as large as the laboratory was fabricated to evaluate the catalyst performance. By optimization of reaction conditions and preparation of the catalyst composition, the targeted catalyst system was obtained. (NEDO)

  12. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic power system commercialization technology (Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Survey and research of analysis of commercialization - Separate Volume: Survey of next-generation ultrahigh-efficiency solar cell system); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu - Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - Bessatsu : Jisedai chokokoritsu taiyodenchi system ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the preparation of a proposition concerning future research and development, surveys and studies were conducted centering about efficiency enhancement and cost reduction for the next generation ultrahigh-efficiency solar cell system. For improving the efficiency of the crystalline compound solar cell, studies were made about the prospects of the embodiment of a 3-junction and 4-junction types and of an increase in conversion efficiency expected to realize thanks to their light condensation behavior. It was inferred that anticipation of 29-47% conversion efficiency in 1 to 4-joint cells was theoretically acceptable. Four-joint structure cell fabrication would be a challenging task but would bring about an conversion efficiency of approximately 47% thanks to enhanced light condensation capability. As for cost reduction through the use of light condensation technology, surveys of overseas trends showed that the condensation-enhanced photovoltaic power system was characteristically fit for lower-price production. As for condensation and tracking systems, studies were made about cost calculation models of organizations involved in the United States and Europe, and then it was found that cost reduction in the optical system for condensation and in the tracking mechanism would be mandatory for the achievement of 75 yen/W. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report / R and D of important region technology. R and D of technologies giving multi-functional characteristics to C/C composites (development of high-grade surface processing technology for engine members for methane fueled air craft. 1. control technology of micro structures of ultra-high temperature members); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu). 1. chokoon buzai micro kozo seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing members most suitable for aircraft use engines with methane as fuel, the R and D were conducted of technology to reform surfaces and interfaces of materials. In the R and D, the paper took up carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials (C/C composites). In the surface control and reformation technology using the ion engineering method, etc., in the sealing processing of C/C composites, tried was the formation of a C/SiC/Si3N4 composite layer which was formed by Si3N4 much smaller in thermal expansion coefficient than SiC. Further, technologies on ion injection, thin film formation, giving of oxidation resistance/corrosion resistance, improving/giving of thermal shock resistance, etc. In the multi-functional coating formation technology such as high liability and corrosion resistance, the study was carried out of the dense composite functionally-gradient layer as thermal stress relaxation layer and the fiber reinforced layer by carbon fiber using pores. Besides, studies were made of technologies of the micro structure control combination, evaluation of ultra-high temperature resistant environmental characteristics, etc. 61 refs., 198 figs., 44 tabs.

  14. FY 2001 report on the results of the survey of the environmentally friendly type energy community project. Utilization of combustible waste as solid fuel in Shimizu City, Shizuoka Prefecture, and the wide spread sphere of municipalities (Facilities such as RDF+LNG combined use high efficiency waste power generation); 2001 nendo Shizuoka ken shimizu shi oyobi koiki shichoson ken ni okeru kanensei haikibutsu kokeika nenryo riyo kankyo chowa gata energy komyuniti keisei sokushin hojo jigyo chosa (RDF+LNG heiyo kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden tou shisetsu) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    Survey/study were conducted of viability of an idea of the high efficiency power generation that combinedly use RDF from the refuse generated in Shizuoka/Yamanashi/Nagano prefectures and LNG from the LNG base in Shimizu City, Shizuoka Prefecture. In the survey of raw materials for RDF, the present amount that can be supplied to RDF power generation was estimated at 280 t/d in RDF and 4,300 Kcal/kg or more in heating value. As to the RDF/LNG combination power generation, combinations of RDF200t/d + 25MW (capacity of gas turbine power generation) or RDF200t/d + 70MW seem to be appropriate. And, 30% or more of RDF power generation efficiency is made possible. In the study of economical efficiency, expenses born by local governments were calculated supposing that the difference between the unit price of power selling and that of power generation in power generation is born by RDF suppliers. As a result, the share becomes approximately 8,600-12,000 yen/refuse t in 15-year operation, and was found lower than that in the existing small-/medium-scale refuse incineration treatment. The combustion flue gas associated with the power generation business becomes approximately 300,000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The gas turbine fuel is natural gas, and RDF is good in combustibility. Therefore, the effect on the environment is expected to be small. (NEDO)

  15. A Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, ME; Hamoda, HM; Schneiderman, JS; Bouix, S; Pasternak, O; Rathi, Y; M-A, Vu; Purohit, MP; Helmer, K; Koerte, I; Lin, AP; C-F, Westin; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Stern, RA; Zafonte, R

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also referred to as concussion, remains a controversial diagnosis because the brain often appears quite normal on conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Such conventional tools, however, do not adequately depict brain injury in mTBI because they are not sensitive to detecting diffuse axonal injuries (DAI), also described as traumatic axonal injuries (TAI), the major brain injuries in mTBI. Furthermore, for the 15 to 30% of those diagnosed with mTBI on the basis of cognitive and clinical symptoms, i.e., the “miserable minority,” the cognitive and physical symptoms do not resolve following the first three months post-injury. Instead, they persist, and in some cases lead to long-term disability. The explanation given for these chronic symptoms, i.e., postconcussive syndrome, particularly in cases where there is no discernible radiological evidence for brain injury, has led some to posit a psychogenic origin. Such attributions are made all the easier since both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are frequently co-morbid with mTBI. The challenge is thus to use neuroimaging tools that are sensitive to DAI/TAI, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in order to detect brain injuries in mTBI. Of note here, recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, such as DTI, make it possible to characterize better extant brain abnormalities in mTBI. These advances may lead to the development of biomarkers of injury, as well as to staging of reorganization and reversal of white matter changes following injury, and to the ability to track and to characterize changes in brain injury over time. Such tools will likely be used in future research to evaluate treatment efficacy, given their enhanced sensitivity to alterations in the brain. In this article we review the incidence of mTBI and the importance of characterizing this patient population using objective radiological measures. Evidence

  16. PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

    2012-02-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy for Si surfaces by taking account of chemical forces Masaru Tsukada, Akira Masago and Mamoru Shimizu Reversal of atomic contrast in scanning probe microscopy on (111) metal surfaces M Ondrácek, C González and P Jelínek Mechanical properties of H2Pc self-assembled monolayers at the single molecule level by noncontact atomic force microscopy Han-Qing Mao, Na Li, Xi Chen and Qi-Kun Xue High-resolution imaging of C60 molecules using tuning-fork-based non-contact atomic force microscopy R Pawlak, S Kawai, S Fremy, T Glatzel and E Meyer NC-AFM contrast formation on the calcite (101¯4) surface Philipp Rahe, Jens Schütte and Angelika Kühnle Imaging and manipulation of adatoms on an alumina surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy G H Simon, M Heyde and H-J Freund Three-dimensional scanning force/tunneling spectroscopy at room temperature Yoshiaki Sugimoto, Keiichi Ueda, Masayuki Abe and Seizo Morita Imaging and manipulation of the Si(100) surface by small-amplitude NC-AFM at zero and very low applied biasA Sweetman, R Danza, S Gangopadhyay and P Moriarty Manipulation of individual water molecules on CeO2(111) S Torbrügge, O Custance, S Morita and M Reichling FM-AFM imaging of a commercial polyethylene film immersed in n-dodecaneTakumi Hiasa, Tomoki Sugihara, Kenjiro Kimura and Hiroshi Onishi