Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter
the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...
Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.
Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.
van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C
Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...
Bouquet, A; Juga, J
Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However
Mulder, H.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.
Dairy cattle breeding organizations tend to sell semen to breeders operating in different environments and genotype × environment interaction may play a role. The objective of this study was to investigate optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for 2 environments with genotype × environment
This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book
Boichard, D; Brochard, M
Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen
Ariosto Ardila Silva
Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain
Ariosto Ardila Silva
In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...
Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.
Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large
Full Text Available Repeat breeding (RB, defined as cows failure to conceive from 3 or more regularly spaced services in the absence of detectable abnormalities, is a costly problem for the dairy producer. To elucidate the occurrence of RB in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors of the syndrome totally 57,616 dairy cows in 1,541 herds were investigated based on data from the official Swedish production-, AI- and disease- recording schemes. The characteristics of the RB syndrome were studied on both herd and individual cow level. The effects of risk factors on the herd frequency of RB were studied by logistic regression. A generalised linear mixed model with logit link, and accounting for herd-level variation by including a random effect of herd, was used to study the individual animal risk for RB. The total percentage of RB animals was 10.1% and the median proportion of RB animals in the herds studied was 7.5%. The proportion of RB cows in herds increased with decreased herd sizes with decreased average days from calving to first AI, with increased herd incidence of clinical mastitis, with decreased reproductive disorders, and increased other diseases treated by a veterinarian. On animal level, the risk factors were milk yield, lactation number, difficult calving or dystocia, season at first service, days in milk at first service and veterinary treatment for reproductive disorders before the first service. Cows being an RB animal in the previous lactation had a higher risk of becoming an RB animal also in the present lactation. In conclusion our results show that the repeat breeding syndrome is a multifactorial problem involving a number of extrinsic factors as well as intrinsic factors coupled to the individual animal.
Full Text Available This paper reviews some key elements of Finnish animal breeding research contributing to the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme and discusses the possibilities and problems in collecting data for genetic evaluation, prediction of breeding values both within and across countries, estimation of the economic value of important traits, and selection of bulls and cows. Economic values are calculated for fertility, udder health and production traits when one genetic standard deviation unit (gen. sd. is changed in each trait independently and the financial returns from selection response in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme are estimated. The following components were used to calculate the economic value of mastitis treatments: 1 cost of mastitis including discarded milk and treatment costs, 2 reduction in milk price due to higher somatic cell count, 3 replacement costs and 4 lower production level of the herd due to involuntary culling of cows because of udder problems. A high somatic cell count lowers the price of milk and eventually leads to involuntary culling. For treatments for fertility disorders the following costs were included: 1 treatment costs 2 higher replacement costs and 3 decreased milk production in the herd. Days open included the following costs: 1 extra insemination, 2 reduced annual milk yield and 3 fewer calves born. Animal breeding was found to be a very cost effective investment, yielding returns of FIM 876.9 per cow from one round of selection when the gene flow was followed for over 25 years in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme.
Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit
The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.
In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the
Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian
A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....
Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...
Reproductive efficiency of dairy cows is influenced by different factors including gene, season, age, production system, nutrition, management, environment and ... parity and body condition didn't show significant (P>0.05) effect on abortion ...
Reproductive efficiency of dairy cows is influenced by different factors including gene, season, age, production system, nutrition, management, environment and disease. This study was conducted with the objectives of determining the prevalence of reproductive disorders and evaluates reproductive performances of Jersey ...
Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M.P.L.
The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage
Schrooten, C; Bovenhuis, H; van Arendonk, J A M; Bijma, P
The aim of this paper was to explore general characteristics of multistage breeding schemes and to evaluate multistage dairy cattle breeding schemes that use information on quantitative trait loci (QTL). Evaluation was either for additional genetic response or for reduction in number of progeny-tested bulls while maintaining the same response. The reduction in response in multistage breeding schemes relative to comparable single-stage breeding schemes (i.e., with the same overall selection intensity and the same amount of information in the final stage of selection) depended on the overall selection intensity, the selection intensity in the various stages of the breeding scheme, and the ratio of the accuracies of selection in the various stages of the breeding scheme. When overall selection intensity was constant, reduction in response increased with increasing selection intensity in the first stage. The decrease in response was highest in schemes with lower overall selection intensity. Reduction in response was limited in schemes with low to average emphasis on first-stage selection, especially if the accuracy of selection in the first stage was relatively high compared with the accuracy in the final stage. Closed nucleus breeding schemes in dairy cattle that use information on QTL were evaluated by deterministic simulation. In the base scheme, the selection index consisted of pedigree information and own performance (dams), or pedigree information and performance of 100 daughters (sires). In alternative breeding schemes, information on a QTL was accounted for by simulating an additional index trait. The fraction of the variance explained by the QTL determined the correlation between the additional index trait and the breeding goal trait. Response in progeny test schemes relative to a base breeding scheme without QTL information ranged from +4.5% (QTL explaining 5% of the additive genetic variance) to +21.2% (QTL explaining 50% of the additive genetic variance). A
Danchin-Burge, C; Leroy, G; Brochard, M; Moureaux, S; Verrier, E
A pedigree analysis was performed on eight French dairy cattle breeds to assess their change in genetic variability since a first analysis completed in 1996. The Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde breeds are selected internationally with over hundreds of thousands cows registered in the performance recording system. Three breeds are internationally selected but with limited numbers of cows in France (Brown Swiss, French Simmental and French Red Pied). The last two remaining breeds (Abondance and Tarentaise) are raised at regional level. The effective numbers of ancestors of cows born between 2004 and 2007 varied between 15 (Abondance and Tarentaise) and 51 (French Red Pied). The effective population sizes (classical approach) varied between 53 (Abondance) and 197 (French Red Pied). This article also compares the genetic variability of the ex situ (collections of the French National Cryobank) and in situ populations. The results were commented in regard to the recent history of gene flows in the different breeds as well as the existence of more or less stringent bottlenecks. Our results showed that whatever the size of the breeds, their genetic diversity impoverished quite rapidly since 1996 and they all could be considered as quite poor from a genetic diversity point of view. It shows the need for setting up cryobanks as gene reservoirs as well as sustainable breeding programmes that include loss of genetic diversity as an integrated control parameter. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Magne, M A; Thénard, V; Mihout, S
Finding ways of increasing animal production with low external inputs and without compromising reproductive performances is a key issue of livestock systems sustainability. One way is to take advantage of the diversity and interactions among components within livestock systems. Among studies that investigate the influence of differences in animals' individual abilities in a herd, few focus on combinations of cow breeds with contrasting features in dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to analyse the performances and management of such multi-breed dairy cattle herds. These herds were composed of two types of dairy breeds: 'specialist' (Holstein) and 'generalist' (e.g. Montbeliarde, Simmental, etc.). Based on recorded milk data in southern French region, we performed (i) to compare the performances of dairy herds according to breed-type composition: multi-breed, single specialist breed or single generalist breed and (ii) to test the difference of milk performances of specialist and generalist breed cows (n = 10 682) per multi-breed dairy herd within a sample of 22 farms. The sampled farmers were also interviewed to characterise herd management through multivariate analysis. Multi-breed dairy herds had a better trade-off among milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, herd reproduction and concentrate-conversion efficiency than single-breed herds. Conversely, they did not offer advantages in terms of milk prices and udder health. Compared to specialist dairy herds, they produce less milk with the same concentrate-conversion efficiency but have better reproductive performances. Compared to generalist dairy herds, they produce more milk with better concentrate-conversion efficiency but have worse reproductive performances. Within herds, specialist and generalist breed cows significantly differed in milk performances, showing their complementarity. The former produced more milk for a longer lactation length while the latter produced milk with higher protein and fat
Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Medvedeva
Full Text Available Due to the fact that Russia is now a member of the World Trade Organization, long-term forecasting becomes an objectively necessary condition that helps choose an effective science-based long-term strategy for development of dairy cattle breeding that would take into consideration intellectual and innovative characteristics. Current structure of available statistical information does not meet modern challenges of innovation development and does not reflect adequately the trends of ongoing changes. The paper suggests a system of indicators to analyze the status, development and prospects of dairy cattle breeding in the region; this system provides timely identification of emerging risks and threats of deviation from the specified parameters. The system included indicators contained in the current statistical reporting and new indicators of innovation development of the industry, the quality of human capital and the level of government support. When designing the system of indicators, we used several methodological aspects of the Oslo Manual, which the Federal State Statistics Service considers to be an official methodological document concerning the collection of information about innovation activities. A structured system of indicators shifts the emphasis in the analysis of the final results to the conditions and prerequisites that help achieve forecast performance indicators in the functioning of Russia’s economy under WTO rules and make substantiated management decisions
Roos, de A.P.W.
The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and
Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.
Nielsen, H M; Christensen, L G; Odegård, J
The objective of this study was to present a method to define breeding goals for sustainable dairy cattle production by adding nonmarket values to market economic values for functional traits in the breeding goal. A nonmarket value can represent the value of improved animal welfare or societal influences for animal production. The nonmarket value for mastitis resistance, conception rate, and stillbirth were derived based on how much farmers or breeding companies were willing to lose in selection response for milk yield to improve functional traits. The desired response for milk yield corresponding to a given percent loss was obtained using desired gain indices. By allowing a 5% loss in the selection response for milk yield, the nonmarket value was found to be 40.4 euro for mastitis resistance, 16.1 euro for conception rate, and 9.7 euro for stillbirth. The nonmarket value increased proportionally with increasing loss in the selection response for milk yield, but the selection response was lower for conception rate than for mastitis resistance because of differences in market economic value and heritability. To increase the response for conception rate, the nonmarket value was also derived for 2 situations, in which the desired responses for milk yield, mastitis resistance, and conception rate were specified. The method can be used to define breeding goals for sustainable production and to increase the response for traits that are at critically low levels. When defining breeding goals for sustainable production, breeding organizations should predict the selection response based on market economic value and add non-market value for traits with unacceptable selection responses.
Full Text Available Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.
Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.
This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.
Kariuki, C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kahi, A.K.; Komen, H.
Dairy cattle industries contribute to food and nutrition security and are a source of income for numerous households in many developing countries. Selective breeding can enhance efficiency in these industries. Developing dairy industries are characterized by diverse production and marketing
Stevenson, J S; Call, E P; Scoby, R K; Phatak, A P
Our objective was to determine if double inseminations during the same estrous period of dairy cattle eligible for their third or fourth service (repeat breeders) would improve pregnancy rates equivalent to injections of GnRH given at the time of AI. Repeat-breeding, lactating cows from six herds (five herds in the San Joaquin Valley of central California and one herd in northeast Kansas) were assigned randomly to four treatment groups when detected in estrus: 1) single AI plus no injection, 2) single AI plus 100 micrograms GnRH at AI, 3) double AI plus no injection, or 4) double AI plus 100 micrograms of GnRH at AI. Inseminations were performed according to the a.m.-p.m. rule. The second AI for the double AI treatment was given 12 to 16 h after the first AI. Injections of GnRH were given intramuscularly immediately following the single AI or the first AI of the double AI. Pregnancy rates of cows given a single AI and hormone injection were numerically higher in all six herds than those of their herdmates given only a single AI. In five of six herds, the pregnancy rates of cows given a double AI and hormone injection were numerically higher than pregnancy rates of their herdmates given only a double AI. Overall pregnancy rates for the four treatments were 1) 112/353 (32.1%), 2) 165/406 (41.6%), 3) 119/364 (33.5%), and 4) 135/359 (37.5%). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone increased pregnancy rates of repeat breeders compared with controls given only a single AI. No further benefit beyond the single AI was accrued from the double AI treatment, with or without concurrent hormone administration.
Field data recorded in the early seventies showed that dystocia (calving difficulty) in the main Dutch cattle breeds occurred at a rate of 15-17% in heifers and 5-6% in cows. Corresponding stillbirth rates were 9-12% and 2.5-3.5% respectively. In the sixties and seventies many research papers on
Kosgey, I.S.; Bebe, B.O.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, J.A.M.V.
A simulation study Using Matrix formulation was used to asses the flow of genes from the nucleus to the commercial population for three nucleus dairy cattle crossbreeding schemes involving indigenous (Zebu or native ) and exotic (European) animals under Kenyan conditions: Artificial insemination (A.I.) or natural mating F 1 production, continuous crossbred (F 2 inter se) production and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) F 1 production. The latter two schemes used MOET in the nucleus. cumulative discounted expressions (CDES) and cumulative discounted Revenues (CDR) were calculated to rank these schemes. The Pathways considered were sires and dams to produce sires and dams. The evaluation Criterion was milk production measured in age class 3 through 10 in F 1 and F 2 cow populations. the schemes were evaluated over a 30-year projected period with assumed interest rates of 0% and 10%. Further, the genetic level between the indigenous nucleus animals, the F 1 males and commercial female population was calculated by defining the incidence vector h as the difference between the three groups. The F 1 A.I. or natural scheme had higher CDES of 0.978 and 0.161 at 0% and 10% interest rates respectively. The corresponding values for F 1 MOET scheme were 0.735 and 0.070 and those of F 2 inter se were 0.676 and 0.079 at 0% and 10% interest rates, respectively. For a nucleus with 64 dams, CDR (US$) were 95.50 and 15.80 at 0% and 10% interest rates, respectively for F 1 A.I. or natural scheme. The F 1 MOET scheme had corresponding values of 62.05 and 6.90 while F 2 inter se had 66.10 and 7.75. Under both interest rates, the F 1 A.I. or natural mating schemes had higher CDES and CDR than the other two schemes and is faster in dissemination of genes to the commercial population. F 2 inter se was intermediate. The genetic level of nucleus animal is higher than of F 1 male and females because indigenous nucleus females contribute 50% of the genes. F 2 cows are expected to
Dash, S; Singh, A; Bhatia, A K; Jayakumar, S; Sharma, A; Singh, S; Ganguly, I; Dixit, S P
In total 52 samples of Sahiwal ( 19 ), Tharparkar ( 17 ), and Gir ( 16 ) were genotyped by using BovineHD SNP chip to analyze minor allele frequency (MAF), genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium among these cattle. The common SNPs of BovineHD and 54K SNP Chips were also extracted and evaluated for their performance. Only 40%-50% SNPs of these arrays was found informative for genetic analysis in these cattle breeds. The overall mean of MAF for SNPs of BovineHD SNPChip was 0.248 ± 0.006, 0.241 ± 0.007, and 0.242 ± 0.009 in Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Gir, respectively, while that for 54K SNPs was on lower side. The average Reynold's genetic distance between breeds ranged from 0.042 to 0.055 based on BovineHD Beadchip, and from 0.052 to 0.084 based on 54K SNP Chip. The estimates of genetic diversity based on HD and 54K chips were almost same and, hence, low density chip seems to be good enough to decipher genetic diversity of these cattle breeds. The linkage disequilibrium started decaying (r 2 < 0.2) at 140 kb inter-marker distance and, hence, a 20K low density customized SNP array from HD chip could be designed for genomic selection in these cattle else the 54K Bead Chip as such will be useful.
Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.
Bobbo, T; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Gallo, L; Ruegg, P L; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A
Blood serum proteins are significant indicators of animal health. Nevertheless, several factors should be considered to appropriately interpret their concentrations in blood. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effect of herd productivity, breed, age and stage of lactation on serum proteins and (2) to investigate association between serum proteins and somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cattle. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1508 cows of six different breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey, Simmental, Rendena and Alpine Grey) that were housed in 41 multi-breed herds. Milk samples were analyzed for composition and SCC, while blood samples were analyzed for serum proteins (i.e. total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin-to-globulin ratio (A : G)). Herds were classified as low or high production, according to the cow's average daily milk energy yield adjusted for breed, days in milk (DIM) and parity. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model that included the fixed effects of DIM, parity, SCS, breed, herd productivity and the random effect of the Herd-test date within productivity level. Cows in high producing herds (characterized also by greater use of concentrates in the diet) had greater serum albumin concentrations. Breed differences were reported for all traits, highlighting a possible genetic mechanism. The specialized breed Jersey and the two dual-purpose local breeds (Alpine Grey and Rendena) had the lowest globulin concentration and greatest A : G. Changes in serum proteins were observed through lactation. Total protein reached the highest concentration during the 4th month of lactation. Blood albumin increased with DIM following a quadratic pattern, while globulin decreased linearly. As a consequence, A : G increased linearly during lactation. Older cows had greater total protein and globulin concentrations, while albumin concentration seemed to be not particularly affected by age. A linear relationship
Thomasen, Jørn Rind
on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...
Reiner-Benaim, A; Ezra, E; Weller, J I
Although it now standard practice to genotype thousands of female calves, genotyping of bull calves is generally limited to progeny of elite cows. In addition to genotyping costs, increasing the pool of candidate sires requires purchase, isolation, and identification of calves until selection decisions are made. We economically optimized via simulation a genomic breeding program for a population of approximately 120,000 milk-recorded cows, corresponding to the Israeli Holstein population. All 30,000 heifers and 60,000 older cows of parities 1 to 3 were potential bull dams. Animals were assumed to have genetic evaluations for a trait with heritability of 0.25 derived by an animal model evaluation of the population. Only bull calves were assumed to be genotyped. A pseudo-phenotype corresponding to each animal's genetic evaluation was generated, consisting of the animal's genetic value plus a residual with variance set to obtain the assumed reliability for each group of animals. Between 4 and 15 bulls and between 200 and 27,000 cows with the highest pseudo-phenotypes were selected as candidate bull parents. For all progeny of the founder animals, genetic values were simulated as the mean of the parental values plus a Mendelian sampling effect with variance of 0.5. A probability of 0.3 for a healthy bull calf per mating, and a genomic reliability of 0.43 were assumed. The 40 bull calves with the highest genomic evaluations were selected for general service for 1 yr. Costs included genotyping of candidate bulls and their dams, purchase of the calves from the farmers, and identification. Costs of raising culled calves were partially recovered by resale for beef. Annual costs were estimated as $10,922 + $305 × candidate bulls. Nominal profit per cow per genetic standard deviation was $106. Economic optimum with a discount rate of 5%, first returns after 4 yr, and a profit horizon of 15 yr were obtained with genotyping 1,620 to 1,750 calves for all numbers of bull sires
Tokarev, Yuri A.; Merkushova, Nina I.; Bakanach, Olga V.; Proskurina, Natalya V.; Sazhina, Natalia S.
The relevance of the research problem is inspired by the strategic importance of dairy farming to the national economy, which is especially evident in the context of the EU economic sanctions against the Russian Federation and carrying out the import substitution policy. First and foremost, this policy applies to food commodities, including milk.…
Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C
Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.
C. E. F. Clark
Full Text Available Automatic milking systems (AMS rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August and summer (December to February seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.
This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical
Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling
Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...
Spek, van der D.
Van der Spek, D. (2015). Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
Claw disorders affect cow welfare and profitability of farms and as such are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding.
Aleksandr Nikolaevich Chekavinskii
Full Text Available The article substantiates the expediency of conducting research to assess the state of the agrofood system in the regions of the European North of Russia due to the increased geopolitical risks and the need to achieve strategic objectives of the Arctic territories development. Based on the analysis of statistical information, materials of the Department of Agriculture and Food Resources of the Vologda Oblast the author analyzes the change in the value of milk production, identifies municipal regions where agricultural producers boost agricultural economics, describes trends in the structure of livestock in 2000–2014. The work shows that the major resource potential for the dairy cattle breeding development in the region is concentrated in Vologdsky District, Gryazovetsky District and Cherepovetsky District. The analytical grouping helps determine that given current market conditions, state of material and technical base of the industry and level of state support it is economically feasible to increase the productivity of cows to 7083 kg, as it allows to reduce unit costs and enhance profitability. However, for agricultural producers to raise the productivity of dairy cattle, it is necessary to implement systematic measures for their promotion on the part of public authorities. The article draws special attention to the scale of modern technological means used by agricultural enterprises for keeping, milking and feeding cows, as well as to the measures undertaken to improve breeding and productive qualities of cattle. The conclusion of the article proves that the dramatic changes in agrarian policy of the Vologda Oblast can make the region an “outpost” providing the population of Arctic areas with quality agricultural products
Kariuki, C M; van Arendonk, J A M; Kahi, A K; Komen, H
Dairy cattle industries contribute to food and nutrition security and are a source of income for numerous households in many developing countries. Selective breeding can enhance efficiency in these industries. Developing dairy industries are characterized by diverse production and marketing systems. In this paper, we use weighted goal aggregating procedure to derive consensus trait preferences for different producer categories and processors. We based the study on the dairy industry in Kenya. The analytic hierarchy process was used to derive individual preferences for milk yield (MY), calving interval (CIN), production lifetime (PLT), mature body weight (MBW), and fat yield (FY). Results show that classical classification of production systems into large-scale and smallholder systems does not capture all differences in trait preferences. These differences became apparent when classification was based on productivity at the individual animal level, with high and low intensity producers and processors as the most important groups. High intensity producers had highest preferences for PLT and MY, whereas low intensity producers had highest preference for CIN and PLT; processors preferred MY and FY the most. The highest disagreements between the groups were observed for FY, PLT, and MY. Individual and group preferences were aggregated into consensus preferences using weighted goal programming. Desired gains were obtained as a product of consensus preferences and percentage genetic gains (G%). These were 2.42, 0.22, 2.51, 0.15, and 0.87 for MY, CIN, PLT, MBW, and FY, respectively. Consensus preferences can be used to derive a single compromise breeding objective for situations where the same genetic resources are used in diverse production and marketing circumstances. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Seroussi, Eyal; Liu, George E; Ma, Li
Crossover generated by meiotic recombination is a fundamental event that facilitates meiosis and sexual reproduction. Comparative studies have shown wide variation in recombination rate among species, but the characterization of recombination features between cattle breeds has not yet been performed. Cattle populations in North America count millions, and the dairy industry has genotyped millions of individuals with pedigree information that provide a unique opportunity to study breed-level variations in recombination. Based on large pedigrees of Jersey, Ayrshire and Brown Swiss cattle with genotype data, we identified over 3.4 million maternal and paternal crossover events from 161,309 three-generation families. We constructed six breed- and sex-specific genome-wide recombination maps using 58,982 autosomal SNPs for two sexes in the three dairy cattle breeds. A comparative analysis of the six recombination maps revealed similar global recombination patterns between cattle breeds but with significant differences between sexes. We confirmed that male recombination map is 10% longer than the female map in all three cattle breeds, consistent with previously reported results in Holstein cattle. When comparing recombination hotspot regions between cattle breeds, we found that 30% and 10% of the hotspots were shared between breeds in males and females, respectively, with each breed exhibiting some breed-specific hotspots. Finally, our multiple-breed GWAS found that SNPs in eight loci affected recombination rate and that the PRDM9 gene associated with hotspot usage in multiple cattle breeds, indicating a shared genetic basis for recombination across dairy cattle breeds. Collectively, our results generated breed- and sex-specific recombination maps for multiple cattle breeds, provided a comprehensive characterization and comparison of recombination patterns between breeds, and expanded our understanding of the breed-level variations in recombination features within an
Full Text Available An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian under tropical climate has resulted many deteriorates in productivity. More inferiority has been found under a semi-intensive management at small dairy farms. The existence of various changes in the global trade regulation for agriculture commodities has been a considerable factor directly affecting the future development of the national dairy industry. Increasing efficiency of various determinant components of the national dairy industry is required to produce domestic fresh milk in a good quality at a competitive price. This paper is dealing with the status of various determined factors especially for dairy livestock components to improve the future national dairy industry prospectively, involving for the national dairy cattle population, domestic milk yield, productivity of dairy cattle, breeding system and supporting reproduction technology. More over, other essential factors providing for dairy institution as well as distribution and marketing domestic milk production are also described.
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or... Losses § 1.1231-2 Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes. (a)(1) In the case of cattle, horses, or other livestock acquired by the taxpayer after December 31, 1969, section 1231 applies...
Full Text Available To characterise individuals of differents breeds on the basis of milk composition and to identify the best set of variablesa linear discriminant analysis (LDA, on 14 milk production traits, was performed on milk samples from 199 cows of differentbreeds (respectively, 127 subjects were Italian Friesians (IF, 62 were German Friesians (GF, and 10 were Jerseys(J and all came from the same breeding farm in Tuscany. The variables were: test day milk yield (kg milk, % Fat, %Protein,% Lactose, % solid non fat (SNF, % total solid (TS, pH and titratable acidity (TA; five rheological variables: r,k20, a30, a45, and somatic cell counts /ml (SCC; and one hygiene-related variable: total bacterial count (TBC. The analysisperformed on the 14 variables, with regard to the three breeds, allowed us to identify 10 of these as variables usefulfor discrimination (leaving out kg milk, pH, a45, and TBC. The most important variables were the percentage of Fat andTS for the first canonical variate and SNF, Lactose and Protein for the second. Fat and TS play an important role sincethey present significant values (even if opposite sign in the two variates. The resulting classification of subjects was satisfactory:79% of the Italian Friesians, 73% of German Friesians and 100% of the Jersey cows were classified correctly.
Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)
Abaker, Ismail A; Salih, Diaeldin A; Haj, Lima M El; Ahmed, Rawia E; Osman, Manal M; Ali, Awadia M
This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one Darfur region.
Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.
Holmberg, T.; Reiland, S.
The hocks of tied cows of a Swedish dairy herd of different breeds were radiographed. Osteoarthrosis of the arthrodial joints (spavin) was found in 37% of the animals. Changes were seen before the cows were 2 yr old, and they increased in severity with increasing age. Macroscopic and histologic examination revealed that there was osteoarthrosis also in many radiologically normal hocks. The frequency of spavin in tied dairy cows is higher than clinical signs indicate. Only cows with fusion of the arthrodial joints show the stiff hind leg movements considered typical of spavin. Differences in the incidence of spavin were found between the different breeds. Cows of the Swedish Friesian breed had the lowest (20%) and cows of the Jersey breed had the highest (50%) incidence of spavin. As regards the Jersey breed this was due to the high incidence (71%) found in cows raised on a high intensity feeding during the young stock period. Among the SJB [Swedish Jersey] cows raised on a normal intensity feeding the incidence of spavin was 25%. Such a relationship between high young stock feeding intensity and the incidence of spavin was not seen within the other breeds. The cows in another herd with loose housing had a lower frequency of spavin than the tied cows. Offspring of animals with spavin had a higher incidence of spavin than the offspring of animals without spavin. (author)
Holmberg, T.; Reiland, S. [Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala (Sweden)
The hocks of tied cows of a Swedish dairy herd of different breeds were radiographed. Osteoarthrosis of the arthrodial joints (spavin) was found in 37% of the animals. Changes were seen before the cows were 2 yr old, and they increased in severity with increasing age. Macroscopic and histologic examination revealed that there was osteoarthrosis also in many radiologically normal hocks. The frequency of spavin in tied dairy cows is higher than clinical signs indicate. Only cows with fusion of the arthrodial joints show the stiff hind leg movements considered typical of spavin. Differences in the incidence of spavin were found between the different breeds. Cows of the Swedish Friesian breed had the lowest (20%) and cows of the Jersey breed had the highest (50%) incidence of spavin. As regards the Jersey breed this was due to the high incidence (71%) found in cows raised on a high intensity feeding during the young stock period. Among the SJB [Swedish Jersey] cows raised on a normal intensity feeding the incidence of spavin was 25%. Such a relationship between high young stock feeding intensity and the incidence of spavin was not seen within the other breeds. The cows in another herd with loose housing had a lower frequency of spavin than the tied cows. Offspring of animals with spavin had a higher incidence of spavin than the offspring of animals without spavin. (author)
Winden, van S.C.L.; Kuiper, R.
The research with respect to displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is reviewed. Evaluated articles describe epidemiological and experimental studies. The occurrence is elevated with regard to breed, gender, age, concurrent diseases, environmental aspects and production levels as
Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.
Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591
Dehnavi, E; Mahyari, S Ansari; Schenkel, F S; Sargolzaei, M
Using cow data in the training population is attractive as a way to mitigate bias due to highly selected training bulls and to implement genomic selection for countries with no or limited proven bull data. However, one potential issue with cow data is a bias due to the preferential treatment. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effect of including cow genotype and phenotype data into the training population on accuracy and bias of genomic predictions and (2) assess the effect of preferential treatment for different proportions of elite cows. First, a 4-pathway Holstein dairy cattle population was simulated for 2 traits with low (0.05) and moderate (0.3) heritability. Then different numbers of cows (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, or 20,000) were randomly selected and added to the training group composed of different numbers of top bulls (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, or 15,000). Reliability levels of de-regressed estimated breeding values for training cows and bulls were 30 and 75% for traits with low heritability and were 60 and 90% for traits with moderate heritability, respectively. Preferential treatment was simulated by introducing upward bias equal to 35% of phenotypic variance to 5, 10, and 20% of elite bull dams in each scenario. Two different validation data sets were considered: (1) all animals in the last generation of both elite and commercial tiers (n = 42,000) and (2) only animals in the last generation of the elite tier (n = 12,000). Adding cow data into the training population led to an increase in accuracy (r) and decrease in bias of genomic predictions in all considered scenarios without preferential treatment. The gain in r was higher for the low heritable trait (from 0.004 to 0.166 r points) compared with the moderate heritable trait (from 0.004 to 0.116 r points). The gain in accuracy in scenarios with a lower number of training bulls was relatively higher (from 0.093 to 0.166 r points) than with a higher number of training
Wilmut, I; Hume, A
An analysis is made of the maximum expenditure which could be justified in embryo transfer in cattle is used to: increase the rate of genetic improvement of dairy or beef cattle; increase the frequency of twin-pregnancies; and expedite a change of breed. Estimates of maximum justifiable expenditure have been compared with an estimate of the cost of non-surgical transfer. Embryo transfer should be used in elite beef herds to increase selection intensity, particularly if bulls from such herds can be used for artificial insemination. Other commercial applications will not be economically justifiable until the cost of transfer has fallen by 50 to 80 per cent.
Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene
selected andfifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocatethe cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo andafter a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded to the treatment...... group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were randomly......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...
Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.
Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J
The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...
This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of
Hayes, B.; Daetwyler, H.D.; Fries, R.; Guldbrandtsen, B.; Mogens Sando Lund, M.; Didier A. Boichard, D.A.; Stothard, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hulsegge, B.; Rocha, D.; Tassell, C.; Mullaart, E.; Gredler, B.; Druet, T.; Bagnato, A.; Goddard, M.E.; Chamberlain, H.L.
Genomic prediction of breeding values is now used as the basis for selection of dairy cattle, and in some cases beef cattle, in a number of countries. When genomic prediction was introduced most of the information was to thought to be derived from linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative
Vermunt, J J
In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.
In dairy cattle breeding,health and fertility traits have recently been included in a large number of national breeding goals.
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø
investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the Bovine...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...
Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.
The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)
In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ
This study evaluated the performance of different dairy cattle technologies ... common phenomenon in Nigeria, especially among the poor segment of the society ... considerable amounts (over 70%) of milk today (Olaloku and Debre, 1992). ..... cross-bred dairy cattle was reported to be 30 percent of total dairy animals in.
Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter
A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic regions defined by genes grouped on the basis of "Gene Ontology" (GO), and that incorporating this independent biological information into genomic prediction models might improve their predictive ability. Four complex traits (i.e., milk, fat and protein yields, and mastitis) together with imputed sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP) to a genomic feature BLUP (GFBLUP) model, including an additional genomic effect quantifying the joint effect of a group of variants located in a genomic feature. The GBLUP model using a single random effect assumes that all genomic variants contribute to the genomic relationship equally, whereas GFBLUP attributes different weights to the individual genomic relationships in the prediction equation based on the estimated genomic parameters. Our results demonstrate that the immune-relevant GO terms were more associated with mastitis than milk production, and several biologically meaningful GO terms improved the prediction accuracy with GFBLUP for the four traits, as compared with GBLUP. The improvement of the genomic prediction between breeds (the average increase across the four traits was 0.161) was more apparent than that it was within the HOL (the average increase across the four traits was 0.020). Our genomic feature modelling approaches provide a framework to simultaneously explore the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits by taking advantage of
Sibhat, Berhanu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Skjerve, Eystein; Asmare, Kassahun
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently identified member of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It is an arbovirus transmitted by different members of Culicoides spp of biting midges. The virus is more recognized for its effect on reproductive disorders in ruminants characterised by abortion, stillbirth and birth of congenitally defective newborns with hydranencephaly-arthrogryposis syndrome. The current study was undertaken with the objectives of exploring the presence of SBV exposure and identification of factors affecting its distribution among dairy cattle in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1379 dairy cattle sampled from 149 dairy herds in central, southern and western Ethiopia during September 2011 to May 2012. Serum samples were examined using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data on hypothesised risk factors were collected from farm records where available and semi-structured questionnaire-based interview. The apparent seroprevalence of exposure to SBV was 56.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.9-59.3). True prevalence adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA kit used was 58.3% (95% CI 55.7-60.9). Among the sampled herds, 82.6% (95% CI: 75.5-88.3) had at least one seropositive animal. Seropositive cattle were found in all of the 15 conurbations studied. Adult dairy cows [odds ratio (OR)=1.6] were more commonly affected than young heifers. Dairy cattle kept in commercial (OR=1.6) and breeding farms (OR=3.5) and Midland agroecology (OR=2.5) showed statistically significant seroconversion than cattle kept under small-holder dairy farms and Highland agroecology respectively (p<0.05). Reproductive disorders including abortion, retention of the fetal membranes, and metritis were associated with serostatus of SBV. In conclusion, the seroprevalence of SBV is high and widely distributed in the studied parts of Ethiopia. This being the first study of its kind on SBV in Ethiopia, further
Sordillo, L M
Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hertem, Van T.; Bahr, C.; Schlageter Tello, A.; Viazzi, S.; Steensels, M.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Lokhorst, C.; Maltz, E.; Halachmi, I.; Berckmans, D.
The objective of this study was to evaluate if a multi-sensor system (milk, activity, body posture) was a better classifier for lameness than the single-sensor-based detection models. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 3629 cow observations were collected on a commercial dairy farm in
young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize ... breeds for their effective use in either straight breeding or cross- breeding programmes. ... Scheme as the only data source for breed characterization pur- poses.
Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A
progeny testing. Strong positive interaction effects between increased reliability of genomic predictions and more intensive use of young bulls exist. From an economic perspective a juvenile scheme is always advantageous. The main future focus area for the smaller dairy cattle breeds is to join forces...
Liinamo, A.E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
Alternative selection strategies were evaluated for breeding for carcass quality, body weight, and milk traits in dairy cattle. The efficiency of different alternatives was evaluated by comparing predicted genetic responses in individual traits as well as in the aggregate genotype. Particular
In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the
The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...
In the early 1900s, breed society herdbooks had been established, and milk recording programs were in their infancy. Farmers were interested in improving the productivity of dairy cattle, but the foundations of population genetics, quantitative genetics, and animal breeding had not yet been laid. Li...
U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2
Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to summarize new genetic approaches and techniques in the breeding of cattle, pigs, sheep and horses. Often production and reproductive traits are treated separately in genetic evaluations, but advantages may accrue to their joint evaluation. A good example is the system in pig breeding. Simplified breeding objectives are generally no longer appropriate and consequently becoming increasingly complex. The goal of selection for improved animal performance is to increase the profit of the production system; therefore, economic selection indices are now used in most livestock breeding programmes. Recent developments in dairy cattle breeding have focused on the incorporation of molecular information into genetic evaluations and on increasing the importance of longevity and health in breeding objectives to maximize the change in profit. For a genetic evaluation of meat yield (beef, pig, sheep, several types of information can be used, including data from performance test stations, records from progeny tests and measurements taken at slaughter. The standard genetic evaluation method of evaluation of growth or milk production has been the multi-trait animal model, but a test-day model with random regression is becoming the new standard, in sheep as well. Reviews of molecular genetics and pedigree analyses for performance traits in horses are described. Genome – wide selection is becoming a world standard for dairy cattle, and for other farm animals it is under development.
This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...
Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei
sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased......BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic...
Bahbahani, Hussain; Salim, Bashir; Almathen, Faisal; Al Enezi, Fahad; Mwacharo, Joram M; Hanotte, Olivier
Butana and Kenana are two types of zebu cattle found in Sudan. They are unique amongst African indigenous zebu cattle because of their high milk production. Aiming to understand their genome structure, we genotyped 25 individuals from each breed using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip. Genetic structure analysis shows that both breeds have an admixed genome composed of an even proportion of indicine (0.75 ± 0.03 in Butana, 0.76 ± 0.006 in Kenana) and taurine (0.23 ± 0.009 in Butana, 0.24 ± 0.006 in Kenana) ancestries. We also observe a proportion of 0.02 to 0.12 of European taurine ancestry in ten individuals of Butana that were sampled from cattle herds in Tamboul area suggesting local crossbreeding with exotic breeds. Signatures of selection analyses (iHS and Rsb) reveal 87 and 61 candidate positive selection regions in Butana and Kenana, respectively. These regions span genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with biological pathways that are important for adaptation to marginal environments (e.g., immunity, reproduction and heat tolerance). Trypanotolerance QTL are intersecting candidate regions in Kenana cattle indicating selection pressure acting on them, which might be associated with an unexplored level of trypanotolerance in this cattle breed. Several dairy traits QTL are overlapping the identified candidate regions in these two zebu cattle breeds. Our findings underline the potential to improve dairy production in the semi-arid pastoral areas of Africa through breeding improvement strategy of indigenous local breeds.
Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K
Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet
Macmillan, Kira; Kastelic, John P; Colazo, Marcos G
This review updates the causal mechanisms and risk factors for multiple ovulations (MOV) in cattle. Clearly, MOV can lead to twin pregnancies, which negatively affects the health, production, and reproduction of cows. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors causing MOV may help to reduce twinning. Multiple ovulations occur after two or more follicles deviate and achieve codominance. The MOV rate is influenced by a complex network of hormones. For example, MOV is more common during periods of low progesterone (P4), that is, in anovulatory cattle or when luteolysis coincides with the selection of the future ovulatory follicle. There is also strong evidence for the luteinizing hormone (LH) being the primary factor leading to codominance, as high P4 concentrations suppress the transient LH surges and can reduce the ovulation rate in cattle or even inhibit deviation. Rates of MOV are increased in older and higher-producing dairy cows. Increased milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) increases hormone clearance, including P4; however, the association between milk yield and MOV has not been consistent. Additional risk factors for MOV include ovarian cysts, diet, season, and genetics.
Eastridge, M L
Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by
Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David
software 1000Minds. These pairwise rankings were based on equal economic worth of trait improvements. The survey was filled in by 106 organic and 290 conventional farmers. The most preferred trait improvement for both production systems was in cow fertility, and the least preferred improvement......In dairy cattle breeding, breeding goals (BG) are developed and subsequently a selection index that farmers want to use. Therefore it is important to take their preferences for BG traits into account. Two production systems that are expected to influence farmer preferences for BG traits are organic...... and conventional systems. The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of organic and conventional Danish dairy farmers for improvements in BG traits for Holstein cattle. A survey was established to characterize preferences for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online...
Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle. ... Heat stress reduces the degree of dominance of the selected follicle and this can be seen as reduced steroidogenic capacity of its theca and ... from 32 Countries:.
Stallings, Charles C.
Describes how distiller's grain's with solubles (DDGS) are produced, covers their protein, fat or oil and phosphorous quantity and quality, provides recommendations for use as feed for dairy cattle, as well as recommendations to minimize environmental impacts.
Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan
In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.
BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar
The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...
The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...
Ismail A. Abaker
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Materials and Methods: Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one <1 year old, group two 1-3 years old, and group three older than 3 years. These cattle were indigenous and cross (Friesian X zebu. A total of 150 blood samples were collected for blood smears, blood in EDTA tubes, and serum samples as well as ticks infesting cattle. Three diagnostic techniques were used such as blood smear, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 150 samples, 11 (7.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.1-5.5 were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in the blood smears, 70 (46.7%, 95% CI: 35.7-57.7 were positive for Theileria annulata antibodies in the IFAT, and of 100 samples, 39 (39%, 95% CI: 46.6-31.4 were positive for T. annulata using PCR. The prevalence of T. annulata was higher in indigenous breed than cross cattle by the three diagnostic techniques. The highest prevalence of T. annulata was recorded among cattle older than 3 years old. There were three genera and ten species of ticks found feeding on cattle. These were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedrii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma truncatum, Amblyomma variegatum, and Amblyomma lepidum. Conclusion: The study concluded that tropical theileriosis is prevalent among dairy cattle in Nyala. H. anatolicum was found in very low numbers, suggesting other ticks may play a role in the transmission of the disease. Molecular characterization of T. annulata is recommended for accurate mapping of the disease and evaluates the magnitude problem of
Browett, Sam; McHugo, Gillian; Richardson, Ian W.; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Fahey, Alan G.; Kearney, John F.; Correia, Carolina N.; Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; MacHugh, David E.
Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne) revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH) showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland. PMID:29520297
Full Text Available Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland.
Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung
Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
M. A. Osman
Full Text Available Egypt, where the mean temperature is expected to increase by 1−1.5°C over the next two decades, is particularly concerned with climate change in the Mediterranean. Most of the research works on adaptive animal traits have focused on sheep and goats in non-irrigated areas, with little interest in livestock systems in irrigated areas. However, meat and dairy products in Egypt are mainly supplied by large ruminants − cattle and buffaloes. In addition, research on genetic improvement to increase production has neglected local cattle breeds such as the Baladi, which appears to be endangered. Based on individual and collective interviews conducted in two governorates of Egypt, this study aimed to describe the situation of this local breed based on the perceptions and practices of the actors in the sector (including farmers, traders and service suppliers, and to draw perspectives for its future. From the interviews, the Baladi appeared adapted and more resistant to harsh conditions, especially to extreme warm temperatures, feed shortage periods, and some diseases, in particular foot-and-mouth disease. However, there is no organization or collective action to preserve or promote this breed because of its low level of dairy production, although its meat is highly valued in rural areas and could be the source of a potential niche market.
Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.
Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six
Baseline data on the hematology of White Fulani and Muturu breeds of Cattle have been reported. However, very few documented studies have been carried out with regards to the reproductive hormonal profile of these breeds. Satisfactory reproductive performance is important to effective management and production as a ...
The study was conducted in Bauchi state between January, and July, 1997 to characterize White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds. Thirty animals of both sexes from each breed were randomly selected from fifteen farms/herds. Observations were carried out on both quantitative and qualitative characters. Sokoto ...
Fritz, Sebastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cecile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerre, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique
The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplot...
Mnr J F Kluyts
However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...
Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...
Full Text Available Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The bjective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ (October to March is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September and critical HSZ (CHSZ (May and June. Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate.
Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A K; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem
Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate.
Full Text Available Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80% sera. A Significant difference was observed between seropositive cattle and dog presence in farm, dog contact with herd, abortion history and herd population. No significant differences were found between seropositive cattle and age as well as breed. This study is the first report of N. caninum infection in dairy cattle farms in Hamedan province. As per our knowledge, Neospora is an important factor in abortion of cattle in this region. Therefore, comprehensive studies for control strategies and improving management of dairy farms is necessary.
Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.
This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem
Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Burren, Alexander; Neuditschko, Markus; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Garrick, Dorian; Stricker, Christian; Gredler, Birgit; Bapst, Beat; Flury, Christine
Domestication, breed formation and intensive selection have resulted in divergent cattle breeds that likely exhibit their own genomic signatures. In this study, we used genotypes from 27,612 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to characterize population structure based on 9214 sires representing nine Swiss dairy cattle populations: Brown Swiss (BS), Braunvieh (BV), Original Braunvieh (OB), Holstein (HO), Red Holstein (RH), Swiss Fleckvieh (SF), Simmental (SI), Eringer (ER) and Evolèner (EV). Genomic inbreeding (F ROH ) and signatures of selection were determined by calculating runs of homozygosity (ROH). The results build the basis for a better understanding of the genetic development of Swiss dairy cattle populations and highlight differences between the original populations (i.e. OB, SI, ER and EV) and those that have become more popular in Switzerland as currently reflected by their larger populations (i.e. BS, BV, HO, RH and SF). The levels of genetic diversity were highest and lowest in the SF and BS breeds, respectively. Based on F ST values, we conclude that, among all pairwise comparisons, BS and HO (0.156) differ more than the other pairs of populations. The original Swiss cattle populations OB, SI, ER, and EV are clearly genetically separated from the Swiss cattle populations that are now more common and represented by larger numbers of cows. Mean levels of F ROH ranged from 0.027 (ER) to 0.091 (BS). Three of the original Swiss cattle populations, ER (F ROH : 0.027), OB (F ROH : 0.029), and SI (F ROH : 0.039), showed low levels of genomic inbreeding, whereas it was much higher in EV (F ROH : 0.074). Private signatures of selection for the original Swiss cattle populations are reported for BTA4, 5, 11 and 26. The low levels of genomic inbreeding observed in the original Swiss cattle populations ER, OB and SI compared to the other breeds are explained by a lesser use of artificial insemination and greater use of natural service. Natural service
Doyle, Jennifer L; Berry, Donagh P; Walsh, Siobhan W; Veerkamp, Roel F; Evans, Ross D; Carthy, Tara R
Linear type traits describing the skeletal, muscular, and functional characteristics of an animal are routinely scored on live animals in both the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic parameters for certain performance traits may differ between breeds; no study, however, has attempted to determine if differences exist in genetic parameters of linear type traits among breeds or sexes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if genetic covariance components for linear type traits differed among five contrasting cattle breeds, and to also investigate if these components differed by sex. A total of 18 linear type traits scored on 3,356 Angus (AA), 31,049 Charolais (CH), 3,004 Hereford (HE), 35,159 Limousin (LM), and 8,632 Simmental (SI) were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed using animal linear mixed models which included the fixed effects of sex of the animal (except in the investigation into the presence of sexual dimorphism), age at scoring, parity of the dam, and contemporary group of herd-date of scoring. Differences (P covariance parameters estimated from the CH breed with a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the other breeds was estimated. Replacing the genetic covariance components estimated in the CH breed with those of the LM had least effect but the impact was considerable when the genetic covariance components of the AA were used. Genetic correlations between the same linear type traits in the two sexes were all close to unity (≥0.90) suggesting little advantage in considering these as separate traits for males and females. Results for the present study indicate the potential increase in accuracy of estimated breeding value prediction from considering, at least, the British breed traits separate to continental breed traits.
Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana
Full Text Available Several agents can be present in dairy cattle with a history of abortion as Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 and Brucella abortus. Some of these are considered transmitters cosmopolitan zoonosis of great economic impact and risk to human and animal health. The aim of this work was draw an epidemiological profile of reproductive losses and to determine the prevalence of antibodies against the main agents of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle. The study was conducted on a property in São Carlos city. For determination of reproductive failure, pre-existing data of abortion and stillbirths were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011 on an average of 274 dairy cows of Holstein and crossbred Holstein-Jersey. On March 1, 2012 blood serum samples were collected of 142 breeding animals of ages above two years, in which 21.1% showed cases of abortions or stillbirths of at least one pregnancy. We used serologic tests of microscopic agglutination test, immunofluorescent antibody technique, serum neutralization technique, tamponated acidified antigen test for detection of anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Neospora caninum, anti-Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BHV-1 and anti- Brucella abortus, respectively. The tests were performed at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu and Jaboticabal campi and EMBRAPA Southeast Livestock. During the study period, it was observed an average monthly rate of 1.7 abortions and 0.7 stillbirths, with an incidence of 63.6% and 58.0% of the cases observed, respectively, between November and April, period of higher pluviometric precipitation in the region. Among the cases of abortions observed, 76.2% happened between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. The serological tests carried out showed that 15.5% of the animals had titers greater than or equal to 1:200 of anti-Neospora caninum. Among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 28.58% and 11.22%, respectively, were serum
Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent
When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of efficiency and economic returns is an important goal in dairy farming, as in any agricultural enterprise. The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. Selection of animals with desirable genotypes and mating them to produce the next generation has been the basis of livestock improvement and this would continue to remain the same in the coming years. The use of polymorphic genes as detectable molecular markers is a promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. The point mutations in exon IV of bovine β-Lactoglobulin gene determine two allelic variants A and B. These variants were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in two indigenous Bos indicus breeds viz. Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle. DNA samples (228 in Sahiwal and 86 in Tharparkar were analyzed for allelic variants of β-Lactoglobulin gene. Polymorphism was detected by digestion of PCR amplified products with Hae III enzyme, and separation on 12% non-denaturing gels and resolved by silver staining. Results The allele B of β-Lactoglobulin occurred at a higher frequency than the allele A in both Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds. The genotypic frequencies of AA, AB, and BB in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds were 0.031, 0.276, 0.693 and 0.023, 0.733, 0.244 respectively. Frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.17 and 0.83, and 0.39 and 0.61 in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds respectively. The Chi-square test results (at one degree of freedom at one per cent level revealed that the Tharparkar population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium as there was a continuous migration of animals in the herd studied, where as, the results are not significant for the Sahiwal
Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø
Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...
Aug 23, 2014 ... Lactation milk yield is an important trait in selection of dairy cattle all ... affect functional traits such as fertility, somatic cell count and mastitis, ... explain physiological issues reported in Kenyan herds and guide future selection decisions. The correlation between milk yield and lactation curve traits has not ...
Joosten, I.; Stelwagen, J.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.
The financial losses due to retained placenta in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated by using two different methods of calculation. A data-set containing the birth records of 160,188 Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cows provided data on the reproductive performance of cows with and without retained placenta. The
Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K
Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.
Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.
The net economic value of reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle was estimated using a stochastic dynamic simulation model. The objective was to compare the economic consequences of reproductive performance scenarios (“average” and “poor”) of a cow having a good reproductive performance and to
Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...
The development of molecular techniques has offered possibilities to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). Studies in dairy cattle have mainly focused on milk production traits. This thesis first gives an overview of the main identified QTL for milk production traits. Subsequently, a study to
The total white blood cell (WBC) count and differential counts of WBC were determined using Neubauer Chamber and Thin blood smear techniques. Data generated were analysed using Genstat statistical software, with sex, breed and haemparasite species detected as factors. Results showed that 22% of the cattle were ...
Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices.
Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc
Calf disease may result in great economic losses. To implement prevention strategies it is important to gain information on management and to point out risk factors. The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. A total of 1287 questionnaires were finally analysed (response rate 12.2 %). Herd characteristics and regional distribution of farms indicated that this survey gives a good overview on calf management practices on registered dairy farms in Austria. The median number of cows per farm was 20 (interquartile range 13-30). Significant differences regarding farm characteristics and calf management between small and large farms (≤20 vs >20 cows) were present. Only 2.8 % of farmers tested first colostrum quality by use of a hydrometer. Storing frozen colostrum was more prevalent on large farms (80.8 vs 64.2 %). On 85.1 % of the farms, whole milk, including waste milk, was fed to the calves. Milk replacer and waste milk were more often used on large farms. In accordance with similar studies from other countries, calf diarrhoea was indicated as the most prevalent disease. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that herd size was associated with calf diarrhoea and calf respiratory tract disease, with higher risk of disease on large farms. Furthermore, feeding waste milk to the calves was associated with increasing calf diarrhoea incidence on farm. In the final model with calf respiratory tract disease as outcome, respondents from organic farms reported less often a respiratory tract disease incidence of over 10 % compared with conventional farms [odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.75] and farmers that housed calves individually or in groups after birth significantly reported more often to have an incidence of respiratory tract
Overton, T R; Yasui, T
Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace
Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.
In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects
Full Text Available Dairy farming plays an important role in the socioeconomic scenario, and several characteristics point to an enormous potential for growth in the productivity of the herd. This is a complex activity that needs to be carried out efficiently in all the links that integrate it. Moreover, due to the physiological and metabolic aspects of the animals with the aptitude for the milk production, several challenges arise, especially in the reproductive scope. In this context, breeding biotechniques appear as a good alternative to the increase in reproductive rates and genetic improvement of dairy cattle. In addition, ovarian antral follicle counts (AFC have been studied as a way to improve the selection of females to compose reproductive programs, because it has been shown to be a factor of high repeatability over the reproductive life in the same animal. Although studies have shown controversial results regarding the relationship between AFC and fertility, it is still necessary to investigate the possible variables that may interfere with the performance of donors in each biotechnology used. Thus, this review intends to gather and discuss the relationship of AFC with physiological aspects of dairy cows, its application as a parameter of selection of animals with good fertility and, the challenges for the application of reproductive biotechniques in dairy cattle.
Fox, Glenn; Roberts, Bruce; Brinkman, George L.
The economic surplus approach is used to estimate the returns to federal investments in dairy cattle research in Canada. A national supply function is estimated using time series data. Lagged research expenditures are included as explanatory variables in the model, facilitating the calculation of marginal as well as average benefits from research. Simulation analysis is used to study the effects of product market distortions associated with Canadian dairy policy as well as of the marginal exc...
Bachelor thesis gives a comprehensive overview of the dairy cow nutrition and assesses the system of nutrition and feeding in relation to milk production. The main part is devoted to the basics of dairy cow nutrition, the main nutrient requirements and composition of feed diets. There was assessed composition of feed rations for the year 2010 in working conditions on the School farm Měšice. The recommendations were designed to improve the nutrition level on the farm on the based data.
Diana Milena Soler Fonseca
Full Text Available In the rural municipality of Paipa, Boyaca many families rely on cattle breeding to obtain from this activity, suficient income and resources to meet their basic needs, however little is known about the true role of this species in the nourishment safety of rural families in the municipality of Paipa in Boyacá, for that reason, this study aimed to analyze the importance of general breeding cattle in the nourishment safety of thirty peasant families in the municipality of Paipa, Boyacá and get to know the social and cultural roles that are generated by this livestock activity. The obtained result was that the cale are raised as a second choice in the pursuit of economic resources, after the birds. In cattle production an average of five animals per farm are raised, the widely used breeds are the Normando, Holstein and crosses between them; milk production dominates with an average yield of 150 liters/week per family; income and costs production depend on the number of cattle raised, the gained income is used to purchase food for home, but savings are not encouraged; the consumption of dairy products is very low and beef cattle is not consumed within the household; animals management is in charge of all family members (both genders. In general, cattle farming make interesting economic contributions to the countryside families, but these revenues are used to purchase food of high nutritional value, also a2ecting the nourishment safety of the studied families.
Full Text Available The paper is initiated to design appropriate conservation strategies and breeding scheme for Fogera cattle breed that will be used as a guide for other Ethiopian indigenous cattle breed. Two types of data, on-farm and on-station, were used; the on-farm data was collected from three districts, namely, Fogera, Dera, and Bahir Dar Zuria; those are expected as the home of the breed. A total of 150 farmers, which are knowledgeable and having at least one cattle of Fogera phenotype in their herd, were purposively selected and interviewed. Additionally, farmer’s focus group discussion (FGD was conducted to capture the historical background, population, and distribution of the breed. SPSS (version 16 and index method was used to analyze the quantitative and scoring data’s, respectively. A meeting at national and regional level was also conducted to evaluate the existing conservation strategy and to identify the major stakeholders for the strategy. The main reasons to conserve Fogera breed are due to presence of interrelated constraints, presence of unique traits of the breed, better attitude of farmers, and decreasing population trend of the breed. Community-based in situ conservation strategy, to ensure the participation of the community, was designed for the breed. With the conservation strategy, related activities like feed development, animal health interventions, market linkage, and development of cooperatives will be implemented to improve the working environment. The stakeholders that are identified as an actor in the strategy should realize their honest participation for the sustainability of conservation and improvement of the breed.
McGuffey, R K
The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association
Dystocia is a trait with a high impact in the dairy industry. Among its risk factors are calf weight, gestation length, breed and conformation. Biological networks have been proposed to capture the genetic architecture of complex traits, where GWAS show limitations. The objective of this study was t...
Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.
Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their
Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the UK and the limitations of the currently available diagnostic and control methods require the development of complementary approaches to assist in the sustainable control of the disease. One potential approach is the identification of animals that are genetically more resistant to bTB, to enable breeding of animals with enhanced resistance. This paper focuses on prediction of resistance to bTB. We explore estimation of direct genomic estimated breeding values (DGVs for bTB resistance in UK dairy cattle, using dense SNP chip data, and test these genomic predictions for situations when disease phenotypes are not available on selection candidates.We estimated DGVs using genomic best linear unbiased prediction methodology, and assessed their predictive accuracies with a cross validation procedure and receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves. Furthermore, these results were compared with theoretical expectations for prediction accuracy and area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC. The dataset comprised 1151 Holstein-Friesian cows (bTB cases or controls. All individuals (592 cases and 559 controls were genotyped for 727,252 loci (Illumina Bead Chip. The estimated observed heritability of bTB resistance was 0.23±0.06 (0.34 on the liability scale and five-fold cross validation, replicated six times, provided a prediction accuracy of 0.33 (95% C.I.: 0.26, 0.40. ROC curves, and the resulting AUC, gave a probability of 0.58, averaged across six replicates, of correctly classifying cows as diseased or as healthy based on SNP chip genotype alone using these data.These results provide a first step in the investigation of the potential feasibility of genomic selection for bTB resistance using SNP data. Specifically, they demonstrate that genomic selection is possible, even in populations with no pedigree data and on animals lacking bTB phenotypes. However, a larger training population will be required to
Flavio Medeiros Paz e Silva
Full Text Available In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Cryptosporidiumspecies and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200. The occurrence in calves (26% was significantly higher than in cows (2%. Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%, C. bovis in three (11.1%, and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%. The study demonstrates thatCryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvumsubtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidiumoocysts.
Taylor, R.T.; Barnabe, R.C.; Morales, J.R.
The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)
Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl
Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were...... combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds...... with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase...
Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J
Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available In cattle, the MC1R gene has been the subject of several studies with the aim to elucidate the biology of coat colour. Then, polymorphisms of this gene have been proposed as tools for breed identification and animal products authentication. As a first step to identify breed specific DNA markers that can be used for the traceability of mono-breed dairy cattle products we investigated, using PCR-RFLP and PCR-APLP protocols, the presence and distribution of some alleles at the MC1R locus in 18 cattle breeds for a total of 1360 animals. For each of seven breeds (Italian Holstein, Italian Brown, Italian Simmental, Rendena, Jersey, Reggiana and Modenese a large number of animals (>70 was genotyped so the obtained results can be considered with more confidence. Allele ED was identified only in black pied cattle (Italian Holstein and Black Pied Valdostana. Allele E (this nomenclature includes all alleles except ED, E1 and e was observed in Italian Brown, Rendena, Jersey, Modenese, Italian Simmental, Grigio Alpina, Piedmontese, Chianina, Romagnola, Marchigiana, Swedish Red and White and Danish Red. Allele E1 was identified in Italian Brown, Rendena, Grigio Alpina, Piedmontese, Swedish Red and White and Danish Red. The recessive allele e, known to cause red coat colour, was fixed in Reggiana and almost fixed in Italian Simmental. This allele was observed also in Italian Holstein, Italian Brown, Rendena, Jersey and Modenese albeit with low frequency. Moreover, this allele was detected in Valdostana, Pezzata Rossa d’Oropa, Piedmontese, Romagnola, Swedish Red and White, Danish Red, Charoleis and Salers. In the case of the Reggiana breed, which is fixed for allele e, the MC1R locus is highly informative with respect to breeds that carry other alleles or in which allele e is at very low frequency. In theory, using the MC1R locus it is possible to identify the presence of milk from some other breeds in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese labelled as exclusively from
Eriksson, S; Jonas, E; Rydhmer, L; Röcklinsberg, H
The hot topic of genetic modification and genome editing is sometimes presented as a rapid solution to various problems in the field of animal breeding and genetics. These technologies hold potential for future use in agriculture but we need to be aware of difficulties in large-scale application and integration in breeding schemes. In this review, we discuss applications of both classical genetic modifications (GM) using vectors and genome editing in dairy cattle breeding. We use an interdisciplinary approach considering both ethical and animal breeding perspectives. Decisions on how to make use of these techniques need to be made based not only on what is possible, but on what is reasonable to do. Principles of animal integrity, naturalness, risk perception, and animal welfare issues are examples of ethically relevant factors to consider. These factors also influence public perception and decisions about regulations by authorities. We need to acknowledge that we lack complete understanding of the genetic background of complex traits. It may be difficult, therefore, to predict the full effect of certain modifications in large-scale breeding programs. We present 2 potential applications: genome editing to dispense with dehorning, and insertion of human genes in bovine genomes to improve udder health as an example of classical GM. Both of these cases could be seen as beneficial for animal welfare but they differ in other aspects. In the former case, a genetic variant already present within the species is introduced, whereas in the latter case, transgenic animals are generated-this difference may influence how society regards the applications. We underline that the use of GM, as well as genome editing, of farm animals such as cattle is not independent of the context, and should be considered as part of an entire process, including, for example, the assisted reproduction technology that needs to be used. We propose that breeding organizations and breeding companies
Shawn S Donkin
Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of
Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.
Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen
The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of heat stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of heat stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for heat stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to heat stress due to production level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk production and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to heat stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk production in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate production level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the heat resistance?
Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both
Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha
, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were......, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea...
Xu, Yao; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhao, Xin; Plath, Martin; Chen, Hong
Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus) and Qinchuan (Bos taurus) are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 ...
Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J
The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.
Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.
Danscher, A M; Enemark, H L; Andersen, P H; Aalbaek, B; Nielsen, O L
Acute bovine laminitis is a systemic disease with local manifestations primarily affecting the claws. However, distension of the tarsocrural joints has been observed after experimental oligofructose overload in dairy heifers as a part of the complex interpreted as acute, clinical laminitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study bovine synovial joints and tendon sheaths after oligofructose overload. Ten dairy heifers received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg body weight); four were killed 24h after overload and six after 72 h. Six control heifers received tap water and were killed after 72 or 96 h. Clinical examination included locomotion scoring and palpation of the tarsocrural joints. Ruminal fluid and blood was collected for measurements of pH and hydration status. Total protein concentrations and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in synovial fluid collected from tarsocrural joints after death. Synovial joints and tendon sheaths were examined and synovial membranes were studied microscopically. Swabs taken from the synovial cavities were subject to bacteriological culture. Heifers with oligofructose overload developed signs of ruminal and systemic acidosis. Lameness was observed in three of ten heifers 24h after overload and in all remaining heifers after 72 h. Distension of tarsocrural joints was observed from 18 h after overload and peaked at 30 h when all examined joints were moderately or severely distended. The synovial fluid was turbid and protein content and WBC counts were increased at both 24 and 72 h compared with controls. Bacterial culture was negative. Synovial membranes 24 and 72 h after overload had a fibrinous and neutrophil inflammatory reaction that regressed in severity between 24 and 72 h after overload. Heifers subjected to oligofructose overload therefore developed generalized sterile neutrophilic polysynovitis. Focus on this aspect of bovine laminitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of this complex
Li, Bingjie; Berglund, B.; Fikse, W.F.
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 pr...
among dairy cattle breeds in the US was reported to be 161, 61, 65, 39 and 30 for the Ayrshire, Brown ... Knowledge of these parameters could help the industry when formulating breeding programmes. ..... In 'Ratites in a competitive world.
Sandra B. Santos
Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of members of the Mollicutesclass in the reproductive system of dairy cattle in Brazil. Five farms containing dairy cattle were visited in January of 2012. In total, 100 cows of different ages, breeds and stages of lactation were examined in the present study. The cows were part of intensive or semi-intensive management systems and were submitted to mechanical milking or hand milking. The samples were collected after washing the vulvar region with water and soap, and then drying it with paper towels and disinfecting the area with alcohol (70°GL. Vaginal mucous was collected using a sterile alginate cotton swab, which was rubbed on the vagina, as well as the lateral and internal walls. Vulvovaginal mucous samples were cultured in both liquid and solid modified Hayflick´s medium, for mycoplasmas, and UB medium, for ureaplasmas. The PCR assays for Mollicutesand Ureaplasmaspp. were performed according to the standard protocols described in the current literature. During isolation, the frequency of Mycoplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 6.0% (6/100. In the PCR assays the frequency of Mollicuteswas of 26.0% (26/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 in the dairy cattle studied. This is the first report of these agents in reproductive system of bovine of the Pernambuco state. Further studies are necessary to determine the pathogenic potential and species of these field isolates.
Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M
Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator
Graml, R; Ohmayer, G; Pirchner, F; Erhard, L; Buchberger, J; Mostageer, A
Gene frequencies were estimated in a sample of Baladi cattle for milk proteins, blood proteins and blood groups. Gene frequency estimates of Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Sanga breeds were assembled from the literature. The gene frequencies were utilized for estimating the genetic distance between the breeds and breed groups. The Egyptian Baladi cattle appeared to be closer to Bos taurus breeds than to the Sanga. They are far removed from Zebus.
Jenko, J; Wiggans, G R; Cooper, T A; Eaglen, S A E; Luff, W G de L; Bichard, M; Pong-Wong, R; Woolliams, J A
This study compares how different cow genotyping strategies increase the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (EBV) in dairy cattle breeds with low numbers. In these breeds, few sires have progeny records, and genotyping cows can improve the accuracy of genomic EBV. The Guernsey breed is a small dairy cattle breed with approximately 14,000 recorded individuals worldwide. Predictions of phenotypes of milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and calving interval were made for Guernsey cows from England and Guernsey Island using genomic EBV, with training sets including 197 de-regressed proofs of genotyped bulls, with cows selected from among 1,440 genotyped cows using different genotyping strategies. Accuracies of predictions were tested using 10-fold cross-validation among the cows. Genomic EBV were predicted using 4 different methods: (1) pedigree BLUP, (2) genomic BLUP using only bulls, (3) univariate genomic BLUP using bulls and cows, and (4) bivariate genomic BLUP. Genotyping cows with phenotypes and using their data for the prediction of single nucleotide polymorphism effects increased the correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes compared with using only bulls by 0.163±0.022 for milk yield, 0.111±0.021 for fat yield, and 0.113±0.018 for protein yield; a decrease of 0.014±0.010 for calving interval from a low base was the only exception. Genetic correlation between phenotypes from bulls and cows were approximately 0.6 for all yield traits and significantly different from 1. Only a very small change occurred in correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes when using the bivariate model. It was always better to genotype all the cows, but when only half of the cows were genotyped, a divergent selection strategy was better compared with the random or directional selection approach. Divergent selection of 30% of the cows remained superior for the yield traits in 8 of 10 folds. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by
Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup
) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola...... on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing...... on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test...
Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Roubies, Nikolaos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Pourliotis, Konstantinos; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Karatzias, Harilaos
Fatty change of the liver (FCL) is very common in dairy cattle periparturiently. Many laboratory methods have been implicated in order to assist the diagnosis. To investigate whether FCL in dairy cattle could be evaluated by assessment of ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) by means of an assay modified for bovine serum, other enzyme activity, serum bile acids (SBA) concentration, or other biochemical constituents. A total of 187 dairy cattle were included: 106 were suspected to have liver dysfunction and were examined after referral by veterinarians; 70 were clinically healthy with mild FCL; and 11 were clinically healthy without FCL. Blood and liver biopsy samples were obtained after clinical examination. Histologic examination by light microscopy and classification of samples according to the severity of FCL was done, and total lipid and triglyceride concentration was measured. In serum, OCT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) activity as well as SBA, glucose, ketones, total bilirubin (tBIL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration were measured. OCT and AST activity and tBIL concentration correlate well with the degree of FCL. SBA concentration does not contribute well to FCL diagnosis. The majority of FCL cases appeared within the first 21 days-in-milk (DIM). The majority of moderate-to-severe and severe FCL cases arose in the first 7 DIM. Except for OCT, AST, and tBIL, none of the biochemical tests used, including SBA, had sufficient discriminatory power to differentiate reliably between mild and severe FCL because of poor sensitivity. A weak correlation between clinical signs and the extent of FCL was evident.
Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.
Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...... partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....
Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Lucimara Blumer; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Fernando Barbosa Junior
The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)
Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) ( 50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.
Patton, Robert A; Hristov, Alexander N; Lapierre, Hélène
This article summarizes the current literature as regards metabolizable protein (MP) and essential amino acid (EAA) nutrition of dairy cattle. Emphasis has been placed on research since the publication of the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001). Postruminal metabolism of EAA is discussed in terms of the effect on requirements. This article suggests methods for practical application of MP and EAA balance in milking dairy cows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Dale A; Adaska, J M; Higginbotham, G E; Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; Collar, Carol; Sischo, William M
Dairy producers seldom test or examine incoming cattle, although these important biosecurity practices are recommended. This pilot project examined risk management decisions that producers make when faced with test-positive animals in purchased groups of dairy cattle, in order to provide information on disease risks and conditions that could affect animal health and performance. New arrivals to seven herds at dairy farms in four California counties were examined and tested for a range of cond...
Nguyen, Thuy T T; Bowman, Phil J; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Benjamin J
Temperature and humidity levels above a certain threshold decrease milk production in dairy cattle, and genetic variation is associated with the amount of lost production. To enable selection for improved heat tolerance, the aim of this study was to develop genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for heat tolerance in dairy cattle. Heat tolerance was defined as the rate of decline in production under heat stress. We combined herd test-day recording data from 366,835 Holstein and 76,852 Jersey cows with daily temperature and humidity measurements from weather stations closest to the tested herds for test days between 2003 and 2013. We used daily mean values of temperature-humidity index averaged for the day of test and the 4 previous days as the measure of heat stress. Tolerance to heat stress was estimated for each cow using a random regression model with a common threshold of temperature-humidity index=60 for all cows. The slope solutions for cows from this model were used to define the daughter trait deviations of their sires. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction was used to calculate GEBV for heat tolerance for milk, fat, and protein yield. Two reference populations were used, the first consisted of genotyped sires only (2,300 Holstein and 575 Jersey sires), and the other included genotyped sires and cows (2,189 Holstein and 1,188 Jersey cows). The remainder of the genotyped sires were used as a validation set. All animals had genotypes for 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms. When using only genotyped sires in the reference set and only the first parity data, the accuracy of GEBV for heat tolerance in relation to changes in milk, fat, and protein yield were 0.48, 0.50, and 0.49 in the Holstein validation sires and 0.44, 0.61, and 0.53 in the Jersey validation sires, respectively. Some slight improvement in the accuracy of prediction was achieved when cows were included in the reference population for Holsteins. No clear improvements in the accuracy of
Yin, T; Pinent, T; Brügemann, K; Simianer, H; König, S
This study presents an approach combining phenotypes from novel traits, deterministic equations from cattle nutrition, and stochastic simulation techniques from animal breeding to generate test-day methane emissions (MEm) of dairy cows. Data included test-day production traits (milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen), conformation traits (wither height, hip width, body condition score), female fertility traits (days open, calving interval, stillbirth), and health traits (clinical mastitis) from 961 first lactation Brown Swiss cows kept on 41 low-input farms in Switzerland. Test-day MEm were predicted based on the traits from the current data set and 2 deterministic prediction equations, resulting in the traits labeled MEm1 and MEm2. Stochastic simulations were used to assign individual concentrate intake in dependency of farm-type specifications (requirement when calculating MEm2). Genetic parameters for MEm1 and MEm2 were estimated using random regression models. Predicted MEm had moderate heritabilities over lactation and ranged from 0.15 to 0.37, with highest heritabilities around DIM 100. Genetic correlations between MEm1 and MEm2 ranged between 0.91 and 0.94. Antagonistic genetic correlations in the range from 0.70 to 0.92 were found for the associations between MEm2 and milk yield. Genetic correlations between MEm with days open and with calving interval increased from 0.10 at the beginning to 0.90 at the end of lactation. Genetic relationships between MEm2 and stillbirth were negative (0 to -0.24) from the beginning to the peak phase of lactation. Positive genetic relationships in the range from 0.02 to 0.49 were found between MEm2 with clinical mastitis. Interpretation of genetic (co)variance components should also consider the limitations when using data generated by prediction equations. Prediction functions only describe that part of MEm which is dependent on the factors and effects included in the function. With high
Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.
Verma, Subhash; Thakur, Aneesh; Katoch, Shailja; Shekhar, Chander; Wani, Aasim Habib; Kumar, Sandeep; Dohroo, Shweta; Singh, Geetanjali; Sharma, Mandeep
Cattle are an integral part of the largely agrarian economy of India. Indigenous breeds of cattle comprise about 80% of total cattle population of the country and contribute significantly to the overall milk production. There are 40 recognized indigenous breeds of cattle and a number of uncharacterized non-descript cattle. Pahari cattle of Himachal Pradesh in Northern India are one such non-descript indigenous breed. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of haematobiochemical parameters and innate and adaptive immune response traits of Pahari cattle and a comparison with Jersey crossbred cattle. The study shows demonstrable differences in the two breeds with respect to some innate and adaptive immunological traits. This is a first attempt to characterize immune response traits of Pahari cattle and the results of the study provide an understanding of breed differences in immune status of cattle which could be useful for their breeding and conservations programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ben J Hayes
Full Text Available Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. With the motivation of selecting cattle adapted to these changing environments, we conducted a genome wide association study to detect DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the sensitivity of milk production to environmental conditions. To do this we combined historical milk production and weather records with dense marker genotypes on dairy sires with many daughters milking across a wide range of production environments in Australia. Markers associated with sensitivity of milk production to feeding level and sensitivity of milk production to temperature humidity index on chromosome nine and twenty nine respectively were validated in two independent populations, one a different breed of cattle. As the extent of linkage disequilibrium across cattle breeds is limited, the underlying causative mutations have been mapped to a small genomic interval containing two promising candidate genes. The validated marker panels we have reported here will aid selection for high milk production under anticipated climate change scenarios, for example selection of sires whose daughters will be most productive at low levels of feeding.
Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S
The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as
Garry, F B; Fettman, M J; Curtis, C R; Smith, J A
This study was designed to evaluate serum bile acid measurements as indicatory, of liver function and/or hepatic fat infiltration in dairy cattle. Serum bile acid concentrations were measured in healthy dairy cattle at different stages of lactation after fasting or feeding. Bile acid concentrations were compared with liver fat content and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) half-life (T 1/2). Serum bile acid concentrations were higher in cows in early lactation and with higher daily milk production. Compared with prefasting values, bile acid concentrations were decreased at 8, 14, and 24 hours of fasting. Blood samples from fed cows at 1- to 2-hour intervals had wide and inconsistent variations in bile acid concentration. Because serum bile acids correlated well with BSP T 1/2, it is suggested that both measurements evaluate a similar aspect of liver function. Neither bile acids nor BSP T 1/2 correlated with differences in liver fat content among cows. Because of large variability in serum bile acid concentrations in fed cows and the lack of correlation of measured values with liver fat content, bile acid determinations do not appear useful for showing changes in hepatic function in fed cows with subclinical hepatic lipidosis nor serve as a screening test for this condition.
Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.; Ancker, M. L.
This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended...... both for farmers, extension officers, breeding advisors and veterinarians. Insemination and conception rates, for cows and heifers, are modeled at the herd level using Dynamic Generalized Linear Models for binomial data. The results are updated and monitored on a weekly basis, using control charts......, and alarms are provided when the performances are below target values. Both the number of observed inseminations and pregnancies, and the insemination and pregnancy rates are monitored. The components of the user interface are presented and some comprehensive graphs, accessible to the user, illustrate...
Daniela Souza Rajão
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.
Full Text Available Metritis is an important disease in dairy cattle which causes economical loses including decrease in milk yield, increase calving interval, treatment costs and death of ill cases. Septic metritis usually occurs within 2-10 days after parturition, and characterized clinically with sever toxemia associated with purulent odorous uterine discharge with or without retained placenta. In this study, serum levels of cTnI were measured in 50 female Holstein cattle with septicmetritis and compared with normal cows. cTnI of serum in disease and control groups were 0.017 ± 0.008 and 0.005 ± 0.000 ng/dl, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature in disease cases were significantly higher than normal cattle. There was significant correlation with cTnI and heart rate and rectal temperature. Endotoxemia is one of possible reasons of elevation of serum cTnI. Cytokines and endotoxins originated from gram negative bacteria that cause myocardium depression and ventricular dilatation. Furthermore impairment of left ventricle function is a significant effect of septic shock.
Sithembile Olga Makina
Full Text Available Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA including Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47, Bonsmara (n=44, Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29. Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR, expected heterozygosity (He and inbreeding coefficient (f. Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei’s genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE. Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner to 1.73 (Nguni. Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He=0.24 and the Drakensberger cattle (He=0.30 had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of South African cattle breeds.
Brown, A; Ojango, J; Gibson, J; Coffey, M; Okeyo, M; Mrode, R
Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is potential for implementing genomic selection for young bulls in crossbred small-holder cattle populations, and targeted genotyping and phenotyping should be pursued to facilitate this. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tong, Bin; Zhang, Li; Li, Guang-Peng
The studies of beef cattle breeding in China have been greatly improved with the rapid development of the international beef cattle industrialization. The beef cattle breeding technologies have rapidly transformed from traditional breeding to molecular marker-assisted breeding, genomic selection and genetic modification breeding. Hundreds of candidate genes and molecular markers associated with growth, meat quality, reproduction performance and diseases resistance have been identified, and some of them have already been used in cattle breeding. Genes and molecular markers associated with growth and development are focused on the growth hormone, muscle regulatory factors, myostatin and insulin-like growth factors. Meat quality is mediated by fatty acid transport and deposition related signals, calpains and calpain system, muscle regulatory factors and muscle growth regulation pathways. Reproduction performance is regulated by GnRH-FSH-LH, growth differentiation factor 9, prolactin receptor and forkhead box protein O1. Disease resistance is modulated by the major histocompatibility complex gene family, toll-like receptors, mannose-binding lectin and interferon gene signals. In this review, we summarize the most recent progress in beef cattle breeding in marker-assisted selection, genome-wide selection and genetic modification breeding, aiming to provide a reference for further genetic breeding research of beef cattle in China.
Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R
Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 ± 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 ± 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 ± 2.06) and MS (33.3 ± 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 ± 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 ± 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Vries, A
Genetic improvement in sires used for artificial insemination (AI) is increasing faster compared with a decade ago. The genetic merit of replacement heifers is also increasing faster and the genetic lag with older cows in the herd increases. This may trigger greater cow culling to capture this genetic improvement. On the other hand, lower culling rates are often viewed favorably because the costs and environmental effects of maintaining herd size are generally lower. Thus, there is an economic trade-off between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the principles, literature, and magnitude of these trade-offs. Data from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding show that the estimated breeding value of the trait productive life has increased for 50 yr but the actual time cows spend in the herd has not increased. The average annual herd cull rate remains at approximately 36% and cow longevity is approximately 59 mo. The annual increase in average estimated breeding value of the economic index lifetime net merit of Holstein sires is accelerating from $40/yr when the sire entered AI around 2002 to $171/yr for sires that entered AI around 2012. The expectation is therefore that heifers born in 2015 are approximately $50 more profitable per lactation than heifers born in 2014. Asset replacement theory shows that assets should be replaced sooner when the challenging asset is technically improved. Few studies have investigated the direct effects of genetic improvement on optimal cull rates. A 35-yr-old study found that the economically optimal cull rates were in the range of 25 to 27%, compared with the lowest possible involuntary cull rate of 20%. Only a small effect was observed of using the best surviving dams to generate the replacement heifer calves. Genetic improvement from sires had little effect on the optimal cull rate. Another study that optimized culling decisions for individual cows also showed that the
which I prefer, "breeding" is seen as the utilisation of total genetic variation ... was useful for preserving food and for the candle industry. (Evans and ... replaced by more productive types as mother stock while sires are .... Classification of cattle breeds used mainly for beef production in South Africa. Breeds ... maintenance.
Miglior, Filippo; Fleming, Allison; Malchiodi, Francesca; Brito, Luiz F; Martin, Pauline; Baes, Christine F
Over the past 100 yr, the range of traits considered for genetic selection in dairy cattle populations has progressed to meet the demands of both industry and society. At the turn of the 20th century, dairy farmers were interested in increasing milk production; however, a systematic strategy for selection was not available. Organized milk performance recording took shape, followed quickly by conformation scoring. Methodological advances in both genetic theory and statistics around the middle of the century, together with technological innovations in computing, paved the way for powerful multitrait analyses. As more sophisticated analytical techniques for traits were developed and incorporated into selection programs, production began to increase rapidly, and the wheels of genetic progress began to turn. By the end of the century, the focus of selection had moved away from being purely production oriented toward a more balanced breeding goal. This shift occurred partly due to increasing health and fertility issues and partly due to societal pressure and welfare concerns. Traits encompassing longevity, fertility, calving, health, and workability have now been integrated into selection indices. Current research focuses on fitness, health, welfare, milk quality, and environmental sustainability, underlying the concentrated emphasis on a more comprehensive breeding goal. In the future, on-farm sensors, data loggers, precision measurement techniques, and other technological aids will provide even more data for use in selection, and the difficulty will lie not in measuring phenotypes but rather in choosing which traits to select for. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
W. A. Septian
Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.
Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare
In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik
Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old imported, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic......, allelic diversity has been reduced in several breeds, which was explained by limited effective population sizes over the course of man-directed breed development and demographic bottlenecks of indigenous breeds. A tree showing genetic relationships between breeds was constructed from a matrix of random...... drift-based genetic distance estimates. The breeds were classified on the basis of the tree topology into four major breed groups, defined as Northern indigenous breeds, Southern breeds, Ayrshire and Friesian breeds, and Jersey. Grouping of Nordic breeds was supported by documented breed history...
Lynch, M.J.; Mosher, F.R.; Burnett, D.M.; Newby, T.J.
Residues of morantel and its metabolites were monitored in plasma, urine, and milk of five lactating dairy cattle that received an oral dose of [4,4-pyrimidyl- 3 H 2 ]morantel tartrate at 10 mg/kg. Drug-related radioactivity peaked in plasma at 8 h and in milk by the second milking, postdose, and was 170 and 84 ng/mL, respectively. The fraction of total residues in milk convertible to the marker compound, N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine, was 0.38 on the basis of a comparison of the areas under the curves for total and marker residues. Five days after dosing, 3.9% of the total radioactivity in liver was recovered as tritium water. Total drug-related residues in this target tissue averaged 1.15 μg/g. About half of the drug-related residues in liver was unextractable and was classified by bound
Full Text Available Cattle breeding, a traditional sector of agricultural production, is currently recording a very intensive development caused by the effort of farmers to maximize production and especially their profit. Rapid implementation of new technologies, that help to achieve this goal, cannot be reliably carried out without the use of modern computer and transmission technology controlled by a quality control program. Absence of a similar system on our market led the company Agrosoft to develop a system sorting according to register designed for all types of farming, regardless of the amount of housed animals. The product was created in a Czech company, respects traditional local customs and his undisputable contribution is the subsequent connection to superior organizations operating in the Czech Republic. Complexity of this newly developed product is brought almost to perfection and allows producers to work with the files of needed information fundamentally anywhere and anytime. The new software improves and accelerates the managing work in breeding companies and consequently helps to improve the quality of final products to increase their profitability.
Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African dairy cattle. ... are not unity, the RM-model estimates more competitive variances and requires ... are therefore recommended for breeding value estimation on a national basis.
Ayuningtyas, Widya D.; Ridwan, Roni; Joni, I. M.; Marlina, E. T.; Harlia, Ellin
Coal produces Coal Bed Methane (CBM) which is formed both biogenically and thermogenically. Lignite is not utilized optimally because it has low heat content and productivity time limit that decreases CBM production. In order to utilize lignite waste, adding inoculum consortium microorganism from dairy cattle waste as starter for biogas process can be a solution. This study aimed to produce inoculum consortium microorganism as biogas starter from dairy cattle feces through in vitro activation process by Theoudorou modification method. The research used complete randomized design with 3 replications. The treatments were blank (R0), 100% concentrate (R1), 70% concentrate+30% grass (R2), 70% grass+30% concentrate (R3) and 100% grass (R4). All treatments were added by buffer solution and feces with ratio of 2:1 into 100 ml serum injection bottle with anaerobic conditions. The parameters observed were gas production, pH and gas kinetics (orskov's equation) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The results showed that the treatment had significant effect (P <0.05) on the observed parameters. The highest total gas production was for R2 and R3 treatments with total production of 91.17 ml and 101.17 ml, pH (6.62 and 6.57), maximum gas production (94.03 and 97.62 ml), speed of gas production (0.066 and 0.084 ml/hour). There is not a significant difference for both the treatments. The source of inoculum consortium microorganisms for biogas starter selected based on the observed parameters and potential availability of proteolytic and fibrocytic microorganisms is R2 (70% concentrate +30% grass).
Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R
Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (Pcows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429
This paper reviews the importance of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows, its associations with disease and reproduction, and strategies for monitoring cows under field conditions during this critical time. Essentially all dairy cattle experience a period of insulin resistance, reduced feed intake, negative energy balance, hypocalcemia, reduced immune function, and bacterial contamination of the uterus soon before, or in the weeks after calving. One-third of dairy cows may be affected by some form of metabolic or infectious disease in early lactation. Routine, proactive actions, observations, or analysis are intended to accurately and efficiently provide early detection of problems, to provide an opportunity for investigation and intervention in order to limit the consequences and costs of health problems and reduced animal performance or welfare. Methods of early detection include monitoring of disease and culling records, feed intake, milk production, body condition, and simple metabolic tests. Methods, strategies, and interpretation of measurement of peripartum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as indicators of aspects of energy status and disease risk are reviewed. High NEFA (> 0.4 mmol/l) in the last 7 to 10 days before expected calving is associated with increased risk of displaced abomasum (DA), retained placenta, culling before 60 days in milk, and less milk production in the first 4 months of lactation. Subclinical ketosis (serum BHB >1200 to 1400 micromol/l) in the first or second week after calving is associated with increased risk of DA, metritis, clinical ketosis, endometritis, prolonged postpartum anovulation, increased severity of mastitis, and lower milk production in early lactation. There are several validated and practical tools for cow-side measurement of ketosis.
Reinaldo Henrique Borger
Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.
Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes
Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the
Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.; Berends, H.
There is a need to develop simple ways of quantifying and estimating CH4 production in cattle. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CH4 production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in order to use milk FA profiles to predict CH4 production in dairy cattle. Data from 3 experiments with
Full Text Available We biochemically analyzed and characterized the genetic structure of a population in danger of extinction ,"Alberes", a local cattle breed of the Catalonian Pyrenees (Spain and France. Ninety-two individuals were analyzed for five polymorphic genetic loci (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc and Ptf2. The animals were grouped according to coat color: Fagina Alberes variety (N = 39 and Black Alberes variety (N = 53. The genetic structures and relationships between these subpopulations and one "outgroup" breed ("Bruna dels Pirineus" were analyzed and compared by using F-statistics. We determined that inbreeding in the Alberes breed is not significant, since negative and nonsignificant FIT and FIS values were obtained. The average genetic differentiation between subpopulations within the Alberes breed was 1.5% (FST = 0.015; P A estrutura génetica de uma população de Alberes, uma raça de gado dos Pirineus catalônicos (Espanha e França em risco de extinção, foi analisada e caracterizada bioquimicamente. Noventa e dois indivíduos foram analisados para 5 loci genéticos polimórficos (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc e Ptf2. Os animais foram agrupados de acordo com a cor do pêlo: variedade Fagina Alberes (N = 39 e Black Alberes (N = 53. As estruturas genéticas e as relações entre estas subpopulações e uma raça extra ("Bruna dels Pirineus" foram analisadas e comparadas pela estatística F. A endogamia na raça Alberes não foi significante, pois foram obtidos valores FIT e FIS negativos e não significantes. A diferenciação genética média entre as subpopulações dentro da raça Alberes foi 1,5% (FST = 0,015; P < 0,05, com um número efetivo de 4,1 indivíduos trocados entre as subpopulações por geração (fluxo de gene. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo confirmaram o perigo potencial de extinção da raça. A variedade Black Alberes é sugerida como o principal núcleo de conservação genética para esta raça, pois parece mostrar maior grau de isolamento gen
Evans, R.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk production and selected fertility traits in Irish dairy cattle. Data were derived from 74 seasonal spring-calving dairy herds with a potential cow population of 6,783 in the 1999 calving season. The average 305-day yields (kg)
Klop, G.; Ellis, J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Brandsma, G.G.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.
In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P
Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.
Foot disorders are the main cause of dairy cow lameness and are considered to have a major impact on the welfare of dairy cattle. This study adopts a modeling approach, using a dynamic stochastic model, to provide more insight into the welfare impact of different types of foot disorders, both
Duinkerken, van G.
Diet optimization contributes considerably to increased nitrogen efficiency of dairy cattle, resulting in reduced nitrogen losses. This thesis focuses on three themes: the potential advances in protein evaluation systems for ruminants, the relationship between dairy cow diet and ammonia emission
Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...
S Mosaferi; S Ettehad; H Kooshavar
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN) level and reproductive performance in high yielding dairy cattle houses in Tabriz, Iran. Among 213 selected dairy cattle, 76 heads (35.7%) have MUN 16 mg/dl (mean = 17.46 mg/dl). Our results indicated that MUN level in 81 heads of dairy cattle (total 124 heads) with mastitis, dystocia, laminitis, uterine infections or placenta replacement was...
Commercialization of animal biotechnologies, including those related to reproduction [also known as assisted reproductive techniques (ARTS)], is an increasing reality in developing countries, following the enormous flow of information around us and the increasing global commercial interests in areas where cattle production has its major assets. The present review discusses the achievements of various biotechnological tools for reproduction in cattle including semen handling for artificial insemination (AI), superovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro handling of oocytes and production of embryos, reproductive cloning and emerging technologies (sex selection, gene targeting and nuclear transfer for livestock transgenesis, genomics for marker-assisted selection, etc.). The application of these technologies for cattle breeding is critically discussed in relation to their impact in the improvement of the efficiency of dairy and beef production in developed and - particularly - in developing countries, which ultimately rule the possibilities of a competitive and sound production of food for human consumption. Despite the remarkable progress made and the punctual importance of some of the above-mentioned technologies, AI remains the most important assisted reproductive technology (ART) in developing countries. Any attempt to gain widespread of any other ART under the predominant economical conditions in developing countries ought to match the simplicity and the success of AI as a breeding tool. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Emery, R S
In a field study of 80 cows in 9 dairy herds, serial liver biopsies were performed over the peripartum period to determine degree of hepatic lipidosis. Cattle were separated into categories of mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis on the basis of maximal amounts of hepatic triglyceride that accumulated during this period. Number of cattle with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis were 52, 16, and 12, respectively. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had greater concentrations of hepatic triglyceride before calving and after parturition, and greater serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and body condition loss after parturition than cattle with mild hepatic lipidosis. Rate of disease and culling and death rate because of disease were greater in cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had reproductive performance equal to clinically normal cattle; however, cattle with moderate hepatic lipidosis had increased days to conception, possibly related to greater milk production.
ÖZSOY, Serhat; ALTUNATMAZ, Kemal
This study was carried out to determine the relationship between aflatoxins taken with feed, laminitis, lameness and impaired fertility. Lesions were identified in the claw and hock region, causing lameness in 45 cattle in an establishment of 300 Holstein dairy cattle. Of these lame cattle, 27 had cystic ovaries and 10 had cystic ovaries together with clinical metritis. The increase in lameness and fertility problems occurring in this herd, living under the same management and feeding conditi...
Kelly, Robert F.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Nkongho, Egbe F.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N.; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G.; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de. C.
Background Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. Study design A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Results Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Conclusions Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation
Almeida Leonardo D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The
Magretha D. Pierce
Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs comprise deletions, duplications, and insertions found within the genome larger than 50 bp in size. CNVs are thought to be primary role-players in breed formation and adaptation. South Africa boasts a diverse ecology with harsh environmental conditions and a broad spectrum of parasites and diseases that pose challenges to livestock production. This has led to the development of composite cattle breeds which combine the hardiness of Sanga breeds and the production potential of the Taurine breeds. The prevalence of CNVs within these respective breeds of cattle and the prevalence of CNV regions (CNVRs in their diversity, adaptation and production is however not understood. This study therefore aimed to ascertain the prevalence, diversity, and correlations of CNVRs within cattle breeds used in South Africa. Illumina Bovine SNP50 data and PennCNV were utilized to identify CNVRs within the genome of 287 animals from seven cattle breeds representing Sanga, Taurine, Composite, and cross breeds. Three hundred and fifty six CNVRs of between 36 kb to 4.1 Mb in size were identified. The null hypothesis that one CNVR loci is independent of another was tested using the GENEPOP software. One hunded and two and seven of the CNVRs in the Taurine and Sanga/Composite cattle breeds demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05 association. PANTHER overrepresentation analyses of correlated CNVRs demonstrated significant enrichment of a number of biological processes, molecular functions, cellular components, and protein classes. CNVR genetic variation between and within breed group was measured using phiPT which allows intra-individual variation to be suppressed and hence proved suitable for measuring binary CNVR presence/absence data. Estimate PhiPT within and between breed variance was 2.722 and 0.518 respectively. Pairwise population PhiPT values corresponded with breed type, with Taurine Holstein and Angus breeds demonstrating no between
Bada Algom, O; Fabry, C; Leroy, P L; Hornick, J-L
Kouri (Bos taurus) is a breed aboriginal from Lake Chad and threatened with extinction. This study aimed to compare milk fatty acid profiles measured on Kouri cows and on high-yielding dairy cattle in Europe and elsewhere as reported by meta-analytical data (22 experimentations). Milk samples were collected from 14 Kouri dairy cows in dry season (March to June) and fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas chromatography. Overall, 32 FA have been identified. Kouri showed lower values (P pastures by Kouri cows.
Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...
Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R
Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations.
Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (Pcows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Foot injuries are one of the most important health problems in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the occurrence of foot injuries (FI in Costa Rica’s dairy cattle. A total of 130 844 cows (417 895 lactations from 358 herds users of the VAMPP (Veterinary Automated Management and Production control Programme software were analyzed between 1990 and 2015. The frequency of FI reports was 16.7% and 7.0% per cow and lactation, respectively. The most frequent FI were white line separation (34.3%, laminitis (13.0%, and sole ulcer (12.8%. FI was analyzed by a logistic regression, which determined significant effects of the following factors: zone, herd within zone, calving number, racial type, period and calving month, lactation stage, herd size, and the cow random effect. Cows with the highest propensity to suffer FI events came from the humid premontane forest zone (OR=1.76, were in the fourth calving (OR=1.29, Holstein breed (OR=1.77, calved between 1995 and 1999 (OR=1.73, April (OR=1.20, were in the second month of lactation (OR=22.2, and came from herds with at least 100 cows (OR=1.22. The heritability for FI, estimated by linear and threshold models, were 0.02±0.002 and 0.05±0.004, respectively; and the repeatability estimates were 0.03±0.001 and 0.05, respectively. Cows with FI presented 16.1 additional days open. There is a high impact of this disease in the evaluated dairy herds.
Senger, P L; Becker, W C; Davidge, S T; Hillers, J K; Reeves, J J
The objective of this study was to compare conception to artificial insemination (AI) services in dairy cattle when semen was deposited into the uterine body or into both uterine horns (cornual insemination). Nine herdsman inseminators (HI) in four commercial dairy herds in Washington constituted the experimental units. Herds ranged in size from 393 cows to 964 cows. The duration of the experiment was 12 mo in three herds and 18 mo in the fourth herd. At the beginning of the experiment all inseminators were trained to deposit semen in the body of the uterus. Inseminators were instructed to use this method for 6 mo. Following employment of body deposition, the same inseminators were retrained to deposit one-half of the semen into the right uterine horn and one-half into the left uterine horn. Cornual inseminations were performed for 6 mo. A total of 4,178 services constituted the data set. Milk samples were collected from cows on the day of insemination and later were assayed for progesterone (P4). There was variation (P less than .01) in conception associated with month of insemination and insemination method (P less than .001). The monthly variation was not associated with season of the year. Least squares means for conception when semen was deposited in the uterine body was 44.7%, compared with 64.6% when cornual insemination was employed. The insemination treatment X inseminator interaction was not significant. Results suggest that cornual insemination provides an alternative to deposition of semen in the uterine body.
Somers, Joris R; Huxley, Jon; Lorenz, Ingrid; Doherty, Michael L; O'Grady, Luke
The effects of lameness on fertility have been documented frequently but few data are available from seasonally breeding, pasture-based herds (such as those used in Ireland) where cows are housed during the winter months but managed at pasture for the remainder of the year. This study determined the prevalence of lameness in a group of 786 cows in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herds before, during and after the breeding season and assessed the relationship between lameness and the reproductive performance in these herds through serial locomotion scoring during the grazing period. Lameness prevalences of 11.6 % before, 14.6 % during and 11.6 % after the breeding season were found and these compared favourably to results from housed cattle and are similar to other studies carried out in grazing herds. A Cox proportional hazards model with locomotion score as time varying covariate was used. After controlling for the effect of farm, month of calving, body condition score at calving, body condition score loss after calving and economic breeding index, cows identified as lame during the study were less likely to become pregnant. Cows lame before the earliest serve date but no longer lame during the breeding season, cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows identified lame both before and after this date were respectively 12 %, 35 % and 38 % less likely to become pregnant compared to cows never observed lame during the study. However, these findings were only significant for cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows lame both before and after the start of breeding. This study found that the reproductive efficiency was significantly (p 0.05) lower in these animals compared to cows never diagnosed as lame. In addition to lameness status, nutritional status and genetics were found to influence the reproductive performance in pasture-based Irish dairy herds.
M. bovis was identified by growth rate, pigment production, colony and cell morphology and biochemical characteristics. A total of 41 heads of cattle comprising of 9 bulls and 32 cows from 7 breeds were positive for M. bovis. No isolate of M. bovis was obtained from Keteku breed and no seasonal distribution of the organism ...
Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.F.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Roep, D.; Baars, T.
Currently, most organic dairy farmers in the Netherlands use conventional breeding methods and production stock. In view of the organic objective of closed chains, organic dairy farmers discussed in workshops the desirability and practical merits of different possible scenarios for realizing
Aragaw, Kassaye; Sibhat, Berhanu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Skjerve, Eystein; Gebremedhin, Endrias Z; Asmare, Kassahun
This work was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence, to identify potential factors that influence seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and to investigate the association between BVDV serostatus and occurrence of reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia. A total of 1379 serum samples were obtained from cattle randomly selected from 149 herds from three milksheds representing central, southern, and western Ethiopia. Sera samples were examined for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies using commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate associations between risk factors and the risk of BVDV seroprevalence, and BVDV serostatus and reproductive disorders. Seroreaction to BVDV antigens was detected in 32.6% of the 1379 cattle and 69.8% of the 149 herds sampled. Factors associated with BVDV seroplevalence were age, breed, and herd size (P 0.05). Risk of reproductive disorders was not affected by BVDV serostatus, except for repeat breeding (P > 0.05). The present study demonstrated that BVDV has wide distribution in the country being detected in all the 15 conurbations and 69.8% of herds involved in the study.
von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W
Embryonic losses contribute considerably to low pregnancy rates. Between d 8 and 17 after breeding, the conceptus secretes interferon-τ as a mechanism for maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of the corpus luteum. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin F(2α) by suppressing the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Flunixin meglumine (FM) has been demonstrated to delay luteolysis and to support embryonic survival. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FM and carprofen on conception rates in dairy heifers and cows, respectively. In experiment 1, the effect of FM on pregnancy rates and progesterone concentrations in dairy heifers was tested. A total of 391 heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Heifers in the treatment group (n=197) received 2.2 mg of FM i.m./kg of body weight twice on d 14/15 and 15/16 after insemination, whereas heifers in the control group (n=194) remained untreated. Blood samples from 388 heifers were taken on d 14/15 and 21/22 after artificial insemination and analyzed for progesterone. Pregnancy rates were 58.2 and 54.8% for the control and treatment groups, respectively. Mean progesterone concentrations were not affected by treatment and number of artificial insemination service (first or second artificial insemination service), but were affected by time and time × pregnancy status. In experiment 2, the objective was to verify the effects of carprofen, a longer acting nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and to evaluate its effect on conception rate to first service in dairy cows. A total of 380 cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows in the treatment group (n=194) received 1.4 mg of carprofen s.c./kg of body weight on d 15 after insemination, whereas cows in the control group (n=186) remained untreated. Pregnancy was diagnosed between d 40 and 47 after insemination. Conception rates to first service were 35.5 and 33.0% in the control and treatment groups
Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Brøndum, R F; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S
Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Indicators of breed composition such as hair color and ear length often result in increased or decreased prices of young calves marketed into feedlots. Similarly, feedlot research trials are often initiated with blended cattle from multiple sources with little more than coat color used as a blockin...
Joel Fernando Soares Filipe
Full Text Available The selective pressure for increased milk production brought about great difficulties in the adaptation of cows to their environment. However, not much is known about the biological mechanisms behind the relationship between genetic selection and higher risk of metabolic and infectious diseases (Oltenacu, P.A., and Broom, D.M., 2010. It is well known that during the calving period, high-yielding dairy cattle are more susceptible to common environmental stressors, affecting disease occurrence and milk production levels (Bach, A., 2011. In this study we compared innate immune response of 6 Holstein Friesian (HF and 4 Rendena (R cows reared in the same farm and under the same management conditions. Milk and blood samples were collected at dry-off (T1, 1 day after calving (T2, 7-10 days after calving (T3, and 30 days after calving (T4. Milk samples were subjected to measurement of the inflammation marker cathelicidin and assessment of different innate immune-related mediators; blood samples were used for the analysis of plasma metabolites indicators of systemic inflammation. HF cows showed a more severe systemic inflammatory response at T2 and T3 in comparison with R cows (fig.1. Concerning the milk protein abundance profile, higher levels in R cows were observed in the colostrum (T2. Moreover, at all time points HF showed higher levels of the inflammation marker cathelicidin in milk (fig.2. In addition, the expression of innate immune related genes were different in HF compared with R (fig.3. Our results suggest that HF cows develop a systemic and local mammary inflammatory response that confirms their higher susceptibility to disease compared with R cows. Our findings reveal that fundamental effector activities of innate immunity in the mammary gland could be included in the breeding programs of HF cows and suggest the spread of autochthonous cow farming in order to maintain the biodiversity, reduce the antibiotic consumption and production of
Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R
Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per
Full Text Available otential dairy development enhanced by availability of food, farmers knowledge, the demand for milk, farmer's income, market infrastructure, the role of credit institutions and government policies. The study aims are to analyze the condition of the resource, technical and economic aspects in the business of dairy cattle as well as alternative strategies for deployment. Research conducted using survey method. The results showed that the relative resource support dairy cattle business, family’s labor and the motivation to develop, fodder and traditional medicines obtained in the environment of the area, population LQ categorized as a regional base. Technical in dairy cattle business well known and economically advantageous RCR value of 2.22; GMP 56%; NPM 52%; TAT 48%; and the ROI of 11%. Based on the SWOT strategy in developing the dairy cattle business in the District of Pangkalan Kerinci is SO strategy (Strength-Opportunity, which is a strategy that supports an aggressive growth (Growth oriented, using enforcement utilization of opportunities and policy based on priorities. The development policies stategy consisting improving capital acces, maximized culture technology, increasing cattle population and production, improving farmer knowledge in diversification of agroindustri product, creating adequate forage, improving product competitiveness, and product promotion.
Full Text Available Abstract In a stochastic simulation study of a dairy cattle population three multitrait models for estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values were compared. The first model was an approximate multitrait model using a two-step procedure. The first step was a single trait model for all traits. The solutions for fixed effects from these analyses were subtracted from the phenotypes. A multitrait model only containing an overall mean, an additive genetic and a residual term was applied on these preadjusted data. The second model was similar to the first model, but the multitrait model also contained a year effect. The third model was a full multitrait model. Genetic trends for total merit and for the individual traits in the breeding goal were compared for the three scenarios to rank the models. The full multitrait model gave the highest genetic response, but was not significantly better than the approximate multitrait model including a year effect. The inclusion of a year effect into the second step of the approximate multitrait model significantly improved the genetic trend for total merit. In this study, estimation of genetic parameters for breeding value estimation using models corresponding to the ones used for prediction of breeding values increased the accuracy on the breeding values and thereby the genetic progress.
Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C
Post-parturient insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature in all mammalian animals. However, in dairy cows, it can be exacerbated because of high milk yield, leading to excessive negative energy balance, which is related with increased disease incidence, reduced milk production and worsened reproductive performance. IR has been extensively investigated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, it is known that oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in the onset of IR. Although OS occurs in transitional dairy cattle, there are yet no studies that investigated the association between IR and OS in dairy cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between OS and IR in dairy cattle. Serum samples were taken repeatedly from 22 dairy cows from 2 months prior to the expected calving date to 2 months after calving and were analysed for markers of metabolic and redox balance. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. Generalised linear mixed models revealed an effect of the oxidative status on peripheral insulin concentration and on indices of insulin sensitivity. Hence, field trials should investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy on insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues during the transition period of dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.
Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti
soil surface and is less demanding on machinery and fuel. Besides that, it represents an economic and environmental costly technique. Among interviewed milk producers, 77.2% adopted no-tillage technique and 75.9% made use of plot rotation. Other practices were less used by milk producers, such as agroecology system (12.6% of sample; 20.2% informed to adopt technique to reduce water consumption, such as the collection of roof water and the construction of cisterns. Finally, 12.6% of producers adopted energy saving practices. We concluded that practices adopted by great number of producers can be more related to economic and quality variables, with an indirect effect on environmental factors. It means that, although practices can help to reduce negative environmental impact, there are still many possibilities to increase environmental sustainable competitiveness in dairy cattle in Paraná.
Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes
Full Text Available The adoption of differents management practices is a way to remain in the dairy business. The reduction of the dairy cattle in São Paulo was 35.47% between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA. In São Paulo State the milk production was reduced by 29.7% IBGE (1995 and 2006. In milk production systems the adoption of the rotational grazing and the use of more inputs, causes a great impact on the environment. The objective of this paper is to assess these impacts in farms with the semi-intensive system of milk production. The emergy methodology was used to calculated the renewability of milk production system. The Renewability or degree of sustainability (%R = (R/Y 100 is the percentage of renewable emergy (R used by the system and Y is the sum of all the resources used by the system. In long periods of time, only production systems with a high percentage of renewable emergy will prevail to the stress of today's market, while those using a high percentage of non-renewable resources will certainly go into decline. The farm studied is located in the municipality of Guzolândia and yields 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. The farm is administered with the objective of profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserve the environment. Management decisions are defined with the support of operational control that collects and stores information necessary to manage pastures and animals. The results showed that the renewability mean of six years (2005 at 2011 is 14.83% (Table 1, indicating a high use of non-renewable resources, which places the environment in risk under these productive conditions. The recommendation is to use of natural resources in a best way, reducing market input costs, thus reducing the value of Y, and improving the Renewability of the milk production.
Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
Milk yield data (n = 12307) from 116 Holstein-Friesian herds were grouped into three production environments based on mean and standard deviation of herd 305-day milk yield and evaluated for within herd variation using univariate animal model procedures. Variance components were estimated by derivative free REML ...
Selection and Breeding of Cattle in Asia: Strategies and Criteria for Improved Breeding. Prepared under the Framework of an RCA Project with the Technical Support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment (RAS/5/044). The 23 project counterparts and the IAEA technical officer, based on the lack of standard practices in the region with regard to selection of cattle for breeding purposes, and the need to properly manage the genetic resources within each country for improving the productivity of the existing stock while maintaining the unique and beneficial genetic characteristics of the indigenous breeds, agreed during the first meeting to request the IAEA to recruit a group of experts with the task of preparing guidelines for the selection and breeding of cattle and buffalo on the Asian continent. To address these recommendations, an experts meeting on Selection Criteria for Breeding Heifers was organized and held in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The meeting was hosted by the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) from 6 to 10 February 2006. It was attended by six foreign experts and two local experts, and was supported by the technical officer of RAS/5/044. The experts from countries participating in RAS/5/044 gave presentations on the current state of cattle breeding in their countries and two experts working in industrialized countries within the region (New Zealand and Australia) informed the participants about the existing cattle breeding programmes in their respective countries and offered their perspectives on how similar approaches could be transferred to the Member States participating in RAS/5/044. All experts also made a field visit to a prominent dairy-producing region, to experience at first-hand some of the current programmes
Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert
. This is largely in agreement with the breed clusters indicated by a biochemical and molecular genetic analysis, which reflect either groups of breeds with a common geographic origin or single breeds that have expanded by export and/or crossbreeding. We propose that this information is also relevant for managing...
Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.
Krug, C; Haskell, M J; Nunes, T; Stilwell, G
The objective of this study was to determine whether dairy farms with poor cow welfare could be identified using a national database for bovine identification and registration that monitors cattle deaths and movements. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality(®) protocol (WQ) on 24 Portuguese dairy farms and on 1930 animals. Five farms were classified as having poor welfare and the other 19 were classified as having good welfare. Fourteen million records from the national cattle database were analysed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Fifteen potential national welfare indicators were calculated based on that database, and the link between the results on the WQ evaluation and the national cattle database was made using the identification code of each farm. Within the potential national welfare indicators, only two were significantly different between farms with good welfare and poor welfare, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' (ptree based on two variables, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' and 'calving-to-calving interval', and it was able to correctly identify 70% and 79% of the farms classified as having poor and good welfare, respectively. The national cattle database analysis could be useful in helping official veterinary services in detecting farms that have poor welfare and also in determining which welfare indicators are poor on each particular farm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Johannes, Maike
The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit...... expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural....
Full Text Available The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1% showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals. Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10(-4 including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total. Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina, SLC35A3 (CVM, APAF1 (HH1 and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle.
Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier
The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (pHH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle.
Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier
The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392
Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P
Full Text Available Four Korean native cattle (KNC breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120 and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56. Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535, heifer (641 and adult (1163 cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (3 years cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%, followed by monsoon (15%, winter (9.44%, and pre-monsoon (7.49% season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season.
Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J
The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bernabucci, U; Biffani, S; Buggiotti, L; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A
The data set for this study comprised 1,488,474 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yields and fat and protein percentages from 191,012 first-, second-, and third-parity Holstein cows from 484 farms. Data were collected from 2001 through 2007 and merged with meteorological data from 35 weather stations. A linear model (M1) was used to estimate the effects of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on production traits. Least squares means from M1 were used to detect the THI thresholds for milk production in all parities by using a 2-phase linear regression procedure (M2). A multiple-trait repeatability test-model (M3) was used to estimate variance components for all traits and a dummy regression variable (t) was defined to estimate the production decline caused by heat stress. Additionally, the estimated variance components and M3 were used to estimate traditional and heat-tolerance breeding values (estimated breeding values, EBV) for milk yield and protein percentages at parity 1. An analysis of data (M2) indicated that the daily THI at which milk production started to decline for the 3 parities and traits ranged from 65 to 76. These THI values can be achieved with different temperature/humidity combinations with a range of temperatures from 21 to 36°C and relative humidity values from 5 to 95%. The highest negative effect of THI was observed 4 d before test day over the 3 parities for all traits. The negative effect of THI on production traits indicates that first-parity cows are less sensitive to heat stress than multiparous cows. Over the parities, the general additive genetic variance decreased for protein content and increased for milk yield and fat and protein yield. Additive genetic variance for heat tolerance showed an increase from the first to third parity for milk, protein, and fat yield, and for protein percentage. Genetic correlations between general and heat stress effects were all unfavorable (from -0.24 to -0.56). Three EBV per trait were
Vargas Leitón, B.
During the past decades, genetic improvement of dairy cattle in Costa Rica has depended upon massive importation of germplasm from temperate countries. This may not be an optimal alternative if genetic x environment interactions are significant or production goals differ among countries. The purpose
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) affects cattle from all breeds living in all regions. However, different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to developing BRDC. The causes of BRDC are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Infec...
Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam
Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone
Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.
Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xizhong; Wang, Dongcai; Jin, Guang; Li, Bo; Xu, Fang; Cheng, Jing; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Sujun; Rui, Su; He, Jiang; Zhang, Ronghua; Liu, Wenzhong
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important determinant factor of meat quality in cattle. There is significant difference in IMF content between Jinnan and Simmental cattle. Here, to identify candidate genes and networks associated with IMF deposition, we deeply explored the transcriptome architecture of liver in these two cattle breeds. We sequenced the liver transcriptome of five Jinnan and three Simmental cattle, yielding about 413.9 million sequencing reads. 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, of which 53 were up-regulated and 71 were down-regulated in Jinnan cattle. 1282 potentially novel genes were also identified. Gene ontology analysis revealed these DEGs (including CYP21A2, PC, ACACB, APOA1, and FADS2) were significantly enriched in lipid biosynthetic process, regulation of cholesterol esterification, reverse cholesterol transport, and regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity. Genes involved in pyruvate metabolism pathway were also significantly overrepresented. Moreover, we identified an interaction network which related to lipid metabolism, which might be contributed to the IMF deposition in cattle. We concluded that the DEGs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism could play an important role in IMF deposition. Overall, we proposed a new panel of candidate genes and interaction networks that can be associated with IMF deposition and used as biomarkers in cattle breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tarasiuk, S I; Glazko, V I; Trofimenko, A L
The comparative analysis of characteristics of three different cattle breeds (Brown Carpathian, Pinzgauer, Red Polish) on the 5 molecular-genetic markers and 5 muzzle dermatoglyphic types was carried out. It was indicated, that one characteristic can not be use as a breed-specific one but only their complex. The main aspect of search of this complex is the use of characteristics which mark different structure-functional systems of whole organism.
Remo Alessio Malagnino
Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good
Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.
and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious......Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd...
To better understand growth trajectory and maturity differences between beef breeds, three models – Brody, spline, and quadratic – were fit to cow growth data, and resulting parameter estimates were evaluated for 3 breed categories – British, continental, and Brahman-influenced. The data were weight...
... and both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the Bovine de Tete and the Angone. These results show the intermediate relationship of Bovine de Tete with the Angone and Landim breeds and show that the Bovine de Tete is an admixture of taurine and ...
Bouzembrak, Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.
Feeding dairy cattle with safe compound feed helps farmers to ensure food safety. However, several ingredients often used in compound feed production can be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which may result into milk contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Given the number of ingredients and their
Roelofs, J.B.; Bouwman, E.B.; Pedersen, H.G.; Riestra Rasmussen, Z.; Soede, N.M.; Thomsen, P.D.; Kemp, B.
The objective of the present study was to examine whether different intervals between insemination and ovulation have an influence on the sex of seven-day-old embryos in dairy cattle. Cows were inseminated once with semen of one of two bulls of proven fertility between 36 h before ovulation and 12 h
Full Text Available Selection of dairy cattle for higher milk yield, without considering important non-production traits, has decreased reproductive efficiency. Thus, low reproductive performance is a major problem in high yielding dairy cattle. Previous studies showed that dietary manipulation to improve fertility holds much promise and dietary fats have positive effects on reproductive functions in high yielding dairy cattle. Positive effects of fats on reproductive performance due to the fatty acids, which are the precursors of progesterone and prostaglandins. Progesterone and prostaglandins hormones are most important factors that play a role on the control of reproductive functions. The amount of linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fattty acids in ration can be increase or decrease progesterone and prostaglandins synthesis especially PGF2α from ovary and uterus, respectively. Also fatty acids can be influence follicular development, ovulation, embryonic implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy. This review focuses on the relationships between dietary fatty acids and reproductive functions such as hormone profiles, ovarian function and follicular development, oocyte quality, embryo development, embryonic implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy in dairy cattle.
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue, and outdoor cattle lots can have a high loss potential. We monitored hydrology and nutrient concentrations in leachate and runoff from dairy heifer lots constructed with three surface materials (soil, sand, bark...
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.
A field study was conducted in the Southern Region of Malawi to evaluate the possible benefits of immunisation of improved dairy cattle against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Friesian crossbred heifers were immunised when they were being reared on Government farms. They ...
Armelin, M.J.A.; Piasentin, R.M.; Primavesi, O.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)
Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.
Foot disorders are an important health problem in dairy cattle, in terms of economics and animal welfare. The incidence, severity, and duration of foot disorders account for their importance. Prevalence of both subclinical and clinical foot disorders is high. More insight into the economic
Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.
In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a
Simple random sampling technique was applied to select dairy herds from the available sample frame. A total of. 1279 cattle were ... Statistical significance was assumed if the confidence interval (CI) did not include one among .... Table 3: Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis for potential herd risk factors at ...
Waaij, van der E.H.; Holzhauer, M.; Ellen, E.D.; Kamphuis, C.; Jong, de G.
Impaired claw health is one of the major problems causing production loss and reduced animal welfare in dairy cattle. In response, the Dutch Animal Health Service (GD) Ltd. initiated this study, in which claws of lactating and near-term cows and heifers in 430 herds were trimmed by hoof trimmers and
Werf, van der J.H.J.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Groen, A.F.; Jong, de G.
Carcass data are nowadays routinely collected from Dutch slaughterhouses. The aim of this study was to develop a selection index for beef production traits in a dairy cattle population based upon such data. Records were available from three categories of animals: veal calves, beef bulls, and cows
Niu, Mutian; Kebreab, Ermias; Hristov, Alexander N
data from animals under different management systems worldwide. The objectives of this study were to (1) collate a global database of enteric CH4production from individual lactating dairy cattle; (2) determine the availability of key variables for predicting enteric CH4production (g/day per cow), yield...
Schrooten, C.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.
Chromosomal regions affecting multiple traits ( multiple trait quantitative trait regions or MQR) in dairy cattle were detected using a method based on results from single trait analyses to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). The covariance between contrasts for different traits in single trait
Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandén, I
This study investigated the possibility of increasing the reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) by combining reference opulations. The data were from 3,735 bulls from Danish, Swedish, and Finnish Red dairy cattle populations. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers were fitted as random varia...
Daniela Elena Ilie
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of A and B variants at the CSN3 (κ-casein and LGB (β-lactoglobulin loci in Romanian Spotted and Romanian Brown breeds using PCR-RFLP and PCR-HRM genotyping methods. Altogether, 280 cattle from Arad county were genotyped. The most frequent allele at the CSN3 locus was A in Romanian Spotted breed (0.723 while the B allele was the most common in the Romanian Brown (0.694. For LGB locus the A and B alleles recorded similar frequencies for Romanian Spotted (0.5141 and 0.4859 compared to Romanian Brown breed where the B allele was the most prevalent (0.5970. Knowledges regarding genetic information of breeds related to milk protein are valuable for economic reassertion of cattle breeds, particularly autochthonous ones. Further, the results would be useful in future breeding programs for the studied population, aimed to improve cattle genetic structure for milk quality traits.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.
Full Text Available Abstract Gene frequencies of coat colour and horn types were assessed in 22 Nordic cattle breeds in a project aimed at establishing genetic profiles of the breeds under study. The coat colour loci yielding information on genetic variation were: extension, agouti, spotting, brindle, dun dilution and colour sided. The polled locus was assessed for two alleles. A profound variation between breeds was observed in the frequencies of both colour and horn alleles, with the older breeds generally showing greater variation in observed colour, horn types and segregating alleles than the modern breeds. The correspondence between the present genetic distance matrix and previous molecular marker distance matrices was low (r = 0.08 – 0.12. The branching pattern of a neighbour-joining tree disagreed to some extent with the molecular data structure. The current data indicates that 70% of the total genetic variation could be explained by differences between the breeds, suggesting a much greater breed differentiation than typically found at protein and microsatellite loci. The marked differentiation of the cattle breeds and observed disagreements with the results from the previous molecular data in the topology of the phylogenetic trees are most likely a result of selection on phenotypic characters analysed in this study.
Vanderick, S; Troch, T; Gillon, A; Glorieux, G; Gengler, N
Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a data set including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf × age of dam classes × group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd × year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was approximately 8% with linear models and approximately 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were approximately 2 and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85,118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17 and 23% greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
significantly to overall parasitism, M. raptor had a significantly higher attack rate when first a female had located bags with sentinel pupae. Based on the above results, however, S. cameroni seems the most appropriate species for managing house flies in straw bedded dairy cattle farms in Denmark. A biological......Indoor releases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girauelt & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were conducted in five organic dairy cattle farms to evaluate the overall effect on parasitism and efficiency at different pupal depths of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae...... control strategy of simultaneous releases of S. cameroni and M. raptor is discussed. Key words: biological control, dairy cattle, dispersion, parasitism, Phygadeuon fumat...
Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis
Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level......, but that this requires a strong focus on nitrogen management at the farm level and production efficiency in the herd....... and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 – representing...
Full Text Available Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001. National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The flowmeter is an instrument easily adaptable on different milking machine (Santus and Bagnato, 1999, but it does not allow a complete recording of all cows in all dairy herds, especially when located in mountain area.......
Mai, M D; Rychtarova, J; Zink, V
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Danish Jersey and Danish Red cattle were independently mapped by least squares regression analysis. For Jersey breed, five grandsire families were genotyped for 186 markers on 16 chromosomes (BTAs). Eight traits analysed were milk yield (MY), fat percentage (FP), ...
Krimpen, van M.M.; Goessink, R.M.A.; Heeres, J.J.; Jongbloed, A.W.
Literature was reviewed to update phosphorus requirements of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs and poultry. It has been shown that the dietary P-content in most species can be safely reduced, compared to the P-levels applied in 2010, without negatively affecting animal performance and health status of
Friesian cows were used to evaluate the effects of breed, month of lactation and milking time on the milk yield and quality of commercial dairy cows under the tropical climate of Nigeria. Mean milk yield and milk protein were significantly higher ...
Singhla, Tawatchai; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Alvarez, Julio; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Phornwisetsirikun, Somphorn; Sankwan, Jamnong; Srijun, Mongkol; Wells, Scott J.
The objective of this case-control study was to identify farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy cows in northern Thailand. Spatial analysis was performed to identify geographical clustering of case-farms located in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces in northern Thailand. To identify management factors affecting bTB status, a matched case-control study was conducted with 20 case-farms and 38 control-farms. Case-farms were dairy farms with at least single intradermal tuberculin test- (SIT-) reactor(s) in the farms during 2011 to 2015. Control-farms were dairy farms with no SIT-reactors in the same period and located within 5 km from case-farms. Questionnaires were administered for data collection with questions based on epidemiological plausibility and characteristics of the local livestock industry. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. A significant geographic cluster was identified only in Chiang Mai province (p < 0.05). The risk factor associated with presence of SIT-reactors in dairy herds located in this region was purchasing dairy cows from dealers (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.66–20.58, and p = 0.006). From this study, it was concluded that geographic clustering was identified for dairy farms with SIT-reactors in these provinces, and the cattle movements through cattle dealers increased the risks for SIT-reactor farm status. PMID:28553557
Oct 4, 2007 ... (2002) reported that people living in central Africa developed cattle ... attributes such as body size, horn shape and size, coat color and hump size and their ... into Africa from West Asia, and probably developed from a group of.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. Methods 46 individuals phenotypically representative of Algarvia cattle were genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci and compared with 11 Portuguese autochthonous and three imported breeds. Genetic distances and factorial correspondence analyses (FCA were performed to investigate the relationship among Algarvia and related breeds. Assignment tests were done to identify representative individuals of the breed. Y chromosome and mtDNA analyses were used to further characterize Algarvia animals. Gene- and allelic-based conservation analyses were used to determine breed contributions to overall genetic diversity. Results Genetic distance and FCA results confirmed the close relationship between Algarvia and southern Portuguese breeds. Assignment tests without breed information classified 17 Algarvia animals in this cluster with a high probability (q > 0.95. With breed information, 30 cows and three bulls were identified (q > 0.95 that could be used to reconstitute the Algarvia breed. Molecular and morphological results were concordant. These animals showed intermediate levels of genetic diversity (MNA = 6.0 ± 1.6, Rt = 5.7 ± 1.4, Ho = 0.63 ± 0.19 and He = 0.69 ± 0.10 relative to other Portuguese breeds. Evidence of inbreeding was also detected (Fis = 0.083, P st = 0.028, P > 0.05. Algarvia cattle provide an intermediate contribution (CB = 6.18, CW = -0.06 and D1 = 0.50 to the overall gene diversity of Portuguese cattle. Algarvia and seven other autochthonous breeds made no contribution to the overall allelic diversity. Conclusions Molecular analyses complemented previous morphological findings to identify 33 animals that
Röcklinsberg, H.; Gamborg, Christian; Gjerris, Mickey
What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all these tra......What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all...... these traits is longevity. Even so, dairy cows in Sweden are culled on average after only 2.4 lactations (about 4.5 years of age) i.e. before the housing and management of the heifer has paid off. Reasons for culling given in the literature include infertility, mastitis, disease or leg and claw problems......, but also problems related to resources like milking system or grazing and to management practices like herd size or pasture management. Farmers’ practice varies depending on their values or attitudes, farm size and breed, but no previous study has mapped their values underlying choice of breeding goals...
Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.
Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F
The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes.
Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.
Amr M.M. Abd-Elall
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with
Morton, John M; Auldist, Martin J; Douglas, Meaghan L; Macmillan, Keith L
Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance, and genetic factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may contribute to the observed phenotypic associations. It was of interest to assess whether these beneficial phenotypic associations are accounted for or interact with the effects of estimated breeding values for fertility. The effects of a multitrait estimated breeding value for fertility [the Australian breeding value for daughter fertility (ABV fertility)] on reproductive performance were also of interest. Interactions of milk protein concentration and ABV fertility with the interval from calving date to the start of the herd's seasonally concentrated breeding period were also assessed. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 Australian seasonally and split calving dairy herds. Associations between milk protein concentration, ABV fertility, and reproductive performance in Holstein cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. Between 52,438 and 61,939 lactations were used for analyses of 4 reproductive performance measures. Milk protein concentration was strongly and positively associated with reproductive performance in dairy cows, and this effect was not accounted for by the effects of ABV fertility. Increases in ABV fertility had important additional beneficial effects on the probability of pregnancy by wk 6 and 21 of the herd's breeding period. For cows calved before the start of the breeding period, the effects of increases in both milk protein concentration and ABV fertility were beneficial regardless of their interval from calving to the start of the breeding period. These findings demonstrate the potential for increasing reproductive performance through identifying the causes of the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance and then devising management
Palma, Mariana; Alves, Susana P.; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E
Goat dairy products are an important source of animal protein in the tropics. During the dry season, pasture scarcity leads animals to lose up to 40% of their body weight, a condition known as Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) that is one of the major constraints in ruminant production. Breeds with high...
Singh, S S; Murray, R D; Ward, W R
In dairy cattle, histopathology of the outer hind claws with overgrown sole revealed arteriosclerosis of blood vessels at the ulcer site in the sole. The laminae did not show any hyperplasia of the epidermis and thrombi were not seen in the blood vessels. Partial or complete disappearance of onychogenic substance was observed in the sole as well as in the wall epidermis. In beef animals, typical changes suggestive of chronic laminitis were seen: these included hyperplasia of the epidermis of the laminae, thrombus formation, arteriosclerosis in the corium of the sole, the abaxial wall and the coronary corium. Morphometric analysis quantified measurements of hooves of normal, beef and dairy cattle. It may be concluded that the changes associated with overgrowth of the sole in dairy cattle are localized to the sole without involvement of the laminae and that the term laminitis is not appropriate in the condition seen in dairy cattle.
Gavrea, R.R.; Iovu, A.; Losson, B.; Cozma, V.
Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves) were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862) and 30.8% for calves (12/39) respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed. PMID:22091468
Full Text Available Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862 and 30.8% for calves (12/39 respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed.
Dunn, Robert J H; Mead, Naomi E; Willett, Kate M; Parker, David E
Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr −1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century. (letters)
Traoré, S A; Markemann, A; Reiber, C; Piepho, H P; Valle Zárate, A
Many local livestock breeds in developing countries are being replaced by exotic breeds, leading to a loss of genetic resources. In southern Mali, for the past two decades, a trend towards increasing crossbreeding between the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and the trypano-susceptible Fulani Zebu cattle has been taking place. A survey with 160 farmers owning a cattle herd was carried out in southern Mali to investigate their production objectives, as well as trait and breed preferences and correlated socio-economic determinants in order to understand farmers' breeding decisions and to identify comparative advantages of three breed groups (N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbreds) raised in the study area. Data were analyzed using an exploded logit model. The reasons for raising cattle, as well as trait and breed preferences reflected the multiple objectives of the farmers. Draught power and savings were the most important production objectives. Productive traits were ranked highest; farmers reported large body size as the most preferred trait, followed by fertility, draught ability and milk yield. Crossbreds were the favored breed group. Breed preferences were mainly explained by 'resistance to disease' for N'Dama cattle and 'high market price' for Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences were mainly influenced by farmer group (local farmers and settled transhumants). Local farmers put comparatively more emphasis on livestock functions linked to crop production such as draught power. They had a higher preference for traction ability as a selection trait and preferred N'Dama over Fulani Zebu cattle. Settled transhumants emphasized milk yield as a selection trait and preferred Fulani Zebu over N'Dama. The results indicate that the trend towards more crossbreeding will continue putting the N'Dama breed under high risk of genetic dilution in southern Mali. The N'Dama cattle remain a valuable breed due to their adaptive traits such as
Full Text Available This study evaluates the economic activity results of dairy cattle enterprises in Konya Province. The data used in the research was obtained through questionnaire technique from 125 dairy cattle enterprises which were determined with stratified random sampling method on a voluntary basis. The total active captial of the enterprises are $845,330.85 and the share of animal capital is 26.27%. Average cattle number in the enterprises have been determined to be 104.95 heads, cow number is 61.22 heads per farm while average daily milk yield in the enterprises is determined as 27.45 lt/head for milker cows. The total average variable cost in dairy cattle enterprises is calculated to be $104,235.23 and the sum of all fixed cost is $40,496.15. The share of feed cost in variable costs is 84.33%. Gross Production Value (GPV is $194,759.57 and 85.08% of this value is from milk and milk products. Gross profit per enterprise is $90,524.34 and net profit is $50,028.19. In the study, the milk cost is calculated at $0.31/lt. Sale price of milk of enterprises is $0.42/lt in 2015. In the research field, economic profitability of enterprises is calculated at 2.04% and financial profitability is calculated at 2.02%. As a result of the research, the greatest problems of dairy cattle enterprises are identified as supplying of roughage and concentrate feed, low levels of organization, low number of milked stocks, and taking individual actions against the market.
McNamara, J P; Huber, K; Kenéz, A
Research in dairy cattle biology has resulted in a large body of knowledge on nutrition and metabolism in support of milk production and efficiency. This quantitative knowledge has been compiled in several model systems to balance and evaluate rations and predict requirements. There are also systems models for metabolism and reproduction in the cow that can be used to support research programs. Adipose tissue plays a significant role in the success and efficiency of lactation, and recent research has resulted in several data sets on genomic differences and changes in gene transcription of adipose tissue in dairy cattle. To fully use this knowledge, we need to build and expand mechanistic, dynamic models that integrate control of metabolism and production. Therefore, we constructed a second-generation dynamic, mechanistic model of adipose tissue metabolism of dairy cattle. The model describes the biochemical interconversions of glucose, acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glycerol, C16 fatty acids, and triacylglycerols. Data gathered from our own research and published references were used to set equation forms and parameter values. Acetate, glucose, BHB, and fatty acids are taken up from blood. The fatty acids are activated to the acyl coenzyme A moieties. Enzymatically catalyzed reactions are explicitly described with parameters including maximal velocity and substrate sensitivity. The control of enzyme activity is partially carried out by insulin and norepinephrine, portraying control in the cow. Model behavior was adequate, with sensitive responses to changing substrates and hormones. Increased nutrient uptake and increased insulin stimulate triacylglycerol synthesis, whereas a reduction in nutrient availability or increase in norepinephrine increases triacylglycerol hydrolysis and free fatty acid release to blood. This model can form a basis for more sophisticated integration of existing knowledge and future studies on metabolic efficiency of dairy cattle
Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)
Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Behluli, Behlul; Musliu, Arben; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Youngs, Curtis R.; Rexhepi, Agim
The aim of the present study was to identify nutritional risk factors for the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA) in Holstein dairy cattle raised in regions with highly variable nutritional management. Feeding program data were collected from 30 dairy farms throughout Kosovo via use of a standardized questionnaire, and an AgriNIR™ Analyser was used to analyze the nutrient composition of forage (hay, corn silage) fed to cattle on those farms. A diagnosis of DA was made via auscultation/percu...
Gobena, Mesfin; Elzo, Mauricio A; Mateescu, Raluca G
Crossbreeding is a common strategy used in tropical and subtropical regions to enhance beef production, and having accurate knowledge of breed composition is essential for the success of a crossbreeding program. Although pedigree records have been traditionally used to obtain the breed composition of crossbred cattle, the accuracy of pedigree-based breed composition can be reduced by inaccurate and/or incomplete records and Mendelian sampling. Breed composition estimation from genomic data has multiple advantages including higher accuracy without being affected by missing, incomplete, or inaccurate records and the ability to be used as independent authentication of breed in breed-labeled beef products. The present study was conducted with 676 Angus-Brahman crossbred cattle with genotype and pedigree information to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using genomic data to determine breed composition. We used genomic data in parametric and non-parametric methods to detect population structure due to differences in breed composition while accounting for the confounding effect of close familial relationships. By applying principal component analysis (PCA) and the maximum likelihood method of ADMIXTURE to genomic data, it was possible to successfully characterize population structure resulting from heterogeneous breed ancestry, while accounting for close familial relationships. PCA results offered additional insight into the different hierarchies of genetic variation structuring. The first principal component was strongly correlated with Angus-Brahman proportions, and the second represented variation within animals that have a relatively more extended Brangus lineage-indicating the presence of a distinct pattern of genetic variation in these cattle. Although there was strong agreement between breed proportions estimated from pedigree and genetic information, there were significant discrepancies between these two methods for certain animals. This was most likely due
Full Text Available Crossbreeding is a common strategy used in tropical and subtropical regions to enhance beef production, and having accurate knowledge of breed composition is essential for the success of a crossbreeding program. Although pedigree records have been traditionally used to obtain the breed composition of crossbred cattle, the accuracy of pedigree-based breed composition can be reduced by inaccurate and/or incomplete records and Mendelian sampling. Breed composition estimation from genomic data has multiple advantages including higher accuracy without being affected by missing, incomplete, or inaccurate records and the ability to be used as independent authentication of breed in breed-labeled beef products. The present study was conducted with 676 Angus–Brahman crossbred cattle with genotype and pedigree information to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using genomic data to determine breed composition. We used genomic data in parametric and non-parametric methods to detect population structure due to differences in breed composition while accounting for the confounding effect of close familial relationships. By applying principal component analysis (PCA and the maximum likelihood method of ADMIXTURE to genomic data, it was possible to successfully characterize population structure resulting from heterogeneous breed ancestry, while accounting for close familial relationships. PCA results offered additional insight into the different hierarchies of genetic variation structuring. The first principal component was strongly correlated with Angus–Brahman proportions, and the second represented variation within animals that have a relatively more extended Brangus lineage—indicating the presence of a distinct pattern of genetic variation in these cattle. Although there was strong agreement between breed proportions estimated from pedigree and genetic information, there were significant discrepancies between these two methods for certain animals
Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be derived from milk recording data, therefore this fertility trait can easily be implemented in the National Dairy Genetic Evaluations of South Africa. The aim of this ...
Full Text Available There is lack of comprehensive studies on the genetic diversity or phylogenetic analysis of beef cattle breeds in Malaysia. In this study, the partial sequence of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene (cyt b was analysed from blood samples obtained from 25 Chinese Yellow Cattle (CY, 33 Kedah-Kelantan (KK, 32 Brakmas (BM and 30 Bali cattle (BC. Based on these 120 individuals, 19 mtDNA haplotypes (GenBank Accession No. GU67340 - GU67358 were identified by polymorphisms at 31 sites. Hap19 was predominant in BM (78%, KK (82% and CY (100% indicating similar origin or gene flow between breeds whilst Hap11 was exclusively for BC. However, there were only two nucleotide differences between these two major haplotypes. These results can be interpreted that these representative cattle in these haplotypes are admixtures of B. indicus or B. javanicus through maternal ancestry. Conversely, the CY cattle investigated are highly inbred where no variation could be observed in the short segment investigated.
Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25
Isensee, A; Leiber, F; Bieber, A; Spengler, A; Ivemeyer, S; Maurer, V; Klocke, P
Body condition scoring is a common tool to assess the subcutaneous fat reserves of dairy cows. Because of its subjectivity, which causes limits in repeatability, it is often discussed controversially. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of considering the cows overall appearance on the scoring process and on the validity of the results. Therefore, two different methods to reveal body condition scores (BCS), 'independent BCS' (iBCS) and 'dependent BCS' (dBCS), were used to assess 1111 Swiss Brown Cattle. The iBCS and the dBCS systems were both working with the same flowchart with a decision tree structure for visual and palpatory assessment using a scale from 2 to 5 with increment units of 0.25. The iBCS was created strictly complying with the defined frames of the decision tree structure. The system was chosen due to its formularized approach to reduce the influence of subjective impressions. By contrast, the dBCS system, which was in line with common practice, had a more open approach, where - besides the decision tree - the overall impression of the cow's physical appearance was taken into account for generating the final score. Ultrasound measurement of the back fat thickness (BFT) was applied as a validation method. The dBCS turned out to be the better predictor of BFT, explaining 67.3% of the variance. The iBCS was only able to explain 47.3% of the BFT variance. Within the whole data set, only 31.3% of the animals received identical dBCS and iBCS. The pin bone region caused the most deviations between dBCS and iBCS, but also assessing the pelvis line, the hook bones and the ligaments led to divergences in around 20% of the scored animals. The study showed that during the assessment of body condition a strict adherence to a decision tree is a possible source of inexact classifications. Some body regions, especially the pin bones, proved to be particularly challenging for scoring due to difficulties in assessing them. All the more, the inclusion
T. X. Yang
Full Text Available Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah, crossbreed 1st generation (F1, crossbreed multiple generation (FH, H≥3 buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F1 and FH, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring (F1, FH. SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo αs-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard αs-casein; while buffalo β-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard β-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of αs-, β-, and κ-casein among Murrah, F1 and FH.
Tchamdja, E; Kulo, A E; Vitouley, H S; Batawui, K; Bankolé, A A; Adomefa, K; Cecchi, G; Hoppenheit, A; Clausen, P H; De Deken, R; Van Den Abbeele, J; Marcotty, T; Delespaux, V
African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major disease of cattle in Togo and its control is essentially based on chemotherapy. However, because of excessive use of trypanocides during the past decades, chemo-resistance in the parasites has developed. In order to assess the current situation of AAT and resistance to trypanocidal drugs in Northern Togo, a study was conducted on cattle from December 2012 to August 2013 in the regions of Kara and Savanes. An initial cross-sectional survey was carried out in 40 villages using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT). Out of these, 5 villages with a trypanosome prevalence of >10% were selected for a block treatment study (BT) with diminazene diaceturate (DA: 3.5mg/kg for a 14-day follow-up) and isometamidium chloride (ISM: 0.5mg/kg for a 28-day follow-up). Positive blood samples collected during the parasitological surveys and an equivalent number of negatives were further analyzed by PCR-RFLP for trypanosome species confirmation and molecular diagnosis of resistance to DA in Trypanosoma congolense. The results from 1883 bovine blood samples confirmed a high overall trypanosome prevalence of 10.8% in Northern Togo. PCR-RFLP revealed that T. congolense is the dominant pathogenic trypanosome species (50.5%) followed by T. vivax (27.3%), and T. brucei (16.2%). The BT showed varying levels of treatment failures ranging from 0 to 30% and from 0 to 50% for DA and for ISM respectively, suggesting the existence of resistant trypanosome populations in the study area. Our results show that AAT still represents a major obstacle to the development of cattle husbandry in Northern Togo. In areas of high AAT risk, a community-based integrated strategy combining vector control, rational use of trypanocidal drugs and improving the general condition of the animals is recommended to decision makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W
The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows is a complex biological event that is influenced by a multitude of factors, from the reproductive biology of the cow to managerial aspects of the dairy farm. It is often mentioned in the scientific literature that fertility in dairy cows has declined concurrent with major advances in milk production. Some of this decline is attributed to the negative genetic correlation between milk production and reproduction. In the United States, yearly production per cow has increased steadily at a rate of 1.3% in the last decade and it is likely that this trend will continue in the years to come. At this rate, the average cow in the United States will be producing over 14 tons of milk per year in 2050 and technologies will have to be developed to allow these cows to reproduce to maintain the sustainability of dairy production. Despite high production, it is not uncommon for dairy herds with rolling herd averages for milk yield above 11,000 kg to overcome the challenges of reproduction and obtain satisfactory reproductive performance. Among other things, those herds have been able to mitigate some of the mechanisms that suppress reproduction in dairy cows such as extended postpartum anovulatory period, poor estrous detection, low pregnancy per insemination and, to a lesser extent, the high pregnancy loss. The success of those farms comes from an integrated approach to fertility that includes adequate cow comfort, elaborated transition cow management and nutrition, aggressive postpartum health monitoring program with preventative and curative measures to mitigate the negative effects of diseases on reproduction, and a sound reproductive program that includes manipulation of the ovarian cycle to allow for increased insemination rate. More recently, introduction of fertility traits in selection programs have created new opportunities for improved reproduction without neglecting economically important production
Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y
In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.
Van Tassel CP.
Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.
Tol, van der P.P.J.; Beek, van der S.S.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, E.; Braam, C.R.; Weijs, W.A.
Claw disorders and lameness in dairy cattle are an increasing problem of the modern dairy industry. To prevent claw disorders from evolving from the subclinical to the clinical stage, trimming is the management practice most routinely applied. The goal of preventive trimming (Toussaint-Raven method)
Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup
) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola...
Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;
Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I
The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.
Mar 9, 2013 ... SNP over the entire bovine genome including the mitochondrial ... 2009]) level of autosomal SNP genotypes that do not adhere to Mendelian inheritance. ..... available number of breeding animals with records for maternal, ...
Cetinkaya, N.; Ozdemir, H.; Gucus, A.I.; Ozcan, H.; Sogut, A.; Yaman, S.
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate of the developed techniques for uric acid, allantoin and creatinine in Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle on farm at different feeding level locally available feed resources and linking the observed information to feed intake and to assess of protein nutrition status of Yerli Kara cross-breed dairy cattle using urinary PD and creatinine excretion. In Experiment I. Response of daily PD excretion to feed intake in Yerli Kara cross-breed on state farm was measured. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30 % wheat straw and 70 % compounded feed. The diet contained 90 % DM, its N and OM contents were 124 and 950 g/kg DM, respectively. In Experiment II. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at state farm. Four Yerli Kara cross-breed bulls live weight with a mean of 211±41.3 kg were used. Experimental design, feeding and diet were the same as in Experiment I. The treatments were [located according to a 4x4 Latin Square design. In Experiment III. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at smallholder farms. Compound feed containing 65 % barley, 25 % bran, 6 % sunflower seed meal, 3 % manner dust and 1 % mineral and vitamin mixture (120 g/kg DM-Crude Protein and 950 g/kg DM-Organic Matter)- was offered total in between 2 to 3 kg in two parts one in the morning (07:30 h) and one in the afternoon (17:00 h). Compound feed ingredients were similar given to all animals but Groups I, II and III animals were receiving 1 to 2 kg/d of straw (30 g CP/kg DM, 93Og OM/kg DM), grass hay (70g CP/kg DM, 915 g OM/kg DM), straw and grass hay respectively. There were significant correlations (R 2 =0.99) between PD excretion (mmol/d) and DOMI (kg/d) for YK-C cattle. PD execration (mmol/L) was plotted against PD: Creatinine W 0.75 to obtain slope and use as constant for the estimation of daily PD excretion from spot sampling from animals held by small holders. The equation could be expressed as: PD (mmol/d)=8.27+0.960 (PD:CxW 0.75 ). The
Full Text Available This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection.
Full Text Available Ketosis, with ethologically energy deficiency, is one of the commonest metabolic diseases of dairy cattle. Assessment of some serum hormonal and metabolic status can be beneficent in prediction and diagnosis of subclinical ketosis. This study is performed for evaluation and comparison of thyroid hormones, insulin and magnesium of subclinical ketosis and healthy cows. During 60 days in milk (DIM serum Beta hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and glucose levels of 200 dairy cattle have been measured. Based on 1.4 mmol/l of BHBA as a cut of point experimented animals separated to subclinical and healthy groups. Mean values of serum T3 and T4 of affected cows were significantly higher than non-affected (p
Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Motus, Kerli
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012–2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 w...
Mbugua, P N; Gachuiri, C K; Wahome, R G; Wanyoike, M M; Abate, A [Department of Animal Production, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Munyua, S J.M. [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, J M.Z. [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi (Kenya)
A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author) 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs
Mbugua, P.N.; Gachuiri, C.K.; Wahome, R.G.; Wanyoike, M.M.; Abate, A.; Munyua, S.J.M.; Kamau, J.M.Z.
A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)
Arendonk, van J.A.M.
1985-01-01In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.The investigations described in this thesis were
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis pathogens at the Magadu Dairy Farm, Sokoine University of Agriculture. A total of 19 milk samples were collected and cultured on blood agar and MacConkey agar followed by identification of bacteria colonies and cells using standard laboratory techniques.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.
Jordan, David; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Warnick, Lorin Dean
dairy industry using data fields and logic mimicking the ecology, surveillance and control of S. Dublin. Superimposed on this was a system for simulating movement of cattle between herds and between regions accounting for the infection status of both the source and destination herds. Predictions from...... simulations showed that programs that enhance herd-level biosecurity (prevention of new outbreaks) and quickly resolve infections once they are detected are attractive additions to the current approach that has already resulted in substantial progress....
Koçbeker, Vildan Doğan; Bahtiyarca, Yılmaz
Water is an essential nutrient that is necessaryafter oxygen for the maintenance of life, growth, milk production and pregnancyfor both humans and animals. Water is a nutrient that has generally beenneglected and disregarded for the alimentation of livestock. Daily consumptionof water for dairy cattle (approximately 90-100 L) is more than that of anyother nutrient. Water is a perfect solvent and a number of composites dissolvedin water affect the appearance, odor, taste, physical and chemical...
Anna Šimková; Miloslav Šoch; Kateřina Švejdová; Kristýna Šimák-Líbalová; Luboš Smutný; Šárka Smutná; Bohuslav Čermák; Iveta Novotná
The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120) in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The ...
Horn, Marco; Ferris, C; Sairanen, A
Part of SOLID is to understand how contrasting genotypes adapt to a systematic restriction of nutrient and energy supply. In new studies, a number of genotypes identified as being adapted to organic and low input systems were compared with conventional breeds....
Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; De Haas, Y; Hayes, B J; Veerkamp, R F; Khansefid, M; Donoghue, K A; Arthur, P F; Pryce, J E
Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits. Phenotypes calculated for the genotyped Angus population included CH production (MeP), CH yield (MeY), CH intensity (MI), DMI, and WT. The Holstein population (POP1) was multiparous, with phenotypes on CH traits (MeP, MeY, and MI) plus genotypes. Additionally, 2 CH traits, residual genetic CH (RGM) and residual phenotypic CH (RPM), were calculated by adjusting MeP for DMI and WT. Estimated heritabilities in the Angus population were 0.30, 0.19, and 0.15 for MeP, RGM, and RPM, respectively, and genetic correlations of MeP with DMI and WT were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Estimated heritabilities in Holstein POP1 were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.42 for MeP, MeY, and MI, respectively. Strong associations with MeP were found on chromosomes 4, 12, 14, 20, and 30 at Angus population, the number of significant SNP for MeP at Angus population was used to estimate genetic parameters for MeP and MeY in Holstein POP1, the genetic variance and, consequently, the heritability slightly increased, meaning that most of the
Karpenko, A.F.; Mostovenko, A.L.; Radchikov, V.F.; Tsaj, V.P.
In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was studied scientific management of introduction of 8 programmes of meat cattle breeding in regions of radioactive pollution in Gomel region. In course of the realized study there were analyzed land areas of the local farms, degree of soil contamination with radionuclides, coefficients of radionuclide transfer into plants and animal husbandry products, rate of production volumes, structure of arable lands and main herds, economic indexes of realized activities, etc. Introduction of programs of development of meat cattle breeding in the polluted areas made it possible to increase both the total and pedigree stock in the Gomel area, to create industrial base for reproduction of livestock and a wide circulation of specialized meat livestock in other farms of the polluted regions
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.
Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza
Full Text Available Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production. A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer generated for each animal 10.7 to 16.4-fold genome coverage. A total of 27,441,279 single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 3,828,041 insertions/deletions (InDels were detected in the samples, of which 2,557,670 SNVs and 883,219 InDels were novel. The submission of these genetic variants to the dbSNP database significantly increased the number of known variants, particularly for the indicine genome. The concordance rate between genotypes obtained using the Bovine HD BeadChip array and the same variants identified by sequencing was about 99.05%. The annotation of variants identified numerous non-synonymous SNVs and frameshift InDels which could affect phenotypic variation. Functional enrichment analysis was performed and revealed that variants in the olfactory transduction pathway was over represented in all four cattle breeds, while the ECM-receptor interaction pathway was over represented in Girolando and Guzerat breeds, the ABC transporters pathway was over represented only in Holstein breed, and the metabolic pathways was over represented only in Gyr breed. The genetic variants discovered here provide a rich resource to help identify potential genomic markers and their associated molecular mechanisms that impact economically important traits for Gyr, Girolando, Guzerat and Holstein breeding programs.
McGarvey, Jeffery A; Hamilton, Scott W; DePeters, Edward J; Mitloehner, Frank M
To determine the effect of monensin, a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic, on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents, we fed six lactating Holstein cows a diet containing monensin (600 mg day(-1)) or an identical diet without monensin. Fresh waste samples were taken directly from the animals once a month for 3 months and assayed for their bacterial population structure via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In total 6,912 16S rRNA genes were examined, comprising 345 and 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the monensin fed and control animals, respectively. Coverage estimates of the OTUs identified were 87.6% for the monensin fed and 88.3% for the control colonic content derived library. Despite this high level of coverage, no significant difference was found between the libraries down to the genus level. Thus we concluded that although monensin is believed to increase milk production in dairy cattle by altering the bacterial population structure within the bovine gastrointestinal tract, we were unable to identify any significant difference in the bacterial population structure of the colonic contents of monensin fed vs. the control dairy cattle, down to the genus level.
Weigel, K A; VanRaden, P M; Norman, H D; Grosu, H
In the early 1900s, breed society herdbooks had been established and milk-recording programs were in their infancy. Farmers wanted to improve the productivity of their cattle, but the foundations of population genetics, quantitative genetics, and animal breeding had not been laid. Early animal breeders struggled to identify genetically superior families using performance records that were influenced by local environmental conditions and herd-specific management practices. Daughter-dam comparisons were used for more than 30 yr and, although genetic progress was minimal, the attention given to performance recording, genetic theory, and statistical methods paid off in future years. Contemporary (herdmate) comparison methods allowed more accurate accounting for environmental factors and genetic progress began to accelerate when these methods were coupled with artificial insemination and progeny testing. Advances in computing facilitated the implementation of mixed linear models that used pedigree and performance data optimally and enabled accurate selection decisions. Sequencing of the bovine genome led to a revolution in dairy cattle breeding, and the pace of scientific discovery and genetic progress accelerated rapidly. Pedigree-based models have given way to whole-genome prediction, and Bayesian regression models and machine learning algorithms have joined mixed linear models in the toolbox of modern animal breeders. Future developments will likely include elucidation of the mechanisms of genetic inheritance and epigenetic modification in key biological pathways, and genomic data will be used with data from on-farm sensors to facilitate precision management on modern dairy farms. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
M. ŠOCH; JANA ŠŤASTNÁ; V. PÁLKA; B VOSTOUPAL; P. NOVÁK; J. BROUČEK; B. ČERMÁK
The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a sma...
Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin
A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012
Full Text Available Most of the Western European cattle breeds consist of standardised breeds with a definite coat colour (Renieri et al., 1984. Thus coat colour could be useful to detect genetic markers for cattle breed identification. In cattle the pigmentation is determined by the distribution of two pigments: eu- and pheomelanin, producing brown or black and red to yellow pigmentation respectively. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of both melanins, is regulated by the melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. This hormone and several other melanotropic peptides stimulate melanin formation in melanocytes by binding to the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R, a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Extension gene (Robbins et al., 1993. In addition, the amounts of eu- and pheomelanin in the melanocyte are controlled by the agouti gene encoding the Agouti Signal Protein (ASP, that acts as an antagonist of MSH signalling through the MC1R, even if its mechanism of action is controversial (Furumura et al., 1998..........
Full Text Available Season, rainfall, day of rain, temperature, humidity, year and farm are fixed effects, which have been reported to influence milk yield. Those factors are often linked together to contribute to the variation of milk production. This research is addressed to study the fixed effect factors, including lactation curve, which should be considered for genetic evaluation of milk yield based on test day records of dairy cattle. The data were taken from four different farms, which were PT. Taurus Dairy Farm, BPPT Cikole, Bandang Dairy Farm, and BBPTU Baturraden. In total of 16806 test day records were evaluated, consisting of 9,302 at first and 7,504 at second lactation, respectively. The results indicated that fixed effects were very specific and the influences had different patterns for each farm. Consequently, in a genetic evaluation, these factors such as lactation, temperature, year, day of rain, and humidity need to be evaluated first. Ali-Schaeffer curve represented the most appropriate curve to use in the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Indonesia.
Chen, B; Wang, C; Wang, Y M; Liu, J X
A meta-analysis of the effect of biotin on production outcomes of dairy cattle was conducted following a literature review. A total of 11 studies from 9 papers, with information on the milk production and composition data from a total number of 238 cows were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis software in Stata. Estimated size of effect of biotin was calculated for dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and composition. Heterogeneity was not significant for all of the parameters (the highest I(2)=12%). Therefore, fixed effects models were used for analysis. With the addition of biotin to lactating dairy cattle, DMI and milk production increased by 0.87 and 1.66 kg/d. No significant effect on percentage of milk fat and milk protein was observed. Additionally, Begg's test indicated no evidence of substantial publication bias for all variables. The influence analysis shows that the removal of any study did not change the direction or significance of the point estimates. It can be concluded that the use of biotin supplements increases DMI and milk yield in lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Excess nitrogen (N) excretion from animal agriculture results in reduced air and water quality, and poses a risk to human health. Although the dairy industry utilizes milk urea N (MUN) to monitor protein feeding and N excretion, phenotypic diversity among cows may influence MUN and thus bias feed management. An initial study using data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial, observed that cow had a significant effect on MUN variation. Regression models, utilized ...
Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.
Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed
Moore, K; Thatcher, W W
The purpose of this overview is to review some of the major advances in reproductive technologies, and how they may be applied to meet the challenge of enhancing reproductive efficiency in the high-producing dairy cow of the 21st century. The current population of high-producing dairy cows is considered to be subfertile, as characterized by low pregnancy rates and high rates of embryonic mortality. Coordinated systems of reproductive management have been developed based upon a thorough understanding of the endocrine, cellular, and molecular factors controlling ovarian and uterine function. These systems will partially restore herd reproductive performance. Advances in other reproductive technologies offer possibilities for wider use of superior germplasm. Technologies such as sexed semen, cloning, transgenesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis offer the potential to enhance the influence of superior animals on production of food for human consumption. However, at this time, additional research is needed to counteract the higher rates of embryonic and fetal mortality associated with some of these technologies. Furthermore, use of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics in the study of reproduction will undoubtedly provide investigators with a greater understanding of the limitations to efficient reproductive processes in the subfertile lactating dairy cow.
Lam, T J G M; Jansen, J; Wessels, R J
Prudent use of antibiotics is important to prevent antibiotic resistance in humans and in animals. For this reason politicians demanded a decrease of total antibiotic use and of use of critically important antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands. In the dairy sector the use of antibiotics almost halved in the years 2009-2015, with a decrease of the use of critically important antibiotics to very low levels. To realize a sustainable decrease in antibiotic usage, the mindset towards the subject was considered crucial. Based on several models from social psychology, the RESET Mindset Model was used. This model contains the most important cues to change human behaviour, being Rules and regulations, Education and information, Social pressure, Economics, and Tools. To change behaviour of groups in order to reach a tipping point, it is of utmost importance to not choose among the different cues, but to use them all. In order to decrease antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands several actions, obliged as well as voluntary, were undertaken. An independent veterinary medicine authority was founded that became active for all animal sectors. In the dairy sector a national database on antibiotic usage called MediRund was developed, which made transparency and benchmarking on antibiotic usage at the national and the herd level possible. Several other activities are described, such as herd health and treatment plans, selective dry cow therapy, and the strong limitation on the use of critically important antibiotics. Antibiotic usage at the herd level, referred to as the 'antibiotic number', became an important and socially accepted herd level parameter. The actions undertaken worked through different cues, all part of the RESET Mindset Model. As such, different types of dairy farmers sensitive to different types of cues were motivated to change their behaviour. Antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands decreased significantly by intense
Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F
The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of
Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus and Qinchuan (Bos taurus are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 to 12 fold on average of 97.86% and 98.98% coverage of genomes, respectively. Comparison with the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1 reference assembly yielded 9,010,096 SNPs for Nanyang, and 6,965,062 for Qinchuan cattle, 51% and 29% of which were novel SNPs, respectively. A total of 154,934 and 115,032 small indels (1 to 3 bp were found in the Nanyang and Qinchuan genomes, respectively. The SNP and indel distribution revealed that Nanyang showed a genetically high diversity as compared to Qinchuan cattle. Furthermore, a total of 2,907 putative cases of copy number variation (CNV were identified by aligning Nanyang to Qinchuan genome, 783 of which (27% encompassed the coding regions of 495 functional genes. The gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that many CNV genes were enriched in the immune system and environment adaptability. Among several CNV genes related to lipid transport and fat metabolism, Lepin receptor gene (LEPR overlapping with CNV_1815 showed remarkably higher copy number in Qinchuan than Nanyang (log2 (ratio = -2.34988; P value = 1.53E-102. Further qPCR and association analysis investigated that the copy number of the LEPR gene presented positive correlations with transcriptional expression and phenotypic traits, suggesting the LEPR CNV may contribute to the higher fat deposition in muscles of Qinchuan cattle. Our findings provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of Nanyang and Qinchuan breeds may be due to the different genetic variations including SNPs
Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela
Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.
Sithembile Olga Makina
Full Text Available Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies. This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47 and Bonsmara breeds (n=46, using Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29 as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21 and Holstein (0.21 and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20. This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2 ≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000 -50,000 SNPs. However, r2 ≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for genome-wide association studies in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne=95 (Nguni, Ne=87 (Drakensberger, Ne=77 (Bonsmara and Ne=41 (Afrikaner. Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.
Cláudio E. F. Cruz
Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.
Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K
Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic
Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.
Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush
Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein–Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattl...
Scala, Antonio; Bosco, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Tamponi, Claudia; Musella, Vincenzo; Costanzo, Nicola; Testoni, Francesco; Montisci, Antonio; Mocci, Giovanni; Longhi, Alessandro; Tilocca, Laura; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Varcasia, Antonio
A study monitoring cystic echinococcosis (CE) in adult dairy cattle from intensive livestock farms located in the municipality of Arborea (Sardinia, Italy) was carried out between 2012 and 2015. A retrospective study of veterinary reporting forms of post-mortem inspections in 10 different Italian slaughterhouses was also performed. In addition, data on viability and molecular characterisation of hydatid cysts removed from parasitised organs in cattle was carried out. A geographical information system (GIS) with data layers of the study area and the geo-referenced points of 160 cattle farms was constructed. CE was found in 21.9% (35/160) of the surveyed farms. The retrospective study revealed that 0.05% (13/23,656) of adult slaughtered animals (over one year of age) from Arborea had tested positive to CE. The results stratified per year showed the following CE prevalences: 0.09% (5/5673) in 2012; 0.02% (1/5682) in 2013; 0.08% (5/6261) in 2014; and 0.03% (2/6040) in 2015 (χ2 with 3 degrees of freedom=3.81; P=0.282). The E. granulosus sensu stricto (formerly called G1 or sheep strain) was detected in all cysts subjected to molecular analysis. The GIS analysis showed that CE is fairly resilient in the Arborea territory where most of cattle farms are located, while a small cluster of cases was found located in the southeastern part of Arborea, close to districts where sheep farms are situated. The present survey reports the presence of CE in Sardinian dairy cattle intensive farms and suggests that the parasitic pressure of CE in the island continues to be very strong.
Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Halasa, Tariq; Rattenborg, Erik; Boes, Jaap; Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group) during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011-2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Control of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark should target heifers and
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. Methods This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013 using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011–2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Results Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Conclusions
Cardoso, Clarissa S; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria José
The primary aim of this study was to explore attitudes of urban Brazilian citizens about dairy production. A secondary aim was to determine their knowledge and attitudes about four potentially contentious routine dairy cattle management practices: early cow-calf separation; zero-grazing; culling of newborn male calves; and dehorning without pain mitigation. To address the first aim 40 participants were interviewed using open-ended semi-structured questions designed to probe their views and attitudes about dairy production in Brazil, and 300 participants answered a questionnaire that included an open-ended question about the welfare of dairy cattle. Primary concerns reported by the participants centered on milk quality, which included the rejection of any chemical additives, but also animal welfare, environmental and social issues. The interviewees rarely mentioned animal welfare directly but, when probed, expressed several concerns related to this topic. In particular, participants commented on factors that they perceived to influence milk quality, such as good animal health, feeding, clean facilities, and the need to avoid or reduce the use of drugs, hormones and pesticides, the avoidance of pain, frustration and suffering, and the ability of the animals to perform natural behaviors. To address our second aim, participants were asked questions about the four routine management practices. Although they self-reported being largely unaware of these practices, the majority of the participants rejected these practices outright. These data provide insight that animal welfare may be an important issue for members of the public. Failure to consider this information may increase the risk that certain dairy production practices may not be socially sustainable once lay citizens become aware of them.
Kang'ara, J.N.N.; Kariuki, I.W.; KIruiro, E.M.; Ngugi, F.K.; Mwangi, J.N.
Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha -1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day -1 ) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day -1 ) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day -1 ). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage
Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K
The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta
Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Keshavarzi, H
Stillbirth is an economically important trait on dairy farms. Knowledge of the consequences of, and the economic losses associated with stillbirth can help the producer when making management decisions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stillbirth on productive and reproductive performance as well as financial losses due to stillbirth incidence in Iranian Holstein dairy farms. Economic and performance data were collected from nine Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan and Khorasan provinces of Iran from March 2008 to December 2013. The final data set included 160 410 calving records from 53 265 cows. A linear mixed model was developed to evaluate the effects of stillbirth on performance of primiparous and multiparous cows separately and overall. An economic model was used to estimate the economic losses due to stillbirth. The incidence of stillbirth cases per cow per year was 4.2% on average (3.4% to 6.8% at herd level). The least square means results showed that a case of stillbirth significantly (P0.05). Overall, a case of stillbirth reduced 305-day milk yield by 544.0±76.5 kg/cow per lactation. Stillbirth had no significant effects on 305-day fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, cows that gave birth to stillborn calves had significantly increased days open by 14.6±2.6 days and the number of inseminations per conception by 0.2 compared with cows that gave birth to live calves (Pfinancial losses associated with stillbirth incidence averaged US$ 938 per case (range from $US 767 to $US 1189 in the nine investigated farms). The loss of a calf was not the only cost associated with stillbirth, as it accounted for 71.0% of the total cost. The costs of dystocia (7.6%) and culling and replacement expenses (6.3%) were the next most important costs associated with stillbirth. These results can be used to assess the potential return from management strategies to reduce the occurrence of stillbirths.
Improving cow fertility by means of genetic selection has become increasingly important over the last years in order to overcome the decline in dairy cow fertility that has taken place over the past decades. However, fertility traits are difficult to measure and have low heritabilities. Consequently, indicator traits are of interest for breeding value estimation for fertility especially if these traits are easier to measure, have higher heritabilities and are well correlated with fertility. T...
María Gabriela Mora
Full Text Available A retrospective observational study was conducted to evaluate risk factors related to the cow and its environment on the occurrence of early events of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle of Costa Rica. Data on 313 406 lactations from 101 125 cows and 288 herds was available. The relative frequency of mastitis at the population level was 11.6%, ranging from 0.3% to 70.7% between herds. The population incidence rate was 4.65 cases per 10 000 days at risk in lactation, ranging from 0.092 to 5.7 between herds. Logistic regression was used to evaluate potential risk factors affecting incidence of clinical mastitis. Two generalized linear mixed models (GLMM were explored, without (base model and with (alternative model effects from previous lactation. The fixed factors with significant effect were: agroecological zone, racial group, year, number and month of calving, stage of lactation, duration and milk production in previous lactation, and history of mastitis in previous lactation. Categories with higher vs. lower propensity to mastitis were, respectively: tropical dry forest (OR Odds ratio: 11.03 vs. tropical rainforest (OR: 0.97, breed type Jersey×Brown Swiss (OR: 1.67 vs. Brown Swiss (OR: 1, birth-year before 1995 (OR:2.19 vs. after 2010 (OR: 1, fourth parity (OR:1.19 vs. first parity (OR: 0.54, month of calving March (OR: 1.25 vs. October (OR: 0.95, stage of lactation 1-30 days (OR:1.04 vs. 391-420 days (OR: 0.94. In covariates, an increase of 30 d in the previous lactation length was associated with an OR of 1.04 and an increase in production of 1000 kg in the previous lactation was associated with an OR of 1.17. These findings may be useful for the development of preventive protocols aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis in groups with a higher risk.
Nassul S Kabunga
Full Text Available The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.
Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y
Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kathy J. Soder
Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.
Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret
Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.
Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J
Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.
This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.
Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Moyes, Kasey
not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our......) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where...... the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response...
Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V
Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis.
Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder
period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However...... consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate....... Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows....
Fernando Henrique Biase
Full Text Available We sampled 119 Nelore cattle (Bos indicus, 69 harboring B. indicus mtDNA plus 50 carrying Bos taurus mtDNA, to estimate the frequencies of putative mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate their association with Nelore weight and scrotal circumference estimated breeding values (EBVs. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to detect polymorphisms in the mitochondrial asparagine, cysteine, glycine, leucine and proline transporter RNA (tRNA genes (tRNAasn, tRNAcys, tRNAgly, tRNAleu and tRNApro. The 50 cattle carrying B. taurus mtDNA were monomorphic for all the tRNA gene SNPs analyzed, suggesting that they are specific to mtDNA from B. indicus cattle. No tRNAcys or tRNAgly polymorphisms were detected in any of the cattle but we did detect polymorphic SNPs in the tRNAasn, tRNAleu and tRNApro genes in the cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA, with the same allele observed in the B. taurus sequence being present in the following percentage of cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA: 72.46% for tRNAasn, 95.23% for tRNAleu and 90.62% for tRNApro. Analyses of variance using the tRNAasn SNP as the independent variable and EBVs as the dependent variable showed that the G -> T SNP was significantly associated (p < 0.05 with maternal EBVs for weight at 120 and 210 days (p < 0.05 and animal's EBVs for weight at 210, 365 and 455 days. There was no association of the tRNAasn SNP with the scrotal circumference EBVs. These results confirm that mtDNA can affect weight and that mtDNA polymorphisms can be a source of genetic variation for quantitative traits.
Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B
Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 ± 378 kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship
Recami, E.; Packer, I.U.; Tenorio Vasconselos, M.
A theoretical model for Open-Nucleus Systems is herein described in the case of beef cattle breeding. One of the starting points is the observation that the majority of the standard theoretical models for open-nucleus breeding systems were constructed for the case of discrete generations, i.e. for the cases in which the dam average fertility coefficient is f>2. In the case of cattle herds, when only a fraction of the breeding dams can be replaced, it is therefore worthwhile to build up anew a rather rigorous theoretical model, with overlapping generations, and check its predictions. Namely, we apply the new formulae - explicitly depending on β F , ν F , ν M , K and R - to the system in which all breeding sires are in the Nucleus (and are reared in the nucleus itself), and are mated to both Nucleus and Base dams via artificial insemination. Optimal system design has been looked for by the NAG and MINOS computation programs, operated on Vax computers. Opening the nucleus in this situation results to be very effective since the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain per generation for ''closed nucleus'' systems (x=0) results to be, when e.g. R≡F/M≅200, more than 40% lower than the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain, G*, for open nucleus systems. Optimal design corresponds to: (i) having a fraction p≅16% of the female population in the nucleus; (ii) replacing practically all the (nucleus) breeding sires by the best (nucleus born) males: ν M =97/98%; (iii) using for dam replacement all (b≅100%) the (base and nucleus born) females; (iv) implementing a high upward gene migration (x≅80%), while all the surplus nucleus-born females are to be used as base replacements. This corresponds to replace, at each generation, also almost all the nucleus dams (ν F ≅95/100%), and the largest possible fraction of base dams (β F ≅30%, a value changing with p). 17 refs
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY, lactation length (LL, average milk yield per day (YD, initial milk yield (IY, peak milk yield (PY, days to peak (DP and parameters (ln(a and c of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus Boran (B and Horro (H and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F, Jersey (J and Simmental (S. There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001 by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F had the highest least squares means (LSM for LY (2,490±178.9 kg, IY (10.5±0.8 kg, PY (12.7±0.9 kg, YD (7.6±0.55 kg and LL (361.4±31.2 d, while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single-trait analyses
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN level and reproductive performance in high yielding dairy cattle houses in Tabriz, Iran. Among 213 selected dairy cattle, 76 heads (35.7% have MUN 16 mg/dl (mean = 17.46 mg/dl. Our results indicated that MUN level in 81 heads of dairy cattle (total 124 heads with mastitis, dystocia, laminitis, uterine infections or placenta replacement was higher than 16 mg/dl. We only observed a significantly positive association between MUN levels and dystocia (p= 0.032, while the association between MUN levels and incidence of other diseases was not statistically significant. The results of this study indicated that MUN level significantly influences the reproductive parameters including days open, calving to first service, first service conception risk, and number of services per conception (p
Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Santos, J E P; Lean, I J
This meta-analysis of 39 experiments containing 118 treatments explored the effects of diet interventions in early lactation on the proportion of dairy cows pregnant to artificial insemination (AI; pregnancy to AI) and on calving to pregnancy interval. It also identified factors that may explain variation in these responses. The objectives were to identify effects of diet on reproduction, rather than differences between specific dietary interventions. The examination of calving to pregnancy interval used the more traditional method of analyzing differences between a treatment and the reference treatment used for comparison within a given experiment. The systematic review identified fewer experiments (n = 39) than had been expected. Four different multivariable models including the random effect of experiment were used to examine the effects of CPM-Dairy (version 3.08) estimated diet and production variables on proportion pregnant to AI. These models examined (1) output of products, (2) balance or duodenal availability of nutrients, (3) intake of nutrients, or (4) percentage of nutrients in the diet. The multivariable models identified positive associations between estimated increased fatty acid intake [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.0003 ± 0.0001g/d; ±standard error], starch intake (IRR = 1.061 ± 0.029 kg/d), metabolizable energy balance (IRR = 1.004 ± 0.002 MJ/d), and duodenal C14:0 (IRR = 1.008 ± 0.004 g/d) availability with the proportion of cows pregnant to AI, whereas rapidly fermentable sugar intake (IRR = 0.813 ± 0.054 kg/d), percentage of sugar in the diet (IRR = 0.960 ± 0.015%), and milk protein yield (IRR 0.922 ± 0.022 g/100 g per day) were associated with a reduced proportion of cows pregnant to AI. There was no multivariable model developed to assess variables associated with calving to pregnancy interval but, univariably, increased metabolizable energy balance was associated with a shorter calving to pregnancy interval whereas increased milk
Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.
Lees, A. M.; Lees, J. C.; Lisle, A. T.; Sullivan, M. L.; Gaughan, J. B.
Thirty-six steers (12 of each Angus, Charolais, and Brahman) with an initial BW of 318.5 ± 6.7 kg were used in a 130-day study. Two treatments were imposed: un-shaded and shaded (3 m2/animal; 90% solar block shade cloth). On day 1, steers were administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures ( T RUM) were obtained at 10 min intervals over the duration of the study to determine differences in T RUM between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. Six feedlot pens (162 m2) were used with six steers (2/breed) per pen with three pens/treatment. Ambient dry bulb temperature ( T A; °C), relative humidity (RH; %), wind speed (WS; m/s) and direction, and solar radiation (SR; W/m2) were recorded at 10 min intervals. Rainfall (mm) was collected daily at 0900 h. From these data, black globe temperature (BGT; °C), temperature humidity index (THI), heat load index (HLI), and accumulated heat load (AHL) were calculated. Individual T RUM were converted to an hourly average and then mean hourly T RUM were converted to a mean within hour T RUM across the 130 days. Rumen temperatures were analyzed using an autoregressive repeated measures model. The model analyzed the effect of breed ( P < 0.0002), treatment ( P = 0.3543), time of day (hour, h; P < 0.0001), breed × treatment ( P < 0.3683), breed × h ( P < 0.0001), treatment × h ( P < 0.0001), breed × treatment × h ( P = 0.0029), pen within treatment ( P = 0.0195), and animal × breed × treatment within pen ( P = 0.1041). Furthermore, there were breed × treatment × hour differences in T RUM ( P = 0.0036), indicating that Bos indicus and Bos taurus regulate T RUM differently.
Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.
Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter
Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes......, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....
Schultz, N.; Capion, N.
Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated...... at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days...... the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative...
Full Text Available The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120 in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The air temperature is very variable and its changes animals react immediately. Measured values of air temperature in the stable are important for optimal welfare. It affects the productivity of dairy cows, milk quality, reproduction and animal health.
Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils
Societal pressure to limit the use of antibiotics in livestock production systems, including dairy cattle systems, is consistently increasing. To motivate farmers to reduce antibiotic usage, it is important to understand the factors that determine whether a cow will be treated with antibiotics...... or not. If farmers' usual practices regarding antibiotic treatments are taken into account, they may be motivated to adopt control measures that can facilitate prudent use of antibiotics and are at the same time cost-effective. In this study, we analyzed database recordings of milk yield and somatic cell...... count from the routine milk recording scheme, clinical registrations of mastitis and PCR results, and cow factors such as days in milk and parity in relation to antibiotic treatments for 518 dairy herds in Denmark. Farm-wise logistic regressions were used to predict antimicrobial treatment based...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI on the milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle from northeast part of Italy. A total of 592 individual milk samples from six dairy herds were evaluated. The milk coagulation properties traits analysed were milk rennet coagulation time and curd firmness, as well as the fat, protein, and casein contents, pH, milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC, and the somatic cell count. The THI was determined during the periods of sample collection. The THI results showed that values of up to 75 did not significantly change the IAC values; however, when the THI values were above 75, the IAC decreased significantly. The control of THI can be used to guarantee appropriate milk coagulation properties.
Full Text Available Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT, considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N'Dama (NDA, has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds.This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG and Baoulé (BAO breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU and the Borgou (BOR, an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU.We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge of host-pathogen interactions and
de Graaf, S.; Ampe, B.; Winckler, C.
important by trained users (e.g., measures relating to drinkers) had the highest influence on the WQ overall welfare categorization. Conversely, measures rated as most important by the trained users (e.g., lameness and mortality) had a lower effect on the WQ overall category. In addition, trained users were...... conducted an online survey to examine whether trained users' opinions of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle correspond with the integrated scores (criteria, principles, and overall categorization) calculated according to the WQ protocol. First, the trained users' scores (n = 8–15) for reliability and validity...
Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five...... control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering...
Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C
Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.; Tolstoukhova, T. N.; Kostenko, M. V.
The article emphasizes the importance of observing the ecology of the internal airspace. The factors affecting the state of the air in the internal space of the cattle-breeding facility (cowshed) are revealed. Technical and technological solutions providing for a reduction in the airspace contamination of the livestock facility are proposed. The results of investigations of a technological operation for treating skin integuments of cows with activated water are disclosed, as well as the constructive solution of a heat and power unit that ensures a change in the hydrogen index of the treated water. The justification of the efficiency of the proposed technical and technological solutions is given.
Full Text Available With the aim to assess if some molecular markers can help to select animals for meat characteristics, we studied 84 individuals equally representing the Marchigiana, Maremmana, and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds genotyped at 288 SNPs located within candidate genes. Several SNPs were found associated with meat quality parameters but with P which was higher than the Bonferroni threshold. However, several SNPs had a low P at different times during meat maturation, suggesting their involvement in the meat quality variation. Of particular interest for the biological role and potential for selection were: cathepsin G affecting MFI, IGF1R affecting pH and collagen XVIII affecting colour.
Moreira, Tiago F.; Facury Filho, Elias J.; Carvalho, Antônio U.
Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide, and it is frequently reported in high-yielding, free stall dairy herds from regions with a temperate climate. However, DD is also observed with high prevalence in grazing cattle with a low milk yield in tropi...... data support the hypothesis that Treponema constitutes the main pathogen responsible for DD, independent of the environment and region where cows are kept, and it further suggests D. nodosus as another potentially important pathogen....
Gomez, A; Cook, N B
The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall
Full Text Available This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms. The organic farms had higher (p<0.05 average number of calves per cow (3.93 and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9% than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows. Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05 somatic cell counts (SCC than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively. Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further investigation.
Villar, A.; López-Alonso, M.
This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows) traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake) and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L) 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms). The organic farms had higher (p<0.05) average number of calves per cow (3.93) and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9%) than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows). Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05) somatic cell counts (SCC) than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively). Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further. (Author)
Sharps, Elwyn; Smart, Jennifer; Mason, Lucy R; Jones, Kate; Skov, Martin W; Garbutt, Angus; Hiddink, Jan G
Conservation grazing for breeding birds needs to balance the positive effects on vegetation structure and negative effects of nest trampling. In the UK, populations of Common redshank Tringa totanus breeding on saltmarshes declined by >50% between 1985 and 2011. These declines have been linked to changes in grazing management. The highest breeding densities of redshank on saltmarshes are found in lightly grazed areas. Conservation initiatives have encouraged low-intensity grazing at nest trampling. If livestock distribution is not spatially or temporally homogenous but concentrated where and when redshank breed, rates of nest trampling may be much higher than expected based on livestock density alone. By GPS tracking cattle on saltmarshes and monitoring trampling of dummy nests, this study quantified (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of cattle in relation to the distribution of redshank nesting habitats and (ii) trampling rates of dummy nests. The distribution of livestock was highly variable depending on both time in the season and the saltmarsh under study, with cattle using between 3% and 42% of the saltmarsh extent and spending most their time on higher elevation habitat within 500 m of the sea wall, but moving further onto the saltmarsh as the season progressed. Breeding redshank also nest on these higher elevation zones, and this breeding coincides with the early period of grazing. Probability of nest trampling was correlated to livestock density and was up to six times higher in the areas where redshank breed. This overlap in both space and time of the habitat use of cattle and redshank means that the trampling probability of a nest can be much higher than would be expected based on standard measures of cattle density. Synthesis and applications : Because saltmarsh grazing is required to maintain a favorable vegetation structure for redshank breeding, grazing management should aim to keep livestock away from redshank nesting habitat between mid
Marcos Eli Buzanskas
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais-37.5% Zebu and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais-34.4% Zebu cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH, Nelore (NE, and Indubrasil (IB breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA, 763 (NE, 338 (CH, and 37 (IB. The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of recent patterns of recombination derived from linkage maps to historical patterns of recombination from linkage disequilibrium (LD could help identify genomic regions affected by strong artificial selection, appearing as reduced recent recombination. Norwegian Red cattle (NRF make an interesting case study for investigating these patterns as it is an admixed breed with an extensively recorded pedigree. NRF have been under strong artificial selection for traits such as milk and meat production, fertility and health. While measures of LD is also crucial for determining the number of markers required for association mapping studies, estimates of recombination rate can be used to assess quality of genomic assemblies. Results A dataset containing more than 17,000 genome-wide distributed SNPs and 2600 animals was used to assess recombination rates and LD in NRF. Although low LD measured by r2 was observed in NRF relative to some of the breeds from which this breed originates, reports from breeds other than those assessed in this study have described more rapid decline in r2 at short distances than what was found in NRF. Rate of decline in r2 for NRF suggested that to obtain an expected r2 between markers and a causal polymorphism of at least 0.5 for genome-wide association studies, approximately one SNP every 15 kb or a total of 200,000 SNPs would be required. For well known quantitative trait loci (QTLs for milk production traits on Bos Taurus chromosomes 1, 6 and 20, map length based on historic recombination was greater than map length based on recent recombination in NRF. Further, positions for 130 previously unpositioned contigs from assembly of the bovine genome sequence (Btau_4.0 found using comparative sequence analysis were validated by linkage analysis, and 28% of these positions corresponded to extreme values of population recombination rate. Conclusion While LD is reduced in NRF compared to some of the
Küpper, Julia; Chessa, Stefania; Rignanese, Daniela; Caroli, Anna; Erhardt, Georg
Casein genes have been proved to have an influence on milk properties, and are in addition appropriate for phylogeny studies. A large number of casein polymorphisms exist in goats, making their analysis quite complex. The four casein loci were analyzed by molecular techniques for genetic polymorphism detection in the two dairy goat breeds Bunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE; n=96), Weisse Deutsche Edelziege (WDE; n=91), and the meat goat breed Buren (n=75). Of the 35 analyzed alleles, 18 were found in BDE, and 17 in Buren goats and WDE. In addition, a new allele was identified at the CSN1S1 locus in the BDE, showing a frequency of 0.05. This variant, named CSN1S1*A', is characterized by a t-->c transversion in intron 9. Linkage disequilibrium was found at the casein haplotype in all three breeds. A total of 30 haplotypes showed frequencies higher than 0.01. In the Buren breed only one haplotype showed a frequency higher than 0.1. The ancestral haplotype B-A-A-B (in the order: CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) occurred in all three breeds, showing a very high frequency (>0.8) in the Buren.
Full Text Available Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle and in China (Yanbian. These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN. We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes, reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes, coat color (2 genes, and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes. We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.
Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan
Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.
Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.
Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.
Roland Eric Yessinou
Full Text Available A study was carried out on the Opkara (Benin cattle farm on 64 cattle of four different breeds (16 individuals per breed from June to December 2016. During this study, three tick species were found in different numbers, Amblyomma variegatum (732, Rhipicephalus microplus (8079, and Hyalomma spp. (208, with parasitic intensity of 11.90, 126.23, and 3.25, respectively. The interracial comparison of the tick infestation between the cattle showed a significant difference (P<0.001. However, Girolando was more infested than all the cattle breeds. Infestation of A. variegatum, R. microplus, and Hyalomma spp. on the Girolando was, respectively, 19.43 ± 2.71, 171.25 ± 23.50, and 7.12 ± 0.63, but the Borgou were less infested. Borgou breed females were more infested by A. variegatum (4.41 ± 1.14 than females Girolando (4.20 ± 0.90. The Crossbred and Azawak females were less infested (P<0.01. The mean of A. variegatum on Borgou, Azawak, Crossbred, and Girolando calves was 1.29 ± 0.35, 0.66 ± 0.26, 1.37 ± 0.37, and 2.25 ± 0.48 (P<0.01, respectively. The results of this study can be exploited to include genetic and nongenetic approaches to tick control.
Pritchard, Tracey C; Coffey, Mike P; Bond, Karen S; Hutchings, Mike R; Wall, Eileen
an increase in mastitis incidence should motivate farmers to implement the appropriate control measures to reduce the spread of the disease. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna
Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to
This study was designed to compare costs of rearing and returns received from major dairy buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundhi) in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainous-AJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of milk production. Milk production of buffaloes of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds were 2889 and 2375 liter per annum, respectively. Total costs of milk production of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breeds were Rs.96155 and Rs.90604 per annum, respectively. Net income per liter from milk of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds was Rs.12 and Rs.11, and benefit-cost ratios were 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. Hence, Nili-Ravi buffalo breed is more productive and yields better returns over Kundhi breed. Moreover, buffalo milk production is a profitable business in the country except in coastal areas of Sindh, where investment in milk production just covers the cost of production due to comparatively higher feed prices and low milk prices. Econometric analysis of milk production in the country revealed that use of green fodder and concentrates contribute positively and significantly to milk production. (author)
Inchaisri, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Jorritsma, R.
The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of a successful first insemination (SFI). The investigation was performed with 51,791 lactations from 1,396 herds obtained from the Dutch dairy cow database of the Cattle Improvement Co-operative (CRV).
Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.
Ochsner, K P; MacNeil, M D; Lewis, R M; Spangler, M L
An economic selection index was developed for Beefmaster cattle in a general-purpose production system in which bulls are mated to a combination of heifers and mature cows, with resulting progeny retained as replacements or sold at weaning. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits 1 at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means. Relative economic values for the objective traits calving difficultly direct (CDd), calving difficulty maternal (CDm), weaning weight direct (WWd), weaning weight maternal (WWm), mature cow weight (MW), and heifer pregnancy (HP) were -2.11, -1.53, 18.49, 11.28, -33.46, and 1.19, respectively. Consequently, under the scenario assumed herein, the greatest improvements in profitability could be made by decreasing maintenance energy costs associated with MW followed by improvements in weaning weight. The accuracy of the index lies between 0.218 (phenotypic-based index selection) and 0.428 (breeding values known without error). Implementation of this index would facilitate genetic improvement and increase profitability of Beefmaster cattle operations with a general-purpose breeding objective when replacement females are retained and with weaned calves as the sale end point.
Wahab, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Azizuddin, K.
The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs
Hidayati, Y. A.; Kurnani, T. B. A.; Marlina, E. T.; Rahmah, K. N.; Harlia, E.; Joni, I. M.
The growth of anaerobic bacteria except the ruminal fluid quailty is strongly influenced by the media formulations. Previous researchers have set a standard media formulation for anaerobic bacteria from rumen, however the use of standard media formulations require chemicals with high cost. Moreover, other constraint of using standard media formulations is requires large quantities of media for anaerobic bacteria to grow. Therefore, it is necessary to find media with a new culture media formulation. Media used in this research were minimalist media consist of Nutrient Agar (NA), Lactose broth and rumen fluid; enriched media Rumen Fluid-Glucose-Agar (RGCA); and enriched media 98-5. The dairy cattle waste is utilized as source of anaerobic bacteria. The obtained data was analyzed by descriptive approach. The results showed that minimalist media produced anaerobic bacteria 2148 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production: 1.06% CH4, 9.893% CO2; enriched media Rumen Fluid-Glucose-Agar (RGCA) produced anaerobic bacteria 1848 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production 4.644% CH4, 9.5356% CO2; enriched media 98-5 produced anaerobic bacteria growth 15400 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production 0.83% of CH4, 42.2% of CO2. It is conclude that the minimalist media was showed the best performance for the dairy cattle waste as source of anaerobic bacteria.
Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.
Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E
A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of
Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal
Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.
Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise
Full Text Available A harmonized sampling approach in combination with spatial modelling is required to update current knowledge of fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe. Within the scope of the EU project GLOWORM, samples from 3,359 randomly selected farms in 849 municipalities in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and Sweden were collected and their infection status assessed using an indirect bulk tank milk (BTM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Dairy farms were considered exposed when the optical density ratio (ODR exceeded the 0.3 cut-off. Two ensemble-modelling techniques, Random Forests (RF and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT, were used to obtain the spatial distribution of the probability of exposure to Fasciola hepatica using remotely sensed environmental variables (1-km spatial resolution and interpolated values from meteorological stations as predictors. The median ODRs amounted to 0.31, 0.12, 0.54, 0.25 and 0.44 for Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Poland and southern Sweden, respectively. Using the 0.3 threshold, 571 municipalities were categorized as positive and 429 as negative. RF was seen as capable of predicting the spatial distribution of exposure with an area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC curve (AUC of 0.83 (0.96 for BRT. Both models identified rainfall and temperature as the most important factors for probability of exposure. Areas of high and low exposure were identified by both models, with BRT better at discriminating between low-probability and high-probability exposure; this model may therefore be more useful in practise. Given a harmonized sampling strategy, it should be possible to generate robust spatial models for fasciolosis in dairy cattle in Europe to be used as input for temporal models and for the detection of deviations in baseline probability. Further research is required for model output in areas outside the eco-climatic range investigated.
Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.
Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G
SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed
Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R
Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation.
Lingen, van H.J.; Crompton, L.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Reynolds, C.K.; Dijkstra, J.
Various studies have indicated a relationship between enteric methane (CH4) production and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cattle. However, the number of studies investigating such a relationship is limited and the direct relationships reported are mainly obtained by variation in CH4
Demeter, R.M.; Kristensen, A.R.; Dijkstra, J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
Herd optimization models that determine economically optimal insemination and replacement decisions are valuable research tools to study various aspects of farming systems. The aim of this study was to develop a herd optimization and simulation model for dairy cattle. The model determines
Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.
The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3
Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav
This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...
O?Hara, Lisa A.; B?ge, Ren?e; Holtenius, Kjell
Background Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and S...
Ammer, S; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M
The present study investigated whether reticular temperature (RT) in dairy cattle is a useful indicator of heat stress considering the effects of milk yield and water intake (WI). In total, 28 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows raised on 3 farms in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied from March to December 2013. During the study, RT and barn climate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity) were measured continuously and individual milk yield was recorded daily. Both the daily temperature-humidity index (THI) and the daily median RT per cow were calculated. Additionally, the individual WI (amount and frequency) of 10 cows during 100d of the study was recorded on 1 farm. Averaged over all farms, daily THI ranged between 35.4 and 78.9 with a mean (±standard deviation) of 60.2 (±8.7). Dairy cows were on average (±standard deviation) 110.9d in milk (±79.3) with a mean (±standard deviation) milk yield of 35.2kg/d (±9.1). The RT was affected by THI, milk yield, days in milk, and WI. Up to a THI threshold of 65, RT remained constant at 39.2°C. Above this threshold, RT increased to 39.3°C and further to 39.4°C when THI ≥70. The correlation between THI ≥70 and RT was 0.22, whereas the coefficient ranged between r=-0.08 to +0.06 when THI cows yielded ≥30kg/d and THI ≥70 (39.5°C) compared with milk yields <30kg and THI <70 (39.3°C). The WI, which averaged (±standard deviation) 11.5 l (±5.7) per drinking bout, caused a mean decrease in RT of 3.2°C and was affected by the amount of WI (r=0.60). After WI, it took up to 2h until RT reached the initial level before drinking. In conclusion, RT increased when the THI threshold of 65 was exceeded. A further increase was noted when THI ≥70. Nevertheless, the effects of WI and milk yield have to be considered carefully when RT is used to detect hyperthermia in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.
mohammad taghi ghaneian
Full Text Available Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal feeds by production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the most common and dangerous mycotoxins produced by few species of Aspergillus and penicillium. This group of mycotoxin has disorder and risks, including the induction of liver cancer. They are mutagenic and teratogenic. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, which are naturally produced by several toxic fungi, may contaminate a wide range of dairy animal feeds resulted severe economic loss of cattle meat. Since Aflatoxin B1 and B2 can be transmitted via mammalian’s milk and cheese in form of synthetic Aflatoxin M1 and M2 to human consumers, cause significant health problems. Therefore contamination of animal feed with common toxic airborne saprophytic fungi is a major concern of health officials. Wheat, barley, corn, soybean and other animal feeds may be contaminated with toxic fungi during implantation, harvesting and storage. There are many dairy and livestock centers in Yazd that prepare milk and dairy products for Yazd and neighboring provinces. The aim of current study was to evaluate the amount and type of fungal contaminates of dairy feeds in Yazd dairies. Materials and methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the summer of 2012 on 23 dairies in Yazd. Samples of different animal feeds including concentrates, wheat straw, hay, corn, silage corn, soybean and canola as well as waste of bread, were randomly selected from their bulks. The temperature and humidity of feed storage were recorded
Whitaker, D.A.; Goodger, W.J.; Garcia, M.; Perera, B.M.A.O.; Wittwer, F.
Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks
Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village,Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine therelationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results ofthe Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated withsharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationshipwas found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, therewere significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, andparticipation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health asperformance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the onlysignificant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significantrelationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge andinformation, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly relatedfactors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to accessservices, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. Thisstudy also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraginggreater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education forempowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.
A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...
Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined.
Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I
It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available The Podolica cattle breed is autochthonous of Southern Italy and denoted by its particular rusticity. This study presents the preliminary results of the genetic characterization of the Podolica breed using DNA STR markers. A total of 20 microsatellite loci were analysed in 79 individuals reared in the Gargano area. Number of polymorphisms, allele fre- quencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, linkage disequilibrium between loci and genetic similarities between animals were calculated. The results showed a high deficiency of heterozygotes, the observed mean of het- erozygosis being 0.449, whereas the expected mean was 0.766. Many markers showed also deviations from the Hardy- Weinberg proportions and significant linkage disequilibrium between loci. However the genetic similarity within the pop- ulation was low (0.281 and the average number of alleles per locus was high (10, representing a high genetic vari- ability. In order to explain these results, a stratification of the breed in sub-populations with a high interior genetic homo- geneity but markedly differentiated one from each other could be hypothesized; this situation probably derived from non- random mating within each herd (consanguinity and from the lack of exchange of genetic material between the herds. A further study is needed on a wider sample and extending the analysis to FAO-ISAG microsatellite panel in order to con- firm this hypothesis. This could eventually provide the information necessary for the correct management of the repro- ductive schemes and for genomic traceability of meat production.
Full text: The interaction between nutrition and reproductive activity has been described in both wild and farm animals. The lactating cow is one of the very best examples of this interaction. During lactation, the length of time spent in negative energy balance around parturition seems to be an important factor controlling the delay to return to breeding after parturition. The mechanism by which nutrition regulates the reproductive system is not fully understood in lactating dairy cows or indeed in any other situation in ruminants or mammals in general. However, to be effective, a nutritional signal should ultimately act on at least one of the 3 regulatory sites in the reproductive axis - the brain, the pituitary gland and the gonads. Nutrition is likely to involve metabolic signals that could act directly on one of these targets or it could interfere with other regulatory mechanisms such as the feedback by gonadal steroids on gonadotrophin secretion. In this presentation, we will use examples from laboratory rodents and ruminants, and from dairy cattle where they are available, to examine how IGF-1 and leptin, amongst several other blood metabolites and metabolic hormones, could be part of the link between nutrition and reproduction in the postpartum dairy cow. A number of studies have proposed a role for IGF-1 in the control of postpartum anoestrus and the framework of the current hypothesis will be presented. The role of leptin is still not clear for ruminants in general, but especially in cattle, because leptin was only recently discovered (about 6 years ago) and because a reliable radioimmunoassay for bovine leptin only became available since 1999. The possibilities and restrictions of a role for leptin in the control of reproduction by nutrition will be discussed. To conclude, we will examine the use of these two hormones as potential indicators of the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive function and we will introduce insulin as another
Karacaoren, B; Janss, L L G; Kadarmideen, H N
The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...
Full Text Available Effects of mycotoxin sequestering agents in feed on health, reproduction and milk yield of dairy cattle were studied in a 5-month long experiment on 300 dairy cows divided into two groups and six subgroups. The experiment was conducted in adding a mycotoxin sequestering agent based on 1,3 and 1,6 β-glucans to standard cattle nutrition (TMR, which was regularly tested for content of important mycotoxins, in order to gain knowledge about possible positive effect of this agent on the health of dairy cattle and about possible avoidance of negative effects of mycotoxins on dairy cattle due to their structural elimination caused by the agent. The experiment’s setting and conditions during it were in all aspects common and comparable within the European Union, the experiment’s results should be therefore seen as relevant. Health, pregnancy rate and milk yield were carefully monitored during the experiment. Indicators of state of health (occurrence of mastitis and somatic cell count in milk did not show any significant differences between test and control groups of dairy cows. The average milk yield of dairy cows which were fed the agent enriched feed (30.2 kg a day was slightly lower in comparison to control groups (31 kg a day, both results with P < 0.001, however, fat content of milk of test groups’ cows (4.02% was considerably higher than that of control groups’ cows (3.79%. The average pregnancy rate of cows which were fed the agent enriched feed also manifested considerable increase in percentage and stability (from 42.95% of control groups’ cows to 62.25% of test groups’ cows, the standard deviation decreased from 21.1% to 14.4% which means smaller differences among pregnancy rate of test groups’ cows, hence higher stability, this increase manifested even long after the cows had been fed regular feed again.
Full Text Available In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910 BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.
Schunn, Anne-Marie; Conraths, Franz J.; Staubach, Christoph; Fröhlich, Andreas; Forbes, Andrew; Strube, Christina
In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910) BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model) and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors) or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures. PMID:24040243
Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle. Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk production lower than average, n = 4. From calving (Day 0 until divergence of first follicular wave, ovaries was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence, growth rate, maximum follicular diameter, day of follicular divergence and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth rate of first follicular surge was higher in Group 2 than Group 1 (2.0 + 0.0 mm/day vs 1.2 + 0.6 mm/day, P< 0.05. The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6 + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5 + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2 + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle
Nina, Pius Mbuya; Mugisha, Samuel; Leirs, Herwig; Basuta, Gilbert Isabirye; Van Damme, Patrick
Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews administered to 366 randomly selected household heads were supplemented with serological data on brucellosis in cattle. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation test, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 17. Serological results showed that 44% of cattle blood samples were sero-positive for brucellosis. The results obtained from interviews put the statistical mean of household reported cattle abortions at 5.39 (5.08-5.70 at 95% CI, n=366). Post-hoc analysis of variance revealed that both sero-positive cattle and reported cattle abortions significantly were much lower when moving outwards from the park boundary (pbrucellosis management practices at the nexus of wildlife and livestock in Uganda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rajapaksha, Eranda; Winkler, Christoph; Tucker, Cassandra B
Use of compressible flooring, such as rubber, has increased on dairy farms. Rubber improves locomotion and is well used by cattle in preference experiments that combine walking and standing. Previous work has found that rubber is particularly beneficial for lame animals, perhaps because a softer material is particularly useful when a single hoof is compromised. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of flooring while standing, because cattle in freestall housing spend 40 to 50% of their time engaged in this behavior. In a 2 × 2 design, cows (n = 16) were evaluated on 4 standing surfaces that varied in terms of both floor type (concrete or rubber) and presentation [same floor under all 4 legs (all 4 legs on either concrete or rubber) or a rough surface under only one hind leg and the other 3 legs on concrete or rubber] in a crossover design. Surface electromyograms were used to evaluate muscle fatigue, total activity, and movement of muscle activity between legs during 1 h of standing. Muscle fatigue was evaluated in 2 contexts: (1) static contractions when cows continuously transferred weight to each hind leg, before and after 1 h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1 h on treatment surfaces. In addition, stepping rate, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing were measured. No interaction between floor type and presentation was found. Presentation had a significant effect; when one hind leg was on a rough surface, cattle took 1.7 times more steps with this leg and the non-rough hind leg had 1.2 times more muscle activity, compared with when all 4 legs were on the same surface. These changes are consistent with movement away from concrete with protrusions. When standing on rubber, muscle-activity movements among legs remained stable (0.6-0.7 movements per min) over 1 h but increased on concrete (0.6-0.9 movements per min), indicating that, like humans, cattle may sway to counteract
Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W
Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3×system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3 d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16 h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01 μg/mL (10 ppb) within 48 h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram
Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M
The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was
Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Gómez-Romero, Ninnet; Herring, Andy D; Canal, Cláudio W; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F
The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds. Primary cells strains, derived from testicular tissue, were generated from three animals from each breed. Bovine pestivirus strains used were from BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-2a and 'HoBi'-like virus. Growth was compared by determining virus titers after one passage in primary cells. All tests were run in triplicate. Virus titers were determined by endpoint dilution and RT-qPCR. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test (P˂0.05). Significant differences in virus growth did not correlate with cattle breed. However, significant differences were observed between cells derived from different individuals regardless of breed. Variation in the replication of virus in primary cell strains may reflect a genetic predisposition that favors virus replication.
Stevenson, J L; Rodrigues, J A; Braga, F A; Bitente, S; Dalton, J C; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reproductive protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcomes of breeding programs. Holstein heifers (n = 534), 13 +/- 1 mo of age, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 reproductive protocols. On the day of enrollment (d 0), heifers were palpated per rectum and received a score according to the maturity of their reproductive tract (1 = prepubertal; 2 = peripubertal; and 3 = puber-tal). Estrous detection-control heifers (CON, n = 146) received no treatment and were inseminated on detection of estrus for 28 d. Prostaglandin F(2alpha)-treated heifers (PGED, n = 137) received 1 injection of PGF(2alpha) on d 0 and were inseminated on detection of estrus; heifers not in-seminated by d 14 received a second injection of PGF(2alpha) and were observed for estrus and artificial insemination (AI) for an additional 14 d. Heifers enrolled in the estrous detection-timed AI (EDTAI, n = 140) treatment received a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert on d 0, and 7 d later, the CIDR was removed and all heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), heifers received AI on detection of estrus, and those not inseminated by 72 h after PGF(2alpha) received an injection of GnRH concurrent with AI. Heifers in the GnRH-timed AI (GTAI, n = 111) treatment received 1 injection of GnRH on d 0, on d 6 heifers received a CIDR insert and injections of GnRH and PGF(2alpha), on d 13 the CIDR was removed and heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), and 48 h later all heifers received an injection of GnRH and AI. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 32 +/- 3 and 62 +/- 3 d after AI. Cost of reproductive protocols and their economic outcomes were calculated for a 28 d period beginning at enrollment. Heifers in the PGED treatment were inseminated at a faster rate than CON heifers. A smaller proportion of prepubertal and peripubertal heifers were inseminated within 14 d of enrollment
Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.
Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing...... phosphorus which can potentially be used as a secondary source of this nutrient. The present study investigated the effect of pH in phosphorus release from these wastes using acid and base extraction followed by phosphorus recovery via precipitation, targeting the production of a fertilizer. Results showed...... the formation of amorphous calcium phosphates, a potential fertilizer that can help to close the cycle of this nutrient. During the process, heavy metals might become enriched in the precipitates. In the perspective of producing a fertilizer this is an undesirable process, and one that should be taken...
Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.
Elwakeel Eman A
Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration
Van Eenige, M J E M; Counotte, G H M; Noordhuizen, J P T M
Drinking water can be considered an essential nutrient for dairy cattle. However, because it comes from different sources, its chemical and microbiological quality does not always reach accepted standards. Moreover, water quality is not routinely assessed on dairy farms. The microecology of drinking water sources and distribution systems is rather complex and still not fully understood. Water quality is adversely affected by the formation of biofilms in distribution systems, which form a persistent reservoir for potentially pathogenic bacteria. Saprophytic microorganisms associated with such biofilms interact with organic and inorganic matter in water, with pathogens, and even with each other. In addition, the presence of biofilms in water distribution systems makes cleaning and disinfection difficult and sometimes impossible. This article describes the complex dynamics of microorganisms in water distribution systems. Water quality is diminished primarily as a result of faecal contamination and rarely as a result of putrefaction in water distribution systems. The design of such systems (with/ without anti-backflow valves and pressure) and the materials used (polyethylene enhances biofilm; stainless steel does not) affect the quality of water they provide. The best option is an open, funnel-shaped galvanized drinking trough, possibly with a pressure system, air inlet, and anti-backflow valves. A poor microbiological quality of drinking water may adversely affect feed intake, and herd health and productivity. In turn, public health may be affected because cattle can become a reservoir of microorganisms hazardous to humans, such as some strains of E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter jejuni. A better understanding of the biological processes in water sources and distribution systems and of the viability of microorganisms in these systems may contribute to better advice on herd health and productivity at a farm level. Certain on-farm risk factors for
Tallo-Parra, O; Carbajal, A; Monclús, L; Manteca, X; Lopez-Bejar, M
Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) and hair progesterone concentrations (HPCs) allow monitoring long-term retrospective steroid levels. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms of steroid deposition in hair and its potential application in dairy cattle research. This study aimed to evaluate the potential uses of hair steroid determinations by studying the interrelations between HCC, HPC, physiological data from cows, and their milk production and quality. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed in hair from 101 milking Holstein Friesian cows in a commercial farm. Physiological data were obtained from the 60 d prior to hair collection. Moreover, productive data from the month when hair was collected and the previous one were also obtained as well as at 124 d after hair sampling. Significant but weak correlations were found between HCC and HPC (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001) and between HPC and age (r = 0.06, P = 0.0133). High HCC were associated with low milk yields from the 2 previous months to hair sampling (P = 0.0396) and during the whole lactation (P < 0.0001). High HCC were also related to high somatic cell count (P = 0.0241). No effect of HCC on fat or protein content was detected. No significant correlations were detected between hair steroid concentrations and pregnancy status, days of gestation, parturition category (primiparous vs multiparous), number of lactations or days in milk. The relationship between physiological variables and HCC or HPC could depend on the duration of the time period over which hair accumulates hormones. Steroid concentrations in hair present high variability between individuals but are a potential tool for dairy cattle welfare and production research by providing a useful and practical tool for long-term steroid monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matthew C. McClure
Full Text Available A major use of genetic data is parentage verification and identification as inaccurate pedigrees negatively affect genetic gain. Since 2012 the international standard for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP verification in Bos taurus cattle has been the ISAG SNP panels. While these ISAG panels provide an increased level of parentage accuracy over microsatellite markers (MS, they can validate the wrong parent at ≤1% misconcordance rate levels, indicating that more SNP are needed if a more accurate pedigree is required. With rapidly increasing numbers of cattle being genotyped in Ireland that represent 61 B. taurus breeds from a wide range of farm types: beef/dairy, AI/pedigree/commercial, purebred/crossbred, and large to small herd size the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation (ICBF analyzed different SNP densities to determine that at a minimum ≥500 SNP are needed to consistently predict only one set of parents at a ≤1% misconcordance rate. For parentage validation and prediction ICBF uses 800 SNP (ICBF800 selected based on SNP clustering quality, ISAG200 inclusion, call rate (CR, and minor allele frequency (MAF in the Irish cattle population. Large datasets require sample and SNP quality control (QC. Most publications only deal with SNP QC via CR, MAF, parent-progeny conflicts, and Hardy-Weinberg deviation, but not sample QC. We report here parentage, SNP QC, and a genomic sample QC pipelines to deal with the unique challenges of >1 million genotypes from a national herd such as SNP genotype errors from mis-tagging of animals, lab errors, farm errors, and multiple other issues that can arise. We divide the pipeline into two parts: a Genotype QC and an Animal QC pipeline. The Genotype QC identifies samples with low call rate, missing or mixed genotype classes (no BB genotype or ABTG alleles present, and low genotype frequencies. The Animal QC handles situations where the genotype might not belong to the listed individual by identifying: >1 non
Adriana L. Somavilla
Full Text Available Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV for average daily weight gain (ADG in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP, BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44 and sample size (568 animals in the training population. Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs.
Indole is a colorless crystalline solid which has been isolated from coal tar fractionation. High concentrations of indole (which is a major ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan) in blood of cattle causes hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and renal necrosis. An end product of anaerobic metabolism of the colonic flora, indole has also been examined as a marker in patients with unresected large bowel cancer or polyps. With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of the health effects of chronic exposure to pollutants must be made. Much of the body burden of animals will come from ingested feed and water, with the primary route of human exposure being the consumption of the contaminated meat, milk, and eggs. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of 14 C-indole in dairy cattle, swine, and laying pullets and the retention of this chemical in consumable products such as milk, meat, and eggs
van der Waaij, E H; Holzhauer, M; Ellen, E; Kamphuis, C; de Jong, G
Impaired claw health is one of the major problems causing production loss and reduced animal welfare in dairy cattle. In response, the Dutch Animal Health Service (GD) Ltd. initiated this study, in which claws of lactating and near-term cows and heifers in 430 herds were trimmed by hoof trimmers and the health status of the rear claws recorded. Only herds with >75% of the animals having feet trimmed were considered, resulting in records on 21,611 animals. Eight claw disorders were scored: digital dermatitis (DD), interdigital dermatitis/heel horn erosions (IDHE), sole hemorrhage (SH), chronic laminitis (CL), sole ulcer (SU), white line disease (WLD), interdigital hyperplasia (HYP), and interdigital phlegmona (IP). The prevalence varied from 0.6% (IP) to 39.9% (SH). More than 70% of the animals had at least one claw disorder. Conformation traits and locomotion were recorded once during the animal's first lactation by trained classifiers of the Royal Dutch Cattle Syndicate and completely independent of the moment of claw trimming. Heritabilities were estimated using a sire model, and ranged from <0.01 (IP) to 0.10 (DD and HYP). Genetic correlations of incidences of claw disorders with locomotion were variable, ranging from 0.13 (SH) to -0.91 (CL). Genetic correlations with the rear leg conformation traits were lower, ranging from 0.04 (ID with rear leg side view) to -0.69 (IP with rear leg rear view).
Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.
Adriana Mello de Araújo
Full Text Available Brazilian naturalized goat breeds are adapted to the semiarid conditions prevalent in the Northeast region of the country (which has the largest Brazilian goat heard and represent an as yet uninvestigated source of genetic diversity. Currently, imported goat breeds are crossed with Brazilian naturalized goat breeds, endangering the genetic potential of the naturalized breeds. We used 11 microsatellite markers to determine the genetic diversity among imported (non-naturalized dairy Alpine and Saanen goats and naturalized Brazilian Moxotó goats. We genotyped 292 goats from three herds (one private, one from the University of Minas Gerais and the Moxotó conservation herd from Embrapa Caprinos and found that the general heterozygosity was 0.6952 for Alpine, 0.7043 for Saanen and 0.4984 for Moxotó goats. The number of alleles ranged from 5 (INRA005 to 11 (BM3205, with an average of 7 alleles per locus in the imported breeds and 3.5 alleles per locus in the Moxotó breed. Mean differentiation between populations was higher for herds (F ST S = 0.0768 than for breeds (F ST P = 0.0263, indicating similarity between the imported breeds and the existence of crosses between them. Nei's genetic distance was highest between the Moxotó breed and the imported breeds. These indicate that further studies using these molecular markers would be fruitful.
Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke
Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoan parasites that causes diarrhoea in neonates and young calves. This longitudinal study was conducted at two large dairy cattle farms in central Ethiopia during February/2014 to June/2015 to determine the age-related distribution of Cryptosporidium species, to identify risk factors of the disease and to assess the public health significance of the parasite. Thirty calves born to these dairy farms were followed-up from birth to three months of age, and 270 faecal samples were collected and examined by the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen, PCR-RFLP and Sequencing. Cryptosporidium was detected from week 1 to 3 months of age with an overall prevalence of 14.8%, Peak of the infection was at two weeks of age when 12 of the 30 calves (40% shedded oocysts. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. andersoni were identified in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of the C. parvum isolates from this study with GenBank sequences for C. parvum bovine genotype IIa and IId subtypes. This study showed the predominance of the zoonotic C. parvum species in pre-weaned calves and demonstrated that this age group of calves pose the greatest risk for human infection. Due attention on the management of pre-weaned calves is recommended to prevent transmission of the infection to humans and lessen contamination of the environment by oocysts.
Marina de Paula Almeida
Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to assess commercial front and rear cuts of dairy-origin cattle fed mesquite pod meal. Twenty-five non-castrated male bovines (Holstein-Zebu, distributed according to a completely randomized design, with five animals per treatment, were used. The feed contained about 121.2 and 544.98 g kg-1 of crude protein and total digestible nutrients, respectively, and was composed of tifton grass hay, cornmeal, soybean meal, mesquite pod meal and mineral salt. The right half carcass of each animal was separated between the 5th and 6th ribs, in front and rear quarters, from which commercial cuts were obtained. There was no effect (p > 0.05 as to the replacement of corn for mesquite pod meal on the weights and yields of front cuts (shoulder, brisket, chuck, hump and flanks and rear cuts (tenderloin, shank, knuckle, thin flank, flat, eye round, rump tail, top side, cap of rump, rump, cut of rump, striploin, cap of cube roll. Mesquite pod meal can substitute cornmeal in 100% in the concentrate without changes in weight and yield of the commercial front and rear cuts of male bovines of dairy origin.
Full Text Available We describe a new mechanistic bio-economic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build-up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e. due to other diseases by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently.
O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell
Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.
Smith, R L; Al-Mamun, M A; Gröhn, Y T
The cost of paratuberculosis to dairy herds, through decreased milk production, early culling, and poor reproductive performance, has been well-studied. The benefit of control programs, however, has been debated. A recent stochastic compartmental model for paratuberculosis transmission in US dairy herds was modified to predict herd net present value (NPV) over 25 years in herds of 100 and 1000 dairy cattle with endemic paratuberculosis at initial prevalence of 10% and 20%. Control programs were designed by combining 5 tests (none, fecal culture, ELISA, PCR, or calf testing), 3 test-related culling strategies (all test-positive, high-positive, or repeated positive), 2 test frequencies (annual and biannual), 3 hygiene levels (standard, moderate, or improved), and 2 cessation decisions (testing ceased after 5 negative whole-herd tests or testing continued). Stochastic dominance was determined for each herd scenario; no control program was fully dominant for maximizing herd NPV in any scenario. Use of the ELISA test was generally preferred in all scenarios, but no paratuberculosis control was highly preferred for the small herd with 10% initial prevalence and was frequently preferred in other herd scenarios. Based on their effect on paratuberculosis alone, hygiene improvements were not found to be as cost-effective as test-and-cull strategies in most circumstances. Global sensitivity analysis found that economic parameters, such as the price of milk, had more influence on NPV than control program-related parameters. We conclude that paratuberculosis control can be cost effective, and multiple control programs can be applied for equivalent economic results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Youssef, Mohamed; El-Ashker, Maged
Health problems occurring during the transition period in dairy cattle are of utmost importance as they can decrease the animal's reproductive performance and favor the development of various metabolic diseases with resultant significant reproductive disorders. Among the commonly reported metabolic diseases occurring during that time, hyperketonemia is the most prevalent and could provoke a significant economic impact. The failing of a dairy cow to transit optimally between pregnancy and lactation is economically very relevant and should be considered. Until now, the role of insulin resistance (IR) in the etiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cattle is not clearly understood. This review aims to shed some light on the role of IR and oxidative stress in dairy cows with SCK during the transition period. The data presented in this review demonstrates that dairy cows could be vulnerable to the development of negative energy balance during transition. Moreover, the transitional cows could succumb to both IR and oxidative stress; however, the exact role of IR in cows with SCK needs further investigations. It is imperative to elaborate a suitable nutritional strategy to facilitate an easy transit of cows through this critical period and to minimize health problems and improve productivity during lactation.
Köck, A; Ledinek, M; Gruber, L; Steininger, F; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Egger-Danner, C
This study is part of a larger project whose overall objective was to evaluate the possibilities for genetic improvement of efficiency in Austrian dairy cattle. In 2014, a 1-yr data collection was carried out. Data from 6,519 cows kept on 161 farms were recorded. In addition to routinely recorded data (e.g., milk yield, fertility, disease data), data of novel traits [e.g., body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), lameness score, body measurements] and individual feeding information and feed quality were recorded on each test-day. The specific objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for efficiency (related) traits and to investigate their relationships with BCS and lameness in Austrian Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and Holstein cows. The following efficiency (related) traits were considered: energy-corrected milk (ECM), BW, dry matter intake (DMI), energy intake (INEL), ratio of milk output to metabolic BW (ECM/BW 0.75 ), ratio of milk output to DMI (ECM/DMI), and ratio of milk energy output to total energy intake (LE/INEL, LE = energy in milk). For Fleckvieh, the heritability estimates of the efficiency (related) traits ranged from 0.11 for LE/INEL to 0.44 for BW. Heritabilities for BCS and lameness were 0.19 and 0.07, respectively. Repeatabilities were high and ranged from 0.30 for LE/INEL to 0.83 for BW. Heritability estimates were generally lower for Brown Swiss and Holstein, but repeatabilities were in the same range as for Fleckvieh. In all 3 breeds, more-efficient cows were found to have a higher milk yield, lower BW, slightly higher DMI, and lower BCS. Higher efficiency was associated with slightly fewer lameness problems, most likely due to the lower BW (especially in Fleckvieh) and higher DMI of the more-efficient cows. Body weight and BCS were positively correlated. Therefore, when selecting for a lower BW, BCS is required as additional information because, otherwise, no distinction between large animals with low BCS and smaller animals
Tresoldi, Grazyne; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B
Identifying dairy cattle experiencing heat stress and adopting appropriate mitigation strategies can improve welfare and profitability. However, little is known about how cattle use heat abatement resources (shade, sprayed water) on drylot dairies. It is also unclear how often we need to observe animals to measure high heat load, or the relevance of specific aspects of this response, particularly in terms of panting. Our objectives were to describe and determine sampling intervals to measure cattle use of heat abatement resources, respiration rate (RR) and panting characteristics (drooling, open mouth, protruding tongue), and to evaluate the relationship between the latter 2. High-producing cows were chosen from 4 drylots (8 cows/dairy, n=32) and observed for at least 5.9h (1000 to 1800h, excluding milking) when air temperature, humidity, and the combined index averaged 33°C, 30%, and 79, respectively. Use of heat abatement resources was recorded continuously; RR and the presence and absence of each panting characteristic were recorded every 5min. From the observed values, estimates using the specified sub-sampling intervals were calculated for heat abatement resource use (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120min), and for RR and panting (10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120min). Estimates and observed values were compared using linear regression. Sampling intervals were considered accurate if they met 3 criteria: R 2 ≥0.9, intercept=0, and slope=1. The relationship between RR and each panting characteristic was analyzed using mixed models. Cows used shade (at corral or over feed bunk) and feed bunk area (where water was sprayed) for about 90 and 50% of the observed time, respectively, and used areas with no cooling for 2min at a time, on average. Cows exhibited drooling (34±4% of observations) more often than open mouth and protruding tongue (11±3 and 8±3% of observations, respectively). Respiration rate varied depending on the presence of panting (with vs
Smits, M.C.J.; Aarnink, A.J.A.
Water evaporation from bedding in freestall dairy cattle houses was modeled. Calculated water evaporations from excreta in composting and non composting beddings were much lower in Holland than in Israel. A model approach to study the drying potential of bedding materials in freestall dairy cow
Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng
Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.
Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F
For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm
Vouraki, Sotiria; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Alexandri, Panoraia; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Banos, Georgios; Arsenos, Georgios
Polymorphisms at PRNP gene locus have been associated with resistance against classical scrapie in goats. Genetic selection on this gene within appropriate breeding programs may contribute to the control of the disease. The present study characterized the genetic profile of codons 146, 211 and 222 in three dairy goat breeds in Greece. A total of 766 dairy goats from seven farms were used. Animals belonged to two indigenous Greek, Eghoria (n = 264) and Skopelos (n = 287) and a foreign breed, Damascus (n = 215). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples from individual animals. Polymorphisms were detected in these codons using Real-Time PCR analysis and four different Custom TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypic, allelic and haplotypic frequencies were calculated based on individual animal genotypes. Chi-square tests were used to examine Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state and compare genotypic distribution across breeds. Genetic distances among the three breeds, and between these and 30 breeds reared in other countries were estimated based on haplotypic frequencies using fixation index FST with Arlequin v3.1 software; a Neighbor-Joining tree was created using PHYLIP package v3.695. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.01. All scrapie resistance-associated alleles (146S, 146D, 211Q and 222K) were detected in the studied population. Significant frequency differences were observed between the indigenous Greek and Damascus breeds. Alleles 222K and 146S had the highest frequency in the two indigenous and the Damascus breed, respectively (ca. 6.0%). The studied breeds shared similar haplotypic frequencies with most South Italian and Turkish breeds but differed significantly from North-Western European, Far East and some USA goat breeds. Results suggest there is adequate variation in the PRNP gene locus to support breeding programs for enhanced scrapie resistance in goats reared in Greece. Genetic comparisons among goat breeds indicate that separate
Yalcintan, Hulya; Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa
The aim of the study was to compare the certain carcass and meat quality traits and also fatty acid composition of goat kids from indigenous breeds (Gokceada and Hair Goat) and dairy breeds (Saanen and Maltese). A total 40 male kids from Saanen, Gokceada, Maltese and Hair Goat breeds were collected from commercial farms after weaning. Kids were finished for 56 days with grower concentrate and alfalfa hay in the sheepfold until slaughter. Higher mean values were found for Saanen kids in terms of slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and real dressing compared with Maltese, Hair Goat and Gokceada kids under the same intensive conditions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between breeds in terms of instrumental meat quality traits, except meat colour. Meat from Gokceada and Hair Goat kids had higher lightness and Hue angle values than Saanen kids after 24 h of blooming. High meat redness values were observed for Saanen kids after 0 and 1 h of blooming. Panellist appreciated cooked meat from Saanen and Maltese kids in overall acceptability. If the fatty acid composition of meat was taken into consideration, kids from Saanen and Gokceada breeds displayed better values, because of the lower ƩSFA percentage and higher desirable fatty acids (C18:0 + ΣMUFA + ΣPUFA) percentage than Maltese and Hair Goat kids. Our results indicate that male kids for Saanen which is dairy breed could be assessable for quality goat meat production.
Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A
Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anjos, Isis Dos; Toneli, Juliana T. C. L.; Sagula, Alex L.; Lucas Junior, Jorge de
ABSTRACT This research aimed to evaluate the biogas production during the anaerobic biodigestion process of dairy cattle manure, with and without solids separation. Sixteen biodigesters of the batch type were used, each one with 2L of capacity, supplied with manure in four different conditions: (1) pure manure, after washing the floors of the free stall system; (2) manure after the solids separator; (3) manure after the solids separator and sand decanter and (4) manure with the solid retained...
Gobikrushanth, M; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N
The objective of this retrospective observational cohort study, combined with simulation, was to evaluate the effect of extending the voluntary waiting period (VWP) during the summer on profitability on a Florida dairy farm. Data from Holstein cows (n=1,416) that calved between June and September of 2007 and 2008 were used. Cows that calved between June 1 and July 21 (regular group; REG; n=719) were artificially inseminated (AI) for the first time upon estrus detection (ED) after the second PGF₂α of the Presynch protocol administered between 57 and 63 d in milk (DIM), or underwent timed AI using the Ovsynch protocol (TAI) if not detected in estrus. Cows that calved between July 22 and September 18 (extended group; EXT; n=697) underwent AI for the first time after the first or second PGF₂α starting November 14 or November 21 or underwent TAI if not detected in estrus. For second and subsequent AI, all cows underwent AI upon ED or enrolled on TAI after nonpregnancy diagnosis. Following these schemes, average VWP in the REG group and EXT group were 60 and 83 d, respectively. Overall profitability for both experimental and subsequent parities were calculated by subtracting the costs existing of feeding costs ($0.30/kg lactating cow diet; $0.25/kg dry cow diet), breeding costs ($2.65/dose PGF₂α; $2.40/dose GnRH; $0.25/injection administration; $10/semen straw; $5/AI; $3/pregnancy diagnosis), and other costs ($3/d) from the daily revenues with milk sales ($0.44/kg of milk), cow sales ($1.76/kg of live weight), and calf sales ($140/calf). A herd budget simulation was used to predict future cash flow after culling or end of subsequent parity until 6 yr after the start of the study to account for all cash flow consequences of extended VWP. Cows in the EXT group had greater first-service pregnancy per AI (PAI1) but still had greater days open and calving interval. Delaying breeding did not affect total cash flow because the EXT group had greater combined
Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J
Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane
The issue of global warming and more specifically its health impact on populations is increasingly concerning. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of temperature on dairy cattle mortality in France during the warm season (April-August). We therefore devised and implemented a spatial partitioning method to divide France into areas in which weather conditions were homogeneous, combining a multiple factor analysis with a clustering method using both weather and spatial data. We then used time-series regressions (2001-2008) to model the relationship between temperature humidity index (an index representing the temperature corrected by the relative humidity) and dairy cattle mortality within these areas. We found a significant effect of heat on dairy cattle mortality, but also an effect of cooler temperatures (to a lesser extent in some areas), which leads to a U-shaped relationship in the studied areas. Our partitioning approach based on weather criteria, associated with classic clustering methods, may contribute to better estimating temperature effects, a critical issue for animal health and welfare. Beyond the interest of its use in animal health, this approach can also be of interest in several situations in the frame of human health.
Gussmann, Maya; Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Farre, Michael; Halasa, Tariq
Intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle lead to economic losses for farmers, both through reduced milk production and disease control measures. We present the first strain-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in a dairy cattle herd. The model can be used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of different prevention and control strategies against IMI. The objective of this study was to describe a transmission framework, which simulates spread of IMI causing pathogens through different transmission modes. These include the traditional contagious and environmental spread and a new opportunistic transmission mode. In addition, the within-herd transmission dynamics of IMI causing pathogens were studied. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of input parameters on model predictions. The results show that the model is able to represent various within-herd levels of IMI prevalence, depending on the simulated pathogens and their parameter settings. The parameters can be adjusted to include different combinations of IMI causing pathogens at different prevalence levels, representing herd-specific situations. The model is most sensitive to varying the transmission rate parameters and the strain-specific recovery rates from IMI. It can be used for investigating both short term operational and long term strategic decisions for the prevention and control of IMI in dairy cattle herds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Knowledge of spontaneous aberrations, namely, of their frequency in non-irradiated cells is of paramount importance not only in cytogenetic research, but also in contemporary animal production.The paper deals with research on spontaneously emerged chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes in the cattle of ‘Buša’ breed.To obtain metaphase chromosomes the conventional method of lymphocyte cultivation was used, albeit slightly modified and adapted to the examined animals and the laboratory conditions.The research findings indicate that a certain percent of spontaneously emerged chromosomal aberrations of chromatid type (gap and break have been found in the peripheral blood lymphocytes in the cattle of ‘Buša’ breed.
Full Text Available The aims of the study were to: Investigate polymorphisms in the ND-5 region of bovine mitochondrial DNA in the composite and purebred Hereford herds from the Wokalup selection experiment, sequencing and compare the sequences between haplotypes and published sequence from Genebank. A total of 194 Hereford and 235 composite breed cattle from Wokalup Research Station were used in this study. The mitochondrial DNA was extracted using Wizard genomic DNA purification system from Promega. ND-5 fragment of mitochondrial DNA was amplified using PCR and continued with RFLP. Each haplotypes were sequenced. PCR products of each haplotype were cloned into pCR II, transformed, colonies selection, plasmid DNA extraction continued with cycle sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in both breeds of cattle in ND-5 region of mitochondrial DNA by PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing analysis confirmed the RFLPs data.
Maresca, Carmen; Scoccia, Eleonora; Dettori, Annalisa; Felici, Andrea; Guarcini, Roberta; Petrini, Stefano; Quaglia, Andrea; Filippini, Giovanni
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years. Monetary incentives are used to encourage breeders to achieve the annual seroprevalence ranges stated in the plan. A Ministerial decree states that all bovines in breeding herds and aged older than 12 months should be serologically tested. Serum samples were tested for presence of the antibody to glycoprotein E of BoHV-1 using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The national herd seroprevalence was 55.49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52.01-58.92). Of 25,121 bovines tested for antibodies against BoHV-1, 8014 were positive. The seroprevalence in animals from autochthonous Italian cattle breeds was 31.89% (95% CI 31.31-32.47). Seroprevalence was highest in Podolica cattle (55.14%; 95% CI 54.07-56.21), lowest in Maremmana cattle (9.95%; 95% CI 7.99-12.31), and intermediate in Chianina (22.01%; 95% CI 21.03-23.01), Marchigiana (24.85%; 95% CI 23.52-26.23), and Romagnola (15.60%; 95% CI 14.62-16.64) cattle. These seroprevalence rates indicate a need for intervention to decrease the inevitable severe economic losses arising from BoHV-1 infection. Although some regions in Italy have a long history of combatting BoHV-1 infection, only the province of Bolzano has eradicated IBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Calving difficulty or dystocia has a great economic impact in the US dairy industry. Reported risk factors associated with calving difficulty are feto-pelvic disproportion, gestation length and conformation. Different dairy cattle breeds have different incidence of calving difficulty, wit...
Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise). Four nutritional environments (MAR...
Full Text Available Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT data of radio frequency based digital (RFD thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB thermometer in dairy cattle. Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done. Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05 before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05 in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.
Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M
This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control
Laven, R A; Lawrence, K R
Of the 4 main diseases causing lameness in UK dairy cattle, 2 (digital dermatitis and foul-in-the-foot, or interdigital necrobacillosis) are infectious diseases that are commonly associated with similar underfoot conditions, and 2 (sole ulcer and white-line disease) result from subclinical laminitis. Comparison of the seasonality of these 2 diseases can identify whether their own unique risk factors are more important than the risk factors they share. Using a database from 46 veterinarians distributed across the United Kingdom, the seasonality of treatments for these 4 diseases was evaluated. This analysis showed that the seasonality of lameness in UK dairy cattle was significantly reduced in comparison with previous reports from the 1980s. This was primarily due to 1) a reduction in the seasonality of digital dermatitis (outbreaks of which accounted for 6.7% of veterinary reports), with only 60% of reports during the winter as opposed to 72% in earlier studies, and 2) a change in the seasonality of white-line disease from a disease that was most commonly seen in the winter (55% of reports) to a disease that was most commonly reported in the late summer or early autumn, with significantly more reports in August and October than in February. Comparison of the seasonality of digital dermatitis and foul-in-the-foot showed a significant difference in the seasonality of the 2 diseases, with foul-in-the-foot being significantly more common compared with digital dermatitis in June and August. This implies that significant risk factors exist for digital dermatitis that are not as important for foul-in-the-foot. The difference in the seasonality of sole ulcer and white-line disease was even more marked, with white-line disease being significantly more common than sole ulcer from August to October, despite these diseases being more closely linked in the literature than digital dermatitis and foul-in-the-foot. This comparison shows that the seasonality of lameness has changed
Full Text Available Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti, is a (reemerging disease in Europe (Cortes et al., 2014, including Italy (Gazzonis et al., 2014; 2017. However, its economic impact is scarcely considered and generally underestimated and there are still little studied aspects concerning both the parasite and the disease. Following a natural outbreak of besnoitiosis in a dairy herd, a study was planned to characterize B. besnoiti infection in cattle through a multidisciplinary approach. Suspicious abortions and clinical cases of besnoitiosis were reported in a dairy farm (September 2017, Northern Italy housing 216 Holstein cattle. Blood samples were collected; haematological and serological analyses (ELISA and confirmatory WB were performed (Fernandez-Garcia et al., 2009. Histology and molecular (endpoint ITS-1 PCR (Cortes et al., 2007 and sequencing analyses of tissues from a slaughtered cow with chronic besnoitiosis were carried out. Out of 59 ELISA-positive animals, 50 (23% were confirmed by WB. B. besnoiti prevalence was higher in cows (41% than in calves (12%; any heifer did not result positive. Considering haematological parameters, a significant shift in the differential leucocyte formula from lymphocyte to granulocyte was recorded in infected cows (Mean±S.D.:L=46.1±18.4,G=53.9±18.4 if compared to negative animals (Student’s T-test,p=0.012. This finding could be helpful in diagnosis, treatment and control of besnoitiosis. Histology revealed a high load of B. besnoiti tissue cysts in skin, vulva, muzzle, sclera, eyelid, respiratory tract, emphasizing the possibility of parasite transmission through direct contact among animals. B. besnoiti was confirmed by PCR in other organs (heart, liver, aorta wall, tonsil and especially in ovary, uterus and vulva, suggesting that the infection could affect cows’ fertility. Parasite DNA was also found in masseters posing an important question for food security, even if B. besnoiti is not
Owango, M.O.; Sanda, I.A.; Lukuyu, B.A.; Omolo, J.O.; Masibili, M.
A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the dairy sector to move from producing bulk dairy commodities towards producing specialized dairy products aimed at niche markets. Dairy farmers consider shifting from commodity milk to raw milk with specialized composition to meet consumer or
Golder, H M; Moss, N; Rogers, G; Jackson, B; Gannon, N; Wong, Ptw; Lean, I J
A herd of Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein-Jersey cross lactating cattle of mixed ages presented with a sudden drop in milk yield in 94/678 cows on 3 October 2014 (Day 0). The herd was located in Gretna in the Derwent Valley (Tasmania, Australia) and had been grazing dryland pasture. On Day 0 the cows variably showed recumbency, peracute photosensitisation, inflamed coronary bands, conjunctival erythema, periauricular oedema, distress indicated by kicking at the flank, bruxism, discomfort, weight shifting, vocalisation indicating pain and depression. Blood samples collected on Day 4 from five clinically affected cows showed high activities of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Morbidity, based on the number of treated cases within 72 hours of clinical onset, was estimated at 165/678 cows (24.3%). Mortality over the first 30 days was 19/678 cows (2.8%). Necropsies of two cows on Day 4 showed marked distension of the gall bladder and extensive icterus. Necropsies of another two cows on Day 5 showed enlarged livers with severe damage and oedema of the distal abomasum. Severe ulcerative abomasal gastritis was present in both cows. Hepatic histopathology was consistent with chronic cholangiohepatitis. Fifty-five different mycotoxins were detected from a barley grass (Hordeum murinum) sample from the presumably contaminated pasture. Concentrations of B-trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone metabolites from this sample were remarkably high. The leaf smut, Jamesdicksonia dactylidis, that has not been previously reported in Tasmania, was identified from the sample of barley grass, but it is not known whether the smut can produce toxins. Probably an undescribed peracute mycotoxicosis associated with the ingestion of contaminated dryland pasture. A definitive diagnosis could not be reached in this case of acute photosensitisation and mortality in dairy cattle grazing possibly contaminated dryland pasture. The findings
Singasa, Kanokwan; Songserm, Taweesak; Lertwatcharasarakul, Pre