A curriculum and teacher guide are provided for a program to teach daily living skills to 0-4 level adult basic education students. The guide presents a method of instruction and lists the materials provided. Teaching plans (content outlines) are provided for these areas: cooking, housekeeping, laundry, leisure skills, and medication awareness. A…
Raspa, Melissa; Franco, Vitor; Bishop, Ellen; Wheeler, Anne C; Wylie, Amanda; Bailey, Donald B
Adaptive behaviors, such as functional academic and daily living skills, are critical for independence in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. However, little is known about these skills in fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. The purposes of this study were to describe the functional academic and daily living skills of males diagnosed with FXS across different age groups and compare skill attainment by autism status and other common co-occurring conditions. We used survey methods to assess parent-reported functional academic and daily living skills in 534 males with FXS. Functional academic skills included time and schedules, money, math, reading, and writing skills. Daily living skills included hygiene, cooking, laundry and housekeeping, transportation, and safety skills. Analyses examined functional academic and daily living skills in a cross-sectional sample of males between ages 5 and 67. Differences in skill attainment were found by child age, co-morbid autism status, total number of co-occurring conditions, and respondent education. Functional academic and daily living skills were predictive of community employment and independent living. These data provide important information on the mastery of both foundational and more complex adaptive skills in males with FXS. Both functional academic and daily living skills were predictive of measures of independence above and beyond other child and family characteristics. These findings point to the need to focus interventions to support the attainment of independence in males with FXS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah
In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.
Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.
MacDonald, Megan; Ross, Samantha; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Tepfer, Amanda
Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.
Duncan, Amie W.; Bishop, Somer L.
Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and…
Adjorlu, Ali; Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Mangano, Luca
In this paper, we present a study conducted to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of Virtual Reality (VR) applied to daily living skills (DLS) training of individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In collaboration with a teacher at a school for children and adolescents...... with mental disorders, a head-mounted display based VR simulation of a supermarket was built and valuated with the purpose of developing the shopping skills of students diagnosed with ASD. A comparative between-group experiment was conducted on 9 participants, with initiated VR training following a baseline...
Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; Sánchez-Gistau, V; De la Serna, E; Fonrodona, L; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J
Cognition and clinical variables are known to be among the most predictive factors of real-world social functioning and daily living skills in adult-onset schizophrenia. Fewer studies have focused on their impact in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationships and the predictive value of cognition and clinical variables on real-world daily living skills in a sample of adolescents with EOS. Cognitive, clinical and real-world everyday living skills measures were administered to 45 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent outpatients with EOS and 45 healthy control subjects matched by age and sex. Multi-variant analyses to compare cognitive and real-world functioning profiles between patients and controls and regression analysis to identify predictors of real-world functioning scores in patients were used. Adolescents with EOS showed a generalized cognitive and real-world daily living skills dysfunction. Several cognitive and clinical variables significantly correlated with real-world daily living skills functioning but only the processing speed and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of everyday living skills scores, explaining 25.1% of the variance. Slowness in processing information and executive dysfunction showed a significant impact on real-world daily living skills in EOS, independently from clinical symptoms and other cognitive variables. Nevertheless, much of the variance in the daily living skills measure remained unaccounted for, suggesting that other factors were involved as well in this young population.
Gardner, Stephanie; Wolfe, Pamela
Identifying methods to increase the independent functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is vital in enhancing their quality of life; teaching students with ASD daily living skills can foster independent functioning. This review examines interventions that implement video modeling and/or prompting to teach individuals with…
von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; La Cour, Karen
Objective: To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences...... in ability to perform activities of daily living. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Methods: Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence...
von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; la Cour, Karen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Ejlersen, Eva Wæhrens
To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences in ability to perform activities of daily living. Cross-sectional study. A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence cut-offs were used to divide the participants into 4 subgroups. Clinically relevant differences between subgroups were investigated based on the AMPS, FIQ PF and SF-36 PF. Participants in the 4 AMPS-derived subgroups demon-strated clinically relevant differences in observed activities of daily living motor and process ability. Neither the FIQ PF nor the SF-36 PF could differentiate between subgroups with clinically relevant differences in AMPS activities of daily living process ability. Activities of daily living process skills reflect underlying organizational and adaptive capacities of the individual and are relevant targets for interventions aiming at improving activities of daily living ability. Since self-report instruments do not capture differences in activities of daily living process ability, clinicians should include observations-based assessment of activities of daily living ability in order to individualize interventions offered.
Crosby, Patrick H.
The purpose of this sequential mixed methods study was to determine if students with autism from 19-to-26 years of age who receive instruction in Daily Living Skills (DLS) class sustain, improve, or decline in their ability to generalize DLS at home and in the community. Research regarding how well students with autism from 19-to-26 years of age…
Usefulness of the University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment for the evaluation of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment.
Jeon, Dong-Wook; Ju, Hyun-Bin; Jung, Do-Un; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Moon, Jung-Joon; Kim, You-Na
To assess the usefulness of the University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) as a new diagnostic method and tool for the assessment of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment. In total, 35 patients with cognitive impairment and 35 healthy controls were recruited for this study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the evaluation of cognitive function, while the Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index (BADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index (IADL), and UPSA were used for the evaluation of activities of daily living function. UPSA scores were significantly lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in controls. The UPSA total score was significantly correlated with MMSE, CDR, GDS, and IADL scores. With regard to the detection of cognitive impairment, UPSA exhibited a greater determination power (R 2 = 0.593) compared with BADL (R 2 = 0.149) and IADL (R 2 = 0.423) and higher sensitivity and specificity compared with IADL. Our results suggest that UPSA is a useful tool for the evaluation of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment.
The present pilot study investigated the impact of video hero modelling (VHM) on the daily living skills of an elementary-aged student with autism spectrum disorder. The VHM, in which a character much admired by the student exhibited a correct response, was shown to the participant immediately before the situation where he needed to exhibit the…
Nursing facility patients are a population that has not been well studied with regard to functional status and independence previously. As such, the manner in which activities of daily living (ADL) relate to one another is not well understood in this population. An understanding of ADL difficulty ordering has helped to devise systems of functional independence grading in other populations, which have value in understanding patients' global levels of independence and providing expectations regarding changes in function. This study seeks to examine the hierarchy of ADL in the nursing facility population. Data were analyzed from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, a cross-sectional data set of 13 507 skilled nursing facility subjects with functional independence items. The ADL difficulty hierarchy was determined using Rasch analysis. Item fit values for the Rasch model using Mean-Square infit statistics were also determined. The robustness of the hierarchy was tested for each ADL. Two grading systems were devised from the results of the item difficulty ordering. One was based on the most difficult item that he or she could perform, and the other assigned a grade based on the least difficult item that a subject could not perform. A total of 13 113 patients were included in this analysis, the majority of whom were female and white. They had an average age of 81 years. An ordered hierarchy of ADL was found with eating being the easiest and bathing the most difficult. All items in the Katz index fit the Rasch model adequately well. The majority of patients able to perform any particular ADL were also able to perform all easier ADL. Cohen's κ for the 2 grading systems was 0.73. This study is the first to show the expected hierarchy of difficulty of the 6 activities of daily proposed in the Katz index in the nursing facility population. The hierarchy found in this population matches the original hierarchy found in older adults in the community and acute care settings
Linden, Michael; Gehrke, G; Geiselmann, B
Activities of daily living, play a key role in the measurement of functional health as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and in prevention and treatment of mental or somatic illnesses. From a clinical context it is important to discriminate between basic "activities of daily living, ADL", "intentional activities of daily living, IADL", and "recreational activities of daily living, RADL". While ADL and IADL have gained much attention in dementia, the elderly, or severe somatic illnesses, there is a lack of research on RADL, which are important in depression, anxiety, or other neurotic disorders. 154 unselected inpatients of a department of behavioral and psychosomatic medicine filled in the "Check List of Recreational Activities" to assess the rates and profiles of RADL. Patients reported on average 19.3 (s.d. 7.0) activities (range 4 - 40), i.e. males 21.3 (s.d. 6.5, 9 - 34) and females 18.9 (s.d. 7.1, 4 - 40). Most frequent RADL were passive and unspecific activities like "watching tv" (93.4%). Least frequent were activities which need special skills or preparation like "horse back riding" (0.7%). Low rates were also found for activities which are in the centre of inpatient occupational therapy like "ceramics" (4.7%) or "silk-painting" (2.6%). There are differences between sexes but not in respect to age (18 to 60), sick leave and unemployment, or diagnostic status. When patients were asked what they would like to do in the future, the same activity profile emerged as when looking at what they had done in the last month The data give a reference profile for recreational activities, help to define what can be considered a normal frequency and spectrum of RADL, and, by this, can guide therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to determine effectiveness of Bobath, conductive education (CE and education to parents on activity daily living (ADL in educable children with cerebral palsy, 3-5 years old. Materials & Methods: This research was a Quasi-experimental and interventional with pre - post study design that performed on 45 children with cerebral palsy from Valyasr rehabilitation foundation clinics. They were selected by simple sampling and matched from sex, age, IQ and disorder type and were assigned to three groups by simple randomize method (15 Bobath, 15 CE, 15 education to parents. Clinical tests were goodenough and client development evaluation report (CDER. The data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Wilcoxon signed, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-whitney U. Results: Three groups had significant improved in activity of daily living (ADL after treatment (P<0/001. There was significant difference in total function of activity of daily living between three groups after treatment (P<0/001. The most effective approach was conductive education (CE, then education to parent and Bobath There were significant relations between function difference of three groups in 13 sub tasks of 17 ADL subtasks (P<0/05. Conclusion: Bobath, conductive education (CE and education to parent’s approaches improve skills of activity of daily living, but in CE approach, group educations causes better improvement in social communication and practical educations and programs increase improvement of ADL skills.
[The necessity and possibility of developing skills in daily living activities in children attending a special kindergarten for the physically handicapped--demonstrated by means of a five-year-old boy suffering from spastic hemiparesis (author's transl)].
Within the framework of an empirical study carried out in a special kindergarten it was attempted to answer the question whether it is necessary and possible in such an institution to develop the children's skills in daily living activities. A six month systematic programme was set up for a five-year-old boy suffering from spastic hemiparesis which was designed to develop his skills in personal hygiene, and general behaviour in the kitchen area. In preparing the programme each of the two fields was first treated separately in detail, then the common factors taken into account. The programm's subdivision into an ultimate goal and two partial goals assisted the implementation of the eighteen training steps. A comparision of the knowledge of, and skills in, the two fields before and after the training showed that they had increased both in quantity and quality. As the boy still showed a headway over his peers - comparable in their disabilities - three years after completion of the programme as far as independence was concerned, it can be said that special training in daily living activities can and must be carried out in a special kindergarten for physically handicapped children provided the training is based on a specialized and fully structured programme.
Full Text Available AimThe present study aim to investigate the contributing role of daily living functioning and social engagement in enhancing wellness and various dimensions of wellness in older adults.MethodA correlational research was designed. Socio-demographic data was collected. Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Lubben Social Network Scale, and Perceived Wellness Survey were administered on a sample of 112 participants, including 56 men and 56 women.ResultsA correlation analysis found positive correlations between daily living functioning, social engagement and wellness of older adults. The results of regression analysis concluded that both the daily living functioning and social engagement predicted wellness and domains of wellness as well.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate that older adults who are self-reliant lead a more satisfied life in old age and demonstrate to be more adjusted to the effects of aging.
Ko, Kwang-Jun; Ha, Gi-Chul; Kang, Seol-Jung
[Purpose] The study aimed to investigate the effects of daily living occupational therapy and resistance exercise on the performance of activities of daily living and muscular fitness in a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome. [Subject and Methods] A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. He was hospitalized at A Hospital for 3 years, and was discharged from the hospital after he became able to execute daily life activities. After discharge, he performed daily occupational therapy and resistance exercise twice a week for 70 minutes per session for 12 weeks. Performance in the activities of daily living was assessed using the modified Barthel index, and muscular fitness was measured in terms of isokinetic muscular function using the Biodes system. [Results] The subject's Barthel index score improved from 54 points before the intervention to 62 points after 4 weeks, 69 points after 8 weeks, and 79 points after 12 weeks. In addition, his shoulder flexion and extension, knee flexion and extension, and lumbar flexion and extension were improved. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that daily living occupational therapy and resistance exercise are effective in improving the activities of daily living and muscular fitness in a patient recovering from Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Sobol, Sheila; Kreps, Alice Roelofs
One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Art. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to eventual…
Aydın, Gökçen; Mucuk, Salime
This study was conducted to assess daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors. This was a descriptive study. The study was conducted at a rehabilitation center with 188 individuals participating in the study. Data were collected with a questionnaire form, Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS) and Braden Risk Assessment Scale (BRAS). Among the participants, 48.9% were dependent according to activities of daily living and 71.8% were dependent on instrumental activities of daily living. It was noted that 4.8% had pressure sores and 38.8% were at high risk. A strong and positive correlation was found among ADLS, IADLS, and BRAS scores (p pressure sores (p pressure sores. Individuals who are treated at rehabilitation centers should be periodically assessed in terms of risk. Pressure sore development can be prevented with appropriate nursing interventions. To reduce the risk of developing pressure sores, nurses should describe the individual's degree of dependency according to ADLS and IADLS and initiate preventive nursing care. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Full Text Available Objectives: Increasing life expectancy and decreasing birthrates have significantly contributed to an increased aging population throughout the world. This sudden change is a global phenomenon often resulting in biological changes that may have various consequences, such as reduced life power and coping skills in the elderly population. Cognitive deficits are one of the most severe impairments in the elderly people. Deficits in cognitive abilities, especially visual constructive skills, can have a considerable impact on the independency of the daily living skills of the elderly people. Self-care by individuals to maintain their life and wellbeing is a key element for their independency. The activity of daily living (ADL can support personal life independency, and is considered as a morbidity index. In the present cross-sectional study, we assessed the visual abilities and ADL in older subjects to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with changes in self-care behavior. Methods & Materials: This study employed random sampling technique to select and recruit forty seven individuals aged between 60 to 80 years from Jahandidegan club in Shiraz, Iran. They were evaluated through "visual constructive ability" sub-scale from Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA battery and "Katz Index", which were used to assess their associated skill and ADL, respectively. Data was collected through observation and interviews. Data analysis was performed through Pearson's correlation test using SPSS. Results: The mean age of the participants (9 women and 38 men was 69.94±4.66 years. Lower scores in cognitive domains predicted functional decline in some scales. There was a significant correlation between visual constructive ability and eating; however, no significant correlation was found between this sub-scale with bathing, moving, toileting, and bowel control. Conclusion: In summary, a significant correlation was noted
Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen
The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Lo, King-Hung; Choi, Kup-Sze
To investigate the feasibility of using a virtual rehabilitation system with intuitive user interface and force feedback to improve the skills in activities of daily living (ADL). A virtual training system equipped with haptic devices was developed for the rehabilitation of three ADL tasks - door unlocking, water pouring and meat cutting. Twenty subjects with upper limb disabilities, supervised by two occupational therapists, received a four-session training using the system. The task completion time and the amount of water poured into a virtual glass were recorded. The performance of the three tasks in reality was assessed before and after the virtual training. Feedback of the participants was collected with questionnaires after the study. The completion time of the virtual tasks decreased during the training (p water successfully poured increased (p = 0.051). The score of the Borg scale of perceived exertion was 1.05 (SD = 1.85; 95% CI = 0.18-1.92) and that of the task specific feedback questionnaire was 31 (SD = 4.85; 95% CI = 28.66-33.34). The feedback of the therapists suggested a positive rehabilitation effect. The participants had positive perception towards the system. The system can potentially be used as a tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches of ADL. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation of activities of daily living can be facilitated using computer-assisted approaches. The existing approaches focus on cognitive training rather than the manual skills. A virtual training system with intuitive user interface and force feedback was designed to improve the learning of the manual skills. The study shows that system could be used as a training tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground:The increasing number of the elderly will becomeproblems due to theaging process. Theagingprocess in elderly has many aspects of life especially in health problem, one of them is the cognitivefunction. The cognitiveproblemwill be a serious problem because it attacks the elderly’s thought. Thecognitive destructionon the elderly known as demensia. Sliding scale of demensia will influence the socialactivities, normal occupation and daily activities whereas the daily activities are important to the viability,health and prosperity of the elderly.Objective:The study aimed to know between cognitive function with the independency of the elderly infullfiling activity daily living in Jodog Village, Gilangharjo District, Pandak, Bantul.Methods:The study used a cross sectional design. The data collection used proportional random samplingmethode, with the number of 62 elderly. The data are collected using MMSE andKatz Indexquestionaire.The data analysis method used the univariat and bivariat analysis of Kendall’s tau with p<0,05.Results:The result of cognitive function showed that 11,3% of the elderly have average level of cognitivefunction, 56,5% have light interruption level of cognitive function, and 3,2 % have heavy destruction level ofcognitive function. The assesment of independency of the elderly in doing activity daily living shows that theindepency of the elderly in category A (35,5%, B (19,4%, C (17,7%, D(14,5%, E (4,8%, F (1,6% and G(6,5%. The result of Kendall’s tau correlation between cognitive function with the indepency of the elderly indoing daily activities has 0,003 significance level (0<0,05 with the lowest correlation strength (coefficientcorrelation 0,321.Conclusion:There was a correlation between cognitive function and independency elderly in the doingactivity daily living.Suggestion :The result of study can give more information for cadre at Jodog Village about the value ofelderly cognitive impairment and
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.
The guide provides daily living experiences built around topics of interest to limited English speaking students in special education programs. Units are organized around eight themes: (1) at school; (2) living at home; (3) community, communication, and travel; (4) clothing and seasons; (5) shopping and food; (6) health, hygiene, and safety; (7)…
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD and continuos ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, to examine the relationship between them. Material and Methods: This study was carried with 152 patients as sample group. In this study, three instruments were used: Personal Information Form, Brief Disability Questionnaire, Katz\\'s Activity\\'s of Daily Living Index and Lawton and Brody\\'s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index and Self-efficacy Assessment Form. Data collected from the study was analyzed using percent, mean, Tukey test, significance test of two means, One-way variant analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The study results demonstrate that while there is a correlation between self-care ability and age, education level, marital status and additional health problems, factors such as age, gender, education level, work status, income level, social insurance status and frequency of hemodialysis application determine self-efficacy. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between patients’ disability and activities of daily living , self-efficacy. It was determined that as the level of disability increases self-efficiacy level decreases. Conclusions: Dialysis application affects patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy levels. In view of this study’s results, it is recommended to organize education programs to increase self-efficacy levels of dialysis patients and prepare comprehensive plans including patients’ families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 181-186
Rasmussen, Signe Høi; Thinggaard, Mikael; Højgaard, Majken Boris
at investigating if the later born cohort had better functioning in terms of activities of daily living (ADL). Methods: Identification, methodology and assessment instruments were identical in the 1895-West and 1915-West Birth Cohort Studies: All persons living in the western part of Denmark and turning 100 years...
Evans, Brent A; Roush, Justin; Pitts, Joshua D; Hornby, Adam
Using hand-collected data from DraftKings.com, a major daily fantasy sports website, we analyze draft selections of thousands of participants in daily fantasy basketball (DFB). In our study, the first thorough examination of DFB, we show that DFB is a game in which skill is necessary for success. Using econometric analysis, we find that winning participants utilize different strategies than losing participants; for example, winning participants more frequently select NBA rookies and international players. We also find that participants paying to enter more lineups in a given contest earn profits far more often than those entering few lineups, indicating that the number of lineups entered can serve as a proxy for skill. Additionally, we provide a thorough discussion of industry characteristics, prior literature, and gameplay, which should help readers familiarize themselves with this burgeoning fantasy sports variant. This study should further the literature on the contentious activity, which has been outlawed in many U.S. states and continues to elicit controversy.
Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs
These activities are intended to supplement materials for three courses available in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series: Cooking/Food Preparation (CE 024 475), Homemaking and Family Living (CE 024 477), and Nutrition (CE 024 484). These courses for developmentally disabled adults are intended to supplement…
Paracetamol 186(46.5%) was the most commonly used analgesic followed by Ibuprofen 100(25%). The pain experienced by daily paid skilled workers was found to be work- related musculoskeletal disorder. There is a need for establishment of intervention programs to reduce the risk of work - related musculoskeletal ...
Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs
One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Cooking/Food Preparation. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…
Full Text Available Background: Scientific studies demonstrate efficacy of yogic treatment methods in stress and anxiety related disorders, psychosomatic disorders and physical illness. Very few studies have been conducted on schizophrenic patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being, basic living skills, self-care, interpersonal, communicational and routine functions of schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty chronic schizophrenic hospitalized patients were selected from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Ranchi and were randomly assigned to the experimental group (yoga therapy along with Pharmacotherapy, n=15, and to control group (Pharmacotherapy alone, n=15. Baseline assessment was done using Post Graduate Institute general well-being measure (GWBM, Checklist for basic living skills and Indian disability evaluation and assessment scale (IDEAS. The experimental group attended yoga therapy every day for about 1 h including motivational and feedback session. After 1 month post-assessment was done for both the groups. Statistical Analysis: Pearson Chi-square test was used for comparing the results. Results: At the end of 1 month experimental group showed better rating in comparison to control group in PGI GWBM, basic living skills and IDEAS. Conclusion: Yoga could improve patients′ subjective well-being, their daily basic living functioning, personal hygiene, self-care, interpersonal activities and communication, and prompted more involvement in routine work.
Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen
and characterize ADL task performance problems among a group of adult disabled hospitalized cancer patients using interview and questionnaire data. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on prevalence of ADL task performance problems experienced by disabled hospitalized cancer patients using the Activities of Daily Living...... Questionnaire (ADL-Q) (n = 118) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) (n = 55). RESULTS: All 118 patients reported problems with ADL task performance. Based on the ADL-Q patients reported more problems within instrumental (I-)ADL than personal (P-)ADL. In both I-ADL and P-ADL the results......BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify...
Valcarenghi, Rafaela Vivian; Alvarez, Angela Maria; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Siewert, Josiane Steil; Nunes, Simony Fabíola Lopes; Tomasi, Andrelise Viana Rosa
To understand the daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease. Qualitative research, using as methodological and theoretical referential the Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively. The in-depth interview was conducted with 30 people with Parkinson's disease. From data analysis, three themes were selected: Living with the disease - living with the treatment and changes in lifestyle; Modifying of one's job performance - revealing incapacity for work and the need to anticipate retirement and; Living with the stigma - the feeling of prejudice against the disease and the perceived limitations of the health services. Living with a chronic and non-transferable disease encompasses social, physical and cultural effects, along with the personal experiences of each unique individual. This study assists the improvement of care to people with the disease, because the care practice emerges from the interactions between the subjects.
Rafaela Vivian Valcarenghi
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To understand the daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Qualitative research, using as methodological and theoretical referential the Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively. The in-depth interview was conducted with 30 people with Parkinson's disease. Results: From data analysis, three themes were selected: Living with the disease - living with the treatment and changes in lifestyle; Modifying of one's job performance - revealing incapacity for work and the need to anticipate retirement and; Living with the stigma - the feeling of prejudice against the disease and the perceived limitations of the health services. Final considerations: Living with a chronic and non-transferable disease encompasses social, physical and cultural effects, along with the personal experiences of each unique individual. This study assists the improvement of care to people with the disease, because the care practice emerges from the interactions between the subjects.
Hagovska, Magdalena; Nagyova, Iveta
Ageing is associated with the deterioration of all cognitive functions, including attention, memory and psychomotor speed. It has not yet been clearly confirmed whether the effects of cognitive and physical interventions can improve activities of daily living (ADL). This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive and physical training on cognitive functions and the transfer to ADL. Eighty older people with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 67.07 ± 4.3 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group ( n = 40) and a control group ( n = 40). Data were collected in an outpatient psychiatric clinic in a randomised controlled trial. Primary outcome measures included the following: cognitive functions were evaluated using the mini mental state examination, the AVLT-Auditory verbal learning test, the Stroop test, the TMT-trail making test, the DRT-disjunctive reaction time and the NHPT-nine hole peg test. Secondary outcome measure was the Bristol activities of daily living scale. The experimental group underwent a CogniPlus and physical training; consisting of 20 training sessions over 10 weeks. Both groups went through 30 min of daily physical training for 10 weeks. After the training, significant differences in favour of the experimental group were found in almost all the tests. In memory (AVLT) (p ≤ 0.0001, effect size (ES) η 2 = 0.218. In reduction of the response time on attention tasks (Stroop tasks) ( p ≤ 0.006, ES = 0.092-0.115). In lower error rates in all tests: Stroop tasks, DRT, TMT, NHPT ( p ≤ 0.02-0.001, ES = 0.062-0.176). In ADL ( p ≤ 0.0001, ES = 0.176). The combined cognitive and physical training had better efficacy for most cognitive functions and for ADL when compared with the physical training only.
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the most common post-stroke complications; however, neither patients nor health professionals are often aware of this complication. The impact of cognitive impairment on quality of life is reflected through basic activity daily living (bADL and instrumental activity daily living (IADL. Prior studies concerning the correlation between cognitive impairment and activity daily living has shown contradictive results. This study was conducted in order to analyze the correlation between the cognitive functions and activity daily living in post stroke patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out to 23 post-stroke patients from September–November 2015. Samples were collected through consecutive sampling at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE was used to assess the cognitive functions and Lawton and Brody Scale to assess both bADL and IADL. Spearman correlation was selected to analyze the existing correlation between each cognitive domain and activity daily living. Results: Spearman statistical correlation showed an insignificant correlation between the cognitive functions and bADL (r2=0.181, p=0.408 and a significant correlation with IADL was obtained (r2=0.517, p=0.03. The only cognitive domain positively correlated with IADL was orientation to time and verbal recall. Conclusions: There is a correlation between cognitive functions and IADL among post-stroke patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital.
Luciane Prado Kantorki
Full Text Available This study describes and analyzes day-to-day issues in a Therapeutic Residential Care Center and the daily life characteristics of its residents. This case study was conducted in Caxias do Sul, based on an evaluation of the fourth generation together with a Methodology for Analyzing Everyday Life Networks. The following categories emerged: possibilities in the territory, participation and flexibility in household tasks, situations that mark living, employees who are mediators in conflict resolution, staff committed to the resident, freedom as a therapeutic tool, difficulties in daily life, and building of alliances. This study helped to get to know the structure of everyday life experienced by the residents, identifying some difficulties they face and the mechanisms used to overcome them, in addition to noticing that the professionals can be instrumental in strengthening a daily living that can be pluralized, busy, and enriched, while still respecting the uniqueness of each resident. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.22923.
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Seeleman, C.M.; Bank, L.; Scherpbier, A.J.; Dulmen, S. van
INTRODUCTION: Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations.
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Seeleman, C.M.; Bank, L.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Dulmen, A.M. van
Introduction Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical
Decker, Lone; Träger, Conny; Miskowiak, Kamilla
in the community. While participants reported decreased ADL ability, especially within instrumental ADL, they had a tendency towards evaluating themselves as more competent than what was observed. No relationships between measures of observed and self-reported ADL ability were found. Conclusion: Overall, patients......ABSTRACT Aims: Patients with bipolar disorder often experience disability in terms of cognitive impairments and activity limitations even in remission. However, knowledge is sparse concerning the ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL) during remission. The aim of this study was to (1......) investigate the observed and self-reported ability to perform ADL tasks and (2) examine the association between observed and self-reported ability to perform ADL in patients with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods: The observed ADL ability was assessed with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills...
Yoon, Jeong-Ae; Park, Se-Gwan; Roh, Hyo-Lyun
[Purpose] This study was conducted to compare the correlation between social interaction and activities of daily living (ADL) between community-dwelling and long-term care facility stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Subjects were 65 chronic stroke patients (32 facility-residing, 33 community-dwelling). The Evaluation Social Interaction (ESI) tool was used to evaluate social interaction and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) measure was used to evaluate ADL. [Results] Both social interaction and ADL were higher in community-dwelling than facility-residing stroke patients. There was a correlation between ESI and ADL for both motor and process skills among facility-residing patients, while only ADL process skills and ESI correlated among community-dwelling patients. In a partial correlation analysis using ADL motor and process skills as control variables, only process skills correlated with ESI. [Conclusion] For rehabilitation of stroke patients, an extended treatment process that combines ADL and social activities is likely to be required. Furthermore, treatment programs and institutional systems that can improve social interaction and promote health maintenance for community-dwelling and facility-residing chronic stroke patients are needed throughout the rehabilitation process.
Legg, Lynn A; Lewis, Sharon R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Drummond, Avril; Langhorne, Peter
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Activities of daily living (ADL) are daily home-based activities that people carry out to maintain health and well-being. ADLs include the ability to: eat and drink unassisted, move, go to the toilet, carry out personal hygiene tasks, dress unassisted, and groom. Stroke causes impairment-related functional limitations that may result in difficulties participating in ADLs independent of supervision, direction, or physical assistance.For adults with stroke, the goal of occupational therapy is to improve their ability to carry out activities of daily living. Strategies used by occupational therapists include assessment, treatment, adaptive techniques, assistive technology, and environmental adaptations. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2006. To assess the effects of occupational therapy interventions on the functional ability of adults with stroke in the domain of activities of daily living, compared with no intervention or standard care/practice. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 30 January 2017), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, January 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 5 January 2017), Embase (1974 to 5 January 2017), CINAHL (1937 to January 2017), PsycINFO (1806 to 2 November 2016), AMED (1985 to 1 November 2016), and Web of Science (1900 to 6 January 2017). We also searched grey literature and clinical trials registers. We identified randomised controlled trials of an occupational therapy intervention (compared with no intervention or standard care/practice) where people with stroke practiced activities of daily living, or where performance in activities of daily living was the focus of the occupational therapy intervention. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data for prespecified outcomes. The primary outcomes were the proportion of
Verdonck, Michèle Claire
This study explores the experiences of Irish people with high cervical spinal cord injuries living with electronic aids to daily living (EADL) and the meaning attributed to such systems in the context of participation in everyday life.
Aghil Habibi Sola
Full Text Available Objectives: As individuals live longer, health promotion behaviors get even more important, particularly with regard to maintaining functional independence and improving quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health promotion behaviors and level of Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL among elderly people in west region of Tehran. Methods & Materials: This was a descriptive-correlational study. A multi-stage sample of 410 community residents who were over 60 years old were selected from west region of Tehran. Participants who consented to participate in the study were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 2-part; Health Promotion Behavior Checklist and questions related to status of physical functioning, which includes activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Descriptive statistics and T-test were used to data analysis. Results: The results of the study showed that there were significant relations between ADLs and ' exercise or walking', 'drinking milk, eating dairy and meat', 'eating vegetables and fruits', 'low salt diet' and 'low fat diet' (P<0.05. Furthermore there were significant relations between the IADLs and 'smoking cessation', 'alcohol abstinence', 'exercise or walking', 'drinking milk, eating dairy and meat', 'eating vegetables and fruits', 'low salt diet' and 'low fat diet' (P<0.05. Conclusion: Study showed, health promotion behaviors and level of ADL and IADL are related meaningfully. Health care professionals should enhance the physical functioning in elderly people by facilitating health promotion behaviors through formal health promotion programs which focus on regular diet, exercise, and regular physical check-ups which will maintain and increase a healthy and active life.
Yoza, Yoshiyasu; Ariyoshi, Koya; Honda, Sumihisa; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Senjyu, Hideaki
Patients with COPD often experience restriction in their activities of daily living (ADL) due to dyspnea. This type of restriction is unique to patients with COPD and cannot be adequately evaluated by the generic ADL scales. This study developed an ADL scale (the Activity of Daily Living Dyspnea scale [ADL-D scale]) for patients with COPD and investigated its validity and internal consistency. Patients with stable COPD were recruited and completed a pilot 26-item questionnaire. Patients also performed the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT), and completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea grade. There were 83 male participants who completed the pilot questionnaire. Following the pilot, 8 items that were not undertaken by the majority of subjects, and 3 items judged to be of low clinical importance by physical therapists were removed from the pilot questionnaire. The final ADL-D scale contained 15 items. Scores obtained with the ADL-D scale were significantly correlated with the MRC dyspnea grades, distance walked on the ISWT and SGRQ scores. The ADL-D scores were significantly different across the five grades of the MRC dyspnea grade. The ADL-D scale showed high consistency (Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.96). The ADL-D scale is a useful scale for assessing impairments in ADL in Japanese male patients with COPD.
Tiago da Silva Alexandre
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80. After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84, demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events
Ozturk, Guzin Zeren; Egici, Memet Taskın; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Toprak, Dilek
Overweight or obesity may cause many chronic illnesses. Furthermore, several studies have shown that high body mass index is associated with mortality and morbidity among the elderly. Therefore, obesity or being overweight could adversely affect the performance of activities of daily living. In this study our aim was to investigate the association between Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living in Homecare Patients. The records of 2016 from the homecare unit of Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. During this period, 1105 patients visited this facility. Unconscious or bedridden patients (hemiplegia, hemiparesia, and tetraparesis) and patients with incomplete data were excluded from the study. Therefore, the survey was completed with 250 files, which included all the data needed for our research. Age, gender, Body Mass Index and Barthel Index scores were recorded to the statistical program; p≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. One hundred fifty one (60.4%) were women, and 99 (39.6%) were men. The relations between gender and age, weight, and Barthel index scores were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between weight and Barthel index scores as well as between Body Mass Index and Barthel index scores (r = 0.190; p = 0.003). The patients were divided into two groups: Group-I (underweight and normal weight) and Group-II (overweight and obese). Group-II exhibited a much higher ability to perform Activity of Daily Living than Group-I (p = 0.002). Some studies report that obesity is protective against Activity of Daily Living, but the opposite is reported in some others. Our study showed increased values of Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living ability, which are indicative of protective effects. The relationship between Body Mass Index and physical disability is not yet proven to be linear.
von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; Bandak, Elisabeth
OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare the outcomes of adaptation and physical activity programmes regarding activities of daily living (ADL) ability following interdisciplinary rehabilitation in women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Participants (n = 85) were quasi-randomized to 16-week adaptation (ADAPT...
Paternotte, Emma; Scheele, Fedde; Seeleman, Conny M; Bank, Lindsay; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Dulmen, Sandra
Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations. Doctor-patient consultations of Dutch doctors with non-Dutch patients were videotaped in a multi-ethnic hospital in the Netherlands. The consultations were analyzed using the validated MAAS-Global assessment list in combination with factors influencing ICC, as described in the literature. In total, 39 videotaped consultations were analyzed. The doctors proved to be capable of practising many communication skills, such as listening and empathic communication behaviour. Other skills were not practised, such as being culturally aware and checking the patient's language ability. We showed that doctors did practice some but not all the relevant ICC skills and that the ICC style of the doctors was mainly biomedically centred. Furthermore, we discussed the possible overlap between intercultural and patient-centred communication. Implications for practice could be to implement the relevant ICC skills in the existing communication training or develop a communication training with a patient-centred approach including ICC skills.
Hong, Ee Rea; Davis, John L.; Neely, Leslie; Ganz, Jennifer B.; Morin, Kristi; Ninci, Jennifer; Boles, Margot B.
Functional living skills are skills needed for being an independent individual in society. As individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) get older, the discrepancy between functional living skills of themselves and their peers increases. However, it is not known which type of intervention is more or less effective specifically for adolescent-…
Gutiérrez Rodríguez, J; Varela Suárez, C; Alonso Alvarez, M; Solano Jaurrieta, J J
To determine the incidence of functional decline of elderly patients discharged from an emergency department and to analized functional impairment as a risk of readmission. A prospective cohort aged 75 or older were followed up after discharge from an emergency department between 01-02-95 and 01-04-95. The study protocol included sociodemografics, clinicals, functionals and mentalsoutcomes. We studied the incidence of functional decline in basic activities of daily living, with Barthel Index, and association with the risk of readmission. The sample was composed by 125 elders (mean aged 81.9 +/- 4.6 years and 60.8% were women). The incidence of functional decline in basic activities of daily living at the visit to emergency department was 20.8% and one moth after discharge was 18.4%. Both activities with more functional impairment were bathing, dressing and movility activities. Functional decline was associated with the risk of readmission at emergency department (Odds Ratio = 4.1 [1.4-11.8]) 20% of patients who are discharged of emergency department present a new functional impairment in basics activities of daily living. Functional decline is associated with the risk of readmission one moth after discharged.
Sikkes, S.A.M.; de Rotrou, J.
The measurement of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is common in clinical practice and research into dementia. IADL are cognitively complex daily activities, such as cooking and doing finances. Their measurement is required for the diagnostic process of dementia, and also useful for
Lund, Dale A.; Utz, Rebecca; Caserta, Michael S.; de Vries, Brian
The positive psychology movement has created more interest in examining the potential value of experiencing positive emotions (e.g. humor, laughter and happiness) during the course of bereavement. This study of 292 recently widowed (5-24 weeks) men (39%) and women (61%) age 50 and over examined both the perceived importance of and actual experience of having positive emotions in their daily lives and how they might impact bereavement adjustments. We found that most of the bereaved spouses rated humor and happiness as being very important in their daily lives and that they were also experiencing these emotions at higher levels than expected. Experiencing humor, laughter and happiness was strongly associated with favorable bereavement adjustments (lower grief and depression) regardless of the extent to which the bereaved person valued having these positive emotions. PMID:19227000
Mærsk, Jesper Larsen
The importance of daily activities and home to identity when living with advanced cancer Introduction Research within occupational science and gerontology has documented that being engaged in daily activities and having relational bonds to home are important to identity formation. For people living...... with advanced cancer in Denmark it is of priority to be able to live at home for as long as possible. For approximately 80% their home is the preferred place to die. Studies indicate home is the place where people with advanced cancer spent most of their day and are engaged in most of their daily activities...... with advanced cancer in Denmark may experience challenges to how they can form and express their identity through what they do and where they live. Objectives The purpose of this study is to generate knowledge about how people with advanced cancer through their words and actions express: • The importance...
Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias
The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.
and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...
Ruse, Stacy A; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Krishnan, K Ranga R; Fox, Kolleen H; Harvey, Philip D; Keefe, Richard S E
Cognitive impairments affect the majority of patients with schizophrenia and these impairments predict poor long term psychosocial outcomes. Treatment studies aimed at cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia not only require demonstration of improvements on cognitive tests, but also evidence that any cognitive changes lead to clinically meaningful improvements. Measures of "functional capacity" index the extent to which individuals have the potential to perform skills required for real world functioning. Current data do not support the recommendation of any single instrument for measurement of functional capacity. The Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is a novel, interactive gaming based measure of functional capacity that uses a realistic simulated environment to recreate routine activities of daily living. Studies are currently underway to evaluate and establish the VRFCAT's sensitivity, reliability, validity, and practicality. This new measure of functional capacity is practical, relevant, easy to use, and has several features that improve validity and sensitivity of measurement of function in clinical trials of patients with CNS disorders.
John Cawley; C. Katharina Spiess
This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate...
Weggemans, D.; Peters, R.; Bakker, E.; Bont, de R.
Destination Syria is an exploratory study providing insights on the daily lives of western citizens that have travelled to the area, torn by conflict to join jihadist groups like ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra. Specific attention has been paid to daily life in ISIS territories and in areas controlled by
Van der Linde, Berdien W.; van Netten, Jaap J.; Otten, Bert; Postema, Klaas; Geuze, Reint H.; Schoemaker, Marina M.
Background. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in daily functioning. Little is known, however, about their difficulties in specific activities of daily living (ADL). Objective. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate differences
Moraal-van der Linde, Berdien; Netten, Jaap; Otten, Bert; Postema, Klaas; Geuze, Reint; Schoemaker, Marina
Background. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in daily functioning. Little is known, however, about their difficulties in specific activities of daily living (ADL). Objective. To (a) investigate differences between children with DCD and their
Lovett, David L.; Harris, Mary B.
Attempted to identify skills important for successful community living of adults with mental retardation. Individuals (N=73) who had significant contact with adults with mental retardation completed questionnaire on academic, leisure, personal, social, and vocational skills frequently taught to persons with mental handicaps. Subjects considered…
Träger, Conny; Decker, Lone; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen
Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience debilitating cognitive deficits, with risk of impaired occupational and psychosocial functioning. However, knowledge of how these deficits impact the patients’ ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL), tasks related to self...... Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment questionnaire (COBRA)) were included. Objective neurocognitive function was evaluated with a short comprehensive cognitive test battery and ADL ability was evaluated with the performance-based Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) in the homes......-care and domestic life is limited. We explored the relation between impaired cognitive function and the ability to perform ADL in patients with BD. A total of 42 outpatients (mean age 36 years (range 19.0–58.0 years), 69% women) with BD in remission and with subjective cognitive complaints (≥ 13 on the Cognitive...
Nägel, Inga J; Sonnentag, Sabine
The present study investigates the interaction of exercise and sleep on state-like personal resources in employees' daily lives. Further, the study examines the association between state-like personal resources and emotional exhaustion. We conducted a diary study over five consecutive working days (total of 443 days) with 144 employees who answered daily online surveys after work and before bedtime. Multilevel modeling showed that exercise after work was positively related to the next day's personal resources when sleep duration during the night time was longer compared to other nights. Furthermore, personal resources positively related to lower emotional exhaustion after work on the next day. This study demonstrates that exercise and sleep may help to renew personal resources. Results stress the importance of balancing exercise and sleep in daily life. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Pol, M.C.; Poerbodipoero, S.; Robben, S.; Daams, J.; van Hartingsveldt, M.; de Vos, R.; de Rooij, S.E.; Kröse, B.; Buurman, B.M.
Objectives To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently
Pol, Margriet C.; Poerbodipoero, Soemitro; Robben, Saskia; Daams, Joost; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; de Vos, Rien; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Kröse, Ben; Buurman, Bianca M.
To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently at home.
Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Hahn, Allen W; Thayer, Julian F; Caldwell, W Morton
A new daily living activity recording system has been developed for monitoring health conditions and living patterns, such as respiration, posture, activity/rest ratios and general activity level. The system employs a piezoelectric sensor, a dual axis accelerometer, two low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer and a 128 MB compact flash memory. The piezoelectric sensor, whose electrical polarization voltage is produced by mechanical strain, detects body movements. Its high-frequency output components reflect body movements produced by walking and running activities, while the low frequency components are mainly respiratory. The dual axis accelerometer detects, from body X and Y tilt angles, whether the patient is standing, sitting or lying down (prone, supine, left side or right side). The detected respiratory, behavior and posture signals are stored by the compact flash memory. After recording, these data are downloaded to a desktop computer and analyzed.
Imura, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Yuki; Inagawa, Tetsuji; Imada, Naoki; Izumi, Hiroaki; Emoto, Katsuya; Tani, Itaru; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yuichiro; Oki, Shuichi; Maeda, Tadanori; Araki, Osamu
[Purpose] The efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function remains unclear. We evaluated the most appropriate diffusion tensor parameters and methodology to determine whether the region of interest- or tractography-based method was more useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Diffusion tensor imaging data within 10 days after stroke onset were collected and analyzed for 25 patients. The corticospinal tract was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, number of fibers, and apparent diffusion coefficient were used as diffusion tensor parameters. Motor outcomes and activities of daily living function were evaluated on the same day as diffusion tensor imaging and at 1 month post-onset. [Results] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract significantly correlated with the motor outcome and activities of daily living function within 10 days post-onset and at 1 month post-onset. Tthere were no significant correlations between other diffusion tensor parameters and motor outcomes or activities of daily living function. [Conclusion] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract obtained using the tractography-based method was useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients.
Jonas J. de Paula
Full Text Available Objective: To propose and evaluate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional measure of activities of daily living (ADLs based on the Katz and Lawton indices for Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: In this study, 85 patients with MCI and 93 with AD, stratified by age (≤ 74 years, > 74 years, completed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale, and their caregivers completed scales for ADLs. Construct validity (factor analysis, reliability (internal consistency, and criterion-related validity (receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were assessed. Results: Three factors of ADL (self-care, domestic activities, and complex activities were identified and used for item reorganization and for the creation of a new inventory, called the General Activities of Daily Living Scale (GADL. The components showed good internal consistency (> 0.800 and moderate (younger participants or high (older participants accuracy for the distinction between MCI and AD. An additive effect was found between the GADL complex ADLs and global ADLs with the MMSE for the correct classification of younger patients. Conclusion: The GADL showed evidence of validity and reliability for the Brazilian elderly population. It may also play an important role in the differential diagnosis of MCI and AD.
Middle school students with intellectual disabilities often have difficulties achieving independence with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); therefore, these skills must be taught in school. IADLs are a complex component of skills that require a higher level of cognitive reasoning such as community mobility, shopping, meal…
Full Text Available and which is also inline with the South African medium term strategic framework and the millennium goals of the Department of Science and Technology. Evidence of how the living lab methodology can enhance innovation skills was made clear during various...
Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Law, Amy; Jeddi, Mark; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Jensen, Jeffrey T
To quantify the change in work productivity and activities of daily living in North American women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) treated with estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) compared to placebo. Women in the United States and Canada, aged 20-53 years with an objective diagnosis of HMB and no recognizable anatomical pathology, were treated with E2V/DNG or placebo for seven cycles (196 days). Main outcome measures included work productivity (i.e., productivity while at work) and activities of daily living measured using a modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (mWPAI) on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (higher values denote higher impairment levels). In both countries, significant improvement was observed between baseline and end of treatment in work productivity and activities of daily living impairment. The improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living with E2V/DNG treatment relative to placebo ranged from 37.2% to 39.2% across both countries. Monthly gains due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) associated with improvement in work productivity were estimated to be US$80.2 and Can$70.8 (US$58.5) and those associated with improvement in activities of daily living were estimated to be US$84.9 and Can$73.5 (US$60.7). E2V/DNG was shown to have a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in U.S. and Canadian women with HMB. In addition, these improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living were associated with a reduction in HMB-related monetary burden compared to the placebo group.
Aisha Harun MD
Full Text Available Objective: Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs. Method: We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years ( N = 5,017. Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results: Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [ OR ] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]. In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]. This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36] and hypertension (β = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18] on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion: Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical daily activities.
Gholam Hassan Mirzaie
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between functional mobility with balance and dependency in activity of daily living in elderly after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and its comparison with healthy subjects. Methods & Materials: The current cross-sectional study was done on 15 patients with age mean and standard deviation (72±9.6 with hip osteoarthritis 6 months after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and 15 healthy subjects with age mean and standard deviation (72.7±1.4 as control group. Patient group was assigned with non- probability convenient sampling and control group selected with matched assignment. Functional mobility measured with Timed Up & Go Test (TUG, functional balance with Functional Reach (FR and Berg Balance Scale (BBS and dependency in activity of daily living measured with Modified Barthel Index (MBI. Pearsons correlation coefficient used for stastistical analysis. Results: Results of this study indicated significantly and stronge correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group (r>0.50. Also medium correlation existed between functional mobility and balance with dependency in activity of daily living in control group (r>0.30. Conclusion: Functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in the elderly who had HA showed significant positive correlation. In addition correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group is better and higher than healthy group.
Luana Araújo dos Reis
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate religiosity and spirituality as a resilience strategy for the long-living older adults in their daily lives. Method: Qualitative research of phenomenological approach based on Martin Heidegger thoughts. Interviews were conducted with 14 older adults registered at a family health unit in the city of Jequié, BA, Brazil. The data were analyzed in the light of Being and Time. Results: The results revealed that God occupies a central position in their lives, and the reading of the bible, praying the rosary and prayers are resilience strategies used for coping with unfavorable situations, recovery and/or maintenance of health, personal and family protection, and, above all, the experience of a satisfactory aging. Final considerations: Religiosity and spirituality were presented as an important resilience strategy in the existence of older adults, showing that through them it is possible to achieve well-being and cope with health and social problems.
Le, Xuan Hoa Binh; Di Mascolo, Maria; Gouin, Alexia; Noury, Norbert
Elders live preferently in their own home, but with aging comes the loss of autonomy and associated risks. In order to help them live longer in safe conditions, we need a tool to automatically detect their loss of autonomy by assessing the degree of performance of activities of daily living. This article presents an approach enabling the activities recognition of an elder living alone in a home equipped with noninvasive sensors.
Alzrayer, Nouf M.; Banda, Devender R.
Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in communication that limit their opportunities to participate in daily living and educational activities. Augmentative alternative communication is one of the strategies used to strengthen the communication skills of students with limited communication skills. Students with ASD…
Alegre Ayala, Jorge
Full Text Available RESUMENLas alteraciones cognitivas ocasionadas por la Esclerosis Múltiple (EM dificultan el desempeño ocupacional de estos pacientes. No existe un patrón específico de deterioro cognitivo aunque son comunes las afectaciones de la memoria, los procesos atencionales, la velocidad de procesamiento de la información, las funciones ejecutivas, la fluidez verbal y la capacidad visuoespacial. Pese a no ser tan conocidos como los problemas físicos, los déficit cognitivos provocan limitaciones en la capacidad de estas personas para realizar sus actividades de la vida diaria (AVD. El artículo muestra explicaciones sobre las principales alteraciones cognitivas de la enfermedad y ejemplos de actividades de la vida diaria dañadas por éstas. SUMMARY Cognitive impairments caused by Multiple Sclerosis make these patients´ occupational performance difficult. It is not exist a specific pattern of cognitive injury although they are usual the affections in memory, attention process, speed of information processing, executive functions, verbal fluency and visual and spatial skills. Though are not so known like physical problems, the cognitive deficits provokes limitations in the ability of these persons to realize their activities of daily living. Article shows explains about principal cognitive impairments and examples of damage in the activities of daily living caused by Multiple Sclerosis.
Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon
[Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.
Hammett, Catherine T.
This handbook contains information designed to help develop campcraft skills. This basic guide to outdoor living contains the following chapters: (1) Come On Out; (2) On the Trail; (3) Your Own Outdoor Equipment; (4) Campcraft Skills; (5) Fire Building and Fireplaces; (6) Outdoor Food; (7) Knotcraft; (8) Lashing; (9) Toolcraft; (10) Finding Your…
Marques, Leandro S; Filogônio, Cid A; Filogônio, Cíntia B; Pereira, Luciano J; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L
The aim of the present study was to determine the biopsychosocial impact of malocclusion on the daily living of Brazilian adolescents (14 to 18 years of age) through normative and subjective records and identify factors directly involved in the self-perception of malocclusions. Cross-sectional. Public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The sample was made up of 403 adolescents, with no prior history of orthodontic treatment, who were selected randomly from a population of 182,291 students in the same age range. The oral impact of malocclusion was assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP), whereas clinical criteria were assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS) and self-esteem was assessed using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation (GSE) scale. Other variables were assessed using questionnaires. The chi-square test, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for the statistical analysis. Ninety five adolescents (24%) reported feeling embarrassed to smile (aesthetic impact). A logistic regression suggested that the following variables were directly involved in the self-perception of malocclusion: upper anterior crowding > or = 2 mm (P=0.009), median diastema > or = 2 mm (P=0.040), normative treatment need (highly desirable) (Plow economic level (PNegative repercussions on daily living were found in Brazilian adolescents with malocclusions affecting anterior dental aesthetics.
Argunsah Bayram, Hande; Bayram, Mehmed B
Exploring ankle joint physiologic functional stiffness is crucial for improving the design of prosthetic feet that aim to mimic normal gait. We hypothesized that ankle joint stiffness would vary among the different activities of daily living and that the magnitude of the stiffness would indicate the degree of energy storage element sufficiency in terms of harvesting and returning energy. We examined sagittal plane ankle moment versus flexion angle curves from 12 healthy subjects during the daily activities. The slopes of these curves were assessed to find the calculated stiffness during the peak energy return and harvest phases. For the energy return and harvest phases, stiffness varied from 0.016 to 0.283 Nm/kg° and 0.025 and 0.858 Nm/kg°, respectively. The optimum stiffness during the energy return phase was 0.111 ± 0.117 Nm/kg° and during the energy harvest phase was 0.234 ± 0.327 Nm/kg°. Ankle joint stiffness varied significantly during the activities of daily living, indicating that an energy storage unit with a constant stiffness would not be sufficient in providing energy regenerative gait during all activities. The present study was directed toward the development of a complete data set to determine the torque-angle properties of the ankle joint to facilitate a better design process. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kestilä, Laura; Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Pensola, Tiina; Pirkola, Sami; Patja, Kristiina; Aromaa, Arpo
To assess the association of parental education, childhood living conditions and adversities with daily smoking in early adulthood and to analyse the effect of the respondent's own education, main economic activity, and current family structure on these associations. The study is based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N = 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged 18-29, in 2000, in Finland. The outcome measure is daily smoking. Parental smoking and the respondent's own education had the strongest effects on daily smoking. If both parents of the respondent were smokers, then the respondent was most likely to be a smoker too (for men OR (odds ratio) = 3.01, for women OR = 2.41 after all adjustments). Young adults in the lowest educational category had a much higher risk of daily smoking than those in the highest category (OR = 5.88 for women, 4.48 for men). For women parental divorce (OR = 2.31) and current family structure also determined daily smoking. Parental education had a strong gradient in daily smoking and the effect appeared to be mediated largely by the respondent's own educational level. Childhood living conditions are strong determinants of daily smoking. Much of their influence seems to be mediated through current living conditions, which are also determined by childhood conditions. Determinants of smoking behaviour are developed throughout the life course. The findings stress the importance of the respondent's education and parental smoking as determinants of smoking behaviour. Our results support the notion that intervention on smoking initiation and cessation should be considered throughout the life course. Parental involvement in fostering non-smoking would be important.
Chien, Chi-Wen; Brown, Ted; McDonald, Rachael
The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is a new assessment that utilises a naturalistic observational method to capture children's real-life hand skill performance when engaged at various types of daily activities in everyday living contexts. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is designed for use with 2- to 12-year-old children with a range of disabilities or health conditions. The study aimed to investigate construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in Australian children. Rasch analysis was used to examine internal construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in a mixed sample of 53 children with disabilities (including autism spectrum disorder, developmental/genetic disorders and physical disabilities) and 85 typically developing children. External construct validity was examined by correlating with three questionnaires evaluating daily living skills and hand skills. Rasch goodness-of-fit analysis suggested that all 22 activity items and 19 of 20 hand skill items in the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills measured a single construct. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills items were placed in a clinically meaningful hierarchy from easy to hard, and the difficulty range of the items also matched the majority of children with disabilities and typically developing preschool-aged children. Moderate to high correlations (0.59 ≤ Spearman's ρ coefficients ≤ 0.89, P assessments of daily living and fine motor skills. This study provided preliminary evidence supporting the construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills for its clinical application in assessing children's real-life hand skill performance in Australian contexts. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Dollar, Chad A.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Luke, Jaye K.
The acquisition of independent living and leisure skills enables adults to experience an enhanced quality of life by increasing competence, self-reliance, and the development of autonomy. This study examined the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting to teach behavior chains (i.e., independent living and leisure skills) to adults with SID…
Full Text Available In developing a shoulder prosthesis, in addition to appropriate payload and range of motion under the constraints of weight and shape, impact absorption is very important for safe use. Hybridization of two different actuators (pneumatic elastic actuators with the features of lightness and intrinsic visco-elasticity, and servo motors that have stable torque and a large range of motion in combination with an antagonistic mechanism was employed to achieve the development of the shoulder prosthesis. A two-link, two-degree-of-freedom arm was used to test the different hybridization configurations in order to investigate the impact absorption. A dynamic simulation platform based on four bimanual activities of daily living was established to obtain the required range of motion and torque for joints of a two-link, four-degree-of-freedom arm. The number of pneumatic elastic actuators required and the dimension of the antagonistic mechanism mechanical structures were optimized using the dynamic simulation platform. The best configuration of the two types of actuators was determined using the dynamic simulation based on the impact absorption results and other criteria. Moreover, a simplified prototype driven by hybrid actuation was made. It was shown that the pneumatic elastic actuator joint could improve impact absorption, and the actuator configuration of shoulder prostheses is activity of daily living dependent. The prototype could reproduce a certain activity of daily living motion, indicating its feasibility in daily living.
Sikkes, S.A.M.; de Lange-de Klerk, E.S.M.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Gillissen, F.; Romkes, R.; Knol, D.L.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Scheltens, P.
Background: Interference in everyday functioning is part of the diagnostic criteria for dementia. Questionnaires measuring "instrumental activities of daily living" (IADL) are used to measure this interference, but the psychometric quality of these questionnaires is often questioned. In addition,
Imanishi, Miyuki; Tomohisa, Hisao; Higaki, Kazuo
To verify the effect of in-home rehabilitation on quality of life and activities of daily living in elderly clients. In this non-randomized controlled intervention trial, elderly participants were separated into a rehabilitation or a non-rehabilitation group (n = 100 each). The non-rehabilitation group received basic in-home nursing care, including assistance with cooking, cleaning, toileting, meals and medication. The rehabilitation group received a physical treatment program provided by a licensed professional once a week and basic nursing care in the home. For each group, quality of life and activities of daily living were assessed approximately every 3 months over a 1-year period. Quality of life was evaluated using the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, and activities of daily living were evaluated based on the Functional Independence Measure. The rehabilitation group showed statistically significant improvements in both quality of life and activities of daily living. In contrast, the non-rehabilitation group, although showing slight improvement in quality of life at 9 months, showed almost no effects at the other time-points and no significant changes in activities of daily living over the course of the study. The results of the present study suggest that long-term continuous in-home rehabilitation might improve quality of life and activities of daily living in elderly clients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1866-1872. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Drageset, Jorunn; Eide, Geir E; Ranhoff, Anette H
To explore depressive symptoms among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and the relationship between their depressive symptoms and dependence on activities of daily living, comorbidity and sociodemographic variables. Depression has become a major health care concern among older people, but depression and its association with functioning in activities of daily living among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment has previously not been studied in Norway. A cross-sectional comparative design. The sample comprised older residents (age 65-102 years; n = 227) from 30 nursing homes with at least six months of residence. All nursing home residents had a Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≤0·5 and were capable of conversation. Scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items) and demographic variables were collected during face-to-face interviews. The activities of daily living were assessed using the Katz Index based on nurses' observation, and medical diagnoses were obtained from the patient records. Pearson's chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression were used to identify possible associations between activities of daily living and depression. After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, length of stay per year and education, more dependence on activities of daily living was associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1·18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·04-1·37; p = 0·02]. Higher age was associated with less depression (OR: 0·64; 95% CI: 0·43-0·94; p = 0·02), that is, the odds of depression declined by 36% for each 10-year increase in age. Our results suggest that depression symptoms are a major health problem among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and that younger residents are more prone to having depressive symptoms. Nursing home staff should communicate with and observe residents closely for signs of depression, especially younger residents with high dependence on activities of daily living
Full Text Available With the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm, the analysis of the Activities of Daily Living (ADLs, in a smart home environment, is becoming an active research domain. The existence of representative datasets is a key requirement to advance the research in smart home design. Such datasets are an integral part of the visualisation of new smart home concepts as well as the validation and evaluation of emerging machine learning models. Machine learning techniques that can learn ADLs from sensor readings are used to classify, predict and detect anomalous patterns. Such techniques require data that represent relevant smart home scenarios, for training, testing and validation. However, the development of such machine learning techniques is limited by the lack of real smart home datasets, due to the excessive cost of building real smart homes. This paper provides two datasets for classification and anomaly detection. The datasets are generated using OpenSHS, (Open Smart Home Simulator, which is a simulation software for dataset generation. OpenSHS records the daily activities of a participant within a virtual environment. Seven participants simulated their ADLs for different contexts, e.g., weekdays, weekends, mornings and evenings. Eighty-four files in total were generated, representing approximately 63 days worth of activities. Forty-two files of classification of ADLs were simulated in the classification dataset and the other forty-two files are for anomaly detection problems in which anomalous patterns were simulated and injected into the anomaly detection dataset.
The author discusses the need for severely handicapped students to acquire basic home living skills, reviews task analysis principles, and provides sample instructional programs. Listed are basic grooming, dressing, domestic maintenance, and cooking skills. A sample task analysis procedure is demonstrated for the skill of brushing teeth. Reported…
Differences between questionnaire-and interview-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) ability and their association with observed ADL ability in women with rheumatoid arthritis, knee osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia
Wæhrens, E. E.; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
Objectives: Although self-report based on questionnaire is the common method to obtain information about activities of daily living (ADL) ability in rheumatic diseases, little is known about the relationship between measures of ADL ability based on questionnaire, interview, and observation. The p...... of self-reported ADL ability based on either questionnaire or interview have limited relationship to each other or to observed performance of ADL tasks....... the relationships between self-reported and observed ADL ability. Method: The 47 ADL tasks of the ADL taxonomy were used to evaluate self-reported ADL ability based on questionnaire (ADL-Q) and interview (ADL-I), and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) was used to obtain measures of observed ADL......Objectives: Although self-report based on questionnaire is the common method to obtain information about activities of daily living (ADL) ability in rheumatic diseases, little is known about the relationship between measures of ADL ability based on questionnaire, interview, and observation...
Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; Demarinis, Valerie
An increasing number of older people are living with incurable cancer as a chronic disease, requiring palliative care from specialized healthcare for shorter or longer periods of time. The aim of our study was to describe how they experience daily living while receiving palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. We conducted a qualitative research study with a phenomenological approach called "systematic text condensation." A total of 21 participants, 12 men and 9 women, aged 70-88, took part in semistructured interviews. They were recruited from two somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. The participants experienced a strong link to life in terms of four subthemes: to acknowledge the need for close relationships; to maintain activities of normal daily life; to provide space for existential meaning-making and to name and handle decline and loss. In addition, they reported that specialized healthcare contexts strengthened the link to life by prioritizing and providing person-centered palliative care. Older people with incurable cancer are still strongly connected to life in their daily living. The knowledge that the potential for resilience remains despite aging and serious decline in health is considered a source of comfort for older people living with this disease. Insights into the processes of existential meaning-making and resilience are seen as useful in order to increase our understanding of how older people adapt to adversity, and how their responses may help to protect them from some of the difficulties inherent to aging. Healthcare professionals can make use of this information in treatment planning and for identification of psychosocial and sociocultural resources to support older people and to strengthen patients' life resources.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Activity of Daily Living (ADL is an instrument that screens elderly respondents for physical functioning and assesses whether they are dependent or independent in their daily activities. This study demonstrates a translation procedure and obtains the reliability and validity of a translated, Arabic ADL. Methods The ADL was translated to Arabic through a forward translation method followed by a committee-consensual approach. The ADL and the Arabic Mini-Mental State Examination (AMMSE were administered to an opportunistic sample of 354 Lebanese elderly living in nursing homes who did not have dementia. Results Reliability split half measures, sensitivity, and negative predictive values were high across all dimensions of the ADL with the exception of feeding. There were non-significant differences on the scored ADL between the three age groups: young age, middle age and older old. In addition, a non-significant difference was found on the scored ADL between the high and low AMMSE scores. Conclusion Overall, the translated ADL was consistent and valid measure for assessing daily activities in elderly nursing home residents. As it is quick and easy to use, the ADL in Arabic could help caregivers and doctors to prescribe appropriate physical exercise for elderly Arabic speaking patients.
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Tatiane Herreira Trigueiro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the daily actions of women who have experienced sexual violence. Method: A qualitative study was conducted with 11 women who suffered sexual violence in southern Brazil. Their testimonies were obtained through phenomenological interviews conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Results: The daily lives of women after suffering sexual violence were permeated by mental distress, translated into fear. This impacted their mental health by limiting their daily lives, especially social activities (work, school, sentimental, and sexual relations. To overcome the consequences of sexual violence, women sought support from family and friends and reintegration into the labor market and course of studies. Conclusion and implications for practice: Individual and group actions providing psychosocial and social support to women in situations of sexual violence are essential to help victims cope with the consequences of this experience.
Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J
on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...... and reasoning battery and the memory and attention battery, the latter including a memory screening. Additional two questionnaires, The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and EQ-5D-5 L, were filled out. RESULTS: We found IQ in the range of 30-81 in our cohort. The total equivalent age (mental age......) was significantly reduced, between 3-9 years old for the visual function and reasoning battery, between 2.3-10.2 years for the memory screening. Data suggested a specific developmental profile for AM with a positive intellectual development until the chronological age 10-12 years, followed by a static or slightly...
Özkan Tuncay, Fatma; Mollaoğlu, Mukadder
To determine the effects of cooling suit on fatigue and activities of daily living of individuals with multiple sclerosis. Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis and adversely affects their activities of daily living. Studies evaluating fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis have reported that most of the fatigue cases are related to the increase in body temperature and that cooling therapy is effective in coping with fatigue. This study used a two sample, control group design. The study sample comprised 75 individuals who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected with study forms. After the study data were collected, cooling suit treatment was administered to the experimental group. During home visits paid at the fourth and eighth weeks after the intervention, the aforementioned scales were re-administered to the participants in the experimental and control groups. The analyses performed demonstrated that the severity levels of fatigue experienced by the participants in the experimental group wearing cooling suit decreased. The experimental group also exhibited a significant improvement in the participants' levels of independence in activities of daily living. The cooling suit worn by individuals with multiple sclerosis was determined to significantly improve the participants' levels of fatigue and independence in activities of daily living. The cooling suit therapy was found to be an effective intervention for the debilitating fatigue suffered by many multiple sclerosis patients, thus significantly improving their level of independence in activities of daily living. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; la Cour, Karen
BACKGROUND: Subgroups of women with fibromyalgia likely show different activity of daily living (ADL) skill deficits. Identifying ineffective ADL skills of significance in the 'typical' woman with fibromyalgia will promote the planning of targeted occupational therapy interventions aiming...... at improving ADL ability. OBJECTIVE: To identify frequently reported ADL skill deficits of significance in subgroups of women with fibromyalgia who have decreased ADL motor ability in combination with decreased or competent ADL process ability. METHOD: Women with fibromyalgia were evaluated with the Assessment...... of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). If they demonstrated decreased ADL motor ability, the calibrated AMPS raters identified and reported ineffective ADL skills of significance. Descriptive comparisons were made between subgroups displaying either decreased or competent ADL process ability. RESULTS: Moves...
Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper; Demazeau, Yves
it will influence his or her everyday live. Therefore we believe that a telehealth system shall adapt its behavior so that it will not be a burden for the patient/resident to use. To this aim we have extended an existing telehealth platform to reason about activities of daily living in a smart home scenario......In the future patients will have a more active role in strengthening and maintaining their own health. Telehealth can empower and motivate patients by giving them the chance to stay in their own homes instead of going to the hospital. A telehealth system is deployed in a patient’s home hence...
Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese
age at the time of the assessment in the 1998 and 2008 surveys. Four health outcomes were investigated: annual death rate, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), physical performance in three tests and cognitive function measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used different tests......BACKGROUND: The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest......, and that disability according to activities of daily living had significantly reduced annually between 0·8% and 2·8%. However, cognitive impairment in the later cohorts increased annually between 0·7% and 2·2% and objective physical performance capacity (standing up from a chair, picking up a book from the floor...
The opportunities for service users to develop skills for more independent living and take control of their environments are limited in secure mental health units. This paper will outline a quality improvement project that changed how the catering services were delivered in a low secure unit in East London NHS Foundation Trust (ELFT). A Quality Improvement methodology was adopted incorporating the Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle which included the trial of service users preparing their own meals on a daily basis. The participation rates were measured and functional daily living skills were recorded. Following success of the trial, long-term implementation of self-catering was agreed, with service users being supported to prepare a shared evening meal every day on the ward with an average of 60% participation. Functional living skills indicated an improvement in the area of process skills. The project aligned with ELFT's aims of service users working in collaboration with staff to implement changes in service delivery.
Mano, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Sayaka; Haga, Nobuhiko
The dysfunction of individuals with upper limb deficiencies affects their daily lives and social participation. To clarify the adaptive behaviours and motor skills of children with upper limb deficiencies. Cross-sectional survey. The subjects were 10 children ranging from 1 to 6 years of age with unilateral upper limb deficiencies at the level distal to the elbow who were using only cosmetic or passive prostheses or none at all. To measure their adaptive behaviour and motor skills, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition was used. They were evaluated on the domains of communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills. We also examined the relationship of the scores with age. There were no statistically significant scores for domains or subdomains. The domain standard score of motor skills was significantly lower than the median scores of the domains and was negatively correlated with age. Children with upper limb deficiencies have individual weaknesses in motor skill behaviours, and these weaknesses increase with age. It may be helpful in considering approaches to rehabilitation and the prescription of prostheses to consider the characteristics and course of children's motor skill behaviours. Clinical relevance Even if children with unilateral upper limb deficiencies seem to compensate well for their affected limb function, they have or will experience individual weaknesses in motor skills. We should take this into consideration to develop better strategies for rehabilitation and prostheses prescriptions.
... skills. Older children: trouble keeping up with school, low self-esteem from recognizing that they are different from their peers. Teenagers: poor impulse control, cannot distinguish between public and ... frequent holding, low lights, automatic swings and wrapping them snugly in ...
Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.
Few studies have examined the relationship between autistic symptomatology and competence in independent living skills in adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS). In this study, 70 individuals with FXS, aged 15-25 years, and 35 matched controls were administered direct measures of independent living skills and autistic…
Maulida, N. I.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.
The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the level of students’ critical thinking skill on living things and environmental sustainability theme for each Inch’ critical thinking elements and overall, (2) to investigate the level of students’ critical thinking skill on living things characteristic, biodiversity, energy resources, ecosystem, environmental pollution, and global warming topics. The research was conducted due to the important of critical thinking measurement to get the current skill description as the basic consideration for further critical thinking skill improvement in lower secondary science. The research method used was descriptive. 331 seventh grade students taken from five lower secondary schools in Cirebon were tested to get the critical thinking skill data by using Science Virtual Test as the instrument. Generally, the mean scores on eight Inch’ critical thinking elements and overall score from descriptive statistic reveals a moderate attainments level. Students’ critical thinking skill on biodiversity, energy resources, ecosystem, environmental pollution, and global warming topics are in moderate level. While students’ critical thinking skill on living things characteristic is identified as high level. Students’ experience in thinking critically during science learning process and the characteristic of the topic are emerged as the reason behind the students’ critical thinking skill level on certain science topic.
Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.
Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.
Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic
Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke
To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (Pphysical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (Pphysical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Planning problems are described to be prominent in the daily lives of adolescents with ADHD (Barkley, 2004) and may cause comorbid conditions and impairments (Safren, 2006). Therefore the central aim of this thesis was to assess planning skills of adolescents with ADHD and to investigate whether
Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D.; Brand, Paul L. P.
Objective: To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. Design: A 14-item questionnaire. Setting: Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Participants: Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years)
Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen
Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…
Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Fraser, Ian
The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Women aged 18-54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine) and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E(2)V/DNG (n = 149) or placebo (n = 82) for seven treatment cycles (196 days). The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work) and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels) at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196). The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated. Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E(2)V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1%) and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%). In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E(2)V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) were estimated to be between US$22-62 and US$18-56 per month (in purchasing power parity of US$), respectively. E(2)V/DNG has a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. These improvements were associated with a reduction in monetary burden of heavy menstrual bleeding compared with the placebo group, consistent with the response to treatment observed.
Holland, Elise; Koval, Peter; Stratemeyer, Michelle; Thomson, Fiona; Haslam, Nick
Sexual objectification, particularly of young women, is highly prevalent in modern industrialized societies. Although there is plenty of experimental and cross-sectional research on objectification, prospective studies investigating the prevalence and psychological impact of objectifying events in daily life are scarce. We used ecological momentary assessment to track the occurrence of objectifying events over 1 week in the daily lives of young women (N = 81). Participants reported being targeted by a sexually objectifying event - most often the objectifying gaze - approximately once every 2 days and reported witnessing sexual objectification of others approximately 1.35 times per day. Further, multilevel linear regression analyses showed that being targeted by sexual objectification was associated with a substantial increase in state self-objectification. Overall, individual differences had little impact in moderating these effects. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Lennarz, H.K.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Granic, I.
Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal
Marshall, Gad A.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Locascio, Joseph J.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.
Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden to both patients and caregivers. Mild impairment in instrumental activities of daily living is often seen at the stage of mild cognitive impairment. The field of Alzheimer’s disease is moving toward earlier diagnosis and intervention and more sensitive and ecologically valid assessments of instrumental or complex activities of daily living are needed. The Harvard Automated Phone Task, a novel performance-based activities of daily living instrument, has the potential to fill this gap. Objective To further validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task by assessing its longitudinal relationship to global cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinically normal elderly and individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Design In a longitudinal study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with cognitive measures using mixed effects models. The Harvard Automated Phone Task’s ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups at baseline was also assessed. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants Two hundred and seven participants (45 young normal, 141 clinically normal elderly, and 21 mild cognitive impairment) were recruited from the community and the memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Measurements Participants performed the three tasks of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, which consist of navigating an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, repetitions, and correct completion of the task. The primary outcome measure used for each of the tasks was total time adjusted for correct completion. Results The Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between young normal, clinically normal elderly, and mild cognitive impairment
The study examined aspects of daily living of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta, a mineral deficiency in the skeleton which results in stunted growth and frequent fractures. A questionnaire was administered to 24 families with children under the age of 18 and 3 families were interviewed. The study found the families in great need of…
Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona
participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and depression increased......The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL....... Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers should be aware of ADL...
Ericsson, I; Karlsson, M K
The aim was to study long-term effects on motor skills and school performance of increased physical education (PE). All pupils born 1990-1992 from one school were included in a longitudinal study over nine years. An intervention group (n = 129) achieved daily PE (5 × 45 min/week) and if needed one extra lesson of adapted motor training. The control group (n = 91) had PE two lessons/week. Motor skills were evaluated by the Motor Skills Development as Ground for Learning observation checklist and school achievements by marks in Swedish, English, Mathematics, and PE and proportion of pupils who qualified for upper secondary school. In school year 9 there were motor skills deficits in 7% of pupils in the intervention group compared to 47% in the control group (P motor skills deficit than among pupils with motor skills deficits (P motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Kerri Anna
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of students and faculty involved in a living-learning first-year experience program at a small, liberal arts institution about developing skills for life-long learning including critical thinking, written communication, and reflection and engagement across disciplines. The researcher…
Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.
Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…
Moore, Shirley M; Jones, Lenette; Alemi, Farrokh
The adoption and maintenance of healthy living behaviors by individuals and families is a major challenge. We describe a new model of health behavior change, SystemCHANGE (SC), which focuses on the redesign of family daily routines using system improvement methods. In the SC intervention, families are taught a set of skills to engage in a series of small, family self-designed experiments to test ideas to change their daily routines. The family system-oriented changes brought about by these experiments build healthy living behaviors into family daily routines so that these new behaviors happen as a matter of course, despite wavering motivation, willpower, or personal effort on the part of individuals. Case stories of the use of SC to improve family healthy living behaviors are provided. Results of several pilot tests of SC indicate its potential effectiveness to change health living behaviors across numerous populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G
Functional ability, including the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), is considered a core outcome domain in chronic pain clinical trials and is usually assessed through generic or disease-specific self-report questionnaires. Research, however, indicates that self...
Meister, Christine; Salls, Joyce
This pilot study investigated the efficacy of point-of-view video modeling as an intervention strategy to improve self-help skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A single-subject A-B design was implemented with eight school-aged children ages 7.5 years to 13.5 years. Six of the students participated in general education classes…
Full Text Available Radoslaw Wasiak,1 Anna Filonenko,2 David J Vanness,3 Kim U Wittrup-Jensen,2 Donald E Stull,1 Steven Siak,1 Ian Fraser41Centre for Health Economics and Science Policy, United BioSource Corporation, London, United Kingdom; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 3University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol valerate-dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira®/Natazia® on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding.Methods: Women aged 18–54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E2V/DNG (n = 149 or placebo (n = 82 for seven treatment cycles (196 days. The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196. The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated.Results: Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E2V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1% and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%. In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement were estimated to be between US$22–62 and US$18–56 per month (in purchasing power
Zhang, Jin-Long; He, Hong-Chen; Lin, Hai-Dan; Luo, Qing-Lu; Xia, Lu; Li, Sha-Sha; He, Cheng-Qi
On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 8.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70 000 people and leaving over 18 000 missing. What about the survivors motor functions and activities of daily living (ADL) capacity, especially for fractures? We need the data to guide the rehabilitation for the seismic wounded and it's important to collect the data for the future. We study the survivors to understand the motor functions and ADL capacity of patients with fractures sustained in the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide a basis for rehabilitation and treatment. We used the Manual Muscle Testing method to evaluate muscle strength, the joint angle scale to measure joint range of motion (ROM), and the Barthel index to evaluate the activities of daily living status. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data and the results were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The number of seismic wounded amounted to 487; 81.1% of patients had fractures. Most of the injured had fractures in multiple regions (53.9% of all fracture patients), followed by fractures of the upper limb (34.0% of patients); cranial fractures were rare (2.3%). Totally 82.0% had restricted range of motion, 23.5% had decreased muscle force, and 72.2% of the patients had restricted activities of daily living capacities. With time the activities of daily living capacity of female increased (P 0.05). The difference between the patients' ages and ADL capacities did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05), nor was there a significant difference between their ages and the numbers of days in hospital (P > 0.05). Fractures were the main issue in the seismic wounded, many of them had reductions in the ROM, muscle force and ADL capacities. The physicians involved in rehabilitation should pay greater attention to muscle force exercises, joint mobilization, and occupational therapy during the early phases post disaster.
... Simple Techniques Can Help Memory after a Stroke Self-Esteem after Stroke Cognitive Challenges After Stroke Depression Trumps ... Living Driving Finding Support You Are Not Alone Online Support Recovery and Support after Stroke Stroke Family ...
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly
The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and physical capacities. However, until recently, the impact of the significantly prevalent visual impairments on the performance of activities of daily living has not yet been revealed within this group. The purpose of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of visual impairment on the performance of activities of daily living for persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. The Barthel Index (BI) and Comfortable Walking Speed (CWS) were used to measure the ability of performing activities of daily living (ADL) in 240 persons with severe/profound ID and having Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II or III; this included 120 persons with visual impairment. The impact of visual impairment on ADL was analyzed with linear regression. The results of the study demonstrated that visual impairment slightly affects the ability of performing activities of daily living (BI) for persons experiencing a severe/profound intellectual disability. GMFCS Levels II or III, profound ID level, and visual impairment each have the effect of lowering BI scores. GMFCS Levels II or III, and profound ID level each have the effect of increasing CWS scores, which indicates a lower walking speed. A main effect of visual impairment is present on CWS, but our results do show a substantive interaction effect between GMFCS level III and visual impairment on Comfortable Walking Speed in persons with a severe/profound intellectual disability. Visual impairment has a slight effect on ability to perform ADL in persons experiencing severe/profound ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Sabrina; Conway-Washington, Christopher; Cherry, Chauncey; Grebler, Tamar; Krug, Larissa
Limited access to resources can significantly impact health behaviors. Previous research on food insecurity and HIV has focused on establishing the relationship between lacking access to nutritious food and antiretroviral (ARV) medication non-adherence in a variety of social contexts. This study aims to determine if several aspects of food insecurity co-occur with missed doses of medication on a daily basis among a sample of people living with HIV who have recently experienced hunger. The current study utilized a prospective, observational design to test the daily relationship between food insecurity and medication non-adherence. Participants were followed for 45 days and completed daily assessments of food insecurity and alcohol use via interactive text message surveys and electronic medication adherence monitoring using the Wisepill. Fifty-nine men and women living with HIV contributed a total of 2,655 days of data. Results showed that severe food insecurity (i.e., hunger), but not less severe food insecurity (i.e., worrying about having food), significantly predicted missed doses of medication on a daily level. Daily alcohol use moderated this relationship in an unexpected way; when individuals were hungry and drank alcohol on a given day, they were less likely to miss a dose of medication. Among people living with HIV with recent experiences of hunger, this study demonstrates that there is a daily relationship between hunger and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Future research is needed to test interventions designed to directly address the daily relationship between food insecurity and medication non-adherence.
Marshall, Gad A; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M
Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer's disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer's disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Academic clinical research center. One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task and executive function (APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task, which
Lemaire, Edward D; Tundo, Marco D; Baddour, Natalie
An evaluation method that includes continuous activities in a daily-living environment was developed for Wearable Mobility Monitoring Systems (WMMS) that attempt to recognize user activities. Participants performed a pre-determined set of daily living actions within a continuous test circuit that included mobility activities (walking, standing, sitting, lying, ascending/descending stairs), daily living tasks (combing hair, brushing teeth, preparing food, eating, washing dishes), and subtle environment changes (opening doors, using an elevator, walking on inclines, traversing staircase landings, walking outdoors). To evaluate WMMS performance on this circuit, fifteen able-bodied participants completed the tasks while wearing a smartphone at their right front pelvis. The WMMS application used smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope signals to classify activity states. A gold standard comparison data set was created by video-recording each trial and manually logging activity onset times. Gold standard and WMMS data were analyzed offline. Three classification sets were calculated for each circuit: (i) mobility or immobility, ii) sit, stand, lie, or walking, and (iii) sit, stand, lie, walking, climbing stairs, or small standing movement. Sensitivities, specificities, and F-Scores for activity categorization and changes-of-state were calculated. The mobile versus immobile classification set had a sensitivity of 86.30% ± 7.2% and specificity of 98.96% ± 0.6%, while the second prediction set had a sensitivity of 88.35% ± 7.80% and specificity of 98.51% ± 0.62%. For the third classification set, sensitivity was 84.92% ± 6.38% and specificity was 98.17 ± 0.62. F1 scores for the first, second and third classification sets were 86.17 ± 6.3, 80.19 ± 6.36, and 78.42 ± 5.96, respectively. This demonstrates that WMMS performance depends on the evaluation protocol in addition to the algorithms. The demonstrated protocol can be used and tailored for evaluating human activity
Barnett, Barbara; Cothern, Katherine
This study covers the effects that social media use has on the daily lives of college students. More specifically, the current study focuses on college students' academic success, study habits, social interaction, and family interaction. Social media is a source of online tools that allow people from across the world to communicate with others.…
Whittington, Anja; Garst, Barry A.; Gagnon, Ryan J.; Baughman, Sarah
The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of all-female camp experiences on women's lives. Using a retrospective approach, this study collected qualitative data from 131 women to examine the benefits of all-female camp experiences, to analyze the skills they gained at camp, and to understand how they apply these skills to their…
Bokhour, Barbara G; Cohn, Ellen S; Cortés, Dharma E; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Fix, Gemmae M; Elwy, A Rani; Mueller, Nora; Katz, Lois A; Haidet, Paul; Green, Alexander R; Borzecki, Ann M; Kressin, Nancy R
Uncontrolled hypertension remains a significant problem for many patients. Few interventions to improve patients' hypertension self-management have had lasting effects. Previous work has focused largely on patients' beliefs as predictors of behavior, but little is understood about beliefs as they are embedded in patients' social contexts. This study aims to explore how patients' "explanatory models" of hypertension (understandings of the causes, mechanisms or pathophysiology, course of illness, symptoms and effects of treatment) and social context relate to their reported daily hypertension self-management behaviors. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with a diverse group of patients at two large urban Veterans Administration Medical centers. PARTICIPANTS (OR PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS): African-American, white and Latino Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. We conducted thematic analysis using tools of grounded theory to identify key themes surrounding patients' explanatory models, social context and hypertension management behaviors. Patients' perceptions of the cause and course of hypertension, experiences of hypertension symptoms, and beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment were related to different hypertension self-management behaviors. Moreover, patients' daily-lived experiences, such as an isolated lifestyle, serious competing health problems, a lack of habits and routines, barriers to exercise and prioritizing lifestyle choices, also interfered with optimal hypertension self-management. Designing interventions to improve patients' hypertension self-management requires consideration of patients' explanatory models and their daily-lived experience. We propose a new conceptual model - the dynamic model of hypertension self-management behavior - which incorporates these key elements of patients' experiences.
Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.
Fliess-Douer O, Vanlandewijck YC, Van Der Woude LHV. Most essential wheeled mobility skills for daily life: an international survey among paralympic wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:629-35. Objectives: To create a hierarchical list of the most essential
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Bozorgnia, Shahram; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad
Long-term consequences and the activities of daily living of bilateral lower limb amputation are not well documented. The aims of our study were to identify the long-term effects of bilateral lower extremity amputations on daily activities and understand how these amputees cope with their mobility assistive devices. Cross-sectional study. A total of 291 veterans with war bilateral lower limb amputations accepted to participate in a cross-sectional study. The average of follow-up was 25.4 years. A total of 152 amputees (54%) were involved in sports averagely 6.7 h per week. Bilateral amputees walk 10 m by the average of 15 ± 33 s, and they could walk continuously with their prosthesis 315 ± 295 m. They wore their prosthesis 6.8 ± 1.7 days per week and 7.9 ± 8.1 h per day. Of these, 6.7% of bilateral lower limb amputees needed help to wear their prosthesis; 88.3% of amputees used assistant device for walking. According to this survey, 73 (42%) prostheses in right limb were appropriate, 95 (54.6%) needed to be replaced, and 6 (3.4) needed to be fixed. On the left side, it was 76 (42%), 92 (52.0%), and 9 (5.1%), respectively. A total of 203 (74.9%) amputees reported limitations in at least one domain of the activities of daily living. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs by the score of 66% of normal population. Veterans with bilateral lower limb amputations suffering from vast categories of daily problems. This study and its results confirm that bilateral lower limb amputees have major progressive disabilities in daily activities and their social performance. This should attract the attention of amputees' administrative organizations, social workers, health-care providers and caregiver providers. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Bähler, C; Foster, S; Estévez, N; Dey, M; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M
The aim of this study was to assess the association between changes in living arrangement and the initiation of daily smoking and monthly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) in a cohort of young Swiss men. Longitudinal cohort study. The sample consisted of 4662 young men drawn from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors who lived with their family at baseline. Follow-up assessments occurred 15 months later. Multiple regression models were adjusted for individual and family factors (family model), as well as for individual and peer-related factors (peer model). Relative to those still living with their parents at follow-up (n = 3845), those who had moved out (n = 817) were considerably more likely to have taken up smoking or RSOD after adjusting for several individual, family, and peer-related variables: OR (daily smoking) = 1.67 (95% CI 1.15-2.41) (P = 0.007) and OR (monthly RSOD) = 1.42 (95% CI 1.08-1.88) (P = 0.012). The strongest family-related predictors of smoking initiation were family structure and the lack of parental regulation and the strongest peer-related factors alcohol/drug problems in peers. Meanwhile, the strongest peer-related predictors of RSOD initiation were peer pressure (misconduct), perceived social support from friends, and perceived social support from a significant other, whereas family factors were not associated with RSOD initiation. Further subanalyses were conducted to examine the impact of different living arrangement changes on substance use initiation and revealed that living with peers at follow-up was associated with the greatest risk. We identified a strong association between moving out of one's parents' home and daily smoking and monthly RSOD initiation in young Swiss men. Moving out to live with peers was an especially strong predictor of substance use initiation. Campaigns that aim to prevent heavy smoking and drinking should be intensified at the end of obligatory school. Copyright © 2016 The Royal
Full Text Available Objectives: Stroke is one of the most common neurological disease and it is the main cause of physical and mental disability and staying in house. Gait difficulties have high incidence in patients with stroke. So the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gait retraining on balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depressionin stroke patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial without control group. Sampling was performed by convenience sampling method and 18 patients participated. After recording demographic data, Berg Balance Scale, Barthel Index, SF36 questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory-II used in pre-test and post-test to assess balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depression, respectively .Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefﬁcient and paired T-test. Results: The results showed statistically significant correlation in pre-test and difference between mean score of the all instruments before and after the intervention. Discussion: According to high prevalence of gait difficulties in stroke patients, it seems interventions in this area is necessary. Statistical results showed that the gait retraining intervention may have a positive effect on improving balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depression of these patients. According to lack of information in this area, further research is needed.
Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Özsoy, İsmail; Acar, Serap; Özpelit, Ebru; Akdeniz, Bahri; Sevinç, Can; Savcı, Sema
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease. Although muscle strength, exercise capacity, quality of life, and activities of daily living of patients with PAH are affected, it is not known how they are affected by disease severity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of disease severity on upper extremity muscle strength, exercise capacity, and performance of activities of daily living in patients with PAH. Twenty-five patients with disease severity classified according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) as functional class II (n=14) or class III (n=11) were included in the study. Upper-extremity exercise capacity and limitations in performing activities of daily living were assessed with 6-minute pegboard and ring test (6PBRT) and the Milliken activities of daily living scale (MAS), respectively. Shoulder flexion, elbow extension, elbow flexion muscle strength, and handgrip strength were measured with dynamometer. There were no significant differences in age, gender, body mass index, or mean pulmonary artery pressure between groups (p>0.05). The 6PBRT, MAS, and elbow flexion (right) and grip strength (right and left) results were significantly lower in NYHA III group than in NYHA II group (p=0.004, p=0.002, p=0.043, p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in shoulder flexion, elbow flexion (left), or elbow extension between groups (p>0.05). Results suggest that upper extremity exercise capacity, elbow flexion muscle strength (right), and handgrip strength decrease and that limitations in activities of daily living grow as disease severity increases in patients with PAH. When planning rehabilitation programs, disease severity should be considered and evaluations and treatments for the upper extremities should be included.
Hsu, Guo-Liang; Tang, Jung-Chang; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Li, Yung-Chang; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Li, Yung-Chang; Hung, Jung-Chao; Wei, Chun-Hwa
The demands of money-counting skills potentially limit individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to master the one-more-than technique, particularly in Taiwan, which requires high daily minimum living expense for supporting an individual's daily life. Employing a multiple treatment design across price ranges and settings, this study compared…
Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Wegen, van, E.E.H.; Ket, J.C.F.; Heijmans, M.W.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables that are predictive or not predictive for outcome of ADL after stroke. METHODS-PubMed, Ebsco/Cinahl and Embase were systematically searched for prognostic studies in which stroke patients were inclu...
Ecological validity of the screening module and the Daily Living tests of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery using the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 in postacute brain injury rehabilitation.
Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Yancy, Sybil; Temple, Richard O; Watford, Monica F; Miller, Rebekah
The assessment of ecological validity of neuropsychological measures is an area of growing interest, particularly in the postacute brain injury rehabilitation (PABIR) setting, as there is an increasing demand for clinicians to address functional and real-world outcomes. In the current study, we assessed the predictive value of the Screening module and the Daily Living tests of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) using clinician ratings from the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4) in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Forty-seven individuals were each administered the NAB Screening module (NAB-SM) and the NAB Daily Living (NAB-DL) tests following admission to a residential PABIR program. MPAI-4 ratings were also obtained at admission. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between these functional and neuropsychological assessment measures. We replicated prior work (Temple at al., 2009) and expanded evidence for the ecological validity of the NAB-SM. Furthermore, our findings support the ecological validity of the NAB-DL Bill Payment, Judgment, and Map Reading tests with regards to functional skills and real-world activities. The current study supports prior work from our lab assessing the predictive value of the NAB-SM, as well as provides evidence for the ecological validity for select NAB-DL tests in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury admitted to a residential PABIR program.
van der Linde, B W; van Netten, J J; Otten, E; Postema, K; Geuze, R H; Schoemaker, M M
Children with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL). Assessment of their capacity in ADL is essential for diagnosis and intervention, in order to limit the daily consequences of the disorder. The aim of this study is to
Fong, Tamara G.; Gleason, Lauren J.; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N.; Schmitt, Eva M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Gross, Alden L.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Fick, Donna M.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.
Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to
Jeppesen, Jørgen; Rahbek, Jes; Gredal, Ole
. Objective: To explore how narrative journalistic stories can communicate experiences of daily living with ALS and compensate the progressive loss of the ability to speak. Methods: Twenty-four interviews at home with six people diagnosed with ALS were transformed into narrative journalistic stories. A formal...
Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.
Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone
Full Text Available The increasing usage of Information and Communication Technologies in official borders of our business lives, starting from e-government and e-commerce applications, spreading towards our daily personal lives has made it difficult to ignore the importance of Management Information Systems (MIS. MIS, initially taught as a course in different disciplines, has now started to develop as a standalone interdisciplinary academic program in higher education. Besides curriculum standards suggestions and necessary skills and competencies for MIS education identified by academic and professional organizations, students' perceptions in these topics are also important. Thus while developing towards knowledge based community, the aim of this research is to identify MIS students' perceptions of essential skills and competencies in their educational, proffesional and personal lives. The sample group of this study are the students that are a member of social media MIS groups. The gathered quantitative data has been analyzed by an online survey. As a result, it has been evident that students find that information technical skills and competencies are crucial. The skills required for transition to knowledge based community; global working, multicultural, social responsibility, civic awareness, equal opportunity, gender and environmental awareness comes later.
Full Text Available Objective: Fatigue is one of the tormentest symptom of the Multiple Sclerosis that decrease self care ability and role performance of patients and potential of activity of daily living. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Orem self- care program on fatigue and activity of daily living (ADL in Multiple Sclerosis clients. Materials & Methods: This quasi experimental study was a clinical trial research that was done on seventy multiple sclerosis patients whom were selected randomly from M.S. association and assigned to experimental and control group by balanced randomized method. The experimental group was treated with 8 sessions of self-care program based on Orem self-care framework and the program belonged for three months in experimental group and followed up with self-report questionnaire. Score of fatigue and activity of daily living of two groups were assessed at first of research and three months later by Payper and Barthel scales. Data were analyzed using Chi square, Independent T and Paired T test and Variance analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between two group in fatigue (P=0.48 and activity of daily living (P= 0.24 befor intervention, but these differences were significant after intervention (P<0.001. There were significant differences in experimental group between before and after score of fatigue and ADL (P<0.001, whereas there was no significant difference in fatigue (P=0.086 and ADL (P=0.33 of control group. Conclusion: Utilizing self care program base on the Orem frame work and the educational needs as a safe and inexpensive nursing intervention, it might be effective on fatigue decrease and activity of daily living enhance in Multiple Sclerosis patients.
Kim, Byeong-Jo; Kim, Soo-Min; Kwon, Hae-Yeon
[Purpose] This study was carried out to examine the effect of the application of group exercise program composed to induce interests and assertive participation of adults with cerebral palsy on the self-efficacy and activities of daily living, as well as to provide basic clinical data that are effective and trustworthy in enhancing the physical and emotional interaction in the future. [Subjects and Methods] Those among the 23 adult with cerebral palsy who are the subjects of research and able to participate only in the evaluation of measurement tools prior to and after the experiment were allocated to the control group while only those who can participate in the group exercise program implemented over 12 sessions were allocated to the experimental group. For the control group, a range of motion of joint exercise and stretching exercise were executed on the arms, legs and trunk, while for the experimental group, group exercise that is implemented with participation of several subjects simultaneously was executed 2 times a week with 40 minutes for each session over a period of 6 weeks for the total of 12 sessions. [Results] In both the experimental group and the control group, there were statistically significant changes in the average scores of self-efficacy and activities of daily living after the exercise in comparison to that prior to the exercise. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in self-efficacy and activities of daily living in terms of quantity of change prior to and after the exercise between the two groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, group exercise program composed to induce physical and emotional interaction, and active participation of adults with cerebral palsy can be considered as an effective intervention method in improving their self-efficacy and activities of daily living.
Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W
The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest-old individuals between 1998 and 2008. We used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study. Three pairs of cohorts aged 80-89 years, 90-99 years, and 100-105 years (in total, 19 528 oldest-old participants) were examined; the two cohorts in each pair were born 10 years apart, with the same age at the time of the assessment in the 1998 and 2008 surveys. Four health outcomes were investigated: annual death rate, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), physical performance in three tests and cognitive function measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used different tests and multivariate regression analyses to examine the cohort differences. Controlling for various confounding factors, we noted that annual mortality among oldest-old individuals was substantially reduced between 0·2% and 1·3% in 1998-2008 compared with individuals of the same age born 10 years previously, and that disability according to activities of daily living had significantly reduced annually between 0·8% and 2·8%. However, cognitive impairment in the later cohorts increased annually between 0·7% and 2·2% and objective physical performance capacity (standing up from a chair, picking up a book from the floor, and turning around 360°) decreased anually between 0·4% and 3·8%. We also noted that female mortality was substantially lower than male mortality among the oldest-old, but that women's functional capacities in activities of daily living, cognition, and physical performance were worse than their male counterparts. Advances in medications, lifestyle, and socioeconomics might compress activities of daily living disability, that is, benefits of success, but lifespan extension might expand
van Bemmel, Thomas; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blauw, Gerard J; Westendorp, Rudi G; Holman, Eduard R
Data on the prevalence of valvular heart disease in very old individuals are scarce and based mostly on in-hospital series. In addition, the potential detrimental effect of valvular heart disease on the activities of daily living is unknown. The present study evaluated the prevalence of significant valvular heart disease and the impact of valvular heart disease on the activities of daily living in community dwelling nonagenarians. Nested within the Leiden 85-plus study, a population based follow-up study of the oldest old, a sample of 81 nonagenarians was recruited. The left ventricular (LV) dimensions, function and the presence and severity of heart valvular disease were evaluated by echocardiography. Significant valvular heart disease included any mitral or aortic stenosis severity, moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, moderate or severe aortic regurgitation and moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS). LV cavity diameters (end-diastolic diameter 47 +/- 8 mm, end-systolic diameter 30 +/- 8 mm) and systolic LV function (LV ejection fraction 66 +/- 13%) were within normal for the majority of the participants. Significant valvular disease was present in 57 (70%) individuals, with mitral regurgitation and aortic regurgitation as the most frequent valve diseases (49% and 28% respectively). The GARS score between individuals with and without significant valvular heart disease was similar (36.2 +/- 9.2 vs. 34.4 +/- 13.2, p = 0.5). Nonagenarian, outpatient individuals have a high prevalence of significant valvular heart disease. However, no relation was observed between the presence of significant valvular heart disease and the ability to perform activities of daily living.
Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.
Kwakkel, G.; Veerbeek, J.M.; Harmeling-van der Wel, B.C.; Wegen, van, E.E.H.; Kollen, B.J.
Background and Purpose- This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the Barthel Index (BI) in 206 stroke patients, measured within 72 hours, for activities of daily living at 6 months and determined whether the timing of BI assessment during the first days affects the accuracy of predicting activities of daily living outcome at 6 months. Methods- Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the area under the curve and optimal cutoff points for BI at Days 2, 5...
de Oliveira, Gerson; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Cunha Gomes Fernandes; de Faria Oliveira, Jane Domingues; Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri
There is a little evidence about the influence of yoga as a complementary therapy for postural balance and its influence on activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To evaluate the influence of a six-month yoga program on postural balance and subjective impact of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living in people with MS. Randomized controlled pilot study. Protocol developed at the Adaptive Physical Activity Study Department, College of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Brazil. A total of 12 (11 women) yoga naive people with MS randomly divided into two groups as follows: Control (C-waiting list, n = 6) and Yoga (Y-Yoga training, n = 6). Yoga group practiced postures, breathing exercises, meditation, and relaxation on weekly 60-min classes for a six-month period. The following evaluations were performed at study entry (baseline), and after six months (six months): Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and self-reported postural balance quality and influence of postural balance on activities of daily living. There was a significant improvement in BBS score from baseline to six months only in the Yoga group, especially in subjects with higher EDSS score, with increased quality of self-reported postural balance, and decreased influence of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living. In conclusion, a six-month yoga training is beneficial for people with MS, since it improves postural balance and decreases the influence of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living. A greater sample size is necessary to increase generalization, but it seems that yoga could be included as a feasible complementary therapy for people with MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira
This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body temperature in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of daily living (ADL). Oral temperatures were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient temperature and relative humidity. Oral temperatures in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (Pchanges in ambient temperature.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily
Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.
Nazirzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Çagiltay, Kürsat; Karasu, Necdet
It is understood that, for mentally disabled people, it is hard to generalize skills and concepts from one setting to another. One approach to teach generalization is solving the problems related to their daily lives, which helps them to reinforce some of their behaviors that would occur in the natural environment. The aim of this study is to…
Guidetti, Susanne; Ranner, Maria; Tham, Kerstin
OBJECTIVE: To compare changes regarding perceived participation, independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and life satisfaction between 3, 6 and 12 months after inclusion in a study of a client-centred ADL intervention and usual ADL intervention after stroke. DESIGN: A multicentre...... diagnosed with dementia, and were able to understand instructions. Data collection was performed by blinded assessors. The primary outcome, perceived participation, was assessed with the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0, domain 8. The secondary outcomes, participation, independence in ADL, and life satisfaction......, were assessed with validated instruments. For statistical power, 280 participants were required. Statistical analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups regarding changes in perceived participation, independence in ADL, or life...
Kadar, Masne; Ibrahim, Suhaili; Razaob, Nor Afifi; Chai, Siaw Chui; Harun, Dzalani
The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia. This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents. Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively. The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Raden Siti Maryam
Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Jumlah kasus dan kejadian demensia di Indonesia pada tahun 2000 sebanyak 606.100 orang dan 191.400 orang. Pada tahun 2020 diprediksikan akan meningkat sebanyak 1.016.800 orang dan 314.100 orang (Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2006. Peningkatan jumlah kasus dan kejadian demensia menjadi tantangan bagi pemberi pelayanan kesehatan melihat dampak yang ditimbulkannya. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi demensia pada lansia. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah non-eksperimental (observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Analisis multivariat menggunakan regresi linear ganda. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh lansia yang ada di Panti Sosial Tresna Werdha Wilayah DKI Jakarta dengan sampel berjumlah 120 responden. Hasil: Ada hubungan bermakna antara tingkat pendidikan dengan demensia (p=0,012 dan ada hubungan bermakna antara Activity Daily Living dengan demensia (p=0,038. Model multivariat menunjukkan nilai koefisien determinasi 0,101 artinya kedua faktor tersebut yaitu tingkat pendidikan dan Activity Daily Living dapat menjelaskan variasi variabel demensia sebesar 10,1 % dan pada uji F menunjukkan kedua variabel tersebut secara signifikan dapat memprediksi variabel demensia. Faktor yang paling besar pengaruhnya terhadap demensia adalah tingkat pendidikan (Beta = 0,258. Kesimpulan: Untuk tetap meningkatkan dan mempertahankan fungsi mental lansia dapat dilakukan kegiatan mengingat, berbicara, berpikir, berperilaku dan melakukan berbagai pekerjaan agar lansia dapat tetap mandiri dan produktif.
García-Soler, Álvaro; Facal, David; Díaz-Orueta, Unai; Pigini, Lucia; Blasi, Lorenzo; Qiu, Renxi
The implications for the inclusion of robots in the daily lives of frail older adults, especially in relation to these population needs, have not been extensively studied. The "Multi-Role Shadow Robotic System for Independent Living" (SRS) project has developed a remotely-controlled, semi-autonomous robotic system to be used in domestic environments. The objective of this paper is to document the iterative procedure used to identify, select and prioritize user requirements. Seventy-four requirements were identified by means of focus groups, individual interviews and scenario-based interviews. The list of user requirements, ordered according to impact, number and transnational criteria, revealed a high number of requirements related to basic and instrumental activities of daily living, cognitive and social support and monitorization, and also involving privacy, safety and adaptation issues. Analysing and understanding older users' perceptions and needs when interacting with technological devices adds value to assistive technology and ensures that the systems address currently unmet needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mitzner, Tracy L.; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.
As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy . Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life , autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800
Full Text Available Objectives: Schizophrenia is responsible for a significant proportion of burden of mental diseases in Iran. Lack of a follow-up system has resulted in the repeated hospitalizations. In this study it is hypothesized that standardized living skills training delivered to participants with schizophrenia in outpatient and inpatient centers can be effective compared to a control group (with occupational therapy in reducing psychopathology severity and increasing quality of life. Methods: This is a multi-centered parallel group randomized controlled trial in Iran and it is single-blinded. Eligible participants are randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants are assigned by stratified balanced block randomization method. The trial is conducted in the cities of Tehran and Mashhad. Its aim is to recruit 160 clients with schizophrenia. The intervention for the experimental group is social living skills training. The intervention for the control group is occupational therapy. The intervention for both groups is conducted in 90 to 120-minute group sessions. Results: The primary outcome of the study would be a decrease in psychopathology severity, an improvement in participants' quality of life, and reduction in family burden will be followed for 6 months. Discussion: This paper presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of independent and social living skills training intervention delivered to participants with schizophrenia. If this intervention is effective, it could be scaled up to be developing for policymaking and improving outcomes for schizophrenic participants and their families in Iran.
Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.
Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…
Yoshida, H; Faust, A; Wilckens, J; Kitagawa, M; Fetto, J; Chao, Edmund Y-S
Estimation of the hip joint contact area and pressure distribution during activities of daily living is important in predicting joint degeneration mechanism, prosthetic implant wear, providing biomechanical rationales for preoperative planning and postoperative rehabilitation. These biomechanical data were estimated utilizing a generic hip model, the Discrete Element Analysis technique, and the in vivo hip joint contact force data. The three-dimensional joint potential contact area was obtained from the anteroposterior radiograph of a subject and the actual joint contact area and pressure distribution in eight activities of daily living were calculated. During fast, normal, and slow walking, the peak pressure of moderate magnitude was located at the lateral roof of the acetabulum during mid-stance. In standing up and sitting down, and during knee bending, the peak pressures were located at the edge of the posterior horn and the magnitude of the peak pressure during sitting down was 2.8 times that of normal walking. The peak pressure was found at the lateral roof in climbing up stairs which was higher than that in going down stairs. These results can be used to rationalize rehabilitation protocols, functional restrictions after complex acetabular reconstructions, and prosthetic component wear and fatigue test set up. The same model and analysis can provide further insight to soft tissue loading and pathology such as labral injury. When the pressure distribution on the acetabulum is inverted onto the femoral head, prediction of subchondral bone collapse associated with avascular necrosis can be achieved with improved accuracy.
Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Avlund, Kirsten
The objective of this study was to determine whether the responses to questions about tiredness in daily activities is an early subjective sign of frailty indicating older community-living adults at increased risk for disability and mortality. Tiredness in daily activities as measured by the Mob......-T Scale, maximal power in sustained work, and comorbid diseases were assessed together with sociodemographic variables in a sample of 705 non-disabled, 70-year old men and women surveyed in 1984. Vital status of members was determined prospectively over the next 15 years. Onset of disability was measured...
Bienkiewicz, Marta M. N.; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.; Hermsdoerfer, Joachim
Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? Ho...
Gulde, Philipp; Hughes, Charmayne Mary Lee; Hermsdörfer, Joachim
Background: Stroke frequently impairs activities of daily living (ADL) and deteriorates the function of the contra- as well as the ipsilesional limbs. In order to analyze alterations of higher motor control unaffected by paresis or sensory loss, the kinematics of ipsilesional upper limb movements in patients with stroke has previously been analyzed during prehensile movements and simple tool use actions. By contrast, motion recording of multi-step ADL is rare and patient-control comparisons f...
María Carme Boqué Torremorell
Full Text Available In this study we present some of the results of a differed evaluation course about living together and school mediation skills addressed to teachers of different schools and educative levels. The aassessment of in-service teachers training courses is usually reduced to a questionnaire filled in at the end of the course, which makes impossible to realize the transference of knowledge to educational settings. Instead, here we follow up and analyze three dimensions —personal, classroom and school performance— to identify relevant factors in the implementation of living together practices and future training needs.
Luigi Ingrassia, Pier; Ragazzoni, Luca; Carenzo, Luca; Colombo, Davide; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Della Corte, Francesco
This study tested the hypothesis that virtual reality simulation is equivalent to live simulation for testing naive medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage using the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm in a simulated disaster scenario and to detect the improvement in these skills after a teaching session. Fifty-six students in their last year of medical school were randomized into two groups (A and B). The same scenario, a car accident, was developed identically on the two simulation methodologies: virtual reality and live simulation. On day 1, group A was exposed to the live scenario and group B was exposed to the virtual reality scenario, aiming to triage 10 victims. On day 2, all students attended a 2-h lecture on mass casualty triage, specifically the START triage method. On day 3, groups A and B were crossed over. The groups' abilities to perform mass casualty triage in terms of triage accuracy, intervention correctness, and speed in the scenarios were assessed. Triage and lifesaving treatment scores were assessed equally by virtual reality and live simulation on day 1 and on day 3. Both simulation methodologies detected an improvement in triage accuracy and treatment correctness from day 1 to day 3 (PVirtual reality simulation proved to be a valuable tool, equivalent to live simulation, to test medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage and to detect improvement in such skills.
Ignasiak, Dominika; Rüeger, Andrea; Sperr, Ramona; Ferguson, Stephen J
Excessive mechanical loading of the spine is a critical factor in vertebral fracture initiation. Most vertebral fractures develop spontaneously or due to mild trauma, as physiological loads during activities of daily living might exceed the failure load of osteoporotic vertebra. Spinal loading patterns are affected by vertebral kinematics, which differ between elderly and young individuals. In this study, the effects of age-related changes in spine kinematics on thoracolumbar spinal segmental loading during dynamic activities of daily living were investigated using combined experimental and modeling approach. Forty-four healthy volunteers were recruited into two age groups: young (N = 23, age = 27.1 ± 3.8) and elderly (N = 21, age = 70.1 ± 3.9). The spinal curvature was assessed with a skin-surface device and the kinematics of the spine and lower extremities were recorded during daily living tasks (flexion-extension and stand-sit-stand) with a motion capture system. The obtained data were used as input for a musculoskeletal model with a detailed thoracolumbar spine representation. To isolate the effect of kinematics on predicted loads, other model properties were kept constant. Inverse dynamics simulations were performed in the AnyBody Modeling System to estimate corresponding spinal loads. The maximum compressive loads predicted for the elderly motion patterns were lower than those of the young for L2/L3 and L3/L4 lumbar levels during flexion and for upper thoracic levels during stand-to-sit (T1/T2-T8/T9) and sit-to-stand (T3/T4-T6/T7). However, the maximum loads predicted for the lower thoracic levels (T9/T10-L1/L2), a common site of vertebral fractures, were similar compared to the young. Nevertheless, these loads acting on the vertebrae of reduced bone quality might contribute to a higher fracture risk for the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hong, Ee Rea; Ganz, Jennifer B; Mason, Rose; Morin, Kristi; Davis, John L; Ninci, Jennifer; Neely, Leslie C; Boles, Margot B; Gilliland, Whitney D
Many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits in functional living skills, leading to low independence, limited community involvement, and poor quality of life. With development of mobile devices, utilizing video modeling has become more feasible for educators to promote functional living skills of individuals with ASD. This article aims to review the single-case experimental literature and aggregate results across studies involving the use of video modeling to improve functional living skills of individuals with ASD. The authors extracted data from single-case experimental studies and evaluated them using the Tau-U effect size measure. Effects were also differentiated by categories of potential moderators and other variables, including age of participants, concomitant diagnoses, types of video modeling, and outcome measures. Results indicate that video modeling interventions are overall moderately effective with this population and dependent measures. While significant differences were not found between categories of moderators and other variables, effects were found to be at least moderate for most of them. It is apparent that more single-case experiments are needed in this area, particularly with preschool and secondary-school aged participants, participants with ASD-only and those with high-functioning ASD, and for video modeling interventions addressing community access skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MacCready, P.; Siedlecki, S. A.; McCabe, R. M.
The coastal estuaries of the NE Pacific host a highly productive shellfish industry, but in the past decade they have suffered from many years in which no natural set of oysters occurred. It appears that coastal waters with low Aragonite saturation state may be the cause. This "acidified" water is the result of (i) upwelling of NE Pacific water from near the shelf break that is already low in pH, and (ii) further acidification of that water by productivity and remineralization on the shelf, and (iii) increasing atmospheric CO2. As part of a coordinated research response to this issue, we have developed the LiveOcean modeling system, which creates daily three-day forecasts of circulation and biogeochemical properties in Oregon-Washington-British Columbia coastal and estuarine waters. The system includes realistic tides, atmospheric forcing (from a regional WRF model), ocean boundary conditions (from HYCOM), and rivers (from USGS and Environment Canada). The model is also used for Harmful Algal Bloom prediction. There has been extensive validation of hindcast runs for currents and hydrography, and more limited validation of biogeochemical variables. Model results are pushed daily to the cloud, and made available to the public through the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS). NVS also includes automated model-data comparisons with real-time NDBC and OOI moorings. Future work will focus on optimizing the utility of this system for regional shellfish growers.
Beltrame, Thomas; Amelard, Robert; Wong, Alexander; Hughson, Richard L
Physical activity levels are related through algorithms to the energetic demand, with no information regarding the integrity of the multiple physiological systems involved in the energetic supply. Longitudinal analysis of the oxygen uptake (V̇o 2 ) by wearable sensors in realistic settings might permit development of a practical tool for the study of the longitudinal aerobic system dynamics (i.e., V̇o 2 kinetics). This study evaluated aerobic system dynamics based on predicted V̇o 2 data obtained from wearable sensors during unsupervised activities of daily living (μADL). Thirteen healthy men performed a laboratory-controlled moderate exercise protocol and were monitored for ≈6 h/day for 4 days (μADL data). Variables derived from hip accelerometer (ACC HIP ), heart rate monitor, and respiratory bands during μADL were extracted and processed by a validated random forest regression model to predict V̇o 2 . The aerobic system analysis was based on the frequency-domain analysis of ACC HIP and predicted V̇o 2 data obtained during μADL. Optimal samples for frequency domain analysis (constrained to ≤0.01 Hz) were selected when ACC HIP was higher than 0.05 g at a given frequency (i.e., participants were active). The temporal characteristics of predicted V̇o 2 data during μADL correlated with the temporal characteristics of measured V̇o 2 data during laboratory-controlled protocol ([Formula: see text] = 0.82, P system dynamics can be investigated during unsupervised activities of daily living by wearable sensors. Although speculative, these algorithms have the potential to be incorporated into wearable systems for early detection of changes in health status in realistic environments by detecting changes in aerobic response dynamics. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The early detection of subclinical aerobic system impairments might be indicative of impaired physiological reserves that impact the capacity for physical activity. This study is the first to use wearable
Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane
Life skills play a key role in promoting educational and occupational success in early life, but their relevance at older ages is uncertain. Here we measured five life skills-conscientiousness, emotional stability, determination, control, and optimism-in 8,119 men and women aged 52 and older (mean 66.7 y). We show that the number of skills is associated with wealth, income, subjective wellbeing, less depression, low social isolation and loneliness, more close relationships, better self-rated health, fewer chronic diseases and impaired activities of daily living, faster walking speed, and favorable objective biomarkers (concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D and C-reactive protein, and less central obesity). Life skills also predicted sustained psychological wellbeing, less loneliness, and a lower incidence of new chronic disease and physical impairment over a 4-y period. These analyses took account of age, sex, parental socioeconomic background, education, and cognitive function. No single life skill was responsible for the associations we observed, nor were they driven by factors such as socioeconomic status or health. Despite the vicissitudes of later life, life skills impact a range of outcomes, and the maintenance of these attributes may benefit the older population.
Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton
A daily living activity remote monitoring system has been developed for supporting solitary elderly people. The monitoring system consists of a tri-axis accelerometer, six low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit microcontroller (MC), a 1GB SD memory card (SDMC) and a 2.4 GHz low transmitting power mobile phone (PHS). The tri-axis accelerometer attached to the subject's chest can simultaneously measure dynamic and static acceleration forces produced by heart sound, respiration, posture and behavior. The heart rate, respiration rate, activity, posture and behavior are detected from the dynamic and static acceleration forces. These data are stored in the SD. The MC sends the data to the server computer every hour. The server computer stores the data and makes a graphic chart from the data. When the caregiver calls from his/her mobile phone to the server computer, the server computer sends the graphical chart via the PHS. The caregiver's mobile phone displays the chart to the monitor graphically.
Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit
Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…
Investigation of actual daily lifestyle leading to continuous self-management after living-donor liver transplantation: more than 5 years living with living-donor liver transplantation and emotions of recipients.
Akazawa, Chiharu; Nishizono, Teiko; Yamamoto, Masae; Teraguchi, Sayoko; Hayashi, Yuko
This research aimed to investigate the actual daily lifestyle leading to continuous self-management after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), by interviewing more than 5 year survivors of transplantation on their lifestyles from various angles, such as meals, rests, and human relationships. In this research, survivors of more than 5 years were interviewed about their daily lifestyle, and a qualitative inductive approach to the analysis of continuous self-management was taken. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients: 11 men and 15 women with an average age of 49 years (range, 22-76). Through analysis, 205 labels were extracted, which were aggregated into one core category, 13 categories and 68 subcategories. Differences in the three patterns of lifestyle--"the reflected lifestyle after operation", "unchanged daily lifestyle", and "self-management eases along with recovery"--occurred owing to differences in changes in values through the transplantation experience. The changes in values were affected by realization of the experience and the action, which come from various internal and external influences during the process of recovery. All of the recipients used consulting behavior to complement self-management after leaving hospital. The daily lifestyle of transplant recipients was clarified by the patterns of lifestyle. Differences in the three lifestyle types occurred owing to differences in changes in values though the transplantation experience. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Shehab, Al Amira Safa
Attention deficits are common in traumatic brain injury and stroke. These difficulties can impact the individual’s everyday life, affecting activities of daily living such as running errands, increasing cognitive errors such as failing to notice signs, and minimising community integration. They also call for specific training to improve these functions. We investigated the relationship between attention functions and these daily living aspects, as well as the correlates of the CogniPlus VIG t...
den Brok, W.L.J.E.; Sterkenburg, P.S.
Persons with an autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disability have difficulties in processing information, which impedes the learning of daily living skills and cognitive concepts. Technological aids support learning, and if used temporarily and in a self-controlled manner, they may
Flavia Bignardi da Silva Nunes
Full Text Available Introduction: Daily life experiences provide maturity along human development, and the environments in which they occur are essential for this process. These experiences help to build children’s personalities and the way they deal with the world around them. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to understand the occupational behavior of four children aged five to six years old through their mothers’ reports. Methodology: The average time spent with daily activities is described, and playing was a central theme of analysis. We analyzed the preferences, companies and emotional characteristics of the play activity. We used an Activity Clock and semi-structured interviews with the children’s mothers as data collection instruments. Results: The main results show that most of their daily life time is spent with sleep, school and play activities. They indicate that children prefer games that challenge acquisitions that are under construction. Regarding company, these children still have their mothers as a reference to the play activity, but also peers their age or a little older. Conclusion: Play has an important representation in the daily occupational lives of these children and it stands as a key life experience to acquire skills and face challenges.
N Lordo, Danielle; Bertolin, Madison; L Sudikoff, Eliana; Keith, Cierra; Braddock, Barbara; Kaufman, David A S
The current study examined the effectiveness of a social skills treatment (PEERS) for improving socio-emotional competencies in a sample of high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Neuropsychological and self- and parent-report measures assessing social, emotional, and behavioral functioning were administered before and after treatment. Following social skills treatment, adolescents with ASD exhibited decreased aggression, anxiety, and withdrawal, as well as improvements in emotional responsiveness, adaptability, leadership, and participation in activities of daily living, though no change was found in affect recognition abilities. These findings suggest that PEERS social skills treatment improves particular aspects of emotional, behavioral, and social functioning that may be necessary for developing and maintaining quality peer relationships and remediating social isolation in adolescents with ASD.
Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A
This study examined dimensionality and item-level psychometric properties of an item bank measuring activities of daily living (ADL) across inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Common person equating method was used in the retrospective veterans data set. This study examined dimensionality, model fit, local independence, and monotonicity using factor analyses and fit statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch analysis. Following the elimination of invalid data, 371 veterans who completed both the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and minimum data set (MDS) within 6 days were retained. The FIM-MDS item bank demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .98) and met three rating scale diagnostic criteria and three of the four model fit statistics (comparative fit index/Tucker-Lewis index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.14, and standardized root mean residual = 0.07). PCA of Rasch residuals showed the item bank explained 94.2% variance. The item bank covered the range of θ from -1.50 to 1.26 (item), -3.57 to 4.21 (person) with person strata of 6.3. The findings indicated the ADL physical function item bank constructed from FIM and MDS measured a single latent trait with overall acceptable item-level psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate source for developing efficient test forms such as short forms and computerized adaptive tests.
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Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D; Brand, Paul L P
To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. A 14-item questionnaire. Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma. Interviews were conducted by telephone (Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) or face-to-face (South Africa). Asthma symptoms, impact on activities, and quality of life. Of the 943 children/adolescents interviewed, 60% were male. Most (81%) described their asthma as "not too bad" or "I only get it every now and then," with only 4% reporting their asthma as being "very bad"; however, 92% experienced asthma-related coughing and 59% reported nocturnal awakening. Over half (57%) of children/adolescents believed they could predict when their asthma would make them ill; the most common initial symptoms being breathlessness (41%) and bad cough (33%). They considered the worst things about having asthma to be the symptoms of an asthma attack (32%) and not being able to play sport (25%). Almost half (47%) of children/adolescents felt that their asthma affected their ability to play sport or engage in physical activity. One in ten reported they had suffered asthma-related bullying. Children/adolescents underestimate the severity of their asthma, and overestimate its control, indicating that they expect their illness to be symptomatic. Asthma has a substantial impact on their daily lives, particularly on physical activity and social functioning. Efforts are required to improve asthma control and expectations of health in children/adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige
[Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to ...
Ling Na PhD
Full Text Available Objectives: Activity of daily living (ADL stages demonstrated ordered associations with risk of chronic conditions, hospitalization, nursing home use, and mortality among community-living elderly. This article explores the association of stages with psychosocial well-being. We hypothesized that higher ADL stages (greater ADL limitation are associated with more restricted social networks, less perceived social support, greater social isolation, and poorer mental health. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project ( N = 3,002 were analyzed in regression models and latent factor models. Results: Although ADL stages had a nearly monotonic relationship with most mental health measures (e.g., Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D], only the complete limitation stage (Stage IV showed significant disadvantage in the majority of social network measures. Discussion: The study may aid clinicians and policy makers to better understand the social and mental health needs of older adults at different ADL stages and provide well-planned social and mental health care.
The relationships among Muslim Uyghur and Kazakh disabled elders' life satisfaction, activity of daily living, and informal family caregiver's burden, depression, and life satisfaction in far western China: A structural equation model.
Wang, Wen Ting; He, Bin; Wang, Yu Huan; Wang, Mei Yan; Chen, Xue Feng; Wu, Fu Chen; Yang, Xue
1 Hypothesis Disabled elders' activities of daily living, caregiver burden, caregiver depression, and caregivers' life satisfaction are significantly related to the life satisfaction of elderly people with disability. 2 Hypothesis There are direct and indirect effects between the life satisfaction of elders, disabled elders' activities of daily living, and family caregivers' factors. This study explored the interrelationships of disabled elders' life satisfaction and activities of daily living, caregivers' factors (burden, depression, and life satisfaction) through a structural equation model. In total, 621 dyads of disabled elders and informal family caregivers completed questionnaires during face-to-face interviews in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region from September 2013 to January 2014. Activity of daily living exerted a direct effect on life satisfaction of disabled elders and 30.4% indirect effect through caregivers' factors. Caregiver burden had a 60.0% direct effect on life satisfaction of disabled elders and a 40.0% indirect effect through the caregiver depression. Caregiver depression showed 76% direct effect on life satisfaction of disabled elders and 24% indirect effect through caregivers' life satisfaction. Direct relationships between activity of daily living and caregiver burden, caregiver burden and caregiver depression, and caregiver depression and caregivers' life satisfaction were observed. Activity of daily living had a 91.3% indirect effect on caregiver depression mediated by caregiver burden; caregiver burden had a 40.0% indirect effect on caregivers' life satisfaction mediated by caregiver depression. Results provide useful information for nurses and policymakers and shed light on the need to consider caregivers' factors in improving care recipients' life satisfaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang
Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are
齋, 二美子; サイ, フミコ; SAI, Fumiko
The purpose of this study is to identify the husband's expectations and attitudes towards the activity of daily living of his wife with depression after her discharge. Qualitative data from the interviews with 3 husbands of middle aged female patients with depression reveal the husbands' expectations and attitudes. The husbands expect their wives to keep the house neat, to live at ease without exertion, and to change their cognitive style. The husbands are confused about the inconsistency bet...
Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.
Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MHG, Scherder EJA, Slaets JPJ, van der Schans CP: Frail institutionalized older persons: A comprehensive review on physical exercise, physical fitness, activities of daily living, and quality-of-life. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:156Y168. The objective of this study
Full Text Available Ergonomics aims to adapt products, services and strategies to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. Assistive technologies (AT are devices, services, strategies and practices that reduce problems caused by functional limitations of individuals. They can help elderly to accomplish activities of daily living like dressing. Considering the aging of world population, this paper presents a research on interaction between the elderly and an assistive dressing aid to verify their perceptions about the use of the AT device. Five participants used the AT device to put a pair of socks, and evaluated this experience. We found that the main difficulty for elderly in using the device was understanding the manual. Participants could not dress the pair of socks completely. Completing the tests, we evaluated the instruments and highlighted the participant’s opinions regarding advantages and disadvantages of the product.
Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi
There is insufficient evidence regarding the relationship of home environment with functional capacity among community-dwelling older people without disabilities. We conducted a population-based longitudinal cohort study and examined whether stairs in the home were associated with capability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in community-dwelling high-functioning older adults. The target population was individuals aged 65 years or older living in two municipalities in Nara Prefecture in Japan. At the baseline survey, residents who were independent in IADL (n = 6722) were included as survey subjects. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their home type; one-storey residences, walk-up residences, or residences with an elevator. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Multiple logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) for a decline in IADL, with one-storey residences as a reference. Age, studied area, marital status, working status, self-perceived economic status, body mass index, chronic diseases, smoking, drinking, eating habits, basic activities of daily living, cognitive functioning, depression, self-rated health, and social participation were used as covariates. During the 3-year follow-up, 11.6% of the subjects showed a decline in IADL. After adjusting for covariates, women who lived in walk-up residences had a lower risk for IADL decline (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.52-0.99), while living in a home with an elevator was not associated with IADL decline (adjusted OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.49-1.77). In contrast, there was no association between home type and IADL decline in men (walk-up residences, adjusted OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.71-1.14; residences with an elevator, adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.39-1.72). The presence of stairs in the home was
Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol
Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…
Sekine, Masashi; Kita, Kahori; Yu, Wenwei
Unlike forearm amputees, transhumeral amputees have residual stumps that are too small to provide a sufficient range of operation for their prosthetic parts to perform usual activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is difficult for small residual stumps to provide sufficient impact absorption for safe manipulation in daily living, as intact arms do. Therefore, substitution of upper limb function in transhumeral amputees requires a sufficient range of motion and sufficient viscoelasticity for shoulder prostheses under critical weight and dimension constraints. We propose the use of two different types of actuators, ie, pneumatic elastic actuators (PEAs) and servo motors. PEAs offer high power-to-weight performance and have intrinsic viscoelasticity in comparison with motors or standard industrial pneumatic cylinder actuators. However, the usefulness of PEAs in large working spaces is limited because of their short strokes. Servo motors, in contrast, can be used to achieve large ranges of motion. In this study, the relationship between the force and stroke of PEAs was investigated. The impact absorption of both types of actuators was measured using a single degree-of-freedom prototype to evaluate actuator compliance for safety purposes. Based on the fundamental properties of the actuators identified, a four degree-of-freedom robotic arm is proposed for prosthetic use. The configuration of the actuators and functional parts was designed to achieve a specified range of motion and torque calculated from the results of a simulation of typical movements performed in usual activities of daily living. Our experimental results showed that the requirements for the shoulder prostheses could be satisfied.
The effects of Snoezelen (multi-sensory behavior therapy) and psychiatric care on agitation, apathy, and activities of daily living in dementia patients on a short term geriatric psychiatric inpatient unit.
Staal, Jason A; Sacks, Amanda; Matheis, Robert; Collier, Lesley; Calia, Tina; Hanif, Henry; Kofman, Eugene S
A randomized, controlled, single-blinded, between group study of 24 participants with moderate to severe dementia was conducted on a geriatric psychiatric unit. All participants received pharmacological therapy, occupational therapy, structured hospital environment, and were randomized to receive multi sensory behavior therapy (MSBT) or a structured activity session. Greater independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) was observed for the group treated with MSBT and standard psychiatric inpatient care on the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (KI-ADL; P = 0.05) than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone. The combination treatment of MSBT and standard psychiatric care also reduced agitation and apathy greater than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone as measured with the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease (P = 0.05). Multiple regression analysis predicted that within the multi-sensory group, activities of daily living (KI-ADL) increased as apathy and agitation reduced (R2 = 0.42; p = 0.03). These data suggest that utilizing MSBT with standard psychiatric inpatient care may reduce apathy and agitation and additionally improve activities of daily living in hospitalized people with moderate to severe dementia more than standard care alone.
Lima, Christina Martins Borges; Alves, Heloisa Veiga Dias; Mograbi, Daniel Correa; Pereira, Flávia Furtado; Fernandez, Jesus Landeira; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice
Objective To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders) were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS). Results The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample Conclusion This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:29213494
Christina Martins Borges Lima
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods: A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB, Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS . Results: The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample. Conclusion: This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R
Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606
Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi
Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens' clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens' clubs among males. Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.
Full Text Available Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%. Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001. A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly
Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and
Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Wengstrom, Yvonne
Purpose: To increase our knowledge of how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP); and whether they find it difficult to distinguish BTCP from background pain; how they estimate the impact of BTCP on patients' daily lives, and the factors that nurses consider to induce BTCP. Variations in
Full Text Available Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD gradually lose their cognitive competence, particularly memory, and the ability to perform daily life tasks. Neuropsychological rehabilitation is used to improve cognitive functions by facilitating memory performance through the use of external aids and internal strategies. The effect of neuropsychological rehabilitation through memory training - motor movements, verbal association, and categorization - and activities of daily living (ADL training was tested in a sample of 5 elderly out-patients (mean age: 77.4 ± 2.88 years, with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score: 22.20 ± 2.17 and their caregivers. All patients had been taking rivastigmine (6-12 mg/day for at least 3 months before being assigned to the rehabilitation sessions, and they continued to take the medication during the whole program. Just before and after the 14-week neuropsychological rehabilitation program all patients were assessed by interviewers that did not participate in the cognitive training, using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montgomery-Alsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Interview to Determine Deterioration in Functioning in Dementia, Functional Test, Memory Questionnaire of Daily Living for patient and caregiver, Quality of Life Questionnaire for patient and caregiver, and a neuropsychological battery. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in ADL measured by Functional Test (P = 0.04, and only a small improvement in memory and psychiatric symptoms. Our results support the view that weekly stimulation of memory and training of ADL is believed to be of great value in AD treatment, not only delaying the progress of the disease, but also improving some cognitive functions and ADL, even though AD is a progressively degenerative disease.
Cederbom, Sara; Wågert, Petra von Heideken; Söderlund, Anne; Söderbäck, Maja
The aim of this study was to explore how older women living alone with chronic musculoskeletal pain, describe their ability in performing activities in everyday life and what could promote their ability in activities in everyday life as well as their perceived meaning of a changed ability to perform activities in everyday life. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 women, and an inductive content analysis was used. The results showed the importance of a daily rhythm of activities. Activities included in the daily rhythm were socializing with family and friends, physical activities, doing own activities as well as activities supported by relatives and the community. The activities described by the women also promoted their ability in activities in everyday life. Other findings were the women's perceived meaning of being independent and maintaining that independency, along with the meaning of accepting and adapting to a changed life situation. This paper concludes that it is important to be sensitive of individual needs regarding the daily rhythm of activities when health-care professionals intervene in the activities in everyday life of older women living alone, promote the women's independency, and enable them to participate in the community. Implications for Rehabilitation A daily rhythm of activities is important for older women who live alone with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The importance of health-care professionals being sensitive to individual needs to promote ability in activities in everyday life and to encourage the everyday activities into a daily rhythm. Facilitate the women's desire and will of independency, despite their needs of help from their environment to manage their everyday life.
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I.M.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees; Waninge, Aly
Background The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to the quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and
Hesamzadeh, Ali; Dalvandi, Asghar; Bagher Maddah, Sadat; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mosavi Arfa, Nazila
Patients with stroke require additional support from family to live independently in the area of activities of daily living. Family members are usually the main caregivers of stroke patients. Comprehensive explanation of ADL handling from family caregivers' view is lacking. This study explores and describes family caregivers' experiences about the strategies to handle activities of daily living (ADL) dependency of elderly patient with stroke in the Iranian context. A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted to analyse data. Nineteen family caregivers participated in the study from multiple physiotherapy clinics of physiotherapy in Sari (Iran) between September 2013 and May 2014. Data were generated through in-depth interviews, and content analysis method was used to analyse the data and determine themes. The findings show that family caregivers manage the ADL dependency of their elderly stroke patients through seven strategies including encouraging physical movements, providing personal hygiene, nutritional consideration, facilitating religious activities, filling leisure time, and facilitating transfer and assisting in financial issues. Family has an important role in handling of elderly stroke patients' ADL dependency. Health practitioners can take benefit from the findings to help the stroke families play more active role in the handling ADL dependency of their patients after stroke. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Stucki, Reto A; Urwyler, Prabitha; Rampa, Luca; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias
The number of older adults in the global population is increasing. This demographic shift leads to an increasing prevalence of age-associated disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. With the progression of the disease, the risk for institutional care increases, which contrasts with the desire of most patients to stay in their home environment. Despite doctors' and caregivers' awareness of the patient's cognitive status, they are often uncertain about its consequences on activities of daily living (ADL). To provide effective care, they need to know how patients cope with ADL, in particular, the estimation of risks associated with the cognitive decline. The occurrence, performance, and duration of different ADL are important indicators of functional ability. The patient's ability to cope with these activities is traditionally assessed with questionnaires, which has disadvantages (eg, lack of reliability and sensitivity). Several groups have proposed sensor-based systems to recognize and quantify these activities in the patient's home. Combined with Web technology, these systems can inform caregivers about their patients in real-time (e.g., via smartphone). We hypothesize that a non-intrusive system, which does not use body-mounted sensors, video-based imaging, and microphone recordings would be better suited for use in dementia patients. Since it does not require patient's attention and compliance, such a system might be well accepted by patients. We present a passive, Web-based, non-intrusive, assistive technology system that recognizes and classifies ADL. The components of this novel assistive technology system were wireless sensors distributed in every room of the participant's home and a central computer unit (CCU). The environmental data were acquired for 20 days (per participant) and then stored and processed on the CCU. In consultation with medical experts, eight ADL were classified. In this study, 10 healthy participants (6 women
Restall, Gayle J; Simms, Alexandria M; Walker, John R; Haviva, Clove; Graff, Lesley A; Sexton, Kathryn A; Miller, Norine; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N
People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require disease and lifestyle information to make health-related decisions in their daily lives. Derived from a larger qualitative study of the lived experiences of people with IBD, we report on findings that explored how people with IBD engage with health-related information in their daily lives. Participants were recruited primarily from the Manitoba IBD Cohort Study. We used purposive sampling to select people with a breadth of characteristics and experiences. Individual interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods consistent with a phenomenological approach. Forty-five people with IBD participated; 51% were women. Findings highlighted the temporal and contextual influences on engagement with health-related information. Temporal influences were described as the changing need for health-related information over time. Participants identified 6 contextual factors influencing engagement with information to make health decisions: (1) emotional and attitudinal responses, (2) perceived benefits and risks, (3) trust in the source of the information, (4) knowledge and skills to access and use information, (5) availability of evidence to support decisions, and (6) social and economic environments. Findings illustrate the changing needs for health-related information over the course of IBD, and with evolving health and life circumstances. Practitioners can be responsive to information needs of people with IBD by having high-quality information available at the right time in a variety of formats and by supporting the incorporation of information in daily life.
Elena Navarro González
Full Text Available Recent research provides evidence that anactive lifestyle is associated with a high level of plasticity,which in turn is related to a reduced probability of cognitivedeterioration and decline (Calero, Navarro &Muñoz, 2007. Activities of daily living (ADL constituteone of the variables currently considered to be anindicator of dependence/independence in old age andwhich is associated with cognitive and physical decline.The aim of the present study was to analyse the relationbetween ADL and cognitive plasticity in old age. Sixtythreeelderly participants were evaluated using diversemeasures of ADL levels and two techniques for evaluatinglearning potential. Results showed that a higherlevel of cognitive plasticity was associated with greaterfunctional independence in daily living.
Haynes, Marie Ellen
This case study examined strong quantitative skills, social capital skills, and soft skills of urban college graduates using data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Household Survey. The urban college graduates lived in Atlanta, Boston, or Los Angeles and had bachelor's, master's, PhD, and professional degrees. Among the three skills…
Gauthier, Serge; Lopez, Oscar Lopez; Waldemar, Gunhild
We aimed to develop a standardization method to pool data recorded on different activities of daily living (ADL) scales in order to reduce variability of functional outcome data from Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials and to better evaluate the effect of donepezil treatment on function...
Van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Fekkes, Minne; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Verkerk, Paul H; Van Wouwe, Jacobus P; Buitendijk, Simone E
Survival of children with Down syndrome (DS) has improved considerably, but insight into their level of daily functioning upon entering adulthood is lacking. We collected cross-sectional data from a Dutch nationwide cohort of 322 DS adolescents aged 16-19 (response 62.8%) to assess the degree to which they master various practical and social skills, using the Dutch Social competence rating scale and the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire. Up to 60% mastered some of the skills required for independent functioning, such as maintaining adequate standards of personal hygiene and preparing breakfast. Less than 10% had achieved basic skills such as basic cooking and paying in a shop. It is difficult for DS people to master all the skills necessary to live independently. Ninety percent of adolescents with DS experience significant problems in social functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…
Nurses are the majority of health-care professionals who frequently come in contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, most health workers such as nurses lack competence and confidence in dealing with the mental health problems (MHPs) of their clients in Malawi. The study aimed at exploring nurses' levels of knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to PLWHA. The study used a descriptive quantitative survey design. Ethical approval and permission were granted by relevant authorities to conduct the study. A convenient sample of 109 nurses was used. They gave written consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics namely: means, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse data. The findings suggest that nurses who care for PLWHA lack knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs of these people. Many participants (53.2%, n = 58) lacked knowledge and skills to care for PLWHA who have MHPs. Nurses are potentially essential human resource for dealing with MHPs of PLWHA in Malawi. Unfortunately, some nurses lack the necessary knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs. Nurses must be equipped with adequate knowledge and skills so that they are able to deal with MHPs of PLWHA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gauthier, Serge; Lopez, Oscar Lopez; Waldemar, Gunhild
We aimed to develop a standardization method to pool data recorded on different activities of daily living (ADL) scales in order to reduce variability of functional outcome data from Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials and to better evaluate the effect of donepezil treatment on function in p...
Lowe, Deborah A; Balsis, Steve; Benge, Jared F; Doody, Rachelle S
As research increasingly focuses on preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), instruments must be retooled to identify early cognitive markers of AD. A supplemental delayed recall subtest for the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog; Mohs, Rosen, & Davis, 1983; Rosen, Mohs, & Davis, 1984) is commonly implemented, but it is not known precisely where along the spectrum of cognitive dysfunction this subtest yields incremental information beyond what is gained from the standard ADAS-cog, or whether it can improve prediction of functional outcomes. An item response theory approach can analyze this in a psychometrically rigorous way. Seven hundred eighty-eight patients with AD or amnestic complaints or impairment completed a battery including the ADAS-cog and 2 activities of daily living measures. The delayed recall subtest slightly improved the ADAS-cog's measurement precision in the mild range of cognitive dysfunction and increased prediction of instrumental activities of daily living for individuals with subjective memory impairment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ivan Miguel Pires
Full Text Available An increase in the accuracy of identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL is very important for different goals of Enhanced Living Environments and for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL tasks. This increase may be achieved through identification of the surrounding environment. Although this is usually used to identify the location, ADL recognition can be improved with the identification of the sound in that particular environment. This paper reviews audio fingerprinting techniques that can be used with the acoustic data acquired from mobile devices. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in order to identify relevant English language works aimed at the identification of the environment of ADLs using data acquired with mobile devices, published between 2002 and 2017. In total, 40 studies were analyzed and selected from 115 citations. The results highlight several audio fingerprinting techniques, including Modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT, Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Gaussian mixture models (GMM, likelihood estimation, logarithmic moduled complex lapped transform (LMCLT, support vector machine (SVM, constant Q transform (CQT, symmetric pairwise boosting (SPB, Philips robust hash (PRH, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and discrete cosine transform (DCT.
Astbury, Nerys M; Taylor, Moira A; French, Stephen J; Macdonald, Ian A
The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as between-meal snacks may aid daily energy restriction. We compared the effects of the consumption of 2 energy-matched snack bars on appetite, energy intake (EI), and metabolic and endocrine responses. In addition, we investigated whether the acute effects of the consumption of snacks were maintained under free-living conditions and whether the habitual daily consumption of the snack over 14 d influenced these effects. Ten lean men [mean ± SD age: 30.7 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.2 ± 2.8] consumed a whey protein and polydextrose (PPX) snack bar or an isoenergetic control snack bar as a midmorning, between-meal snack for 14 consecutive days in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. The two 14-d intervention phases were separated by a 14-d washout period. On the first (day 1) and last (day 15) days of each intervention phase, appetite, food intake, and blood metabolite and endocrine responses were assessed under laboratory conditions. Free-living EI was recorded on days 4, 8, and 12 of interventions. Total daily EI was significantly lower when the PPX snack was consumed during experimental days (10,149 ± 831 compared with 11,931 ± 896 kJ; P snack was consumed during the free-living part of the intervention (7904 ± 610 compared with 9041 ± 928 kJ; P snack was associated with lower glucose and ghrelin and higher glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine responses. The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as snacks is an effective way to limit subsequent EI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01927926.
Full Text Available Masashi Sekine,1,2 Kahori Kita,1 Wenwei Yu1 1Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, 2Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Unlike forearm amputees, transhumeral amputees have residual stumps that are too small to provide a sufficient range of operation for their prosthetic parts to perform usual activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is difficult for small residual stumps to provide sufficient impact absorption for safe manipulation in daily living, as intact arms do. Therefore, substitution of upper limb function in transhumeral amputees requires a sufficient range of motion and sufficient viscoelasticity for shoulder prostheses under critical weight and dimension constraints. We propose the use of two different types of actuators, ie, pneumatic elastic actuators (PEAs and servo motors. PEAs offer high power-to-weight performance and have intrinsic viscoelasticity in comparison with motors or standard industrial pneumatic cylinder actuators. However, the usefulness of PEAs in large working spaces is limited because of their short strokes. Servo motors, in contrast, can be used to achieve large ranges of motion. In this study, the relationship between the force and stroke of PEAs was investigated. The impact absorption of both types of actuators was measured using a single degree-of-freedom prototype to evaluate actuator compliance for safety purposes. Based on the fundamental properties of the actuators identified, a four degree-of-freedom robotic arm is proposed for prosthetic use. The configuration of the actuators and functional parts was designed to achieve a specified range of motion and torque calculated from the results of a simulation of typical movements performed in usual activities of daily living. Our experimental results showed that the requirements for the shoulder prostheses could be satisfied. Keywords: shoulder prosthesis, hybrid actuation, pneumatic elastic actuator, antagonistic
Michael Wayne Hendershot; Nutprapha K. Dennis; Suchada Chaiwiwattrakul; Ratirot Phiphitphakdee
Inasmuch as the goal of teaching English to non-native English speakers should be focused on enhancing English learners’ ability to develop skills necessary for efficient and effective use of the English language in communication within their daily lives as well as within the context of educational, employment, governmental, and business related issues, the materials and resources used by the teacher to provide said English learners with enhanced ability to develop necessary skills for the us...
Barta, Eva A; Guzsvinecz, Tibor; Sik Lanyi, Cecilia; Szucs, Veronika
Today, more and more children with Autism Spectrum disorder are diagnosed, which means that around 1% of the population is concerned. Most of the concerned can acquire daily routine tasks by a bit of help and can fit in the society. As Besio et al. said, "…play is an instinctive need for both humans….In children with disabilities, depending on the type of functional limitations, the spontaneity of play is lost and the activity becomes problematic. Children with cognitive and intellectual impairments have a difficulties in communication, social interactions,….Since play is also a window for children's cognitive development, children may be perceived as more developmentally delayed than they actually are, leading to reduce expectations on the part of adults." The aim of the authors was to create an Android based application which helps 6-9 year old children living with Autism Spectrum disorder to learn everyday tasks and acquire everyday routine.
Borreo, Alessandro; Onofri, Leonardo; Soda, Paolo
Public datasets played a key role in the increasing level of interest that vision-based human action recognition has attracted in last years. While the production of such datasets has been influenced by the variability introduced by various actors performing the actions, the different modalities of interactions with the environment introduced by the variation of the scenes around the actors has been scarcely took into account. As a consequence, public datasets do not provide a proper test-bed for recognition algorithms that aim at achieving high accuracy, irrespective of the environment where actions are performed. This is all the more so, when systems are designed to recognize activities of daily living (ADL), which are characterized by a high level of human-environment interaction. For that reason, we present in this manuscript the MEA dataset, a new multi-environment ADL dataset, which permitted us to show how the change of scenario can affect the performances of state-of-the-art approaches for action recognition.
Radford, Eleanor J; Fotis, Theo
Operating theatre scrub nurses (OTSNs) are not required to have undertaken a secondary or specialist post-registration theatre qualification to work in the operating theatre (OT) setting in the UK. From the systematic review there is only very limited literature or research in how technical scrub skills are acquired. This study explores the lived experiences of OTSNs learning technical scrub skills. The study employed the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data was collected from six participating OTSNs using semi-structured interviews. Four superordinate themes emerged: How technical scrub skills are established, Gatekeepers, How the learner feels whilst learning and, Reflections of the experienced scrub nurse. The study found that the experiences of OTSNs learning technical scrub skills are varied and a variety of teaching and learning methods are utilised. These experiences were influenced by the team, mentor and surgeon within the OT environment. Lived experiences were also influenced by organisational structure and service pressures within the NHS.
Abd-Elaziz, Saieda Abd-Elhameed; Khedr, Eman M.; Ahmed, Hanaa Abd Elhakiem; Ibrahim, Hoda Diab Fahmy
Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. The study aimed to measure the effect of cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with stroke on their cognitive function and activities of daily living. Quasi experimental research design were used in this study. This study was conducted at neuropsychiatric, physical medicine and…
Full Text Available Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56% of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores. Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31, BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14, Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06, and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86. There were no interaction effects for dementia. Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care
van Dijk, J.W.; Venema, M.; van Mechelen, W.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hartgens, F.; van Loon, L.J.C.
OBJECTIVE-To investigate the impact of activities of daily living (ADL) versus moderateintensity endurance-type exercise on 24-h glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdTwenty males with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized crossover study consisting of
Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich
COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern...... in coping with breathlessness appeared to be an endless striving to economise on resources in an effort to preserve their integrity. In this integrity-preserving process, four predominant coping types emerged and were labelled: `Overrater´, `Challenger´, `Underrater´, and `Leveller´. Each coping type...... comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types...
Pan, Weidong; Kwak, Shin; Liu, Yun; Sun, Yan; Fang, Zhenglong; Qin, Baofeng; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Zeng-xiao An-shen Zhi-chan 2 (ZAZ2), on patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Among 115 patients with idiopathic PD enrolled (mean age, 64.7 ± 10.2 years old), 110 patients (M = 65, F = 45; mean age, 64.9 ± 10.7 years old) completed the study. Patients took either ZAZ2 (n = 59) or placebo granule (n = 56) in a blind manner for 13 weeks while maintaining other anti-Parkinson medications unchanged. All participants wore a motion logger, and we analyzed the power-law temporal autocorrelation of the motion logger records taken on 3 occasions (before, one week, and 13 weeks after the drug administration). Drug efficacy was evaluated with the conventional Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), as well as the power-law exponent α, which corresponds to the level of physical activity of the patients. ZAZ2 but not placebo granule improved the awake-sleep rhythm, the UPDRS Part II, Part II + III, and Part IV scores, and the α values. The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL) of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.
Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, named Zeng-xiao An-shen Zhi-chan 2 (ZAZ2, on patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Among 115 patients with idiopathic PD enrolled (mean age, 64.7 ± 10.2 years old, 110 patients (M = 65, F = 45; mean age, 64.9 ± 10.7 years old completed the study. Patients took either ZAZ2 (=59 or placebo granule (=56 in a blind manner for 13 weeks while maintaining other anti-Parkinson medications unchanged. All participants wore a motion logger, and we analyzed the power-law temporal autocorrelation of the motion logger records taken on 3 occasions (before, one week, and 13 weeks after the drug administration. Drug efficacy was evaluated with the conventional Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, as well as the power-law exponent α, which corresponds to the level of physical activity of the patients. ZAZ2 but not placebo granule improved the awake-sleep rhythm, the UPDRS Part II, Part II + III, and Part IV scores, and the α values. The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.
Schweppe, M; Geigel, J
Industry has increasingly emphasized the need for "soft" or interpersonal skills development and team-building experience in the college curriculum. Here, we discuss our experiences with providing such opportunities via a collaborative project called the Virtual Theater. In this joint project between the Rochester Institute of Technology's School of Design and Department of Computer Science, the goal is to enable live performance in a virtual space with participants in different physical locales. Students work in teams, collaborating with other students in and out of their disciplines.
Elfering, Achim; Cronenberg, Sonja; Grebner, Simone; Tamcan, Oezguer; Müller, Urs
A newly developed questionnaire assessing limitations in activity of daily living (LADL-Q) that should improve assessment of LADL is tested in a large population-based validation study. This survey was paper-based. Overall, 16,634 individuals who were representative of the working population in the German-speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study. Item analysis was used the final version of the LADL-Q to four items per subscale that correspond to potential problems in three body regions (back and neck, upper extremities, lower extremities). Analysis included tests for reliability, internal consistency, dimensionality and convergent validity. Test-retest reliability coefficients after 2 weeks ranged from 0.82 to 0.99 (Mdn = 0.87), with no item having a coefficient below 0.60. The median item-total coefficients ranged between moderate and good. Correlation coefficients between LADL-Q subscales and three validated clinical instruments (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, shoulder pain disability index, Oswestry) ranged from 0.63 to 0.81. In structural equation modeling the three subscales were significantly related with two important outcomes in occupational rehabilitation: self-reported general health and daily task performance. The new LADL-Q is a brief, reliable and valid tool for assessment of LADL in studies on musculoskeletal health.
Guerra-Santin, Olivia; Lockton, Dan
This book presents the results of a multi-annual project with sustainable Living Labs in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands. Living Labs – as initiated by the authors – have proved to be very promising research, design, co-creation and communication facilities for the development and implementation of sustainable innovations in the home. The book provides an inspiring introduction to both the methodology and business modelling for the Living Lab facilities. Understanding daily living at home is key to designing products and services that support households in their transition to more sustainable lifestyles. This book not only explores new ways of gaining insights into daily practices, but also discusses developing and testing design methods to create sustainable solutions for households. These new methods and tools are needed because those available are either ineffective or cause rebound-effects. Intended for researchers and designers with an interest in the transition to sustainable...
Richardson, Clarissa M E; Rice, Kenneth G
Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Marufuzzaman, M; Reaz, M B I; Ali, M A M; Rahman, L F
The goal of smart homes is to create an intelligent environment adapting the inhabitants need and assisting the person who needs special care and safety in their daily life. This can be reached by collecting the ADL (activities of daily living) data and further analysis within existing computing elements. In this research, a very recent algorithm named sequence prediction via enhanced episode discovery (SPEED) is modified and in order to improve accuracy time component is included. The modified SPEED or M-SPEED is a sequence prediction algorithm, which modified the previous SPEED algorithm by using time duration of appliance's ON-OFF states to decide the next state. M-SPEED discovered periodic episodes of inhabitant behavior, trained it with learned episodes, and made decisions based on the obtained knowledge. The results showed that M-SPEED achieves 96.8% prediction accuracy, which is better than other time prediction algorithms like PUBS, ALZ with temporal rules and the previous SPEED. Since human behavior shows natural temporal patterns, duration times can be used to predict future events more accurately. This inhabitant activity prediction system will certainly improve the smart homes by ensuring safety and better care for elderly and handicapped people.
Østlie, Kristin; Lesjø, Ingrid Marie; Franklin, Rosemary Joy; Garfelt, Beate; Skjeldal, Ola Hunsbeth; Magnus, Per
To describe patterns of prosthesis wear and perceived prosthetic usefulness in adult acquired upper-limb amputees (ULAs). To describe prosthetic skills in activities of daily life (ADL) and the actual use of prostheses in the performance of ADL tasks. To estimate the influence of prosthetic skills on actual prosthesis use and the influence of background factors on prosthetic skills and actual prosthesis use. Cross-sectional study analysing population-based questionnaire data (n = 224) and data from interviews and clinical testing in a referred/convenience sample of prosthesis-wearing ULAs (n = 50). Effects were analysed using linear regression. 80.8% wore prostheses. 90.3% reported their most worn prosthesis as useful. Prosthetic usefulness profiles varied with prosthetic type. Despite demonstrating good prosthetic skills, the amputees reported actual prosthesis use in only about half of the ADL tasks performed in everyday life. In unilateral amputees, increased actual use was associated with sufficient prosthetic training and with the use of myoelectric vs cosmetic prostheses, regardless of amputation level. Prosthetic skills did not affect actual prosthesis use. No background factors showed significant effect on prosthetic skills. Most major ULAs wear prostheses. Individualised prosthetic training and fitting of myoelectric rather than passive prostheses may increase actual prosthesis use in ADL.
Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann
Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen
) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female......BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent...... included all individuals born in Denmark in 1905. At baseline in 1998, a total of 2262 persons participated in the intake survey (63%). In total, 225 of 364 persons (62%) who reached their 100th birthday in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 wave. Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADLs...
Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.
Komatsu, Masayo; Nezu, Satoko; Tomioka, Kimiko; Hazaki, Kan; Harano, Akihiro; Morikawa, Masayuki; Takagi, Masahiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Iwamoto, Junko; Ishizuka, Rika; Saeki, Keigo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio
To investigate factors associated with activities of daily living in independently living elderly persons in a community. The potential subjects were 4,472 individuals aged 65 years and older who voluntarily participated in a large cohort study, the Fujiwara-kyo study. We used self-administered questionnaires consisting of an activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire with the Physical Fitness Test established by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (12 ADL items) to determine the index of higher-level physical independence, demographics, Geriatric Depression Scale, and so on. Mini-mental state examination, measurement of physical fitness, and blood tests were also carried out. A lower ADL level was defined as having a total score of the 12 ADL items (range, 12-36 points) that was below the first quartile of a total score for all the subjects. Factors associated with a low ADL level were examined by multiple logistic regression. A total of 4,198 remained as subjects for analysis. The male, female and 5-year-old groups showed significant differences in the median score of 12 ADL items between any two groups. The highest odds ratio among factors associated with lower ADL level by multiple logistic regression with mutually adjusted independent variables was 4.49 (95%CI: 2.82-7.17) in the groups of "very sharp pain" or "strong pain" during the last month. Low physical ability, self-awareness of limb weakness, a BMI of over 25, low physical activity, cerebrovascular disorder, depression, low cognitive function, unable "to see normally", unable "to hear someone", "muscle, bone and joint pain" were independently associated with lower ADL level. Multiple factors are associated with lower ADL level assessed on the basis of the 12 ADL items.
Lee, JiHyun; Yun, Chang-Kyo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hippotherapy exercise on the thickness of deep abdominal muscles and daily activities of children with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Seven children with intellectual disabilities were treated with hippotherapy for 30 minutes twice a week for 6 weeks. The thickness of deep abdominal muscles and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) of the subjects were measured by ultrasonography before and after the experiment. [Results] There was no significant change in the thickness of the External Oblique and Internal Oblique muscles, but there was a statistically significant change in Transverse Adbominis thickness and FIM score after treatment compared to before treatment. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy exercise has a positive effect on the improvement of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) and activity of daily livings of children with intellectual disabilities.
Full Text Available Objective To observe the rehabilitation effect of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT on activities of daily living (ADL in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods A total of 60 patients in acute stage of cerebral stroke with limb dysfunction admitted in Ruijin Hospital from December 2012 to May 2013, were randomly divided into routine rehabilitation treatment group (control group, N = 30 and mCIMT group (N = 30. Control group was given routine rehabilitation training, 60 min each time, twice per day, 5 d per week; mCIMT group received mCIMT treatment with the similar frequency. After 2-week training, all patients were transferred to rehabilitation center for 4-week continous training. The total treatment period was 6 weeks. All of those patients received assessment before treatment and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks after treatment on the ability of daily living and motor function, including the modified Barthel Index (mBI, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Results Patients in both groups got increased mBI (P = 0.004, 0.000, 0.000, FMA (upper limb: P = 0.000, for all and BBS scores (P = 0.005, 0.000, 0.000 2, 6, 12 weeks after treatment. FMA (lower limb score was increased 6 and 12 weeks after treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Compared to the control group, patients in mCIMT group got increased mBI (P = 0.000, for all, FMA (upper limb: P = 0.000, for all; lower limb: P = 0.000, for all and BBS scores (P = 0.000, for all 2, 6, 12 weeks after treatment. Conclusions mCIMT has positive therapeutic effects on the motor function of limbs in hemiplegic patients with stroke in acute stage, which can improve the balance ability and the ability of daily life, so as to raise the quality of life of patients. The efficacy of mCIMT is superior to general routine rehabilitation treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.006
Trivedi, A.; Cornett, R.J.; Galeriu, D.; Workman, W.; Brown, R.M.
We have estimated the relative daily intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT), and have measured HTO-in-urine, in an adult population residing in the town of Deep River, Ontario, near a heavy-water research reactor facility at Chalk River. The daily intake of elevated levels of atmospheric tritium has been estimated from its concentration in environmental and biological samples, and various food items from a local tritium-monitoring program. Where the available data were inadequate, we used estimates generated by an environmental tritium-transfer model. From these data and estimates, we calculated a total daily tritium intake of about 55 Bq. Of this amount, 2.5 Bq is obtained from OBT-in-diet. Inhalation of HTO-in-air (15 Bq d -1 ) and HTO-in-drinking water (15 Bq d -1 ) accounts for more than half of the HTO intake. Skin absorption of HTO from air and bathing or swimming (for 30 min d -1 ) accounts for another 9 Bq d -1 and 0.1 Bq d -1 , respectively. The remaining intake of HTO is from food as tissue-free water tritium. The International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended two-compartment metabolic model for tritium predicts an equilibrium body burden of about 900 Bq from HTO (818 Bq) and OBT (83 Bq) in the body, which corresponds to an annual tritium dose of 0.41 μSv. The model-predicted urinary excretion of HTO (∼18 Bq L -1 ) agrees well with measured HTO-in-urine (range, 10-32 Bq L -1 ). The OBT dose contribution to the total tritium dose is about 16%. We conclude that for the people living near the Chalk River research reactor facility, the bulk of the tritium dose is due to HTO intake. (author)
Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to gain an understanding of the daily life experiences of eight gay men with HIV/AIDS living alone in New York City. The participants ranged in age from 25 to 50 years. Data were primarily collected using in-depth personal interviews in 1996 followed by telephone interviews 1 year later. Constant-comparison and thematic analyses were used to identify themes and subthemes. Two broad themes with related subthemes were generated from the data. "A Reasonably Stable Base" represented the emotional, physical, and environmental foundation that preexisted or was created as a consequence of living with HIV/AIDS. This theme played a particularly important role in the participants' lives, especially during periods of emotional and physical instability. "Finding and Maintaining Balance" was a second theme that illustrated strategies used for managing and readjusting daily routines, goals, and priorities, as well as how the participants experienced this readjustment process. All of the participants developed their own daily living strategies that were comparable to intervention methods provided in occupational therapy such as energy conservation and work simplification. The findings suggest that occupational therapy practitioners could potentially assist urban gay men with HIV/AIDS with finding and maintaining stability and balance in their daily lives.
Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T
A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs.
Frost, Yael; Weingarden, Harold; Zeilig, Gabi; Nota, Ayala; Rand, Debbie
(1) To characterize the self-care self-efficacy (SCSE) of community dwelling individuals with chronic stroke and (2) to determine the contribution of SCSE to the independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL) and the participation of individuals with chronic stroke. SCSE is the confidence in one's own ability to perform self-care activities. This cross-sectional study included fifty community-dwelling individuals mean (SD) age 59.8 (9.3) years, mean (SD) 3.1 (1.7) years post-stroke who were able to walk at least 10 meters. SCSE was assessed using the Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ), BADL was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (interview), the IADL questionnaire assessed IADL and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) assessed participation. Correlation and regression analyses were performed after controlling for grip strength, executive functions and gait speed, factors known to influence independence in daily living. The mean SCSE level was moderate-high (70%). Significant moderate correlations were found between SCSE to independence in BADL (r = .596, P < .001), IADL (r = .567, P < .001) and participation (r = .340, P < .005). SCSE of our cohort explained 7.4% of the variance of the individual's independence in BADL after controlling for executive functions and gait speed, but did not contribute to their independence in IADL and participation. Higher SCSE of individuals with chronic stroke contributes to more independence in BADL. Additional questionnaires regarding self efficacy for IADL should be developed and investigated. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piccin, S; Crippa, A; Nobile, M; Hardan, A Y; Brambilla, P
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly characterised by deficits in social communication as well as by narrow patterns of behaviour and interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), often accompanied by language, intellectual and sensory impairments. The severity of these impairments may lead to deficits in the development of daily living activities such as simple meal preparation and feeding, community skills (e.g. buying groceries), personal care (e.g. dressing) and personal hygiene skills (bathing, toileting, hand washing, teeth brushing) needed for independence. Among others, the lack of independence in personal hygiene skills increases the burden of the caregiver and makes children with ASD more dependent (Flynn & Healy, 2012). Therefore, it is important to develop tools for helping individuals with ASD in increasing their ability to perform these basic life activities which will lead to savings that can be invested in other critical areas of needs.
Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise
Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,
Lee, C.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.T. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liao, P.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Su, H.J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.L. [Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, 34 Chung Chie Rd. Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P < 0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. - Inhabitants living near a deserted PCP factory are exposed to high PCDD/F levels.
Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona
and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter. RESULTS: Thirty three (77%) participants reported exposure...
Kühnhausen, Jan; Leonhardt, Anja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian
A positive influence of physical activity (PA) on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using sm...
Miklitsch, Claudia; Krewer, Carmen; Freivogel, Susanna; Steube, Diethard
To investigate the effects of a predefined mini-trampoline therapy programme for increasing postural control, mobility and the ability to perform activities of daily living after stroke. Randomized non-blinded controlled pilot study. Neurological rehabilitation hospital. First-time stroke; age 18-80 years; independent standing ability for a minimum of 2 minutes. Patients were randomized into two groups: the mini-trampoline group (n = 20) received 10 sessions of balance training using the mini-trampoline over three weeks. The patients of the control group (n =20) participated 10 times in a group balance training also over three weeks. Postural control (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), mobility and gait endurance (timed 'up and go' test, TUG; 6-minute walk test, 6MWT) and the ability to perform activities of daily living (Barthel Index, BI). Measurements were undertaken prior to and after the intervention period. Both groups were comparable before the study. The mini-trampoline group improved significantly more in the BBS (P = 0.003) compared to the control group. Mean or median differences of both groups showed improvements in the TUG 10.12 seconds/7.23 seconds, the 6MWT 135 m/75 m and the BI 20 points/13 points for the mini-trampoline and control group, respectively. These outcome measurements did not differ significantly between the two groups. A predefined mini-trampoline training programme resulted in significantly increased postural control in stroke patients compared to balance training in a group. Although not statistically significant, the mini-trampoline training group showed increased improvement in mobility and activities of daily living. These differences could have been statistically significant if we had investigated more patients (i.e. a total sample of 84 patients for the TUG, 98 patients for the 6MWT, and 186 patients for the BI).
Lin, Li-Wei; Weng, Shu-Chuan; Wu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Lin, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Shu-Hui
The aging of society is a global trend, and care of older adults with dementia is an urgent challenge. As dementia progresses, patients exhibit negative emotions, memory disorders, sleep disorders, and agitated behavior. Agitated behavior is one of the most difficult problems for family caregivers and healthcare providers to handle when caring for older adults with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of white noise in improving agitated behavior, mental status, and activities of daily living in older adults with dementia. An experimental research design was used to study elderly participants two times (pretest and posttest). Six dementia care centers in central and southern Taiwan were targeted to recruit participants. There were 63 participants: 28 were in the experimental group, and 35 were in the comparison group. Experimental group participants received 20 minutes of white noise consisting of ocean, rain, wind, and running water sounds between 4 and 5 P.M. daily over a period of 4 weeks. The comparison group received routine care. Questionnaires were completed, and observations of agitated behaviors were collected before and after the intervention. Agitated behavior in the experimental group improved significantly between pretest and posttest. Furthermore, posttest scores on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and Barthel Index were slightly better for this group than at pretest. However, the experimental group registered no significant difference in mental status or activities of daily living at posttest. For the comparison group, agitated behavior was unchanged between pretest and posttest. The results of this study support white noise as a simple, convenient, and noninvasive intervention that improves agitated behavior in older adults with dementia. These results may provide a reference for related healthcare providers, educators, and administrators who care for older adults with dementia.
Interrelationship among the health-related and subjective quality of life, daily life activities, instrumental activities of daily living of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients.
Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Naruse, Susumu; Nanba, Yoshihumi
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the health-related and subjective quality of life of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients, and also examined how such quality of life correlate with their daily life activities and instrumental activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their health-related quality of life and subjective quality of life, life-space assessment, frenchay activities index were researched. [Results] For the relationships between the total subjective quality of life scores and health-related quality of life scores, significant positive correlations were observed for body pain, general health, vitality, social functions and mental health. The correlations were not statistically significant between the subjective quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. The correlations were statistically significant between some health-related quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. [Conclusion] The results suggest that supporting community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients to improve their sense of physical and mental well-being, and prevent and reduce their depression and physical pain, is required in order to improve their QOL.
Chang, Chun-Feng; Yang, Rea-Jeng; Chang, Shu-Fang; Chou, Yuan Hwa; Huang, Ean-Wen
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a decrease in cognitive abilities that does not affect the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Therefore, this condition is easily overlooked. The prevalence and factors of influence for MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing are currently unknown. This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing and assessed the correlations among quality of life (QoL), ADL, and MCI. This study applied a correlational study design. The participants were older people who met the study criteria and who lived in public housing in Wanhua District, Taipei City, Taiwan. One-on-one interviews were conducted to measure the cognitive abilities of the participants, and 299 valid samples were collected. The prevalence of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing was 16.1%. The χ test was employed to evaluate the distribution of MCI prevalence and indicated that the group with higher MCI prevalence exhibited the following characteristics: older than 81 years; married; lived in public housing for more than 20 years; cohabiting; had a history of drinking; and exhibited severe memory regression, physical disabilities, psychological distress, and low QoL. The difference between the groups achieved statistical significance (p < .05). After performing logistical regression analysis to control demographic variables, we found that QoL and ADL were critical for predicting MCI. This study confirmed that QoL and ADL correlate significantly with MCI in older people. Maintaining an open and supportive community enables older people to maintain sufficient mental activity, which has been shown to reduce MCI. These findings may provide an important reference for policy makers, educators, researchers, and community practitioners in their development of service strategies for older people.
Langlet, Ketty; Van Der Linden, Thierry; Launois, Claire; Fourdin, Caroline; Cabaret, Philippe; Kerkeni, Nadia; Barbe, Coralie; Lebargy, François; Deslée, Gaetan
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is imperative in many forms of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in COPD patients. Previous studies have shown the difficulty to identify parameters predicting the outcome of COPD patients treated by invasive MV. Our hypothesis was that a non specialized score as the activities daily living (ADL) score may help to predict the outcome of these patients. We studied the outcome of 25 COPD patients admitted to the intensive care unit for ARF requiring invasive MV. The patients were divided into those weaning success (group A n = 17, 68%) or failure (group B n = 8, 32%). We investigated the correlation between the ADL score and the outcome and mortality. The ADL score was higher in group A (5.1 ±1.1 vs 3.7 ± 0.7 in group B, p success and mortality at 6 months, suggesting that the assessment of daily activities should be an important component of ARF management in COPD patients.
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Hoy, Damian; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bain, Chris; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C
Low back pain (LBP) is a major cause of disability throughout the world. However, longitudinal evidence to relate low back pain and functional limitations is mostly confined to Western countries. In this study, we investigate the associations between low back pain and functional limitations in a prospective cohort of Thai adults. We analysed information from the Thai Cohort Study of adult Open University adults which included 42,785 participants in both 2009 and 2013, with the majority aged 30 to 65 years and residing nationwide. We used multivariate logistic regression to explore the longitudinal associations between LBP in 2009 and 2013 ('never': no LBP in 2009 or 2013; 'reverting': LBP in 2009 but not in 2013; 'incident': no LBP in 2009 but LBP in 2013; and 'chronic': reporting LBP at both time points) and the outcome of functional limitations relating to Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in 2013. Low back pain was common with 30% of cohort members reporting low back pain in both 2009 and 2013 ('chronic LBP'). The 'chronic LBP' group was more likely than the 'never' back pain group to report functional limitations in 2013: adjusted odds ratios 1.60 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.38-1.85] for difficulties getting dressed; 1.98 [1.71-2.30] for walking; 2.02 [1.71-2.39] for climbing stairs; and 3.80 [3.38-4.27] for bending/kneeling. Those with 'incident LBP' or 'reverting LBP' both had increased odds of functional limitations in 2013 but the odds were not generally as high. Our nationwide data from Thailand suggests that LBP is a frequent public health problem among economically productive age groups with adverse effects on the activities of daily living. This study adds to the limited longitudinal evidence on the substantial impact of low back pain in Southeast Asia.
Fries Brant E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the responsiveness of the Minimum Data Set Activities of Daily Living (MDS-ADL Scale to change over time by examining the change in physical function in adults with moderate to severe dementia with no comorbid illness who had been resident in a nursing home for over 90 days. Methods Longitudinal data were collected on nursing home residents with moderate (n = 7001 or severe (n = 4616 dementia in one US state from the US national Minimum Data Set (MDS. Severity of dementia was determined by the MDS Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS. Physical function was assessed by summing the seven items (bed mobility, transfer, locomotion, dressing, eating, toilet use, personal hygiene on the MDS activities of daily living (ADL Long Form scale. Mean change over time of MDS-ADL scores were estimated at three and six months for residents with moderate (CPS score of 3 and severe (CPS score of 4 or 5 dementia. Results Physical function in residents with moderate cognitive impairment deteriorated over six months by an average of 1.78 points on the MDS-ADL Long Form scale, while those with severe cognitive impairment declined by an average of 1.70 points. Approximately one quarter of residents in both groups showed some improvement in physical function over the six month period. Residents with moderate cognitive impairment experienced the greatest deterioration in early-loss and mid-loss ADL items (personal hygiene, dressing, toilet use and residents with severe cognitive impairment showed the greatest deterioration in activities related to eating, a late loss ADL. Conclusion The MDS-ADL Long Form scale detected clinically meaningful change in physical function in a large cohort of long-stay nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia, supporting its use as a research tool in future studies.
Carpenter, G Iain; Hastie, Charlotte L; Morris, John N; Fries, Brant E; Ankri, Joel
Background The objective of this study was to assess the responsiveness of the Minimum Data Set Activities of Daily Living (MDS-ADL) Scale to change over time by examining the change in physical function in adults with moderate to severe dementia with no comorbid illness who had been resident in a nursing home for over 90 days. Methods Longitudinal data were collected on nursing home residents with moderate (n = 7001) or severe (n = 4616) dementia in one US state from the US national Minimum Data Set (MDS). Severity of dementia was determined by the MDS Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS). Physical function was assessed by summing the seven items (bed mobility, transfer, locomotion, dressing, eating, toilet use, personal hygiene) on the MDS activities of daily living (ADL) Long Form scale. Mean change over time of MDS-ADL scores were estimated at three and six months for residents with moderate (CPS score of 3) and severe (CPS score of 4 or 5) dementia. Results Physical function in residents with moderate cognitive impairment deteriorated over six months by an average of 1.78 points on the MDS-ADL Long Form scale, while those with severe cognitive impairment declined by an average of 1.70 points. Approximately one quarter of residents in both groups showed some improvement in physical function over the six month period. Residents with moderate cognitive impairment experienced the greatest deterioration in early-loss and mid-loss ADL items (personal hygiene, dressing, toilet use) and residents with severe cognitive impairment showed the greatest deterioration in activities related to eating, a late loss ADL. Conclusion The MDS-ADL Long Form scale detected clinically meaningful change in physical function in a large cohort of long-stay nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia, supporting its use as a research tool in future studies. PMID:16584565
Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji
Background Little is known about the association between malnutrition and the chances of returning home from post-acute facilities in older adult patients. This study aimed to understand whether malnutrition and malnutrition-related factors would be determinants for returning home and activities of daily living (ADL) at discharge after post-acute care. Methods Patients aged ≥65 years living at home before the onset of an acute disease and admitted to a post-acute ward were enrolled (n=207) in this prospective observational study. Malnutrition was defined based on the criteria of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Nutritional parameters included the nutritional intake at the time of admission and oral conditions evaluated by the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT). The Barthel Index was used to assess daily activities. A Cox regression analysis of the length of stay was performed. Multivariable linear regression analyses to determine associations between malnutrition, returning home, and ADL at discharge were performed, after adjusting the variables of acute care setting. Results The mean patient age was 84.7±6.7 years; 38% were men. European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition was observed in 129 (62.3%) patients, and 118 (57.0%) of all patients returned home. Multivariable regression analyses showed that malnutrition was a negative predictor of returning home (hazard ratio: 0.517 [0.351–0.761], p=0.001), and an increase in the nutritional intake (kcal/kg/d) was a positive predictor of the Barthel Index at discharge (coefficient: 0.34±0.15, p=0.021). The OHAT was not associated with returning home and ADL. Conclusion Malnutrition and nutritional intake are associated with returning home and ADL at discharge, respectively, after post-acute care. Further studies investigating the effects of a nutritional intervention for post-acute patients would be necessary. PMID:29416323
Blake J Lawrence
Full Text Available This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL in people with Parkinson's disease (PD. A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001 predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001 predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001 indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13. People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.
Full Text Available A positive influence of physical activity (PA on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using smartphones. In the current article, we show that it is feasible to objectively measure children’s PA with accelerometers for a period of several weeks and report descriptive information on the amount of activity of 51 children from 3rd and 4th grade. Additionally, we investigate the influence of daily PA on daily affect in children. Mixed effects models show no effect of PA on any of the four measured dimensions of affect. We discuss that this might be due to effects taking place at shorter time intervals, which can be investigated in future analyses.
Rapegno, Noémie; Ravaud, Jean-François
Despite the context of individualization of public policies and promotion of independent living, residential care facilities (RCFs) (called "établissements medico-sociaux" in France) still represent the main system used by disabled people. Through a study of their daily mobility, this article proposes a geographical approach to the examination of factors influencing the social participation of disabled persons with motor impairments who live in residential care facilities. The data were collected in three stages from several sources. We first carried out 24 semi-directive interviews among supervisory staff in all the institutions in two regions of France (Greater Paris and Upper Normandy) to better understand the nature of services offered by medico-social facilities. We next did field work in greater detail in 10 of these institutions. We selected residents by random sampling. These first stages then allowed us to study the mobility of residents and record their perceptions. We conducted participant observation and interviews with 81 disabled residents within the 10 RCF. Data analysis enabled consideration not only of the role of the residential environment in people's daily mobility, but the role of the institutions as well. We identified three typical profiles of mobility practices depending on the facilities: "the islanders", living in isolated facilities far from public transportation, or in so-called "difficult" neighborhoods; people who alternate individual and group mobility in a more or less large area; and "the navigators" who have high mobility over a very large area, often living in facilities located in urban areas. The study also enabled an analysis of the obstacles and facilitators inside and outside the residential facilities. These place restrictions on social participation by disabled adults. However, possibilities for individual negotiation may enable bypassing some obstacles. The three ideal-type profiles of mobility analyzed constitute
Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L
Self-conscious emotions play a role in regulating daily achievement strivings, social behavior, and health, but little is known about the processes underlying their daily manifestation. Emerging adults (n = 182) completed daily diaries for eight days and multilevel models were estimated to evaluate whether, how much, and why their emotions varied from day-to-day. Within-person variation in authentic pride was normally-distributed across people and days whereas the other emotions were burst-like and characterized by zero-inflated, negative binomial distributions. Perceiving social interactions as generally communal increased the odds of hubristic pride activation and reduced the odds of guilt activation; daily communal behavior reduced guilt intensity. Results illuminated processes through which meaning about the self-in-relation-to-others is constructed during a critical period of development.
Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.
Tierney, Savanna M; Bucks, Romola S; Weinborn, Michael; Hodgson, Erica; Woods, Steven Paul
Older adults commonly experience mild declines in everyday functioning and the strategic aspects of prospective memory (PM). This study used multiprocess theory to examine whether the strategic demands of retrieval cue type (event vs. time based) and delay interval length (2 vs. 15 min) influence the relationship between PM and activities of daily living (ADLs) in older adults. Participants included 97 community-dwelling older adults recruited from the Western Australia Participant Pool. Participants were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) as part of a larger neurocognitive assessment. A knowledgeable informant completed the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ), from which a cutpoint of ≥ 1 was used to classify participants into "ADL normal" (n = 37) or "mild ADL problems" (n = 60) groups. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) controlling for age was conducted with ADL group as the between-subjects factor and either MIST or PRMQ cue and delay scores as the within-subjects factors. We observed a significant ADL group by PM interaction on the MIST, with pair-wise analyses showing that the mild ADL problems group performed worse than ADL normal participants on the 15-min time-based scale (p cue-delay variable differed between the two ADL groups (ps > .10). Findings indicate that decrements in strategically demanding cue monitoring and detection over longer PM delays may partly explain older adults' mild problems in everyday functioning. Findings may inform neuropsychological interventions aimed at maintaining ADL independence and enhancing quality of life in older adults.
Effective acquisition of a skill requires practise. Therefore it is of great importance to provide veterinary students with opportunities to practice their surgical skills before carrying out surgical procedures on live patients. Some veterinary schools let students perform entire surgical...... procedures on research animals, in order to learn the basic skills along the way. From an ethical point of view it is questionable however to use live research animals for the sole purpose of practising surgery, and also, research animals are very costly. It is therefore necessary to identify alternative...... teaching methods for veterinary surgical training. At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, a number of low fidelity, stuffed toy animal dummies was developed for the Surgical Skills Lab in order to teach 4th year students the basic surgical skills. In the Surgical...
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected
Hughes, Claire; Daly, Irenee; Foley, Sarah; White, Naomi; Devine, Rory T
Early work on school readiness focused on academic skills. Recent research highlights the value of also including both children's social and behavioural competencies and family support. Reflecting this broader approach, this study aimed to develop a new and brief questionnaire for teachers: The Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI). The main sample, recruited from the north-west of England, included 1,456 children (49% male), aged 2.5 to 5.5 years. A second sample consisting of 258 children (44% male) aged 3 to 5.5 years was recruited to assess the test-retest reliability of the BESSI across a 1-month interval. Following development and pilot work with early years teachers, a streamlined (30 items) version of the BESSI was sent to 98 teachers and nursery staff, who rated the children in their class. The best-fitting model included four latent factors: Three child factors (Behavioural Adjustment, Language and Cognition, and Daily Living Skills) and one Family Support factor. The three child factors exhibited measurement invariance across gender. All four factors showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Structural equation modelling showed that (1) boys had more problems than girls on all three child factors; (2) older children showed better Language and Cognition and Daily Living Skills than younger children; and (3) children eligible for free school meals (an index of financial hardship) had more problems on all four latent factors. Family Support latent scores predicted all three child latent factors and accounted for their correlation with financial hardship. The BESSI is a promising brief teacher-report screening tool that appears suitable for children aged 2.5 to 5.5 and provides a broader perspective upon school readiness than previous measures. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Background: The effects of daily abuse and hardship on the streets lead to poor mental health in children living on the streets, resulting in them choosing ineffective and self-destructive coping strategies that impact their physical health and overall sense of wellbeing. The facilitation of the mental health of children living on the streets who are subjected to daily threats to their survival is thus crucial. Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore and describe the lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow, Johannesburg. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample was selected through a temporary shelter in Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa and consisted of 14 male children living on the streets. Data were collected using drawings, in-depth phenomenological interviews and field notes. The central interview opening statement was: ‘Tell me about your life on the street’. Results: The results obtained indicated that children living on the streets are threatened, exploited and exposed to physical, sexual and emotional abuse on a daily basis by the community, the authorities and other street dwellers. This leads to feelings of sadness, fear, anxiety, misery, despair, hopelessness, helplessness and suicide ideation, which in turn lead to drug abuse and criminal activities. In contrast, positive feelings of sympathy for other children living on the streets emerged and these children also displayed perseverance, resilience and a striving for autonomy. Conclusion: Street life exposes children to a variety of experiences, both positive and negative. A striving after autonomy is clearly depicted by these children, who are able to tap into a range of responses, both on- and off-street.
Amaro, Joicemar Tarouco; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moises
Until now, there are no definitive conclusions regarding functional differences related to middle- and long-term everyday activities and patient pain following implantation of mobile- and fixed-platform tibial prostheses. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are middle-term differences in knee function and pain in patients undergoing fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Eligible patients were randomized into two groups: the first group received TKA implantation with a fixed tibial platform (group A); the second group received TKA with a mobile tibial platform (group B). Patients were followed up (2 years), and their symptoms and limitations in daily living activities were evaluated using the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), in addition to pain evaluation assessed using the pain visual analogue scale (VAS). There were no significant differences in function and symptoms in the ADLS and VAS between the study groups. The type of platform used in TKA (fixed vs. mobile) does not change the symptoms, function or pain of patients 2 years post-surgery. Although mobile TKAs may have better short-term results, at medium- and long-term follow-up they do not present important clinical differences compared with fixed-platform TKAs. This information is important so that surgeons can choose the most suitable implant for each patient. Randomized clinical trial, Level I.
Saudabayev, Artur; Rysbek, Zhanibek; Khassenova, Raykhan; Varol, Huseyin Atakan
This paper presents a grasping database collected from multiple human subjects for activities of daily living in unstructured environments. The main strength of this database is the use of three different sensing modalities: color images from a head-mounted action camera, distance data from a depth sensor on the dominant arm and upper body kinematic data acquired from an inertial motion capture suit. 3826 grasps were identified in the data collected during 9-hours of experiments. The grasps were grouped according to a hierarchical taxonomy into 35 different grasp types. The database contains information related to each grasp and associated sensor data acquired from the three sensor modalities. We also provide our data annotation software written in Matlab as an open-source tool. The size of the database is 172 GB. We believe this database can be used as a stepping stone to develop big data and machine learning techniques for grasping and manipulation with potential applications in rehabilitation robotics and intelligent automation.
Chung, Grace H; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J
Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their emotional states for a given day. Overall, the within-person models provided evidence for the bidirectional nature of family peer linkages across gender and ethnicity. Adolescents experienced more peer conflict on days in which they argued with parents or other family members, and vice versa. Effect of family conflict further spilled over into peer relationships the next day and 2 days later, whereas peer conflict predicted only the following day family conflict. Adolescents' emotional distress partially explained these short-term spillovers between family and peer conflict. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation (MV is imperative in many forms of acute respiratory failure (ARF in COPD patients. Previous studies have shown the difficulty to identify parameters predicting the outcome of COPD patients treated by invasive MV. Our hypothesis was that a non specialized score as the activities daily living (ADL score may help to predict the outcome of these patients. Methods We studied the outcome of 25 COPD patients admitted to the intensive care unit for ARF requiring invasive MV. The patients were divided into those weaning success (group A n = 17, 68% or failure (group B n = 8, 32%. We investigated the correlation between the ADL score and the outcome and mortality. Results The ADL score was higher in group A (5.1 ±1.1 vs 3.7 ± 0.7 in group B, p Conclusion Our pilot study demonstrates that the ADL score is predictive of weaning success and mortality at 6 months, suggesting that the assessment of daily activities should be an important component of ARF management in COPD patients.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Fine motor skills are important for children not only in the activities of daily living, but also for learning activities. In the present study, the effects of supervised physical training were investigated in normal children. Objective: To evaluate the effects of supervised training by combining full-body exercise and the eye-hand coordination activities to improve fine motor skills in a group of five-year-old normal children. Methods: Fifty-two children were selected and randomized in exercise and control groups. The exercise group participated in three 30-minute training sessions per week for 24 weeks. Results: The fine motor skills and hand grip strength of the exercise group were significantly increased, while there was no significant change in the control group during the experimental period. Conclusion: The results indicate that the current exercise training program is effective and can be applied to 5-year-old normal children to improve their fine motor skills. In addition, this program has simple physical activities that are appropriate to the physical and mental level of child development. The 30-minute training session would be easily implemented in the kindergarten program. Level of Evidence I; High quality randomized trial with statistically significant difference or no statistically significant difference but narrow confidence intervals.
Dariotis, Jacinda K; Mirabal-Beltran, Roxanne; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Gould, Laura Feagans; Greenberg, Mark T; Mendelson, Tamar
Previous studies on school-based mindfulness and yoga programs have focused primarily on quantitative measurement of program outcomes. This study used qualitative data to investigate program content and skills that students remembered and applied in their daily lives. Data were gathered following a 16-week mindfulness and yoga intervention delivered at three urban schools by a community non-profit organization. We conducted focus groups and interviews with nine classroom teachers who did not participate in the program and held six focus groups with 22 fifth and sixth grade program participants. This study addresses two primary research questions: (1) What skills did students learn, retain, and utilize outside the program? and (2) What changes did classroom teachers expect and observe among program recipients? Four major themes related to skill learning and application emerged as follows: (1) youths retained and utilized program skills involving breath work and poses; (2) knowledge about health benefits of these techniques promoted self-utilization and sharing of skills; (3) youths developed keener emotional appraisal that, coupled with new and improved emotional regulation skills, helped de-escalate negative emotions, promote calm, and reduce stress; and (4) youths and teachers reported realistic and optimistic expectations for future impact of acquired program skills. We discuss implications of these findings for guiding future research and practice.
... this article Daily Tips for Good Oral Hygiene Bacteria can live in your mouth in the form of plaque, causing cavities and gingivitis, which can lead to periodontal (gum) disease. In order to keep your mouth ...
Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi
This study's aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44-5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01-3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults.
Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.
Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng
Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.
Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E
Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group.
Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Möller, Jette; Qiu, Chengxuan
Data on trends for disability in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) are sparse in older Chinese adults. To assess trends in prevalence and incidence of IADL disability among older Chinese adults and to explore contributing factors. Population based study. 15 provinces and municipalities in China. Participants (age ≥60) were from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted in 1997 (n=1533), 2000 (n=1581), 2004 (n=2028) and 2006 (n=2256), and from two cohorts constructed within the national survey: cohort 1997-2004 (n=712) and cohort 2000-2006 (n=823). IADL disability was defined as inability to perform one or more of the following: shopping, cooking, using transportation, financing and telephoning. Data were analysed with logistic regression and generalised estimating equation models. The prevalence of IADL disability significantly decreased from 1997 to 2006 in the total sample and in all of the subgroups by age, sex, living region and IADL items (all p trend 0.10). The recovery rate from IADL disability significantly increased over time in those aged 60-69 years (p=0.03). Living in a rural area or access to local clinics for healthcare was less disabling over time (p trend <0.02). The prevalence of IADL disability decreased among older Chinese adults during 1997-2006, whereas the incidence remained stable. The declining prevalence of IADL disability might be partly due to the decreased duration of IADL disability, and to improvements in living conditions and healthcare facilities over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Introduction: While there are several subjective English tools, such as the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL, aimed at assessing dyspnoea during activities of daily living (ADL in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, none of these questionnaires has ever been translated into Portuguese. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reproducibility of the LCADL's Portuguese version in patients with COPD. Methods: 31 patients with COPD (17 male; 69Â Â±Â 7 years; FEV1 44Â Â±Â 15%predicted completed the Portuguese version of the LCADL twice with a 1-week interval. The traditional Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, already validated in Portuguese, was used as the criterion method. Results: There were no significant differences between test and retest of the LCADL. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between test and retest concerning the different scale components was Self-care rÂ =Â 0.96; Domestic rÂ =Â 0.99; Physical rÂ =Â 0.92; Leisure rÂ =Â 0.95; Total Score rÂ =Â 0.98. There were significant correlations of the LCADL Total Score with the SGRQ's different components and total score (0.36Â <Â rÂ <Â 0.74; pÂ <Â 0.05 for all. The LCADL Total Score was also significantly correlated with the 6-minute walking distance test (rÂ =Â -0.48; pÂ =Â 0.006. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the LCADL is valid and reproducible in patients with COPD, making this study a new and important tool for assessing the limitations of performing ADL in this population. Resumo: IntroduÃ§Ã£o: Diversos questionÃ¡rios desenvolvidos em lÃngua inglesa visam avaliar especificamente a limitaÃ§Ã£o pela dispnÃ©ia durante actividades da vida diÃ¡ ria (AVD em doentes com doenÃ§a pulmonar obstrutiva crÃ³nica (DPOC, como a escala London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL. No entanto, nenhum destes questionÃ¡rios foi ainda traduzido para a l
Draganov, Peter V; Chang, Myron; Coman, Roxana M; Wagh, Mihir S; An, Qi; Gotoda, Takuji
To evaluate the role of observation of experts performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the acquisition of ESD skills. This prospective study is documenting the learning curve of one Western endoscopist. The study consisted of three periods. In the first period (pre-observation), the trainee performed ESDs in animal models in his home institution in the United States. The second period (observation) consisted of visit to Japan and observation of live ESD cases done by experts. The observation of cases occurred over a 5-wk period. During the third period (post-observation), the trainee performed ESD in animal models in a similar fashion as in the first period. Three animal models were used: live 40-50 kg Yorkshire pig, explanted pig stomach model, and explanted pig rectum model. The outcomes from the ESDs done in the animal models before and after observation of live human cases (main study intervention) were compared. Statistical analysis of the data included: Fisher's exact test to compare distributions of a categorical variable, Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare distributions of a continuous variable between the two groups (pre-observation and post-observation), and Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the impact of lesion location and type of model (ex-vivo vs live pig) on lesion removal time. The trainee performed 38 ESDs in animal model (29 pre-observation/9 post-observation). The removal times post-observation were significantly shorter than those pre-observation (32.7 ± 15.0 min vs 63.5 ± 9.8 min, P < 0.001). To minimize the impact of improving physician skill, the 9 lesions post-observation were compared to the last 9 lesions pre-observation and the removal times remained significantly shorter (32.7 ± 15.0 min vs 61.0 ± 7.4 min, P = 0.0011). Regression analysis showed that ESD observation significantly reduced removal time when controlling for the sequence of lesion removal (P = 0.025). Furthermore, it was also noted a trend towards decrease in
Full Text Available Objective: Despite the prevalence of disability in low-and middle-income countries, the clinical skills of the rehabilitation workforce are not well described. We report health professionals’ perspectives on clinical skills in austere settings and identify context-specific gaps in workforce capacity. Methods: A cross-sectional pilot survey (Pakistan, Morocco, Nigeria, Malaysia of health professionals’ working in rehabilitation in hospital and community settings. A situational-analysis survey captured assessment of clinical skills required in various rehabilitation settings. Responses were coded in a line-by-line process, and linked to categories in domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Results: Respondents (n = 532 from Pakistan 248, Nigeria 159, Morocco 93 and Malaysia 32 included the following: physiotherapists (52.8%, nurses (8.8%, speech (5.3% and occupational therapists (8.5%, rehabilitation physicians (3.8%, other doctors (5.5% and prosthetist/orthotists (1.5%. The 10 commonly used clinical skills reported were prescription of: physical activity, medications, transfer-techniques, daily-living activities, patient/carer education, diagnosis/screening, behaviour/cognitive interventions, comprehensive patient-care, referrals, assessments and collaboration. There was significant overlap in skills listed irrespective of profession. Most responses linked with ICF categories in activities/participation and personal factors. Conclusion: The core skills identified reflect general rehabilitation practice and a task-shifting approach, to address shortages of health workers in low-and middle-income countries.
Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Baltaci, Gül
This study aimed at assessing how the addition of Nintendo Wii ™ (NW) system to the traditional therapy influences occupational performance, balance, and daily living activities in children with spastic hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy (CP). The present study is a single-blind and randomized trial involving 24 children aged 6-14 years, classified as level I or II on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The children were allocated into two groups: an intervention and a control group, and their families participated in the study. The activity performance analysis of the children was undertaken by using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), functional balance was measured with the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and activities of daily living were assessed with Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Twenty-four children with CP were randomly divided into two groups: intervention (n = 12) and control group (n = 12). All children in both groups continued their traditional physiotherapy program twice a week, 45 minutes per session, whereas the participants in the intervention group, additionally, were trained with NW, two other days of the week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting for 30 minutes. Self-care, mobility, PEDI total, PBS, and performance of COPM scores increased in the NW group after intervention. Self-care, mobility, and total PEDI increased in the control group as well. However, there was no statistically significant difference found between the groups, except for PBS (P < 0.05). NW contributed to the implementation of occupational performance, daily living activities, and functional balance. We recommend that NW could be used in the rehabilitation program to engage play-based activities with fun.
Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzsen, Tugba
[Purpose] This study evaluated the functional ability and kinesthetic sense of the hands of women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-seven women experiencing lymphedema after breast surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were included. The patients were divided into two groups: women with hand edema (HE+, n = 29) and without hand edema (HE-, n = 28) after breast cancer treatment. Arm edema severity, hand size, functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hand, and daily living skills were evaluated. [Results] The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years. In both groups, functional mobility, kinesthetic sense, and daily living skills decreased significantly with increasing edema severity. However, there was no significant difference between groups with respect to functional mobility or daily living skills. The kinesthetic sense of the hand was better in the HE- group than the HE+ group. There was a significant negative relationship between the severity of edema and hand function. [Conclusion] Breast cancer-related lymphedema can negatively impact women's functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hands as well as daily living skills.
Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, B. D.; Wagner, L.
to the women’s experiences was the impact on daily life and changes to their quality of life in living close to a partner with Parkinson’s disease. As the disease gradually developed to affect motor, cognitive and emotional functioning, the need for care decisions related to help with daily activities...... and functions arose, and the women became informal caregivers. Relevance to clinical practice. The results could add to health providers’ understanding of the significance of informal care and raise the consciousness of women caregivers about how their own quality of life diminishes by setting aside their own...
In this study the question asked is: what clinical nursing skills are predominantly used in intellectual disability nursing? A survey of the nursing needs of people with moderate to severe intellectual disability in both residential and community units was undertaken with a questionnaire.The measure was a Likert design scale ranging across: skills used more than once a day, skills used daily, skills used weekly, skills used monthly, skills very rarely used, and skills never used.The results o...
Full Text Available Guillaume Sacco,1–3 Véronique Joumier,1,4 Nelly Darmon,1 Arnaud Dechamps,1,5 Alexandre Derreumaux,1,3 Ji-Hyun Lee,2 Julie Piano,2 Nathalie Bordone,2 Alexandra Konig,1,6 Bernard Teboul,3 Renaud David,1,2 Olivier Guerin,1,3 François Bremond,1,4 Philippe Robert1,21EA CoBTeK, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 2Centre Mémoire de Ressource et de Recherche, CHU de Nice, 3Plateforme Patient du Centre d'Innovation et d'Usage en Santé, CHU de Nice, 4Equipe Stars, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France; 5University of Pancasila, Department of Psychology, Jakarta, Indonesia; 6University of Maastricht, Faculty of Psychology and Neuropsychology, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht, The NetherlandsBackground: One of the key clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD is impairment in daily functioning. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI also commonly have mild problems performing complex tasks. Information and communication technology (ICT, particularly techniques involving imaging and video processing, is of interest in order to improve assessment. The overall aim of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible using a video monitoring system to obtain a quantifiable assessment of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs in AD and in MCI.Methods: The aim of the study is to propose a daily activity scenario (DAS score that detects functional impairment using ICTs in AD and MCI compared with normal control group (NC. Sixty-four participants over 65 years old were included: 16 AD matched with 10 NC for protocol 1 (P1 and 19 MCI matched with 19 NC for protocol 2 (P2. Each participant was asked to undertake a set of daily tasks in the setting of a “smart home” equipped with two video cameras and everyday objects for use in activities of daily living (8 IADLs for P1 and 11 for P2, plus 4 temporal execution constraints. The DAS score was then computed
Full Text Available Life skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior which enable the individuals to deal effectively with the challenges and stress of everyday life. Cognitive skills are used for analyzing information, personal skills help in self-management and inter-personal skills are needed for good communication and effective social interaction. These skills can be developed through scientific professional training. Life skills empower the adolescents to choose the best values and behaviors which are essential for positive health. Students who acquire life skills become better adjusted to the school environment and their academic performance will definitely improve. Their self esteem increases and they become capable of coping with the demands and challenges of daily life. Through repeated practicing, individuals can develop mastery over these skills. They learn to apply life skills in all problematic situations in real life and gain control over stressful situations easily.
Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard
Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the evidence was low to very low
Full Text Available Background: This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853 and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254 and IADL (n = 1162 were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results: During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94, decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21, and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55 compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions: Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults.
This chapter examines the ideas of reciprocity, respect, autonomy, and interdependence of lives and the impact of these on children's learning. Using an ecological perspective that recognizes humans' relationship with other living beings that inhabit the forest, this chapter is based on ethnographic research conducted in two Mbya-Guarani communities (Argentina). Respect and reciprocity are key for children to develop as part of the community and the forest and they are related to children's well-being and health. I describe Mbya perspectives on children's growth and development, emphasizing the balance between interdependence and autonomy as complementary goals and values, providing examples of environmentally relevant skills to grow up in the forest. These skills are associated with particular ways of inhabiting the forest, including learning how to walk in it and developing entendimiento (understanding). These make possible children's integration in community life through their participation and collaboration in daily activities. I attempt to articulate these ideas with the theoretical framework of Learning by Observing and Pitching In, especially concerning ways of organizing and supporting children's learning processes in the context of their engagement with multiaged and more experienced group of people. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rdo rje don 'grub རྡོ་རྗེ་དོན་འགྲུབ། Duojieduanzhi 多杰端智
Full Text Available The daily lives of Lha mtsho skyid, Klu mo, and Tshe thar skyid, Tibetan women living in impoverished A bo rgyud (Awubuju Tibetan Village, Gser gzhung (Jinyuan Township, Dpal lung (Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Mtsho shar (Haidong City, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province in May 2011 are described. Aspects of fuel collection, family relationships, food preparation, child care, schooling, water collection, and day-to-day anxieties are described, illustrating the reality of their daily existence.
Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.
Full Text Available Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI, were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined.Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p <0.01. Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663 than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965 to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%.The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.
Full Text Available Background: Wrist activity trackers (WATs are becoming popular and widely used for the monitoring of physical activity. However, the validity of many WATs in measuring steps remains unknown. Objective: To determine the validity of the following WATs: Garmin Vívofit (Vívofit and Polar Loop (Loop, by comparing them with well-validated devices, Yamax Digiwalker SW-701 pedometer (Yamax and hip-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer (ActiGraph, in healthy adults. Methods: In free-living conditions, adult volunteers (N = 20 aged 25 to 52 years wore two WATs (Vívofit and Loop with Yamax and ActiGraph simultaneously over a 7 day period. The validity of Vívofit and Loop was assessed by comparing each device with the Yamax and ActiGraph, using a paired samples t-test, mean absolute percentage errors, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The differences between average steps per day were significant for all devices, except the difference between Vívofit and Yamax (p = .06; d = 0.2. Compared with Yamax and ActiGraph, the mean absolute percentage errors of Vívofit were -4.0% and 12.5%, respectively. For Loop the mean absolute percentage error was 8.9% compared with Yamax and 28.0% compared with ActiGraph. Vívofit showed a very strong correlation with both Yamax and ActiGraph (ICC = .89. Loop showed a very strong correlation with Yamax (ICC = .89 and a strong correlation with ActiGraph (ICC = .70. Conclusions: Vívofit showed higher validity than Loop in measuring daily step counts in free-living conditions. Loop appears to overestimate the daily number of steps in individuals who take more steps during a day.
Lennarz, Hannah K; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Finkenauer, Catrin; Granic, Isabela
Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal contexts in which jealousy arises, and different forms of social comparison. The impact of jealousy on perceptions of well-being was also explored. We used an experience sampling method during two weekends with 68 adolescents (M age = 13.94; 64.70% girls). Jealousy was common: On average, 90% of our sample experienced jealousy in 20% of the assessments. Adolescents reported more jealousy with peers than with family. Additionally, they experienced more jealousy when in online contexts than when in face-to-face peer contexts. The normative nature of jealousy, its developmental function and relation with well-being, and implications for understanding jealousy triggered in (highly social) online contexts are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nyan, M N; Tay, Francis E H; Manimaran, M; Seah, K H W
This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance
Pardhan, Shahina; Latham, Keziah; Tabrett, Daryl; Timmis, Matthew A
People with central visual field loss (CFL) adopt various strategies to complete activities of daily living (ADL). Using objective movement analysis, we compared how three ADLs were completed by people with CFL compared with age-matched, visually healthy individuals. Fourteen participants with CFL (age 81 ± 10 years) and 10 age-matched, visually healthy (age 75 ± 5 years) participated. Three ADLs were assessed: pick up food from a plate, pour liquid from a bottle, and insert a key in a lock. Participants with CFL completed each ADL habitually (as they would in their home). Data were compared with visually healthy participants who were asked to complete the tasks as they would normally, but under specified experimental conditions. Movement kinematics were compared using three-dimension motion analysis (Vicon). Visual functions (distance and near acuities, contrast sensitivity, visual fields) were recorded. All CFL participants were able to complete each ADL. However, participants with CFL demonstrated significantly (P approach. Various kinematic indices correlated significantly to visual function parameters including visual acuity and midperipheral visual field loss.
Omura, Fumiaki; Ogura, Chikara; Kishimoto, Akira; Okubo, Masayo; Imamoto, Atsushi [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsuchie, Harutaka; Sugihara, Kanichiro; Fujii, Shozo
Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients.
Omura, Fumiaki; Ogura, Chikara; Kishimoto, Akira; Okubo, Masayo; Imamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchie, Harutaka; Sugihara, Kanichiro; Fujii, Shozo.
Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients. (author)
Full Text Available Although social anxiety disorder (SAD is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16 and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14. Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches
Chung, Grace H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the ninth grade in order to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a fourteen day period to report events of conflict and their emotional states for a given day. Overall, our within-person models provided evidence for the bidirectional nature of family-peer linkages across gender and ethnicity. Adolescents experienced more peer conflict on days in which they argued with parents or other family members, and vice versa. Effect of family conflict further spilled over into peer relationships the next day and two days later, whereas peer conflict predicted only the following day family conflict. Adolescents’ emotional distress partially explained these short term spillovers between family and peer conflict. PMID:21793820
Tönis, Thijs; op den Akker, Harm; Boerema, Simone Theresa; van Polen, Freek; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Blom, K.C.H.; Meratnia, Nirvana
Senior citizens tend to live longer and longer independently. Judging whether a senior person is still capable of living on his own is often based on the occurrence of incidents, with all consequences thereof. In the specific case of early dementia, the symptoms are not immediately apparent and the
Yoneyama, Kimihiro (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))
In 96 patients with supratentorial cerebral infarction, the recovery of activity of daily living (ADL) was studied in relation to computerized tomography (CT) findings in the acute stage. The average age was 64 and 78 out of 96 were first attack cases. The cases were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the CT findings. The N group had no low density area on CT. The S group had a small deep infarct around the basal ganglia and the L group showed a large infarct with a damaged cerebral cortex. Dilatation of the ventricles was measured by the methods of Meese and Huckman. Cortical atrophy estimated by summation of width of Sylvian fissures or parietal cortical sulci, expressed in percentages. Measurements for CT were performed in the subacute stage to exclude the effects of cerebral edema. ADL was categorized in five stages using Rankin's criteria in the first week and after the eighth week. Among the 3 groups, the L group had the worst ADL when examined eight weeks later. On the contrary, the N group showed the greatest improvement. Patients under 60 years old showed better recovery at the eight week, while in most patients aged 70 or more the improvement was less evident. Dilatation of ventricles and severity of cortical atrophy increased in proportion to age, especially in cases of cerebral infarcts. In patients with ventricular dilatation or severe cerebral atrophy. ADL improvement was lower. Recovery was low in cases with narrow cortical sulci. Recovery of ADL in reattack patients was lowest and larger dilatation of the ventricles than first attack cases was recognized. The size of cerebral infarction, ADL in the first week, the dilatation of lateral ventricles, the severity of cortical atrophy and age were found to be important factors in functional recovery.
Gratton, Sean M; Herro, Angela M; Feuer, William J; Lam, Byron L
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, commonly affecting the ocular muscles. Cigarette smoking has been shown to influence many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, but its effect on myasthenia gravis has not been well studied. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking influenced disease-related symptoms in ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG). We performed a prospective, clinic-based cross-sectional study in a single academic neuro-ophthalmology practice. All patients diagnosed with OMG between November 2006 and April 2014 were included. A prospective telephone survey was administered to determine smoking status and myasthenia gravis-related symptom severity. The main outcome measure was the myasthenia gravis-specific activities of daily living (MG-ADL) score, a well-validated marker of symptoms and quality of life in myasthenia gravis. Forty-four patients were included in the analysis. Comparison of MG-ADL ocular subscores between current smokers (3.4 ± 2.6), former smokers (1.8 ± 2.1), and never smokers (1.1 ± 1.5) revealed a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.031) where current smokers had the highest MG-ADL ocular subscores and never smokers the lowest. Comparison of MG-ADL total scores revealed the same relationship (current 5.6 ± 4.5, former 2.9 ± 3.1, never 1.4 ± 2.5, P = 0.003). There were borderline significant correlations of pack years with MG-ADL ocular subscore (r = 0.27, P = 0.074) and MG-ADL total score (r = 0.30, P = 0.051). Our findings indicate an association between cigarette smoking and symptom severity in OMG. This association suggests that smoking cessation in OMG patients may lead to improved symptom-related quality of life.
Ivan Miguel Pires
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs.
Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M.; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco
This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs). PMID:26848664
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of memory stimulation intervention added to donepezil treatment as compared to donepezil alone in patients with early Alzheimer's disease (eAD. Materials and Methods: Patients in the combined treatment group (CTG = 21 received standard dosages of donepezil and weekly memory stimulation activities sessions for 2 months, whereas the treatment as usual group (TAU = 22 received only standard dosages of donepezil. Each session had extensive tasks on memory and its implied practice on instrumental activities of daily living. After 8 sessions, both groups were evaluated for changes in memory and functional outcomes by administering the mini-mental state examination (MMSE, memory (Postgraduate Institute of Memory Scale, and instrumental activities of daily living scale (IADLS. This trial was registered on the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI/2014/04/004550. Results: Statistical analysis was done using independent t-test, which revealed a significant difference between the groups on MMSE, memory, and IADLS post intervention. The MMSE score in the TAU group, while it increased in the CTG group by 4 points. A similar trend was evident in the memory and IADLS scores as well. Effect size in the CTG group was relatively large as compared to the TAU group where the effects were small and negative on some outcomes. Conclusion: The CTG group showed positive treatment effect on cognitive tests suggesting that combined memory stimulation and donepezil treatment has potential to improve the cognitive and functional performance of patients with eAD.
Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o processo de viver no cotidiano, evidenciando as relações familiares. Para o alcance do mesmo, optamos por fazer uma análise de documentos, ou seja, de três dissertações de mestrado e uma tese de doutorado, sendo que os dados foram coletados a partir de quatro questões norteadoras vinculadas ao objetivo geral do estudo: quais os componentes do processo de viver as relações familiares no cotidiano? Quais as dificuldades que as famílias encontram na convivência cotidiana com o doente mental? Quais as formas de manejos apresentadas pelas famílias em diferentes situações no convívio cotidiano com o alcoolista? Qual a percepção do ser e viver saudável da mulher no seu cotidiano? Na análise dos dados, buscamos convergências e divergências que nos permitissem uma melhor compreensão dos aspectos em estudo. Para alcançar esta compreensão, utilizamos as categorias de análise do cotidiano - propostas por Maffesoli (1984 - jogo duplo, astúcia, silêncio, aceitação da vida e solidariedade orgânicaThis study aims at analyzing the daily living process emphasizing family relationships. In order to do so, we opted for doing an analysis of documents, i.e., three Master course dissertations and a doctorate thesis. We collected the data having in mind four guiding questions linked to the general objective of the study: what were the components of the process of living the family relationships in the daily routine? What difficulties do families have to cope with mentally handicapped individuals? How do families handle different situations in daily living with alcohol addicted individuals? What was the women’s perception regarding being and living healthy in their daily routine? When analyzing the data, we looked for convergences and divergences which provided better understanding of the aspects under study. To reach this understanding, we used the categories of daily routine analysis - proposed by
Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.
Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…
佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子
Fundamental movement skill competency in children has been declining in recent years. Early childhood is a sensitive period for the development of fundamental movement skills ; the mastery of certain of these skills is a prerequisite for daily functioning and participation in later physical or sport-specific activities. Although quantitative methods have been developed for assessing movement development in children, it is also important to qualitatively evaluate such skills in developing chil...
Momosaki, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Ota, Erika; Abo, Masahiro
Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain. To assess the effect of rPMS for improving activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (November 2016), Embase Ovid (August 2016), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in Ebsco (August 2016), PsycINFO Ovid (August 2016), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) Ovid (August 2016), Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence (OTseeker) (August 2016), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (October 2016), and ICHUSHI Web (October 2016). We also searched five ongoing trial registries, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the therapeutic effect of rPMS for people after stroke. Comparisons eligible for inclusion were (1) active rPMS only compared with 'sham' rPMS (a very weak form of stimulation or a sound only); (2) active rPMS only compared with no intervention; (3) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with sham rPMS plus rehabilitation; and (4) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation only. Two review authors independently assessed
Robert D. Abbott
Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension and cigarette smoking are dominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan while in westernized countries, broader effects encompass obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. This paper examines whether different associations also appear important in the manifestation of activities of daily living (ADL in older Japanese men in Hawaii and Japan. Methods. Measures of ADL (feeding, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking around the house were assessed from 1995 to 1999 in 1,893 men in Hawaii and 543 men in Japan. Concomitant risk factors were measured from 1990 to 1993. Results. In Hawaii, diabetes increased the odds of ≥1 ADL impairment nearly 1.5-fold (P=.020. A similar association was absent in Japan. In contrast, the odds of an ADL impairment in Japan was increased more than 5-fold in the presence of stroke (P<.001. The association in Hawaii was significantly weaker (P=.007. In both cohorts, past alcohol use was associated with a greater likelihood of ADL impairment. Conclusion. In this comparison of genetically similar samples, findings suggest that different strengths in risk factor associations with cardiovascular disease in Japan and westernized countries may also include different strengths in associations with impaired ADL.
Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David
People with dementia (PwD) require an increasing degree of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency may negatively impact on their well-being. However, it remains unclear which activities are impaired at each stage of dementia and to what extent this is associated with variations in quality of life (QoL) across the different stages, which were the two objectives of this study. The sample comprised 122 PwD, and their carers, either living at home or recently admitted to long-term care. Measures of cognition and QoL were completed by the PwD and proxy measures of psychopathology, depression, ADLs and QoL were recorded. Using frequency, correlation and multiple regression analysis, data were analysed for the number of ADL impairments across mild, moderate and severe dementia and for the factors impacting on QoL. ADL performance deteriorates differently for individual activities, with some ADLs showing impairment in mild dementia, including dressing, whereas others only deteriorate later on, including feeding. This decline may be seen in the degree to which carers perceive ADLs to explain the QoL of the PwD, with more ADLs associated with QoL in severe dementia. RESULTS of the regression analysis showed that total ADL performance however was only impacting on QoL in moderate dementia. Knowledge about performance deterioration in different ADLs has implications for designing interventions to address specific activities at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, findings suggest that different factors are important to consider when trying to improve or maintain QoL at different stages.
William E Wood
Full Text Available Complex motor skills are more difficult to perform at certain points in the day (for example, shortly after waking, but the daily trajectory of motor-skill error is more difficult to predict. By undertaking a quantitative analysis of the fundamental frequency (FF and amplitude of hundreds of zebra finch syllables per animal per day, we find that zebra finch song follows a previously undescribed daily oscillation. The FF and amplitude of harmonic syllables rises across the morning, reaching a peak near mid-day, and then falls again in the late afternoon until sleep. This oscillation, although somewhat variable, is consistent across days and across animals and does not require serotonin, as animals with serotonergic lesions maintained daily oscillations. We hypothesize that this oscillation is driven by underlying physiological factors which could be shared with other taxa. Song production in zebra finches is a model system for studying complex learned behavior because of the ease of gathering comprehensive behavioral data and the tractability of the underlying neural circuitry. The daily oscillation that we describe promises to reveal new insights into how time of day affects the ability to accomplish a variety of complex learned motor skills.
Ferland, Mark B; Larente, Johanne; Rowland, Julia; Davidson, Patrick S R
To use errorless learning to train a memory- and initiation-impaired woman on two activities of daily living routines and then to transfer these routines to a new home. Single case quasi-experimental. Over 9 months, a young woman with an anterior cerebral haemorrhagic stroke (secondary to a ruptured arteriovenous malformation) was trained on routines of morning self-care and diabetes management, involving extensive practice on a structured series of steps with intervention as needed to prevent errors. Once routines were established, family members were trained in the supervision and rating of the routines at home. Following discharge, caregivers continued to monitor the routines daily for 3 months. Errorless learning of self-care and diabetes routines was successful. The routines were transferred to a new home environment and maintained at a near perfect level over a 3-month follow-up period. The patient remained severely memory-impaired, indicating that her functional gains were not attributable to any recovery of her memory abilities over time. This case offers evidence that even people with severe memory and initiation impairments can be trained on new routines using errorless learning and that, once learned, these routines can be carried out in novel contexts.
... furnished: (1) As part of a program to achieve rehabilitation to the point of employability; (2) As part of...) Evaluation of independent living potential; (ii) Training in independent living skills; (iii) Attendant care...
McArthur, Michelle; Fitzgerald, Jennifer
Effective veterinarian communication skills training and the related key outcomes provided the impetus for this study. We implemented a pre-experimental pre-test/post-test single-group design with a sample of 13 veterinarians and their 71 clients to evaluate the effects of a 6.5-hour communication skills intervention for veterinarians. Consultations were audiotaped and analyzed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Clients completed the Consultation and Relational Care Measure, a global satisfaction scale, a Parent Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale, and the Adherence Intent measure. Veterinarians completed a communication confidence measure and a workshop satisfaction scale. Contrary to expectation, neither veterinarian communication skills nor their confidence improved post-training. Despite client satisfaction and perceptions of veterinarians' relational communication skills not increasing, clients nevertheless reported an increased intent to adhere to veterinarian recommendations. This result is important because client adherence is critical to managing and enhancing the health and well-being of animals. The results of the study suggest that while the workshop was highly regarded, either the duration of the training or practice opportunities were insufficient or a booster session was required to increase veterinarian confidence and integration of new skills. Future research should utilize a randomized control study design to investigate the appropriate intervention with which to achieve change in veterinarian communication skills. Such change could translate to more effective interactions in veterinarians' daily lives.
Vagos, Paula; Pereira, Anabela; Warner, Carrie Masia
Social fears are common among adolescents and may considerably impair their lives. Even so, most adolescents do not seek professional help for these difficulties, making it important to promote evidence-based and preventive interventions in community samples. This research presents the effectiveness of an intervention with a group of five female adolescents who reported serious interference of their social fears in their daily life. At post-intervention, effectiveness was noticeable by high recovery, reliable individual change, and intragroup statistical change. The intervention showed impact for measures of social anxiety, avoidance, and assertiveness, and such impact was steady at 3-month follow-up. These findings add to the cumulative and transcultural evidence on the effectiveness of Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS).
Larson, Reed; Johnson, Craig
This study investigated the anorectic's experience in daily living using the Experience Sampling Method. Results suggest that anorectics spend more time alone and experience lower average affect than other young single women. (Author/GK)
Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer
Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…
The effects of video observation of chewing during lunch on masticatory ability, food intake, cognition, activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in older adults with dementia: a study protocol of an adjusted randomized controlled trial.
Douma, Johanna G; Volkers, Karin M; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Scherder, Erik J A
Masticatory functioning alters with age. However, mastication has been found to be related to, for example, cognitive functioning, food intake, and some aspects of activities of daily living. Since cognitive functioning and activities of daily living show a decline in older adults with dementia, improving masticatory functioning may be of relevance to them. A possible way to improve mastication may be showing videos of people who are chewing. Observing chewing movements may activate the mirror neuron system, which becomes also activated during the execution of that same movement. The primary hypothesis is that the observation of chewing has a beneficial effect on masticatory functioning, or, more specifically, masticatory ability of older adults with dementia. Secondary, the intervention is hypothesized to have beneficial effects on food intake, cognition, activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life. An adjusted parallel randomized controlled trial is being performed in dining rooms of residential care settings. Older adults with dementia, for whom also additional eligibility criteria apply, are randomly assigned to the experimental (videos of chewing people) or control condition (videos of nature and buildings), by drawing folded pieces of paper. Participants who are able to watch each other's videos are assigned to the same study condition. The intervention takes place during lunchtime, from Monday to Friday, for 3 months. During four moments of measurement, masticatory ability, food intake, cognitive functioning, activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life are assessed. Tests administrators blind to the group allocation administer the tests to participants. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of video observation of chewing on masticatory ability and several secondary outcome measures. In this study, the observation of chewing is added to the execution of the same action (i.e., during eating). Beneficial effects on
Full Text Available Reading is a part of our daily lives. It is performed both for pleasure and information. Reading skills are important for the individuals since they foster comprehension in reading. If the students do not have knowledge of reading skills, they cannot be expected to be successful readers. Thus, they cannot achieve the level of comprehension required to pass exams in their own departments. For this reason, reading skills should be taught in universities for the students to be able to cope with comprehension problems. This case study aims to find out whether or not reading skills has a role on the reading comprehension ability of Turkish EFL students. This study is both a qualitative and a quantitative study which lasted for a duration of 14 weeks. Two groups were selected (experimental and control among prep classes at Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University. Both groups were administered a pre-test and questionnaire at the beginning of the study to find out if they were aware of reading skills. In addition, 10 students were chosen randomly for interview. During the study, reading skills were infused into the curriculum through designing lesson plans in accordance with the language content and topics for level C students, as determined by the Common European Language Framework. The lessons required the students to use reading skills before, during, and post reading. At the end of the study, the same questionnaire was re-administered. The students were given the post-test and then interviewed. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The obtained data revealed that the students enhanced their comprehension ability provided that they were taught to use reading skills.
Do Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Predict Dementia at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up? Findings from the Development of Screening Guidelines and Diagnostic Criteria for Predementia Alzheimer's Disease Study
Sikkes, S.A.M.; Visser, P.J.; Knol, D.L.; de Klerk, E.S.M.; Tsolaki, M.; Frisoni, G. B.; Nobili, F.; Spiru, L.; Rigaud, A.S.; Froelich, L.; Rikkert, M.O.; Soininen, H.; Touchon, J.; Wilcock, G.; Boada, M.; Hampel, H.; Bullock, R.; Vellas, B.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.
Objectives To investigate whether problems in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) can add to conventionally used clinical measurements in helping to predict a diagnosis of dementia at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Design Multicenter prospective cohort study. Setting Memory clinics in Europe.
Guentzel, J. L.; Rosch, E.; Stoughton, M. A.; Bowyer, R.; Mortensen, K.; Smith, M.
Living learning communities are collaborations between university housing and academic departments designed to enhance the overall student experience by integrating classroom/laboratory learning, student life and extracurricular activities. At Coastal Carolina University, the residential community associated with the Marine Science program is known as the Sea Floor. Students selected to become members of the Sea Floor remain "in residence" for two consecutive semesters. These students are first-time freshman that share a common course connection. This course is usually Introduction to Marine Science (MSCI 111) or MSCI 399s, which are one credit field/laboratory centered internships. The common course connection is designed so residents can establish and maintain an educational dialog with their peers. Activities designed to enhance the students' networking skills and educational and social development skills include monthly lunches with marine science faculty and dinner seminars with guest speakers from academia, industry and government. Additionally, each semester several activities outside the classroom are planned so that students can more frequently interact with themselves and their faculty and staff partners. These activities include field trips to regional aquariums, local boat trips that include water sample collection and analysis, and an alternative spring break trip to the Florida Keys to study the marine environment firsthand. The resident advisor that supervises the Sea Floor is usually a sophomore or junior marine science major. This provides the residents with daily communication and mentoring from a marine science major that is familiar with the marine science program and residence life. Assessment activities include: a university housing community living survey, student interest housing focus groups, fall to spring and fall to fall retention, and evaluation of program advisors and program activities.
Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi
To investigate whether social participation (SP) in older adults is associated with ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Prospective cohort study. Two local municipalities of Nara, Japan. Individuals aged 65 to 96 (n = 2,774 male, n = 3,586 female) free of IADL disability at baseline. SP and IADLs were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. SP was categorized into five types and assessed using the number and type of social activities. IADLs were evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression analysis stratified according to sex was used to examine change in IADLs according to SP, with nonparticipation as a reference. During the 3-year follow-up, 13.6% of men and 9.0% of women reported IADL decline. After adjusting for age, family structure, body mass index, pension, occupation, medical treatment, self-rated health, drinking, smoking, depression, cognitive function, and activities of daily living, participation in various social activities was inversely associated with change in IADLs in women but not men. Participation in the following types of social activities had significant inverse associations with IADL disability: hobby clubs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49-0.94) for men and local events (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48-0.95), hobby clubs (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36-0.79), senior citizen clubs (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.97), and volunteer groups (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.99) for women. Participation in a variety of different types of social activities was associated with change in IADLs over the 3 years of this study in women, and participation in hobby clubs was associated with change in IADLs in men and women. Recommending that community-dwelling elderly adults participate in social activities appropriate for their sex may promote successful aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics
Full Text Available The Chinese version of the Activities of Daily Living Rating Scale III (ADLRS-III, which has 10 domains, is commonly used for assessing activities of daily living (ADL in patients with schizophrenia. However, construct validity (i.e., unidimensionality for each domain of the ADLRS-III is unknown, limiting the explanations of the test results.This main purpose of this study was to examine unidimensionality of each domain in the ADLRS-III. We also examined internal consistency and ceiling/floor effects in patients with schizophrenia.From occupational therapy records, we obtained 304 self-report data of the ADLRS-III. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted to examine the 10 one-factor structures. If a domain showed an insufficient model fit, exploratory factor analysis (EFA was performed to investigate the factor structure and choose one factor representing the original construct. Internal consistency was examined using Cronbach's alpha (α. Ceiling and floor effects were determined by the percentage of patients with the maximum and minimum scores in each domain, respectively.CFA analyses showed that 4 domains (i.e., leisure, picture recognition, literacy ability, communication tools use had sufficient model fits. These 4 domains had acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.79-0.87 and no ceiling/floor effects, except the leisure domain which had a ceiling effect. The other 6 domains showed insufficient model fits. The EFA results showed that these 6 domains were two-factor structures.The results supported unidimensional constructs of the leisure, picture recognition, literacy ability, and communication tool uses domains. The sum scores of these 4 domains can be used to represent their respective domain-specific functions. Regarding the 6 domains with insufficient model fits, we have explained the two factors of each domain and chosen one factor to represent its original construct. Future users may use the items from the chosen factors to
Jung, Merel Madeleine; Ludden, Geke D.S.
Mobility impairments can prevent older adults from performing their daily activities which highly impacts a person's quality of life. Exoskeleton technology can assist older adults by providing additional support to compensate for age-related decline in muscle strength. To date little is known about
Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp
Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This
Henry-Sánchez, John T; Kurichi, Jibby E; Xie, Dawei; Pan, Qiang; Stineman, Margaret G
The aim of this study was to explore how activity of daily living (ADL) stages and the perception of unmet needs for home accessibility features associate with a history of falling. Participants were from a nationally representative sample from the Second Longitudinal Survey of Aging conducted in 1994. The sample included 9250 community-dwelling persons 70 yrs or older. The associations of ADL stage and perception of unmet needs for home accessibility features with a history of falling within the past year (none, once, or multiple times) were explored after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities using a multinomial logistic regression model. The adjusted relative risk of falling more than once peaked at 4.30 (95% confidence interval, 3.29-5.61) for persons with severe limitation (ADL-III) compared those with no limitation (ADL-0) then declined for those at complete limitation (ADL-IV). The adjusted relative risks of falling once and multiple times were 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.87) and 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-2.36), respectively, for those lacking home accessibility features. Risk of falling appeared greatest for those whose homes lacked accessibility features and peaked at intermediate ADL limitation stages, presumably at a point when people have significant disabilities but sufficient function to remain partially active.
Mobility milestones are elementary movements related to activities of daily living (ADL) and have a significant influence on functional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting mobility milestones and to clarify the relationships between mobility milestones and ADL. Participants were in the acute phase after first-ever strokes (ischemic, n=77; hemorrhagic, n=84). Clinical and radiological factors within the first week were determined and their effects on mobility milestones after 4 weeks were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. After 4 weeks the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of sitting balance, standing balance, and walking ability. Then total ADL score was calculated using the Barthel index (BI), and percentage of independent patients in each 10 items of BI was transition rate of ADL for each of the four groups. Patients with ischemic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion on computed tomography (CT) (R 2 =0.86); standing balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and consciousness level (R 2 =0.72); and walking ability was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis (R 2 =0.64). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis, intraventricular hemorrhage on CT, blood pressure instability, and fever (R 2 =0.75); standing balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.58); and walking ability was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.70). In both types of stroke, sitting and standing balance and walking ability were directly associated with total ADL score, and sitting and standing balance became independent earlier than ADL. Severity of
V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent)
markdownabstractAcross the world, people continue to live longer, resulting in increasing numbers of older people. Age-related functional deficiencies, such as problems in gait and daily functioning, will therefore become a major issue for society. People with problems in gait and daily functioning
Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Penedo, Frank J; Klimas, Nancy
The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as "illness burden"). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate if perceived stress management skills affect illness burden via emotional distress, independent of ME/CFS symptom severity. A total of 117 adults with ME/CFS completed measures of perceived stress management skills, emotional distress, ME/CFS symptom severity and illness burden. Regression analyses revealed that greater perceived stress management skills related to less social and fatigue-related illness burden, via lower emotional distress. This relationship existed independent of the association of symptom severity on illness burden, and was stronger among those not currently employed. Ability to manage stress is associated with a lower illness burden for individuals with ME/CFS. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in lowering illness burden by targeting stress management skills.
Malouff, John; Schutte, Nicola S.
By using a game-centered approach, mental health professionals can help teach social and emotional skills to their clients. The 66 games described in this book are presented using a standard format that includes suggestions for how to help players use their skills in daily life. The games were field tested using an evaluation strategy that focused…
Augustyniak, Piotr; Ślusarczyk, Grażyna
Various surveillance systems capture signs of human activities of daily living (ADLs) and store multimodal information as time line behavioral records. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the analysis of a behavioral record used in a surveillance system designed for use in elderly smart homes. The description of a subject's activity is first decomposed into elementary poses - easily detectable by dedicated intelligent sensors - and represented by the share coefficients. Then, the activity is represented in the form of an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to elementary poses. As share coefficients of poses are expressed as attributes assigned to graph nodes, their change corresponding to a subject's action is represented by flow in graph edges. The behavioral record is thus a time series of graphs, which tiny size facilitates storage and management of long-term monitoring results. At the system learning stage, the contribution of elementary poses is accumulated, discretized and probability-ordered leading to a finite list representing the possible transitions between states. Such a list is independently built for each room in the supervised residence, and employed for assessment of the current action in the context of subject's habits and a room purpose. The proposed format of a behavioral record, applied to an adaptive surveillance system, is particularly advantageous for representing new activities not known at the setup stage, for providing a quantitative measure of transitions between poses and for expressing the difference between a predicted and actual action in a numerical way. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In article the conceptual model of organization and introduction of distant improvement of professional skill of coaches is developed and analyzed. Advantages of its introduction to coaches training, teachers and higher educational institutions which carry out a professional training for physical training and sports sphere are defined. It is developed the budgetary program project of distant improvement of professional skill of coaches on an example of National university of physical education and sports of Ukraine that consists of three stages: daily organizationally-adjusting session, independent telecommuting and daily final session with attestation.
Theall, Katherine P; Felker-Kantor, Erica; Wallace, Maeve; Zhang, Xiao; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J
Our understanding of how community-level context impacts care of persons living with HIV (PLWH), including antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in care, is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the activity spaces of PLWH from an urban area in Southeastern U.S., where the epidemic is among the nation's highest, and to examine how such activity spaces are associated with daily mood and health behaviors. In this small, pilot study, 11 participants were tracked with a global positioning system (GPS)-enabled application on their smartphones for 2 weeks. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to activity spaces. Participants also completed daily diary entry through texts 3 times per day regarding outcomes of substance use behaviors, mood, and medication adherence. This yielded a total of 18,007 GPS polyline records that we aggregated into 258 person-days that captured discrete occasions of exposure to contextual factors and subjects' behaviors and moods. On average, the participants spent 19% of their time awake during the 2-week periods in their residential census tract. Exposure to social and built environment factors such as alcohol outlets was greater when participants were outside versus inside their residential census tract. Exposures on daily routes were also significantly associated with ART adherence, alcohol consumption, and mood. Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts. Activity spaces are relevant for PLWH and may impact HIV care and behavioral outcomes such as ART adherence and substance use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yildiz, F. Ülkü; Çagdas, Aysel; Kayili, Gökhan
The purpose of this study is to perform the validity-reliability analysis of the three subtests of Basic School Skills Inventory 3--Mathematics, Classroom Behavior and Daily Life skills--and do its adaptation for four to six year-old Turkish children. The sample of the study included 595 four to six year-old Turkish children attending public and…
Lourdes Casillas Santamaría
Full Text Available Objective: The evaluation the Reiki therapy effectiveness to relieve pain, fatigue and its impact on activities´s of women daily living suffering from fibromyalgia.Methods: A controlled clinical trial, randomized to three groups (Reiki therapy, placebo and control and hiding of random distribution. Subjects: 150 women, over 18 years, diagnosed with fibromyalgia, according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR, diagnosed for more than a year and signing the informed consent. It will exclude those with mental or cognitive impairment that could impede their participation. Scope: Fibromyalgia Association of Madrid, with a record 2,500 members, with headquarters in downtown Madrid. Intervention: Standardization of Reiki therapy’s interventions, and placebo control. Reiki therapy will be applied by a solo Reiki Master, the placebo group will be attended by one solo nurse with no experience of touch therapy, simulating touches points of energy in the body; the control group receive no intervention. It will be 4 weekly sessions of 60 minutes in the case of Reiki and placebo groups. Participants in the control group will have to go to school to complete the questionnaires in the same periods of time. Variables (measuring instruments: main outcome variable: pain. It will be collected data on pain throughout the study (VAS, fatigue (VAS, quality of life (SF-36 and disease impact on activities of daily living (FIQ at various times: at the studio’s beginning (baseline, after a month and 3 months later. Sociodemographic and clinical variables will be collected also. Analysis: It will be made by allocated treatment (intention to treat. Comparisons shall be made of pain, fatigue, quality of life and disease’s impact on daily life activities among the three groups. Statistical analysis was done by analysis of variance.
Daily and seasonal variation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC Rn-222 ) and of the concentration of the short-lived radon decay product 214 Pb in ground-level air was investigated at Munich-Neuherberg from 1982 to 2000, and from 1989 to 2000, respectively. For this, the EEC was measured continuously with an alpha/beta aerosol monitor at 2.5 m above ground, and 214 Pb was determined by online gamma spectrometry at about 12 m above ground. The resulting time series were analysed statistically. For the respective periods, the measurements yielded a long-term average concentration of 7.8 Bq m -3 (geometric mean: 6.1 Bq m -3 ) for the EEC, and 6.0 Bq m -3 (geom. mean: 5.0 Bq m -3 ) for 214 Pb. In these periods, daily averages ranged from 0.6 to 49 Bq m -3 (EEC), and from 0.6 to 43 Bq m -3 ( 214 Pb). Monthly mean concentrations varied between 3.0 Bq m -3 in March 1988 and 20 Bq m -3 in October 1985 (EEC), and from 3.4 Bq m -3 in April 1992 to 11 Bq m -3 in October 1995 ( 214 Pb), respectively. The annual average concentrations were from 5.9 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 10.6 Bq m -3 in 1985 (EEC), and from 5.3 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 6.8 Bq m -3 in 1991 ( 214 Pb). From the long-term average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC), an average annual effective dose of 0.13 mSv due to the short-lived radon progeny outdoors was estimated. The time series showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. The variations from day to day are mainly caused by the actual weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.), i.e. the short-term turbulent conditions. The seasonal pattern is characterised by an autumn to winter maximum and an early summer minimum, and reflects the prevailing turbulent conditions at the respective seasons. As known, at Munich-Neuherberg during autumn and winter months (October/November to February) inversion weather conditions frequently occur, while the other months are characterised by more turbulent conditions. (orig.)
佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子; 楠原, 慶子; 奥山, 靜代
Fundamental movement skills are significantly associated with habitual physical activity. Recently, it has become clear that children have become less physically active than in the past, and some studies have shown that children's fundamental movement skills have been declining in recent decades. Human movements have various characteristics, and not all movement skills are associated with physical activity level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between 5 fundamental movements ...
Burke, Noreen M; Chomitz, Virginia R; Rioles, Nicole A; Winslow, Stephen P; Brukilacchio, Lisa B; Baker, Jessie C
Somerville, Massachusetts, an ethnically diverse, urban community northwest of Boston, presents opportunities and challenges for active living. With a dense street grid, well-maintained sidewalks, neighborhood parks, and existing Community Path, Somerville is very walkable. However, two major surface arteries traverse and bisect neighborhoods, creating pedestrian safety and environmental justice issues. Major goals included promoting increased collaboration and communication among existing active-living efforts; managing the Community Path extension project; encouraging Portuguese-speaking adults to incorporate daily physical activity; leveraging existing urban planning work to establish secure, attractive walking/biking corridors; and embedding active-living messages in everyday life. The Somerville Active Living by Design Partnership (ALbD) successfully created a robust task force that was integrated with citywide active-living efforts, secured resources to increase infrastructure and support for active living, including city-level coordinator positions, and changed decision-making practices that led to incorporation of pedestrian and bicycle transportation priorities into city planning and that influenced the extension of the Community Path. Partnerships must employ sustainability planning early on, utilize skilled facilitative leaders to manage leadership transitions, and engage new partners. Identifying, cultivating, and celebrating champions, especially those with political power, are critical. Working closely with research partners leads to rich data sources for planning and evaluation. Changing the built environment is difficult; working toward smaller wins is realistic and achievable. The synergy of ALbD and other community interventions created a foundation for short-term successes and accelerated political-cultural changes already underway with respect to active living.
Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans . Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.
Full Text Available In the form of theoretical discussion, this paper makes a brief analysis of relevant methodological steps for determination of Daily Urban Systems and the approach for their spatial-functional representation. The potential of using Daily Urban Systems as instruments for regional planning and regional development has been indicated. A model for determining Daily Urban Systems in Serbia has been proposed according to our socio-economic conditions. The experience thus far in reference to research of demographic, spatial and functional components of Daily Urban Systems demonstrates that for definition of their spatial and temporal manifestation and continuity models, the most relevant indicators are those which relate to distribution and functional specialization of work centers and places of living, and those which relate to quantitative-qualitative characteristics of daily migrants. Daily Urban Systems of Serbia have been developed under the conditions of continuous redistribution of population from rural to urban settlements and more or less synchronized processes of deagrarisation, deindustrialisation and urbanization with general socioeconomic flows. According to the dynamics of development in functions of work, living, education, service activities and public-social facilities in the urban regions, there have been formed Daily Urban Systems with appropriate hierarchy. The paper presents results of the latest research of Daily Urban Systems in Serbia, driven by scientific and appreciative reasons (preparation of the Regional spatial plans for municipalities of Južno pomoravlje and for Timočka krajina, and determination of the nodal systems in Zlatibor county. Daily Urban Systems, especially their regional role and implication, are proposed for instruments of rational spatial-functional organization of Serbia. According to the relevant theoretical-methodological approach and presented empirical evidence, the model of Daily Urban Systems
Seo, H-Y; Jeon, J-E; Chung, W-G; Kim, N-H
This study investigated the relationship between oral hygiene conditions, activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive ability in older Korean patients in long-term care facilities. Ninety older persons (65+) were randomly sampled from a possible 112 residents in a single facility. They participated in a 2-month-long survey. The Korean Modified Barthel Index was used to measure the ADL, and cognitive ability was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Korean version. Oral hygiene status was measured using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and the Tongue Coating Index (TCI). Older participants with complete dependence manifested significantly poorer oral hygiene (P oral hygiene (P oral hygiene on tooth surfaces, while participants with partial dependence had poor tongue hygiene. In addition, dentulous older participants had poorer tongue hygiene than edentulous ones. This indicates the need to assess tooth status and provide oral care services via ADL in long-term care facilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Karzmark, Peter; Deutsch, Gayle K
This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38). Standardized neuropsychological assessments were administered to all participants and were comprised of the Halstead Reitan Battery and portions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A comprehensive test battery yielded a moderate increase over base-rate in predictive accuracy that generalized to older individuals. There was only limited support for using a brief battery, for although sensitivity was high, specificity was low. We found that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery provided good classification accuracy for predicting IADL capacity.
Page, Zoey E; Barrington, Stephanie; Edwards, Jacqueline; Barnett, Lisa M
The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. Review article. The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 19 articles met inclusion criteria (non-typically developing participants such as those with a learning or developmental delay aged 3-18, use of an AVG console, assessed one or more gross motor skills). Studies were excluded if gross motor skill outcomes encompassed fine motor skills or reflected mobility related to daily living. Interventions included children and adolescents with eight different conditions. The Nintendo Wii was the most utilised gaming platform (14/19 studies). Studies examined a combination of skills, with most examining balance (15/19), five studies examining ball skills, and other gross motor skills such as coordination (3 studies), running (3 studies) and jumping (3 studies). There was strong evidence that AVG's improved balance. AVG's also appeared to benefit participants with Cerebral Palsy. AVG's could be a valuable tool to improve gross motor skills of non-typically developing children. There is scope for further exploration, particularly of ball, coordination and locomotor skills and varying platforms to draw more conclusive evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faria, Ana Lúcia; Andrade, Andreia; Soares, Luísa; I Badia, Sergi Bermúdez
Stroke is one of the most common causes of acquired disability, leaving numerous adults with cognitive and motor impairments, and affecting patients' capability to live independently. There is substancial evidence on post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation benefits, but its implementation is generally limited by the use of paper-and-pencil methods, insufficient personalization, and suboptimal intensity. Virtual reality tools have shown potential for improving cognitive rehabilitation by supporting carefully personalized, ecologically valid tasks through accessible technologies. Notwithstanding important progress in VR-based cognitive rehabilitation systems, specially with Activities of Daily Living (ADL's) simulations, there is still a need of more clinical trials for its validation. In this work we present a one-month randomized controlled trial with 18 stroke in and outpatients from two rehabilitation units: 9 performing a VR-based intervention and 9 performing conventional rehabilitation. The VR-based intervention involved a virtual simulation of a city - Reh@City - where memory, attention, visuo-spatial abilities and executive functions tasks are integrated in the performance of several daily routines. The intervention had levels of difficulty progression through a method of fading cues. There was a pre and post-intervention assessment in both groups with the Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (primary outcome) and the Trail Making Test A and B, Picture Arrangement from WAIS III and Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 (secondary outcomes). A within groups analysis revealed significant improvements in global cognitive functioning, attention, memory, visuo-spatial abilities, executive functions, emotion and overall recovery in the VR group. The control group only improved in self-reported memory and social participation. A between groups analysis, showed significantly greater improvements in global cognitive functioning, attention and executive functions when comparing VR to
markdownabstractAcross the world, people continue to live longer, resulting in increasing numbers of older people. Age-related functional deficiencies, such as problems in gait and daily functioning, will therefore become a major issue for society. People with problems in gait and daily functioning are at high risk to lose independence, which will eventually lead to institutionalization. Furthermore, poor gait and daily functioning are strong risk factors of various morbidities, such as falli...
Nikendei, Christoph; Bosse, Hans Martin; Hoffmann, Katja; Möltner, Andreas; Hancke, Rabea; Conrad, Corinna; Huwendiek, Soeren; Hoffmann, Georg F; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik
communication skills represent an essential component of clinical competence. In the field of pediatrics, communication between physicians and patients' parents is characterized by particular difficulties. To investigate the effects of a parent-physician communication skills training program on OSCE performance and self-efficacy in a group control design. parallel to their daily work in the outpatient department, intervention-group experienced clinicians in practice (n=14) participated in a communication training with standardized parents. Control-group physicians (n=14) did not receive any training beyond their daily work. Performance was assessed by independent video ratings of an OSCE. Both groups rated their self-efficacy prior to and following training. regarding OSCE performance, the intervention group demonstrated superior skills in building relationships with parents (pperform better in exploring parents' problems (pcommunication training program led to significant improvement in self-efficacy with respect to the specific training objectives in the intervention group (pcommunication training with standardized parents leads to significant improvement in OSCE performance and self-efficacy. PRACTISE IMPLICATIONS: briefness and tight structure make the presented communication training program applicable even for experienced physicians in daily clinical practice. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heppner, H J
Doping actually means the taking of illegal substances or the use of forbidden methods to increase or maintain performance. Diseases associated with age and functional decline can lead to constraints in the activities of daily living and this leads to loss of autonomy; therefore, doping in its different variations is used to try to achieve performance, which would not otherwise be possible. A somewhat different method is soft skills, i.e. personal, social and methodological competences, which are adopted to remain fit with the help of selection and compensation. One of the main cornerstones for healthy aging apart from medical interventions is physical activity and to keep training up to old age. An early beginning with sports activities and to continue practicing sport in a variety of forms into old age, plays a decisive role in healthy aging. There are also many recommendations for nutrition, such as changing eating habits and the composition of nourishment to counteract the process of aging. With increasing age the interests and life style also change and therefore early planning is absolutely necessary. Preservation of cognitive capabilities is one of the most important requirements to overcome aging. Not only the cognitive resources must be promoted but also attention must be paid to the resilience to deal with losses. Resilience plays a key role. People with a positive attitude to living with old age show less functional physical impairment and recover from illness more quickly. Humor, optimism and physical activity are crucial for successful aging.
Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking into account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, and pattern recognition. These concepts can be mapped onto different modules of the framework. The proposed framework should perform the identification of ADL without Internet connection, performing these tasks locally on the mobile device, taking in account the hardware and software limitations of these devices. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the creation of a framework for the recognition of ADL, analyzing the allowed sensors available in the mobile devices, and the existing methods available in the literature. PMID:29466316
Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco; Spinsante, Susanna
Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking into account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, and pattern recognition. These concepts can be mapped onto different modules of the framework. The proposed framework should perform the identification of ADL without Internet connection, performing these tasks locally on the mobile device, taking in account the hardware and software limitations of these devices. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach for the creation of a framework for the recognition of ADL, analyzing the allowed sensors available in the mobile devices, and the existing methods available in the literature.
Carnevale, Franco A; Alexander, Eren; Davis, Michael; Rennick, Janet; Troini, Rita
principal themes were (1) confronting parental responsibility: parental responsibility was described as stressful and sometimes overwhelming. Parents needed to devote extraordinary care and attention to their children's needs. They struggled with the significant emotional strain, physical and psychological dependence of the child, impact on family relationships, living with the daily threat of death, and feeling that there was "no free choice" in the matter: they could not have chosen to let their child die. (2) Seeking normality: all of the families devoted significant efforts toward normalizing their experiences. They created common routines so that their lives could resemble those of "normal" families. These efforts seemed motivated by a fundamental striving for a stable family and home life. This "striving for stability" was sometimes undermined by limitations in family finances, family cohesion, and unpredictability of the child's condition. (3) Conflicting social values: families were offended by the reactions that they faced in their everyday community. They believe that the child's life is devalued, frequently referred to as a life not worth maintaining. They felt like strangers in their own communities, sometimes needing to seclude themselves within their homes. (4) Living in isolation: families reported a deep sense of isolation. In light of the complex medical needs of these children, neither the extended families nor the medical system could support the families' respite needs. (5) What about the voice of the child? The children in this study (patients and siblings) were generally silent when asked to talk about their experience. Some children described their ventilators as good things. They helped them breathe and feel better. Some siblings expressed resentment toward the increased attention that their ventilated sibling was receiving. (6) Questioning the moral order: most families questioned the "moral order" of their lives. They contemplated how "good things
Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H
This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring; Mullins, Michael Finbarr
in their daily lives. It is argued that these patterns are largely shaped by the elderly’s bodily, social and cultural experiences and contexts, so a framework encompassing four major themes is proposed: 1. Traditions, Economy and Environment; 2. Quality of Life and Independence; 3. Health; and 4. Security...
Cankaya, Serkan; Kuzu, Abdullah
Mobile skill teaching software has been developed for the parents of the children with intellectual disability to be used in teaching daily life skills. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of the mobile skill teaching software developed for the use of the parents of the children with intellectual disability. In…
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events" by Clarissa M. E. Richardson and Kenneth G. Rice (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62, 694-702). In the article, the labels of the two lines in Figure 1 were inadvertently transposed. The dotted line should be labeled High SCP and the solid line should be labeled Low SCP. The correct version is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-30890-001.) Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
In care and research, there is increasing interest in the daily lives of children with cerebral palsy (CP). So far, we know that CP can have a limiting impact on daily activities such as locomotion and self-care. What we, however, don’t know is how children with CP develop over time in terms of
Pixa, Nils H; Pollok, Bettina
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of cortical excitability as well as neuroplastic reorganization using a weak constant current applied through the skull on the cerebral cortex. TDCS has been found to improve motor performance in general and motor learning in particular. However, these effects have been reported almost exclusively for unimanual motor tasks such as serial reaction time tasks, adaptation tasks, or visuo-motor tracking. Despite the importance of bimanual actions in most activities of daily living, only few studies have investigated the effects of tDCS on bimanual motor skills. The objectives of this review article are: (i) to provide a concise overview of the few existing studies in this area; and (ii) to discuss the effects of tDCS on bimanual motor skills in healthy volunteers and patients suffering from neurological diseases. Despite considerable variations in stimulation protocols, the bimanual tasks employed, and study designs, the data suggest that tDCS has the potential to enhance bimanual motor skills. The findings imply that the effects of tDCS vary with task demands, such as complexity and the level of expertise of the participating volunteers. Nevertheless, optimized stimulation protocols tailored to bimanual tasks and individual performance considering the underlying neural substrates of task execution are required in order to probe the effectiveness of tDCS in greater detail, thus creating an opportunity to support motor recovery in neuro-rehabilitation.
Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M
Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in both ToM understanding (with late-signing deaf children especially delayed even relative to autistic children) and peer social skills (with autistic children especially delayed even relative to deaf late signers). Crucially, for the typically developing hearing children and deaf children alike, ToM understanding independently predicted peer social skills over and above age, gender, language ability, and, for deaf children, status as native- or late-signer. These novel findings offer some of the best evidence to date of the relevance of ToM cognitions to real-world social behavior for both these groups. However, for those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the pattern was different. The apparent link of ToM to peer competence was not a direct one but instead was significantly mediated by language ability. Several possible explanations for this intriguing autism-specific result were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Johnston, Peter W; Fioratou, Evie; Flin, Rhona
Health care is a high-risk industry, with most documented adverse incidents being associated with 'human factors' including cognitive and social skills termed 'non-technical skills'. Non-technical skills complement the diagnostic and specialist skills and professional attributes required by medical practitioners, including histopathologists, and can enhance the quality of practice and delivery of health-care services and thus contribute to patient safety. This review aims to introduce histopathologists to non-technical skills and how these pertain to everyday histopathological practice. Drawing from other domains in medicine, specifically anaesthesia and surgery, a variety of non-technical skills are identified and described in the context of histopathology to illustrate the role each plays, often collectively, in daily practice. The generic non-technical skills are defined as situation awareness, decision-making, communication, teamwork, leadership, managing stress and coping with fatigue. Example scenarios from histopathology are presented and the contributions to outcomes made by non-technical skills are explained. Consideration of these specific non-technical skills as a component in histopathology training may benefit practitioners as well as assuring patient safety. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
Background Social skills training (SST) is a common intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to improve their social and communication skills. Despite the fact that SSTs are often applied in clinical practice, the evidence for the effectiveness of these trainings for children with ASD is inconclusive. Moreover, long term outcome and generalization of learned skills are little evaluated. Additionally, there is no research on the influence of involvement of parents and teachers on effectiveness of SST and on the generalization of learned social skills to daily life. We expect parent and teacher involvement in SST to enhance treatment efficacy and to facilitate generalization of learned skills to daily life. Method/Design In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three conditions, 120 participants with ASD at the end of primary school (10–12 years of calendar age) have been randomized to SST, SST-PTI (SST with Parent & Teacher Involvement), or care-as-usual. The SST consists of 18 group sessions of 1.5 hours for the children. In the SST-PTI condition, parents additionally participate in 8 parent sessions and parents and teachers are actively involved in homework assignments. Assessment takes place at three moments: before and immediately after the intervention period and at 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome is socialization, as an aspect of adaptive functioning. Secondary outcomes focus on specific social skills children learn during SST and on more general social skills pertaining to home and community settings from a multi-informant perspective. Additionally, possible predictors of treatment outcome will be assessed. Discussion The current study is an RCT study evaluating SST in a large sample of Dutch children with ASD in a specific age range (10–12 years). Strengths of the study are the use of one manualized protocol, application of standardized and internationally used rating instruments, use of multiple raters, investigation of
Asaoka, Shoichi; Komada, Yoko; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Katuo
University students show delayed sleep-wake patterns, i.e., later bed- and rise-times, and this pattern is known to be associated with various malfunctions. There may be a variety of daily activities associated with their delayed sleep patterns, such as watching TV. However, it is unclear to what extent each activity possesses an impact on their sleep patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the daily activities associated with delayed bedtime in Japanese university students who live with or without their families. Three hundred and thirty-one participants were required to record the timing and duration of their sleep and daily activities, and the data from the 275 students (160 men and 115 women; 19.01 +/- 1.66 years) who completely filled forms were used for analysis. The results of multiple regression analyses suggested that interpersonal communication late at night is one of the major factors leading to the delayed bedtime of students living away from home. Among those living with their families, indoor activities such as watching TV and using the Internet were related to their delayed bedtimes. Attending classes and having a morning meal were related to the earlier bedtimes of the students living away from home, but there were no activities associated with those of the students living with their families. These results suggest that ensuring attendance at morning classes and having appropriate mealtimes, as well as restricting the use of visual media and socializing activities at night, are necessary for preventing late bedtimes in university students.
Mastboom, Monique Josephine; Planje, Rosa; van de Sande, Michiel Adreanus
Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) is a rare, benign lesion affecting the synovial lining of joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is generally characterized as a locally aggressive and often recurring tumor. A distinction is made between localized- and diffuse-type. The impact of TGCT on daily living is currently ill-described. The aim of this crowdsourcing study was to evaluate the impact of TGCT on physical function, daily activities, societal participation (work, sports, and hobbies), and overall quality of life from a patient perspective. The secondary aim was to define risk factors for deteriorated outcome in TGCT. Members of the largest known TGCT Facebook community, PVNS is Pants!!, were invited to an e-survey, partially consisting of validated questionnaires, for 6 months. To confirm disease presence and TGCT-type, patients were requested to share histological or radiological proof of TGCT. Unpaired t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare groups with and without proof and to define risk factors for deteriorated outcome. Three hundred thirty-seven questionnaires, originating from 30 countries, were completed. Median age at diagnosis was 33 (interquartile range [IQR]=25-42) years, majority was female (79.8% [269/337]), diffuse TGCT (70.3% [237/337]), and affected lower extremities (knee 70.9% [239/337] and hip 9.5% [32/337]). In 299 lower-extremity TGCT patients (32.4% [97/299]) with disease confirmation, recurrence rate was 36% and 69.5% in localized and diffuse type, respectively. For both types, pain and swelling decreased after treatment; in contrast, stiffness and range of motion worsened. Patients were limited in their employment (localized 13% [8/61]; diffuse 11.0% [21/191]) and sport-activities (localized 58% [40/69]; diffuse 63.9% [147/230]). Compared with general US population, all patients showed lower Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurements Information System-Physical Function (PROMIS-PF), Short Form-12 (SF-12), and EuroQoL 5
Foko, Thato E
Full Text Available Ambient-assisted living (AAL) is an initiative to extend the time the elderly can live in their home environment by increasing their autonomy and assisting them carry out their daily activities. AAL systems exploit information and communication...
Aronson, Keith R; Wagstaff, David A; Farace, Elana; Muscat, Joshua; Belani, Chandra; Almokadem, Salah; Fossum, Thyra
This study examined the day-to-day lives of early stage lung cancer survivors who were discharged from treatment between 2 and 24 months prior to the study. Lung cancer survivors were called on eight consecutive nights and completed an interview about their daily experiences. Repeated measures, multilevel analysis of the phone interview data was conducted. Survivors reported few daily stressor exposures or somatic symptoms. Daily moods were generally positive, and survivors reported living quite independently. Lung cancer survivors did not report experiencing health-related worry on a daily basis. The findings from this study create a much more positive picture of lung cancer survivorship relative to prior studies. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana
Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984-1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with walking
Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana
Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984–1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with
Chang, Su-Hsien; Wung, Shu-Fen; Crogan, Neva L
Excess disability among nursing home elder persons can be prevented or remediated. Because of self-selected disuse and caregiver support of dependency, nursing home residents are likely to develop excess disability. No study was found to test a theory-based program aimed at improving elder persons' self-care abilities for Taiwanese nursing home elder persons who are at risk for developing excess disability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention program on self-care, specifically on activities of daily living (ADLs) performance among nursing home elder persons in Taiwan. A secondary aim was to determine the correlation between ADLs performance and three bliss concepts: life satisfaction, self-esteem, and motivation in health behavior. This study used a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest design. Forty-two qualified participants were recruited from two nursing homes located in southern Taiwan and assigned to either the experimental group (n = 21) or the comparison group (n = 21). Participants in the experimental group received the Self-Care Self-Efficacy Enhancement Program (SCSEEP), and those in the comparison group received biweekly social visits for 6 weeks. Levels of ADLs performance were measured by Tappen's Refined ADL Assessment Scale. Life satisfaction was measured by Adams' Life Satisfaction Index A. Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Motivation in health behavior was measured by Cox's Health Self-Determinism Index. Elder persons receiving the SCSEEP had significant improvement in feeding, dressing, grooming, and washing activities. Self-esteem (p = .011) and life satisfaction (p = .033) but not motivation in health behavior (p = .282) were positively correlated with levels of ADLs performance. The SCSEEP provides a theory-based intervention model for Taiwanese nursing home elder persons aimed at improving ADLs performance. Further research with a larger sample size is
Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Toffano, Roberta; Gindri, Patrizia; Tonini, Elisabetta; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo
Financial capacity is the ability to manage one's own finances according to self-interests. Failure in financial decisions and lack of independence when dealing with money can affect people's quality of life and are associated with neuropsychological deficits or clinical conditions such as mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Despite the importance of evaluating financial capacity in the assessment of patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders, only a few tools have been developed. In the present article, the authors introduce the Numerical Activities of Daily Living - Financial (NADL-F) test, a new test to assess financial capacity in clinical populations. The NADL-F is relatively short, yet it encompasses the most common activities involving financial capacities. The NADL-F proved to have satisfactory psychometric properties and overall good validity for measuring financial abilities. Associations with performance on basic neuropsychological tests were investigated, in particular focusing on mathematical abilities as cognitive correlates of financial capacity. Results indicate that the NADL-F could be a useful tool to guide treatments for the enhancement of financial capacities. By sharing all materials and procedures, the authors hope to promote the development of further versions of the NADL-F in different languages, taking into account the necessary adjustments related to different socio-cultural contexts.
Finderup, Jeanette; Bjerre, Tina; Soendergaard, Aase
to develop and test a full-scale GSD for this patient group (GSD-HD). Objectives: To study how a full-scale GSD-HD influenced the quality of relatedness between the patient and the GSD-HD nurse and the patients' ability to live well with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: GSD-HD was developed through...... participatory research and evaluated qualitatively at five dialysis units in Denmark involving 31 patients and 16 nurses. The intervention lasted four months and comprised six sessions. Data consisting of semi-structured interviews with 13 patients were analysed using a mix of inductive and deductive thematic...... and their self-management of ESRD: Deeper and more meaningful relationships, self-exploration of self-selected challenges, self-understanding as a condition for meaningful knowledge, ability to act in a self-determined way, feedback from action that accords with daily life skills and decision-making from...
Martín, Estefanía; Carro, Rosa M
User Modeling and Adaptation for Daily Routines is motivated by the need to bring attention to how people with special needs can benefit from adaptive methods and techniques in their everyday lives. Assistive technologies, adaptive systems and context-aware applications are three well-established research fields. There is, in fact, a vast amount of literature that covers HCI-related issues in each area separately. However, the contributions in the intersection of these areas have been less visible, despite the fact that such synergies may have a great impact on improving daily living.Presentin
Shelia Y. TUCKER
Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..
Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise
Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Kingsnorth, S; King, G; McPherson, A; Jones-Galley, K
Young people with physical disabilities experience issues regarding employment, schooling, independent living and establishing meaningful personal relationships. A lack of life skills has been recognized as an important factor contributing to this lag. The Independence Program (TIP) is a short-term residential life skills program that aims to equip youth with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. This study retrospectively examined the achievements, skills acquired and program attributions of youth and young adults who took part in this three-week immersive teen independence program over a 20-year period. A total of 162 past graduates were invited to take part, with 78 doing so (a 48% response rate). These past graduates completed an online survey assessing objective outcomes such as employment and independent living; subjective outcomes such as feeling in control and living meaningful lives; and reflections on skills acquired, opportunities experienced and attributions to TIP. The majority of respondents were female (71%), had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (55%) and ranged from 20 to 35 years of age (92%). Despite a range of outcomes related to the achievement of adult roles, high levels of life satisfaction and overall quality of life were reported. Nearly every respondent reported using the skills they learned at the program in their lives afterwards and a high percentage attributed the acquisition and consolidation of core life skills to participating in this intensive immersive program. Although causality cannot be assumed, respondents reflected very positively on the opportunities provided by TIP to develop their independent living and life skills, extend their social networks and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Such findings validate the importance of targeted skill development to assist young people with physical disabilities in attaining their life goals and encourage focused investigations of key features in program
Langkudi, H. H.
Chemistry course are considered a difficult lesson for students as evidenced by low learning outcomes on daily tests, mid-semester tests as well as final semester tests. This research intended to investigate the effect of instructional model, thinking skill and the interaction of these variables on students’ achievement in chemistry. Experimental method was applying used 2 x 2 factorial design. The results showed that the use of instructional model with thinking skill influences student’s learning outcomes, so that the chemistry teacher is recommended to pay attention to the learning model, and adjusted to the student’s skill thinking on the chemistry material being taught. The conclusion of this research is that discovery model is suitable for students who have formal thinking skill and conventional model is fit for the students that have concrete thinking skill.
Yuliati, L.; Fauziah, R.; Hidayat, A.
This study aims to determine students’ critical thinking skills in authentic problem based learning, especially on geometric optics. The study was conducted at the vocational school. The study used a quantitative descriptive method with the open question to measure critical thinking skills. The indicators of critical thinking skills measured in this study are: formulating problems, providing simple answers, applying formulas and procedures, analyzing information, making conclusions, and synthesizing ideas. The results showed that there was a positive change in students’ critical thinking skills with the average value of N-Gain test is 0.59 and effect size test is 3.73. The critical thinking skills of students need to be trained more intensively using authentic problems in daily life.
Amelia, R.; Harahap, J.; Wahyuni, A. S.; Pratama, A.
Health problems in the elderly come from declining body cells, so the function and body endurance decreased along with increased risk factors for diseases. This study aimed to determine the elderly health status in Public Health Center of Tuntungan Medan. Health status includes measurement of daily activities living (DAL),and health parameter include blood pressure, blood sugar level (BSL), cholesterol level and uric acid level. The study design was descriptive with cross-sectional approach. The study population was the entire elderly population residing in the service area of public health center of Tuntungan Medan (55 subjects). The elderly who had a reasonable level of independence were 47 subjects (85.5%), the majority of elderly were in the category of hypertension stage I (20 subjects; 36.4%) with a mean systolic blood pressure level was 143mmHg. Most of them have BSL that exceeded the standard limit (42 subjects; 76.4%) with BSL mean value was 177mg/dL.Uric acid levels were in the high category (34 subjects; 61.98%) with a mean value of 7.0mm/dL, and most of them have normal cholesterol (43 subjects; 78.2%).
Hanna-Pladdy, B; Heilman, K M; Foundas, A L
To learn if ideomotor apraxia (IMA) adversely influences skilled acts in the environment and interferes with independent functioning after stroke. The relationship between IMA severity, based on scores from a verbal gesture-to-command (pantomime) task, and the dependency score, as defined by increased caregiver assistance on the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), was investigated in 10 unilateral left hemisphere-damaged stroke patients and 10 matched control subjects. There was a significant relationship between apraxia severity and dependency in physical functioning (PSMS). Impairment on the PSMS in the patients with IMA could not be accounted for based on overall cognitive impairment, poststroke depression, content-conceptual errors, elementary motor impairment, lesion size, or stroke-test interval. Analysis of categories composing the PSMS revealed that the patients with apraxia had increased dependency in grooming, bathing, and toileting relative to age-matched control subjects. These findings emphasize the ecological implications of apraxia and the need for rehabilitation strategies to improve the execution and efficiency of coordinated skilled movements in stroke patients with left hemisphere damage.
Zyluk, Andrzej; Puchalski, Piotr; Szlosser, Zbigniew
Teaching surgery during university curriculum comprises transferring theoretical knowledge traditionally and simultaneously acquiring manual skills, i.e., suturing, stitch removal, limb immobilization, catheterization, and assisting operations. Observations of doctors several years after graduation led to the reflection that teachers' ideas about surgical knowledge and skills that are useful in daily practice frequently fail to meet the facts of the case. The objective of this study was to determine which part of the surgical knowledge and skills taught via the university surgical curriculum proved to be useful in the daily practice of young doctors. A custom-made questionnaire was designed and mailed to 200 randomly chosen doctors who had graduated from the medical faculty at the authors' university 5 to 6 years previously. The questionnaire comprised 9 items concerning the knowledge and skills that proved to be the most useful in participants' daily practice, regardless of their specialty. A total of 64 completed questionnaires were returned (32% of 200 sent) and were the subject of analysis. The most useful knowledge in daily practice was that acquired from general surgery, followed by oncological and vascular surgery. The most useful was knowledge about the rational interpretation of clinical symptoms and signs acquired from examination of the patient, followed by arriving at an accurate diagnosis through logical analysis, and next developing "oncological sensitivity" to diagnosing neoplasms. The most effective teaching model was specialized outpatient clinic rounds, followed by training manual skills on a model and classical ward-round teaching. The most frequently learned (acquired) manual skills were removal of stitches, rectal examination, and examination of the abdomen. Of these skills, the most useful in daily practice appeared to be removal of stitches, catheterization of the urinary bladder, and wound suturing. Learning and practicing manual skills
Saido, Gulistan Mohammed; Siraj, Saedah; Bin Nordin, Abu Bakar; Al Amedy, Omed Saadallah
A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students' higher order…
Lundine, Kristopher; Buckley, Richard; Hutchison, Carol; Lockyer, Jocelyn
Communication skills play a key role in many aspects of both medical education and clinical patient care. The objectives of this study were to identify the key components of communication skills from the perspectives of both orthopaedic residents and their program directors and to understand how these skills are currently taught. This study utilized a mixed methods design. Quantitative data were collected with use of a thirty-item questionnaire distributed to all Canadian orthopaedic residents. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups with orthopaedic residents and semistructured interviews with orthopaedic program directors. One hundred and nineteen (37%) of 325 questionnaires were completed, twelve residents participated in two focus groups, and nine of sixteen program directors from across the country were interviewed. Both program directors and residents identified communication skills as being the accurate and appropriate use of language (i.e., content skills), not how the communication was presented (i.e., process skills). Perceived barriers to effective communication included time constraints and the need to adapt to the many personalities and types of people encountered daily in the hospital. Residents rarely have explicit training in communication skills. They rely on communication training implicitly taught through observation of their preceptors and clinical experience interacting with patients, peers, and other health-care professionals. Orthopaedic residents and program directors focus on content and flexibility within communication skills as well as on the importance of being concise. They value the development of communication skills in the clinical environment through experiential learning and role modeling. Education should focus on developing residents' process skills in communication. Care should be taken to avoid large-group didactic teaching sessions, which are perceived as ineffective.
Hulme, Bruce W.
Describes procedures for mainstreaming multihandicapped children at the elementary level in a program designed to meet children's individual needs while developing positive social skills, self-esteem, communication skills, and daily living skills. Notes benefits for regular education students. (Author/SV)
Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold
Parents' and Children's Perspectives of Parental Mediation Strategies in Association with Children's Internet Skills The purpose of this study was to examine the association of parental mediation strategies (from parents' and children's perspective) and children's internet skills. In total 194 parent-child dyads were questioned about their parent's mediation strategies. The children (fifth to ninth grade) additionally answered questions about their internet skills and the amount of time they spent daily on the internet. Parents' and children's ratings of the parental mediation strategies showed moderate associations. Parents reported to use more often mediation strategies than was perceived by their children. The mediation strategies had only limited value for the prediction of the children's internet skills. Parents' and children's perspective about restrictive content mediation were both negatively associated to children's internet skills. After controlling for children's age, sex and time spent daily on the internet, results showed that only congruencies between children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental restrictive content mediation were associated with decreased technical and social internet skills. Additionally, discrepancies between the children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental use of technical mediation were associated with decreased technical internet skills. Discrepancies regarding the parental mediation strategy monitoring were related to increased information navigation skills.
Trull, Timothy J; Wycoff, Andrea M; Lane, Sean P; Carpenter, Ryan W; Brown, Whitney C
Cannabis and alcohol are the most commonly used (il)licit drugs world-wide. We compared the effects of cannabis and alcohol use on within-person changes in impulsivity, hostility and positive affect at the momentary and daily levels, as they occurred in daily life. Observational study involving ecological momentary assessments collected via electronic diaries six random times a day for 28 consecutive days. Out-patients' everyday life contexts in Columbia, MO, USA. Ninety-three adult psychiatric out-patients (85% female; mean = 30.9 years old) with borderline personality or depressive disorders, who reported using only cannabis (n = 3), only alcohol (n = 58) or both (n = 32) at least once during the study period. Real-time, standard self-report measures of impulsivity, hostility and positive affect, as impacted by momentary reports of cannabis and alcohol use. Cannabis use was associated with elevated feelings of impulsivity at the day level [b = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-1.49] and increased hostility at the momentary (b = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.01-0.12) and person (b = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.15-1.47) level. Alcohol use was associated with elevated feelings of impulsivity at the momentary (b = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.13-0.71) and day levels (b = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.22-1.41) and increased positive affect at the momentary (b = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.06-0.18) and day (b = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.16-0.49) levels. Cannabis and alcohol use are associated with increases in impulsivity (both), hostility (cannabis) and positive affect (alcohol) in daily life, and these effects are part of separate processes that operate on different time-scales (i.e. momentary versus daily). © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Silva, Alisson da Costa; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida Alves; Ribeiro, Marco Túlio de Freitas
In addition to the common alterations and diseases inherent in the aging process, elderly persons with a history of leprosy are particularly vulnerable to dependence because of disease-related impairments. determine whether physical impairment from leprosy is associated with dependence among the elderly. An analytical cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with a history of leprosy and no signs of cognitive impairment was conducted using a database from a former leprosy colony-hospital. The patients were evaluated for dependence in the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), respectively) and subjected to standard leprosy physical disability grading. Subsequently, descriptive and univariate analyses were conducted, the latter using Pearson's chi-squared test. A total of 186 elderly persons were included in the study. Of these individuals, 53.8% were women, 49.5% were older than 75 years of age, 93% had four or less years of formal education, 24.2% lived in an institution for the long-term care of the elderly (ILTC), and 18.3% had lower limb amputations. Among those evaluated, 79.8% had visible physical impairments from leprosy (grade 2), 83.3% were independent in BADL, and 10.2% were independent in IADL. There was a higher impairment grade among those patients who were IADL dependent (p=0.038). The leprosy physical impairment grade is associated with dependence for IADL, creating the need for greater social support and systematic monitoring by a multidisciplinary team. The results highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy to prevent physical impairment and dependence in later years.
The ethos of the course veterinary surgery is to install core surgical skills at the very start of a ... 2d to 4d nail gauges with large nail head. Cadaver ... Teaching model. Virtual surgery. Dummy. Cadaver. Live animal. Motor skill. -. ++. ++. ++.
Lavasani, Negar Miri; Stagnitti, Karen
The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor skills of two groups of Iranian children. Of the 55 male Tehranian children aged 6 to 10 years, 29 children were typically developing and 26 were identified as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder. All children were assessed using the Raven Intelligence Test and nine fine motor tasks. There were no significant differences between the groups based on intelligence. In eight of the fine motor tasks, there was a significant difference between the groups. These tasks were cutting, placing dots in a grid pattern without direction, threading beads, drawing a line within 1 and 2 minutes, finger movements and Purdue pegboard. Boys who have been identified as ADHD have poorer fine motor skills compared to typically developing boys of the same age. Children aged 6 to 10 years who have been identified as ADHD will require more attention to their fine motor skill performance to enable greater participation in daily living tasks in Tehran such as writing, fine arts and dressing which require fast and quick hand motor skills. There are still limitations in this area; therefore, research in fine motor skills and ADHD children are recommended for future research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available WHY IS THIS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE? An estimated 1 in 86 children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD1 making it the most commonly diagnosed childhood neurological condition in Canada.2 The true costs of lifelong support for people living with ASD3 are often underestimated and fail to acknowledge the value of caregiver time over the lifespan. Significant gaps in publically provided support systems leave the cost burden to be picked up by families. Relying on continued family supports where community services are fragmented or unavailable is not a sustainable approach. WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH TELL US? A continuum of supports are needed Most people living with ASD need supports that range from occasional assistance with higher level tasks, like organizing appointments or banking, to those who need continuous help with daily living.4 Areas where supportive care may be needed can be categorized broadly to include: self care, home living, service co-ordination, personal organization, health and safety management, adult day opportunities/employment, transportation, advocacy and social skills. These supports are most successful when they address the individual’s uniqueness in terms of communication, social, sensory, behavioural needs and physical and/or mental health conditions. Currently there are a lack of available supports, limiting opportunities for socialization, employment and residential living resulting in reduced independence for adults with ASD.
Elsman, Ellen Bernadette Maria; van Rens, Gerardus Hermanus Maria Bartholomeus; van Nispen, Ruth Marie Antoinette
While the impact of visual impairments on specific aspects of young adults' lives is well recognised, a systematic understanding of its impact on all life aspects is lacking. This study aims to provide an overview of life aspects affected by visual impairment in young adults (aged 18-25 years) using a concept-mapping approach. Visually impaired young adults (n = 22) and rehabilitation professionals (n = 16) participated in online concept-mapping workshops (brainstorm procedure), to explore how having a visual impairment influences the lives of young adults. Statements were categorised based on similarity and importance. Using multidimensional scaling, concept maps were produced and interpreted. A total of 59 and 260 statements were generated by young adults and professionals, respectively, resulting in 99 individual statements after checking and deduplication. The combined concept map revealed 11 clusters: work, study, information and regulations, social skills, living independently, computer, social relationships, sport and activities, mobility, leisure time, and hobby. The concept maps provided useful insight into activities influenced by visual impairments in young adults, which can be used by rehabilitation centres to improve their services. This might help in goal setting, rehabilitation referral and successful transition to adult life, ultimately increasing participation and quality of life. Implications for rehabilitation Having a visual impairment affects various life-aspects related to participation, including activities related to work, study, social skills and relationships, activities of daily living, leisure time and mobility. Concept-mapping helped to identify the life aspects affected by low vision, and quantify these aspects in terms of importance according to young adults and low vision rehabilitation professionals. Low vision rehabilitation centres should focus on all life aspects found in this study when identifying the needs of young
Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus
Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…
Bullis, Michael; Reiman, John W.
Surveyed national sample of 307 professionals in relevant fields to obtain professional opinion on critical competencies necessary for deaf individuals to live and work successfully in the community. Findings identified 12 critical skills in employment and 10 critical skills in independent living. (Author/NB)
Noraini Ahmad Shukri
Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness. Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text
Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying developmental indicators of children living in the areas of iodine deficiency. The basic anthropometric parameters (height and weight, chest circumference were defined, the estimation of intellectual development in 819 children aged 7–16 years living in the regions with mild (472 persons and moderate (347 persons iodine deficiency was carried out. Examined children were standardized by major factors of developmental effect. Anthropometric measurements were carried out by standard methods. Maturity of intellectual functioning was determined using the fragment of R. Cattell test, indicators of mental activity — with proofreading test in conjunction with reading rate test. In all children we have carried out measurement of daily ioduria (Sandell — Kolthoff reaction, palpation of the thyroid gland, determination of its size and structure using ultrasound. It was found that the diet of children is characterized by deficiency of food rich in iodine. Iodized salt was used only by 1 of 50 families. Children living in the regions with moderate iodine deficiency in all age subgroups have lower rates of physical development. A third of children living in areas of iodine deficiency have disharmonic physical development. 13.8 % of children from the regions of iodine deficiency have changes in the majority of the studied cognitive functions. Leading disabilities in the whole group of children were memory impairment and fine motor skills disorders. The level of intellectual maturity, productivity and accuracy of human performance decreases with growing iodine deficiency.
Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.
Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper
Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life.
The purpose of this study was to confirm the importance of enhancing quality of life (QOL) and activity of daily living (ADL) in elderly people, and to examine methods of exercise intervention for QOL and ADL outcomes in elderly people who use nursing care insurance services. Chapter 2 clarifies the relationship between QOL, ADL, and changes in the level of independence in elderly residents. Higher QOL outcomes (sense of well-being, satisfaction with social support, independence, and beh...
Ergenekon, Yasemin; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kapan, Alper; Akmanoglu, Nurgul
Research has shown that video and live modeling are both effective in teaching new skills to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to three children with autism. Each child was taught two chained skills; one skill…
Full Text Available This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language who demonstrated poor writing skills participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3, 4 and 5. The comparison group (n=28 selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1 and end (Time 2 of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.
Full Text Available Self-reported physical activity has been inversely associated with mortality but the effect of objectively measured step activity on mortality has never been evaluated. The objective is to determine the prospective association of daily step activity on mortality among free-living adults.Cohort study of free-living adults residing in Tasmania, Australia between 2000 and 2005 who participated in one of three cohort studies (n = 2 576 total participants. Daily step activity by pedometer at baseline at a mean of 58.8 years of age, and for a subset, repeated monitoring was available 3.7 (SD 1.3 years later (n = 1 679. All-cause mortality (n = 219 deaths was ascertained by record-linkage to the Australian National Death Index; 90% of participants were followed-up over ten years, until June 2011. Higher daily step count at baseline was linearly associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio AHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98 per 1 000 steps; P = 0.004. Risk was altered little by removing deaths occurring in the first two years. Increasing baseline daily steps from sedentary to 10 000 steps a day was associated with a 46% (95% CI, 18% to 65%; P = 0.004 lower risk of mortality in the decade of follow-up. In addition, those who increased their daily steps over the monitoring period had a substantial reduction in mortality risk, after adjusting for baseline daily step count (AHR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.72; P = 0.002, or other factors (AHR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21-0.70; P = 0.002.Higher daily step count was linearly associated with subsequent long term mortality among free living adults. These data are the first to quantify mortality reductions using an objective measure of physical activity in a free living population. They strongly underscore the importance of physical inactivity as a major public health problem.
Lisa M. Barnett, Louise L. Hardy, Ali S. Brian
Full Text Available The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument’s discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test. A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24. Children (n = 43 aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3 were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1. A subset of children (n = 28 had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3. An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years. Intraclass correlations (ICC assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3. Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1 and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40 = 11.18, p < 0.001. The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90 and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82, although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback.
Full Text Available Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general skills, settle on four specific objectives: 1. To increase student motivation using samples of potential interest to students and explaining real-live application of their samples analyses; 2. To assist students’ self-regulation and learning autonomy by using the portfolio; 3. To promote group work through experiments in pairs and small-group discussions; 4. To develop communication skills through small-group discussions and oral presentations. Results show that the type of sample used and real-life application has important influence on motivation. The portfolio is a good tool to promote reflection and to evaluate both specific and generic skills in experimental courses, the dynamics of a laboratory course permit students to develop their group-work and communicative skills, and peer evaluations both improve students’ communication skills and promote metacognitive reflection. Finally, the project demonstrates that it is possible to train students in general skills using the specific course content and that the incorporation of participatory methodologies encourages students to become actively involved in the teaching-learning process.
Avaliação das habilidades de vida independente e comportamento social de pacientes psiquiátricos desospitalizados Evaluation of independent living skills and social behavior of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals
Carlos Eduardo Leal Vidal
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento social e as habilidades de vida independente de um grupo de pacientes psiquiátricos antes de sua saída do hospital e 2 anos após a sua transferência para as residências terapêuticas. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal, realizado em duas etapas distintas, antes e depois, utilizando-se, como instrumentos, as escalas Independent Living Skills Survey e Social Behavior Scale. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (58,7%, com médias de idade e tempo de internação iguais a 57,5±11,8 anos e 29,8±10,2 anos; 54,6% tinham diagnóstico de esquizofrenia; 25,3%, de deficiência mental; e o restante, de categorias várias. Houve melhora significativa no comportamento social e no grau de autonomia dos pacientes (p OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing social behavior and independent living skills in a sample of psychiatric patients before their discharge from a mental hospital and after 2 years living in community facilities. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two stages using the Independent Living Skills Survey and the Social Behavior Scale. RESULTS: Most patients were male (58.7%. Mean age and hospitalization time were 57.5±11.8 and 29.8±10.2 years, respectively; 54.6% were schizophrenic, 25.3% had mental retardation and the remainder had different diagnoses. There was significant improvement in patients' social behavior and level of autonomy (p <0.05, as evidenced by comparison of their scores in stages 1 and 2. Hospitalization time, age and baseline score were the variables with the most consistent association with evolution scores. DISCUSSION: Patients' impairments in social role functioning and autonomy levels before their discharge from a mental health hospital were not incompatible with living in society. Patients showed great improvement in social behavior and level of autonomy after 2 years, defined by evolution scores measured
Culjak, Zoran; Miletic, Durdica; Kalinski, Suncica Delas; Kezic, Ana; Zuvela, Frane
The objectives of this study were: a) to examine the influence of an 18-week basic artistic gymnastics program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) development in seven-year-old children; b) to determine correlations between children's daily activities and successful performance of FMS and basic artistic gymnastics skills. Seventy five first grade primary school children took part in this study. A physical education teacher specialized in artistic gymnastics conducted a gymnastics program for 18 weeks, three times a week. The level of gymnastics skills and FMS were identified at the beginning and at the end of the program. The level of gymnastics skills was evaluated by performance of eight artistic gymnastics skills, while FMS were evaluated by the use of FMS-polygon. Physical activity and inactivity was evaluated by using a proxy-questionnaire "Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire˝ (NPAQ). According to the dependent samples t test, significant differences were found in the FMS-polygon and all gymnastics skills before and after the 18-week gymnastics program. Increasing correlations were established over time between gymnastics skills and the FMS-polygon. Unorganized daily activity of children significantly correlated with their mastering of gymnastics skills and FMS. The presented findings confirm: (1) the thesis that basic artistic gymnastics skills and FMS could be developed simultaneously, (2) the theory of positive transfer of similar skills between FMS and artistic gymnastic skills. Mastering basic artistic gymnastics skills will provoke improvement of FMS and finally become a prerequisite for successful introduction of learning more complex gymnastics skills. The obtained results imply that an increase of children's unorganized daily activities can improve the mastering of basic gymnastics skills and simultaneously the development of FMS.
Barnett, Lisa M; Hardy, Louise L; Brian, Ali S; Robertson, Sam
The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument's discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1) and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p < 0.001). The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90) and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82), although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback. Key pointsGolf is becoming an increasingly popular sport among young children, however there is no standard protocol available to assess and identify skill deficits, mastery level
Çetrez-Iscan, Galibiye; Nurçin, Elçin; Fazlioglu, Yesim
Dressing skill is one of the necessary self-care skills that is taught to individuals with autism in order for them to be able to live independently. Typically, developing individuals can acquire dressing skill on their own; however, children with autism have difficulties in learning such skill without systematic teaching. Thus, teaching dressing…
Verna G. Eschenfelder
Full Text Available Background:Research reports that children living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may demonstrate deficits in social, emotional, behavioral, and communication skills, which adversely affect social participation and occupational engagement. Joint attention skills constitute any nonverbal communication that captures the attention of another to create a shared interactional experience. The components of joint attention can be targeted through intervention to promote occupational engagement in childhood co-occupations. Methods: A scoping review process was applied in the current study. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria to be analyzed through critical appraisal of topics and use of a matrix. Results: Evidence indicates that joint attention skills can be developed in children living with ASD through targeted teaching interventions. Analysis of the data elucidated emergent themes in the form of commonly used strategies to develop joint attention skills in children living with ASD. Conclusion: Joint attention teaching strategies can be implemented to develop social interaction performance skills in children living with ASD. The benefits of developing joint attention skills in this population directly relate to improved occupational and co-occupational engagement. Joint attention teaching strategies naturally align with occupational therapy techniques and approaches and should be considered as an enhancement to occupational therapy intervention.
Peeler, Jason; Ripat, Jacquie
Knee osteoarthritis has a lifetime risk of nearly one in two, with obese individuals being most susceptible. While exercise is universally recognized as a critical component for management, unsafe or ineffective exercise frequently leads to exacerbation of joint symptoms. Evaluate the effect of a 12week lower body positive pressure (LBPP) supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee pain, joint function, and performance of daily activities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community based, multidisciplinary musculoskeletal medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients, aged 50-75, with a BMI ≥25kg/m 2 and radiographic confirmed mild to moderate knee OA. Twelve week LBPP treadmill walking exercise regimen. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to quantify joint symptoms and patient function; isokinetic thigh muscle strength was evaluated; and a 10-point VAS was used to quantify acute knee pain while walking. Baseline and follow-up data were compared in order to examine the effect of the 12week exercise intervention. There was a significant difference between baseline and follow-up data: KOOS and COPM scores both improved; thigh muscle strength increased; and acute knee pain during full weight bearing walking diminished significantly. Participation in a 12week LBPP supported treadmill walking exercise regimen significantly enhanced patient function and quality of life, as well as the ability to perform activities of daily living that patient's self-identified as being important, yet difficult to perform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of older people is a significant issue in Thailand, resulted in growing demands of health and social welfare services. The study aim was to explore the influence of socioeconomic factors on activities of daily living and quality of life of Thai seniors. Design and methods: Using randomised cluster sampling, one province was sampled from each of the Central, North, Northeast and South regions, then one subdistrict sampled in each province, and a household survey used to identify the sample of 1678 seniors aged 60 years and over. The Mann-Whitney U-test and binary logistic regression were used to compare and determine the association of socioeconomic variables on quality of life and activities of daily living. Results: The findings showed that sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were significantly related to functional capacity of daily living. Education levels were strongly associated with daily life activities, with 3.55 adjusted ORs for respondents with secondary school education. Gender was important, with females comprising 61% of dependent respondents but only 47% of independent respondents. Seniors with low incomes were more likely to be anxious in the past, present and future and less likely to accept death in the late stage, with 1.40 Adjusted ORs (95%CI: 1.02-1.92, and 0.72 (95%CI: 0.53-0.98, respectively. However, they were more likely to engage in social activities. Conclusions: While socioeconomic factors strongly indicated the functional capacity to live independently, a good quality of life also required other factors leading to happiness and life satisfaction.
Kanchan, Amrita; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Khan, Nawab Akhtar; Jahan, Masroor; Raman, Rajesh; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S
The present study was targeted to observe the impact of neuropsychological rehabilitation on activities of daily living (ADL) and community reintegration of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on purposive sampling technique, ten patients with TBI falling in the age range of 20-40 years and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were chosen from All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysuru, India. A quasi-experimental design, i.e., nonequivalent control group design was chosen for the study. Patients were assessed on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Adults, Cognitive Symptoms Checklist, and Community Integration Questionnaire. Patients in experimental group were given neuropsychological rehabilitation for 6 months. Brainwave-R and Talking Pen were used as rehabilitative tools. Patients with TBI have significant neuropsychological deficits observed in memory, visuo-spatial organization, arithmetic, spelling, writing, fine motor coordination, and executive functioning. Neuropsychological deficits have a major impact on ADL and community reintegration. Neuropsychological rehabilitation is effective in rehabilitating neuropsychological deficits, which in turn leads to improvement in ADL and community reintegration. Neuropsychological rehabilitation should be one of the major goals in rehabilitation procedures for patients with TBI in order to bring overall improvement in them.
Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun
The diagnostic relevance of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be unresolved. The aim of this study is to determine clinical correlates of SMCs in MCI. Furthermore, we examined whether there are the differences due to different aspects of complaints (i.e. prospective memory (PM) versus retrospective memory (RM) complaints). We examined the cross-sectional associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive measures in sixty-six individuals with MCI (mean age: 65.7 ± 8.01 years). The criteria for MCI included SMCs, objective cognitive impairment, normal general cognitive function, largely intact functional activities, and absence of dementia. SMCs were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which contains 16 items describing everyday memory failure of both PM and RM. SMC severity (i.e. PRMQ total score) was associated with stronger depressive symptoms and worse IADL performance. SMCs were not related to cognitive measures. For PM and RM subscores, both depressive symptoms and IADL were related to the PRMQ-PM and -RM scores. The main contributors to these PM and RM scores were depressive symptoms and IADL impairment, respectively. This study suggests that SMCs are more associated with depressive symptoms and IADL problems than with cognitive performance in individuals with MCI. Furthermore, while PM and RM complaints are related to both depressive symptoms and IADL, the differences between these main contributors suggest that RM complaints based on IADL could be more associated with the organically driven pathological features of MCI.
Min, Hua; Mobahi, Hedyeh; Irvin, Katherine; Avramovic, Sanja; Wojtusiak, Janusz
Bio-ontologies are becoming increasingly important in knowledge representation and in the machine learning (ML) fields. This paper presents a ML approach that incorporates bio-ontologies and its application to the SEER-MHOS dataset to discover patterns of patient characteristics that impact the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Bio-ontologies are used to provide computable knowledge for ML methods to "understand" biomedical data. This retrospective study included 723 cancer patients from the SEER-MHOS dataset. Two ML methods were applied to create predictive models for ADL disabilities for the first year after a patient's cancer diagnosis. The first method is a standard rule learning algorithm; the second is that same algorithm additionally equipped with methods for reasoning with ontologies. The models showed that a patient's race, ethnicity, smoking preference, treatment plan and tumor characteristics including histology, staging, cancer site, and morphology were predictors for ADL performance levels one year after cancer diagnosis. The ontology-guided ML method was more accurate at predicting ADL performance levels (P ontologies. This study demonstrated that bio-ontologies can be harnessed to provide medical knowledge for ML algorithms. The presented method demonstrates that encoding specific types of hierarchical relationships to guide rule learning is possible, and can be extended to other types of semantic relationships present in biomedical ontologies. The ontology-guided ML method achieved better performance than the method without ontologies. The presented method can also be used to promote the effectiveness and efficiency of ML in healthcare, in which use of background knowledge and consistency with existing clinical expertise is critical.
Problem Statement: Because communication skills, particularly pragmatic skills, are fundamental for living an independent life in society, these skills are vital to the quality of life of individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) and their families. Studies of the pragmatic skills of individuals with DD can provide important insights into…
Alizadeh, S.; Bakkes, S.C.J.; Kanis, M.; Rijken, M.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Jordanova, M.; Lievens, F.
Telemonitoring is regarded as a means to maintain a relatively high quality of life for independently living elderly. This paper discusses a requirements study of a system to, foremost, telemonitor activities of daily living (ADL) of the elderly. The study utilizes literature and in-depth interviews
Smith, Tanya M
Numerous studies have investigated molar development in extant and fossil hominoids, yet relatively little is known about orangutans, the only great ape with an extensive fossil record. This study characterizes aspects of dental development, including cuspal enamel daily secretion rate, long-period line periodicities, cusp-specific molar crown formation times and extension rates, and initiation and completion ages in living and fossil orangutan postcanine teeth. Daily secretion rate and periodicities in living orangutans are similar to previous reports, while crown formation times often exceed published values, although direct comparisons are limited. One wild Bornean individual died at 4.5 years of age with fully erupted first molars (M1s), while a captive individual and a wild Sumatran individual likely erupted their M1s around five or six years of age. These data underscore the need for additional samples of orangutans of known sex, species, and developmental environment to explore potential sources of variation in molar emergence and their relationship to life history variables. Fossil orangutans possess larger crowns than living orangutans, show similarities in periodicities, and have faster daily secretion rate, longer crown formation times, and slower extension rates. Molar crown formation times exceed reported values for other fossil apes, including Gigantopithecus blacki. When compared to African apes, both living and fossil orangutans show greater cuspal enamel thickness values and periodicities, resulting in longer crown formation times and slower extension rates. Several of these variables are similar to modern humans, representing examples of convergent evolution. Molar crown formation does not appear to be equivalent among extant great apes or consistent within living and fossil members of Pongo or Homo. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael
A cooking skill scale was developed to measure cooking skills in a European adult population, and the relationship between cooking skills and the frequency of consumption of various food groups were examined. Moreover, it was determined which sociodemographic and psychological variables predict cooking skills. The data used in the present study are based on the first (2010) and second (2011) surveys of a yearly paper-and-pencil questionnaire (Swiss Food Panel). Data from 4436 participants (47.2% males) with a mean age of 55.5 years (SD=14.6, range 21-99) were available for analysis. The cooking skills scale was validated using a test-retest analysis, confirming that this new scale is a reliable and consistent instrument. Cooking enjoyment was the most important predictor for cooking skills, especially for men. Women had higher cooking skills in all age groups. Cooking skills correlated positively with weekly vegetable consumption, but negatively with weekly convenience food consumption frequency, even while holding the effect of health consciousness related to eating constant. In summary, cooking skills may help people to meet nutrition guidelines in their daily nutrition supply. They allow people to make healthier food choices. It is, therefore, important to teach children and teenagers how to cook and to encourage them to develop their cooking skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jia, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Wei; Nian, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Cui, Jin; Xu, Wei-Dong
To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and translation of the original version of the Activities of Daily Living Scale of the Knee Outcome Survey into Simplified Chinese and validate of the Simplified Chinese version. The original version was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Simplified Chinese according to the guidelines and the recommendations of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Outcome Committee. A total of 213 patients (96 male, 117 female) were selected to participate in our investigation. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 18 years of age and older, able to speak Chinese Mandarin and read Simplified Chinese, and referred to physical therapy for evaluation and treatment for a knee disorder. The exclusion criteria were as follows: patients who had disorders or impairments involving both knees, patients who had other conditions that could affect lower extremity function, patients with physical therapy related to the knee in the previous 1 month, and patients with psychological problems. Each participant was asked to complete the Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and Short Form 36 forms and to provide baseline demographic data. Each participant completed the KOS-ADLS twice on 2 nonconsecutive days for reliability evaluation. A portion of the participants (n = 161) finished the KOS-ADLS a third time 4 weeks after physical treatment to test responsiveness. The original version of the KOS-ADLS was well adapted and translated into Simplified Chinese. Simplified Chinese of KOS-ADLS was shown to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.855 to 0.929), great test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.935 to 0.961), high construct validity as we hypothesized (significant correlations with Short Form 36 subscales, Western Ontario and Mc
Appropriate regression relationships were used to measure the effect of dietary protein level on the patterns of DE intake, daily gain and the deposition rates of protein (PDR) and fat (FDR) over the growth period 30-90 kg live mass. Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and daily gains.
Czmowski, Gina M.; Willert, Shea L.; Nielsen, Sarah K.
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have social, emotional, and organizational skill deficits which are frequently addressed through behavioral-based skills training. However, these approaches often do not result in generalization of skills. This case study sought to understand if the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational…
Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Emi; Yoshida, Tomomi; Mori, Natsumi; Watanabe, Riko
Whether nutritional improvement correlates with functional recovery in convalescent stroke patients is unclear. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between nutritional improvement and recovery of activities of daily living among malnourished elderly stroke patients in the convalescent stage. This study used a cross-sectional study design. One hundred seventy-eight malnourished stroke patients aged 65 years and older from convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan between April 2012 and December 2014 were included in the analyses. The participants were classified into three groups according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) score at discharge (0 to 7 as no improvement, 8 to 11 as lesser improvement, and 12 to 14 as greater improvement). The primary outcome was functional independence measure (FIM) efficiency (FIM gain/length of hospital stay). The secondary outcomes were FIM gain and discharge outcome. One-way analysis of variance, χ(2) test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for univariate analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, length of hospital stay, FIM (motor and cognitive) on admission, and lower-order items of MNA-SF. Binomial logistic analysis for discharge outcome (home/others) was performed to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, and FIM. Study participants included 85 men and 93 women with a mean age of 77 years. Based on MNA-SF, 16 were classified as no improvement, 113 as lesser improvement, and 49 as greater improvement. The median FIM efficiency and length of hospital stay were 0.27 points/day and 151.5 days, respectively. The greater improvement group had significantly higher FIM efficiency than the other groups (Pnutritional improvement such as maintenance of body weight is associated with the efficient recovery of activities of daily living among malnourished elderly convalescent stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus
Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.
Crasborn, F.J.A.J.; Hennissen, P.P.M.; Korthagen, F.A.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.
Mentor teachers need a versatile supervisory skills repertoire. Besides taking the prevalent role of daily advisor and instructor, mentor teachers should also be able to stimulate reflection in student teachers. Video recordings of 60 mentoring dialogues were analysed, both before and after a mentor
Dr. Paul Hennissen; Dr. F.J.A.J. Crasborn; Niels Brouwer; Theo Bergen; Fred Korthagen
Mentor teachers need a versatile supervisory skills repertoire. Besides taking the prevalent role of daily advisor and instructor, mentor teachers should also be able to stimulate reflection in student teachers. Video recordings were analyzed of 60 mentoring dialogues, both before and after a mentor
Mahadevan, Aditya; Strehlow, Matthew C; Dorjsuren, Khandregzen; Newberry, Jennifer A
Background Soft skills are essential for employee success in the global marketplace; however, many developing countries lack content experts to provide the requisite instruction to an emerging workforce. One possible solution is to use an online, open-access curriculum. To date, no studies on soft skills curricula using an online learning platform have been undertaken in Mongolia. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an online versus classroom platform to deliver a novel soft skills course in Mongolia. Methods A series of eight lectures along with corresponding surveys and multiple choice question tests were developed and translated into the Mongolian language. Two different delivery modalities, online and traditional classroom lectures, were then compared for knowledge gain, comfort level, and satisfaction. Knowledge gain and comfort level were assessed pre- and post-course, while satisfaction was assessed only post-course. Results Enrollment in the online and classroom courses was 89 students and 291 students, respectively. Sixty-two online students (68% female) and 114 classroom students (77% female) completed the entire course and took the post-test. The online cohort had higher pre-test scores than the classroom cohort (46.4% and 37.3%, respectively, p soft skills topics (p soft skills course, and it was found that knowledge gain was significantly higher for the classroom group, while comfort and satisfaction with individual course topics was comparable.
Responsiveness, minimal detectable change, and minimal clinically important difference of the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale in patients with improved performance after stroke rehabilitation.
Wu, Ching-yi; Chuang, Li-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Lee, Shin-da; Hong, Wei-hsien
To determine the responsiveness, minimal detectable change (MDC), and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) scale and to assess percentages of patients' change scores exceeding the MDC and MCID after stroke rehabilitation. Secondary analyses of patients who received stroke rehabilitation therapy. Medical centers. Patients with stroke (N=78). Secondary analyses of patients who received 1 of 4 rehabilitation interventions. Responsiveness (standardized response mean [SRM]), 90% confidence that a change score at this threshold or higher is true and reliable rather than measurement error (MDC(90)), and MCID on the NEADL score and percentages of patients exceeding the MDC(90) and MCID. The SRM of the total NEADL scale was 1.3. The MDC(90) value for the total NEADL scale was 4.9, whereas minima and maxima of the MCID for total NEADL score were 2.4 and 6.1 points, respectively. Percentages of patients exceeding the MDC(90) and MCID of the total NEADL score were 50.0%, 73.1%, and 32.1%, respectively. The NEADL is a responsive instrument relevant for measuring change in instrumental activities of daily living after stroke rehabilitation. A patient's change score has to reach 4.9 points on the total to indicate a true change. The mean change score of a stroke group on the total NEADL scale should achieve 6.1 points to be regarded as clinically important. Our findings are based on patients with improved NEADL performance after they received specific interventions. Future research with larger sample sizes is warranted to validate these estimates. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baglama, Basak; Yikmis, Ahmet; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli
Individuals with special needs require support in acquiring various academic and social skills and mathematical skills are one of the most important skills in which individuals with special needs need to acquire in order to maintain their daily lives. Current approaches in education emphasize the importance of integrating technology into special…
Trail, Thomas E; Shelton, J Nicole; West, Tessa V
Jobs, social group memberships, or living arrangements lead many people to interact every day with another person from a different racial background. Given that research has shown that interracial interactions are often stressful, it is important to know how these daily interactions unfold across time and what factors contribute to the success or failure of these interactions. Both members of same-race and mixed-race college roommate pairs completed daily questionnaires measuring their emotional experiences and their perceptions of their roommate. Results revealed that roommates in mixed-race dyads experienced less positive emotions and intimacy toward their roommates than did roommates in same-race dyads and that the experience of positive emotions declined over time for ethnic minority students with White roommates. Mediation analyses showed that the negative effects of roommate race were mediated by the level of intimacy-building behaviors performed by the roommate. Implications for future research and university policies are discussed.
Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Çekok, Kübra
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. 42 adults with stroke (mean age (SD) = 58.04 (16.56) years and mean time since stroke (SD) = (55.2 ± 22.02 days (∼8 weeks)) were included in the study. Participants were enrolled from the rehabilitation department of a medical center (a single inpatient rehabilitation facility). Participants were randomly assigned to Nintendo Wii group (n = 20) or Bobath neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) (n = 22). The treatments were applied for 10 weeks (45-60 minutes/day, 3 days/week) for both of two groups. Nintendo Wii group used five games selected from the Wii sports and Wii Fit packages for upper limb and balance training, respectively. The patients in Bobath NDT group were applied a therapy program included upper extremity activites, strength, balance gait and functional training. The functional independence in daily life activities and health-related quality of life was assessed with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), respectively. Participant's treatment satisfaction was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale. A second evaluation (FIM and NHP) occurred after 10 weeks at the end of rehabilitative treatment (post-training). Treatment satisfaction was measured after 10 sessions. There were significant difference between FIM and NHP values in NDT and Nintendo Wii group (p 0.05). The patients in Nintendo Wii group were detected to be better satisfied from the therapy (p Bobath NDT on daily living functions and quality of life in subacute stroke patients.
Asrizal; Amran, A.; Ananda, A.; Festiyed; Khairani, S.
Integrated science learning and literacy skills are relevant issues in Indonesian’s education. However, the use of the integrated science learning and the integration of literacy in learning cannot be implemented well. An alternative solution of this problem is to develop integrated science instructional material on pressure in daily life theme by integrating digital age literacy. Purpose of research is to investigate the effectiveness of the use of integrated science instructional material on pressure in daily life theme to improve knowledge competence, attitudes competence and literacy skills of students. This research was a part of development research which has been conducted. In the product testing stage of this research and development was used before and after design of treatment for one sample group. Instruments to collect the data consist of learning outcomes test sheet, attitude observation sheet, and performance assessment sheet of students. Data analysis techniques include descriptive statistics analysis, normality test, homogeneity test, and paired comparison test. Therefore, the important result of research is the use of integrated science instructional material on pressure in daily life theme is effective in scientific approach to improve knowledge competence, attitudes competence, and digital age literacy skills of grade VIII students at 95% confidence level.
Priscila Zeitune Nigri
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar a tradução, adaptação cultural e validação do "Knee Outcome Survey- Activities of Daily Living Scale" (ADLS para a língua portuguesa, bem como verificar suas propriedades de medida, reprodutibilidade e validade, para que o mesmo possa ser usado como um instrumento específico para avaliação de sintomas em pacientes brasileiros portadores de afecções no joelho durante as atividades de vida diária. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 2 entrevistas,na primeira o questionário foi aplicado em conjunto ao Lysholm, SF-36 e EAV (examinador 1. Após aproximadamente 30 minutos da primeira entrevista, os mesmos pacientes responderam apenas ao ADLS (examinador 2. Após um intervalo entre 7 a 10 dias, foi realizada a terceira entrevista constituída de nova aplicação do ADLS (examinador 2. RESULTADOS: A amostra consistiu de 53 entrevistados, sendo a média de idade de 33.0566 anos e patologia mais freqüente a lesão ligamentar (56,6%. O índice de Sperman obteve um valor de 0,986 (alfa=0,05, roOBJECTIVES: To perform the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the "Knee Outcome Survey - Activities of Daily Living Scale" (ADLS into Portuguese, as well as to check its measurement, reproducibility and validity properties in order to make it useful as a specific instrument for evaluating symptoms in Brazilian patients with knee injuries during their daily living activities. METHODS: Two interviews were performed; in the first interview, the questionnaire was applied along with Lysholm's, SF-36 and VAS (investigator 1. Approximately 30 minutes after the first interview, the same patients answered only the ADLS (investigator 2. After a break of 7 to 10 days, a third additional interview with the ADLS was applied (investigator 2. RESULTS: The sample was constituted of 53 subjects, with mean age of 33.0566 years, with the most frequent pathology being ligamentar injury (56.6%. The Spearman's index used for inter
Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin; Lubans, David R
Although previous studies have demonstrated that children with high levels of fundamental movement skill competency are more active throughout the day, little is known regarding children's fundamental movement skill competency and their physical activity during key time periods of the school day (i.e., lunchtime, recess and after-school). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental movement skill competency and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) throughout the school day among children attending primary schools in low-income communities. Eight primary schools from low-income communities and 460 children (8.5 ± 0.6 years, 54% girls) were involved in the study. Children's fundamental movement skill competency (TGMD-2; 6 locomotor and 6 object-control skills), objectively measured physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X and GT3X + accelerometers), height, weight and demographics were assessed. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the cross-sectional associations between fundamental movement skills and MVPA. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status, locomotor skill competency was positively associated with total (P=0.002, r=0.15) and after-school (P=0.014, r=0.13) MVPA. Object-control skill competency was positively associated with total (Pskill competency appears to be a better predictor of children's MVPA during school-based physical activity opportunities than locomotor skill competency. Improving fundamental movement skill competency, particularly object-control skills, may contribute to increased levels of children's MVPA throughout the day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910.
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.
Mariana Ortelani de Toledo
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the daily life of Informal Caregivers (ICG of cancer patients assisted in an outpatient chemotherapy unit of a university hospital in Campinas, São Paulo state. This study is part of a broader investigation. It was approved by a Research Ethics Committee under protocol n. 0288/10, and all ethical principles were adopted in accordance with the recommendations of Resolution 196/96. It is a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study with literature and field research. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 ICGs for data collection. The data were analyzed based on the goals of the study and the theory and practice pertaining to the Theory of Social Representation. The results showed that (92.8% of the ICGs are female (57.1%, married, between 41 and 60 years old (78.5%, living in the same household of the sickened family members at the following degrees of relatedness: (35.7% mother-daughter, followed by (21.4% husband-wife. In the Informal Caregivers’ perception, their role interfered with their daily activities, bringing restrictions to leisure activities, self-care and work. The study expanded the understanding of the impacts that the function of caring brings to their everyday activities, helping to foster discussions about the need to implement actions and interventions of occupational therapy strategies that facilitate the daily lives of ICGs.
I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The only prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in several science and engineering departments. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional courses, including: basic modeling skills, probabilistic modeling skills, data analysis methods, computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python, dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. These basic skills, which are relevant to nearly any field of science or engineering, are presented in the context of case studies from living systems, including: virus dynamics; bacterial genetics and evolution of drug resistance; statistical inference; superresolution microscopy; synthetic biology; naturally evolved cellular circuits. Publication of a new textbook by WH Freeman and Co. is scheduled for December 2014. Supported in part by EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.
Yoshino, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Yokono, Koichi
The causes of decreased activity of daily life (ADL) in elderly patients include cerebrovascular diseases, bone fracture by falls, and dementia. The present study was conducted among elderly patients with decreased ADL who were hospitalized in nursing wards in order to investigate the causes of becoming early bedridden and to determine precautionary measures against decreased ADL. The study subjects were 224 elderly patients with decreased ADL (mean age: 83.3 ± 8.0 years) and 49 outpatients without decreased ADL (mean age: 76.8 ± 5.3 years). Current age, age at the start of ADL decrease, medical history and history of smoking were investigated. In the groups with decreased ADL, current age and the age of becoming bedridden in non-diabetic versus diabetic groups were 84.7 ± 7.9 versus 80.3 ± 7.5 and 82.7 ± 8.3 versus 77.6 ± 8.0 years, respectively, both showing significantly lower values in the diabetic group (P bedridden. Diabetic patients with smoking habit were significantly younger than diabetic and non-diabetic patients without smoking habit. Sex difference, smoking habit and presence of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors of becoming early bedridden. Therefore, the major targets of medical care among elderly should be diabetic men with a smoking habit to lower the risks of decreased ADL. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Engineering Flesh. Towards professional responsibility for ‘lived bodies’ in Tissue Engineering This study analyses the work of biomedical engineers as normative work that affects people’s daily lives as bodies. In biomedical engineering, engineers study bodies as machine-like objects and develop
The purpose of this investigation was understand the correlationship between the energy expenditure of living activity and body structure or physical fitness in the students of a women's junior college. The resulut were as follows; It was shown that the physical activites in the daily life was necessary for prevention of obesity in the students.
Qian, Yiqing; De Loney, E Hill; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Nonresident African American (AA) fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers' residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers' pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son's mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention's effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.
Full Text Available Nonresident African American (AA fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers’ residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers’ pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son’s mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention’s effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.
Webel, Allison R; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Asher, Alice K; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A
HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicted all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F = 5.40, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women's social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diment, Gregory Michael
Psychological Skills Training (PST) has been a tool used by sport psychology consultants. However, within soccer many of these programs have been delivered as workshops, homework tasks, or individual consultations with athletes. The aim of the project was to develop an ecological intervention...... by creating a series of drillbased sessions to train psychological skills, and educate coaches about how to implement and integrate PST as a natural part of daily training. The program was delivered to the youth academies in nine Danish professional soccer clubs and consisted of three phases: (a) planning...... of the program, (b) education and designing soccer drills, and (c) delivery of the drills on the soccer pitch. The program was well received by clubs, coaches, and players. With regards to project aims, the intervention was generally considered a success. Coaches reported that the drill-based nature...
The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture was assessed as moderate, on average, and depended mainly on spinal pain-related characteristics, such as severity, age at onset and co-existence of pain in any other spinal sections
Full Text Available This article is the result of twenty-one months of fieldwork among the capoeiristas in Brazil, primarily in the city of Salvador, between 2003 and 2013. The fieldwork methodology was based on participant observation. It also included conducting interviews and informal conversations, listening to life stories of locals, and writing a diary. My personal experiences within capoeira and the improvement of my own skills enabled me to better grasp what capoeira is about. By participating, I more fully understood the corporeal strain and pleasure involved in this particular embodied practice. The socio-economic situation of Brazilian society based on racial and gender discrimination enhances the cultivation of capoeiristic habitus and dictates the need for the acquisition of capoeiristic skills and attitudes in order to cope with, understand, and live within an unequal world. Capoeiristic habitus consists of knowledge, attitudes and skills enabling capoeiristas to stay in tune with the environment of lurking danger, to face with an ambiguous, unstable and uncertain environment. Capoeiristic habitus can be embodied early in life or learnt and acquired as a by-product of capoeira training. But it remains important whether the environment in which a capoeirista practises tolerates or inhibits the cultivation of capoeiristic skills.
Zupan, Barbra; Dempsey, Lynn
Purpose: To (a) familiarize readers with the components of emergent literacy and the impact hearing loss may have on the development of these skills; (b) demonstrate the importance of parent-professional collaboration and show how specific literacy-based activities can be integrated into existing daily routines and intervention programming; and…
Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.
Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.
Saltan, Asuman; Bakar, Yeşim; Ankarali, Handan
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of wheelchair basketball sport on the functional abilities of wheelchair users. This is a randomized controlled study. Wheelchair basketball players (n = 111) and non-player (n = 85) were included in this study. We administered the questionnaire version of the wheelchair skills test questionnaire (WST_Q), recording the participants' capacity and performance scores on each of 32 skills. Player group have the baseline values of WST_Q higher than control group. The mean total percentage score of player group was significantly greater than control group (p skills-sports relationship is reciprocal. With increased wheelchair skills, people may be more inclined to engage in sports; subsequently, with greater sports, wheelchair skills could improve. Wheelchair mobility skills during clinical rehabilitation should reflect the daily activities and needs of each wheelchair user. WST-Q provides advantages in terms of requiring less time and material in using of clinical.
Gommesen, Niels Jørgen
This essay reflects on the material flows and intensive states that surround us in our everyday lives, to provide an understanding of the ways in which they permeate and affect our bodies and cause a change in them, when we are moving through a landscape alongside various materialities, rhythms...... and movements. Based on my felt experiences during daily runs, it analyzes these vibrant land-scapes as heterogeneous assemblages, as collectives co-constituted between human-nonhuman actors, to study the material flows that move our bodies and expose them to new organizations. It sums up, that technologies......, milieus and human-nonhuman beings that lives alongside each other, have an immediate impact on each other caused by the circulating intensities within the heterogeneous collectives. We discover that changes in one context interface with changes in another, rhythms resonate and create new movements...
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Reed, Bruce R.; And Others
Compared Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) scores and activities of daily living (ADL) scores from 59 patients with progressive dementias. MMSE scores explained approximately one-third of variance in both instrumental and physical ADLs. Findings suggest that cognitive losses and functional impairments are 2 distinct aspects of dementia severity which…
Hamed M. Almalki
Full Text Available Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been surveyed in two undergraduate engineering programs to discover their leadership skills. The results in both programs were revealing that undergraduate engineering students are lacking behind in the visionary leadership skills compared to directing, including and cultivating leadership styles. Recommendation: A practical framework has been proposed to enhance the lacking leadership skills by utilizing the Matrix of Change (MOC, and the Balanced Scorecard BSC to capture the best leadership scenarios to design virtual simulation environment as per the lacking leadership skills which is the visionary leadership skills in this case. After that, the virtual simulation will be used to provide an experiential learning by replacing human beings with avatars that can be managed or dramatized by real people to enable the creation of live, practical, measurable, and customizable leadership development programs.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre is a valid and reliable test for the evaluation of functional capacity and involves multiple physical activities of daily living (PADL, which are known to be troublesome to patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. However, it is still unknown if this test is also able to reflect the functional performance of patients with COPD. Objective To investigate whether the TGlittre reflects the functional performance of COPD patients and whether the necessary time to complete the TGlittre and the PADL varies according to disease severity. Method Thirty-eight patients with COPD (age 65, SD=7 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second 41.3, SD=15.2% predicted underwent anthropometric and lung function assessments and were submitted to the TGlittre and PADL measurement. Results TGlittre performance correlated significantly (p<0.05 with PADL variables, such as time sitting (r=0.50, walking (r=-0.46, number of steps taken (r=–0.53, walking movement intensity (r=–0.66, walking energy expenditure (r=-0.50, and total energy expenditure (r=–0.33. TGlittre performance was not significantly different in patients among the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD spirometric stages, but walking and sitting time were significantly lower and greater, respectively, in severe and very severe patients compared to those with moderate disease (p<0.05. Conclusion The performance on the TGlittre correlates with walking and sitting time and other real life PADL measurements. The severity of the disease is associated with the differences in the level of physical activity in daily life more than in functional capacity.
Fong, Tamara G; Gleason, Lauren J; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Saczynski, Jane S; Gross, Alden L; Bean, Jonathan F; Brown, Cynthia J; Fick, Donna M; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Inouye, Sharon K
Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Expert panel survey. Web-based platform. Eleven experts from 8 academic medical centers and 300 community-dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective noncardiac surgery from 2 academic medical centers. Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychologic tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, whereas walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychologic performance (r = 0.13-0.23, P cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, postacute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.
Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona; Snowling, Maggie; Buckley, Sue; Hulme, Charles
This article reports the evaluation of a 6-week programme of teaching designed to support the development of phoneme blending skills in children with Down syndrome (DS). Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver the intervention to individual children in daily 10-15-minute sessions, within a broader context of reading and language…
Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Stessman, Jochanan
This article examines the association between frequency of going out of the house and health and functional status among older people. A randomly chosen cohort of ambulatory participants born in 1920 or 1921 from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study underwent assessments for health, functional, and psychosocial variables at ages 70 and 77. Twelve-year mortality data were collected. Women went out daily less than did men. Participants going out daily at age 70 reported significantly fewer new complaints at age 77 of musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, urinary incontinence, and decline in activities of daily living (ADLs). Logistic regression analysis indicated that not going out daily at age 70 was predictive of subsequent dependence in ADL, poor self-rated health, and urinary incontinence at age 77. Going out daily is beneficial among independent older people, correlating with reduced functional decline and improved health measures.
Kagwa, Sharon A; Boström, Anne-Marie; Ickert, Carla; Slaughter, Susan E
To explore the experience of HCAs encouraging residents living in residential care to complete the sit-to-stand activity and to identify the strategies HCAs used to integrate the activity into their daily work routines. Decreased mobility in advanced ageing is further reduced when entering a residential care facility. Interventions such as the sit-to-stand activity have been shown to have a positive effect on the mobility of older people. There is evidence to suggest that healthcare aides are able to support residents to complete the sit-to-stand activity as part of their daily work routines; however, little is known about how healthcare aides actually do this with residents living in residential care. A qualitative interview study included seven purposively sampled HCAs working in residential care facilities. Semistructured interviews were analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. The HCAs' experience with the sit-to-stand activity was represented by the following four categories: Resident participation, Feeling misunderstood and disrespected, Time and workload, and Management involvement. HCAs identified three strategies to help them support residents to complete the sit-to-stand activity: Motivating residents, Completing activity in a group and Using time management skills. HCAs reported some encouragement from managers and cooperation from residents to complete the sit-to-stand activity with residents; however, they also felt constrained by time limitations and workload demands and they felt misunderstood and disrespected. HCAs were able to identify several strategies that helped them to integrate the sit-to-stand activity into their daily routines. This study highlights the challenges and supportive factors of implementing the sit-to-stand activity into the daily work routine of HCAs. The study also identifies the strategic role of nurse managers when implementing interventions in residential care facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bobić Lucić, Lana; Grazio, Simeon
The objective of this study was to explore the impact of balance confidence on different activities of daily living (ADL) in older people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-seven consecutive participants with knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. They were divided according to the results of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale into a group with a low level of confidence in physical functioning (ABC balance measurements. Older people with knee OA who were less confident in their daily physical activities had more physical difficulties and a greater effect of pain on ADL, lower quality of life, and a higher physician's global assessment, but no differences were obtained in balance tests. In people with knee OA, decreased balance confidence is associated with more physical difficulties, an increased effect of pain on ADL, and lower quality of life. An improved awareness of decreased balance confidence may lead to more effective management of older people with knee OA by improving their mobility and QOL through rehabilitation. Furthermore, future research in that direction is warranted.
Full Text Available Aims. To examine the relationship between activities of daily living (ADL and readmission within 90 days and assess the cutoff value of ADL to predict readmission in hospitalized elderly patients with heart failure (HF. Methods. This cohort study comprised 589 consecutive patients with HF aged ≥65 years, who underwent cardiac rehabilitation from May 2012 to May 2016 and were discharged home. We investigated patients’ characteristics, basic attributes, and ADL (motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure [FIM]. We analyzed the data using the unpaired t-test, χ2 test, Cox proportional hazard model, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, and Kaplan-Meier method. Results. Of 589 patients, 113 met the criteria, and they were divided into the nonreadmission (n=90 and readmission groups (n=23. Age, body mass index, New York Heart Association class, hemoglobin level, and motor FIM score were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05. The body mass index (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87; p<0.05 and motor FIM score (HR: 0.94; p<0.01 remained statistically significant. The cutoff value for the motor FIM score determined by ROC curve analysis was 74.5 points (area under the curve = 0.78; p<0.001. Conclusion. The motor FIM score in elderly patients with HF was an independent predictor of rehospitalization within 90 days.
Heininga, V E; Van Roekel, E; Ahles, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Mezulis, A H
Background Anhedonia, the decreased interest and pleasure, is often described as 'flat' or 'blunted' positive affect (PA). Yet, little is known about PA functioning in anhedonic individuals' daily lives. The current study investigates PA reactivity to pleasurable experiences in anhedonia together
Hugo, Anna J.
Full Text Available Music activities can be used to develop and enhance young learners’ listening abilities. Listening is a language skill which is a prerequisite for the development of other language skills and especially for the development of a person’s speaking abilities. It is also a prerequisite for the development of a person’s language abilities in a second language. In a research project involving a group of 70 English first additional language learners, two Grade 1 classes were selected. One class was the experimental group and the other class was the comparison group. Over a period of six months the experimental group received planned music activities daily. When the two groups were retested after six months, significant differences in the means between the experimental and the control groups were found. The experimental group significantly improved their listening skills in English as a second language (ESL. This has implications for teaching ESL learners in the Foundation Phase.
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people's ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
A longitudinal qualitative study examining the factors impacting on the ability of persons with T1DM to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) principles into daily living and how these factors change over time
Abstract Background The literature reveals that structured education programmes, such as DAFNE, result in many positive outcomes for people with Type 1 diabetes including a decrease in HbA1c levels and reductions in hypoglycaemia. While there is evidence that some of these outcomes are maintained we do not know at present what factors are most important over time. The study aim was to identify the key factors impacting on persons with Type 1 diabetes ability to assimilate the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) DAFNE principles into their daily lives and how these factors change over time. Methods This is a longitudinal descriptive qualitative study. Interviews were undertaken with 40 participants who had attended DAFNE in one of 5 study sites across the Island of Ireland, at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after completion of the programme. The interviews lasted from 30 to 60 minutes and were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed in three ways, a within time analysis, a cross sectional analysis for each participant and a thematic analysis which focused on examining changes over time Results Four themes that influenced participants\\' ability to assimilate DAFNE into their daily lives over time were identified. These were: embedded knowledge, continued responsive support, enduring motivation and being empowered. Support at the 6 month period was found to be crucial to continued motivation. Conclusions Understanding the factors that influence people\\'s ability to assimilate DAFNE principles over time into their daily lives can help health professionals give focused responsive support that helps people with diabetes become more empowered. Understanding that continued support matters, particularly around 6 months, is important as health professionals can influence good management by providing appropriate support and enhancing motivation. Trial registration ISRCTN79759174
Full Text Available This study compares Italian mothers’ and Ecuadorian immigrant mothers’ daily family routines. Thirty mothers took part in this investigation: 15 Italians (M = 37.5 years, with ages ranging from 30 to 42 years and 15 Ecuadorians (M = 36.1 years, with ages ranging from 18 to 46 years and having lived in Italy for an average of 15 years, with children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years. The objective is to highlight the differences and similarities between the daily routines and family relations that characterize the lives of each of the two groups of participants. The instruments employed in service of these aims were in-depth interviews and diaries. The results showed similarities regarding the routines of Italian and Ecuadorian families. However, a relevant difference emerged regarding their perceptions of social support. Specifically, Italians receive more social support from their parents than do Ecuadorians, who are supported more by other relatives or by friends.
Kim, Young Joo; Rogers, Joan C; Raina, Ketki D; Callaway, Clifton W; Rittenberger, Jon C; Leibold, Mary Lou; Holm, Margo B
The aim was to describe fatigue-related problems reported by post-cardiac arrest adults with chronic fatigue and energy conservation strategies generated using an Energy Conservation plus Problem Solving Therapy intervention. Following an introduction to the intervention process outlined in a Participant Workbook, participants engaged in the telephone intervention by identifying one to two fatigue-related problems. They then brainstormed with the interventionist to identify potential strategies to reduce fatigue, tested them, and either modified the strategies or moved to the next problem over three to five sessions. Eighteen cardiac arrest survivors with chronic fatigue identified instrumental activities of daily living and leisure activities as fatigue-related activities more frequently than basic activities of daily living. Energy Conservation strategies used most frequently were: plan ahead, pace yourself, delegate to others, and simplify the task. Post-cardiac arrest adults living in the community with chronic fatigue can return to previous daily activities by using energy conservation strategies such as planning ahead, pacing tasks, delegating tasks, and simplifying tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper presents a case study, in which a new module, aimed at enhancing students’ employ-ability skills, is evaluated. Employability skills for graduates from higher education are regarded as essential outcomes from their degree programmes, but it can be difficult to provide appropriate opportunities to develop these skills in the context of their studies. This paper describes a new module, called Live Projects, designed to provide project based learning on campus, but involv-ing local bu...
Burton, Melissa; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony
Purpose: Food education in secondary schools can provide adolescents with essential food knowledge and skills required for healthy, independent living. The purpose of this paper is to identify food-related knowledge and skills that Australian consumers believe are required for all consumers, and to identify their demographic and psychographic…
Fleury, Anthony; Vacher, Michel; Noury, Norbert
By 2050, about one third of the French population will be over 65. Our laboratory's current research focuses on the monitoring of elderly people at home, to detect a loss of autonomy as early as possible. Our aim is to quantify criteria such as the international activities of daily living (ADL) or the French Autonomie Gerontologie Groupes Iso-Ressources (AGGIR) scales, by automatically classifying the different ADL performed by the subject during the day. A Health Smart Home is used for this. Our Health Smart Home includes, in a real flat, infrared presence sensors (location), door contacts (to control the use of some facilities), temperature and hygrometry sensor in the bathroom, and microphones (sound classification and speech recognition). A wearable kinematic sensor also informs postural transitions (using pattern recognition) and walk periods (frequency analysis). This data collected from the various sensors are then used to classify each temporal frame into one of the ADL that was previously acquired (seven activities: hygiene, toilet use, eating, resting, sleeping, communication, and dressing/undressing). This is done using support vector machines. We performed a 1-h experimentation with 13 young and healthy subjects to determine the models of the different activities, and then we tested the classification algorithm (cross validation) with real data.
Ozemek, Cemal; Wilkerson, Brittany S; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Kirschner, Monica M; Byun, Wonwoo
The triaxial GT3X+ accelerometer can measure activity counts in the vertical, horizontal right to left, horizontal front to back planes, and can generate a summative score of the three axes represented by vector magnitude (VM). Information on the reliability of the GT3X+ at the hip, wrist and ankle sites, over all axes and VM during activities of daily living (ADL) is lacking in the literature. Forty healthy adults (14 men and 26 women) were randomly assigned to perform 10 of 20 ADL (consisting of sedentary, housework, yard work, locomotive and recreational activities) while wearing two monitors on the hip, wrist and ankle. Subjects performed each ADL over 7 min and the mean activity counts during the last 4 min were used for analyses. Average intraclass correlations between monitors were high for the three sites for each axis and VM (hip: 0.943, 0.857, 0.864 and 0.966, respectively; wrist: 0.994, 0.963, 0.961 and 0.989, respectively; ankle: 0.977, 0.979, 0.927 and 0.986, respectively). These data suggest that GT3X+ accelerometers measurements made from the hip, wrist and ankle sites are reliable during ADL across all axes and VM. (paper)
Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Rojo-Abuin, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Sanchez, Mario; Arakaki, Tomoko; Bergareche-Yarza, Alberto; Chade, Anabel; Garretto, Nelida; Gershanik, Oscar; Kurtis, Monica M; Martinez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Amelia; Moore, Henry P; Rodriguez-Violante, Mayela; Singer, Carlos; Tilley, Barbara C; Huang, Jing; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Martinez-Martin, Pablo
To evaluate the motor experiences of daily living section of the Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS M-EDL) for assessing disability in PD patients; to determine the association between disability and quality of life; and to identify cut-off score ranges for no, mild, moderate and severe disability with this measure. International, observational, cross-sectional study of 435 PD patients, assessed with: MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Rapid Assessment of Disability Scale, Clinical Impression of Severity Index for PD, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8 and EQ-5D. Descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, Kruskal-Wallis test for group comparisons, ordinal logistic regression analysis for setting cut-off values and a step-wise multiple linear regression model were calculated. MDS-UPDRS M-EDL correlated 0.70-0.80 with other disability measures, and -0.46 to 0.74 with quality of life scales. Scores significantly increased with higher disease duration and severity (p MDS-UPDRS nM-EDL section as the main determinant of M-EDL, followed by the rest of MDS-UPDRS sections (explained variance: 59%). MDS-UPDRS M-EDL proved to be useful for assessing disability in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whiteley, Laura; Brown, Larry; Lally, Michelle; Heck, Nicholas; van den Berg, Jacob J
Highly active combination antiretroviral treatment has been shown to markedly improve the health of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment leads to decreased morbidity and mortality and decreases the number of hospitalizations. However, these clinical achievements can only occur when young persons with HIV are adherent to care. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults have poorer rates of adherence to antiretroviral medications and poorer rates of retention in care than older adults. Novel and engaging digital approaches are needed to help adolescents and young adults living with HIV be adherent to treatment. The aim of this study was to develop an immersive, action-oriented iPhone gaming intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral medication and treatment. Game development was guided by social learning theory, taking into consideration the perspectives of adolescents and young adults living with HIV. A total of 20 adolescents and young adults were recruited from an HIV care clinic in Rhode Island, and they participated in qualitative interviews guided by the information-motivation-behavioral skills model of behavior change. The mean age of participants was 22 years, 60% (12/20) of the participants identified as male, and 60% (12/20) of the sample reported missing a dose of antiretroviral medication in the previous week. Acceptability of the game was assessed with client service questionnaire and session evaluation form. A number of themes emerged that informed game development. Adolescents and young adults living with HIV desired informational game content that included new and comprehensive details about HIV, details about HIV as it relates to doctors' visits, and general health information. Motivational themes that emerged were the desire for enhancement of future orientation; reinforcement of positive influences from partners, parents, and friends; collaboration with health care providers; decreasing stigma
In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…
Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji; Kobayashi, Erika; Minami, Ushio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideyo; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kumagai, Shu; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Furuna, Taketo; Suzuki, Takao
To examine whether engaging in paid work is a predictor of maintaining good functional health among Japanese older adults in both urban and rural communities. We used the 8-year longitudinal Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging with 306 and 675 persons aged 65-84 years from Koganei City (urban) and Nangai Village (rural), respectively, who are independent in basic activities of daily living (BADL). In order to examine the declining patterns in BADL and evaluate the predictive value of working status for future BADL disability, we applied the log-rank test of cumulative proportion curves and the Cox proportional hazard model by sex, controlling for age, research fields, years of education, marital state, chronic medical conditions, pain, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), smoking status, exercise habits, life satisfaction, usual walking speed and serum albumin for evaluating the predictive value of working status at baseline for future BADL disability. In both areas, participants who were not working were more likely to decline in BADL than those working (P women in urban Koganei. Male participants who did not engage in paid work had a higher adjusted hazard ratio of onset of BADL disability, compared with those working, but this was not seen for female participants. Working might be protective from a decline in BADL only for men, but not for women. Regarding the difference of sex roles in conventional Japanese society, working would be an effective solution especially for men to participate in social activities. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.
Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise
Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol.
Kuiper, E.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.
Although the Web is almost omnipresent in many children's lives, most children lack adequate Web searching skills as well as skills to process and critically evaluate Web information. In this article, we describe and evaluate an educational program that aimed at acquiring Web skills in the context
Schoemaker, Marina M.; Lingam, Raghu; Jongmans, Marian J.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Emond, Alan
Aim of the study was to investigate whether 7-9 year old children with severe motor difficulties are more at risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living, academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Children (N = 6959) from a
Lingam, R; Schoemaker, M; Jongmans, M; van Heuvelena, M; Emond, A
Aim of the study was to investigate whether children aged 7–9 year old with severe motor difficulties had a greater risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living (ADL), academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Methods Children
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...
Artful Inquiry as a Leadership Skill Lotte Darsø Abstract for 8th AMO 2016: Open Stream How do leaders develop their own leadership? How do leaders get inspiration and energy for leading and how do they make decisions in complex situations with scarce information? In this paper I will argue...... that artful inquiry is an important leadership skill, both in relation for leaders to rekindle themselves and their employees. I’ll define Artful Inquiry as the skill of inquiring into something of importance through body, mind, heart and spirit. Artful Inquiry taps into the leader’s tacit knowledge...... of materials such as paper, clay, LEGO pieces, photos, cloth, materials from nature, or a combinations of these); embodying (e.g. exploring positions, developing empathy, or focused sensing into what the body knows); listening (e.g. to different music pieces or live music); or presencing (e.g. through...
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
Washington's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program (I-BEST) quickly teaches students literacy, work, and college-readiness skills so they can move through school and into living wage jobs faster. Pioneered by Washington's community and technical colleges, I-BEST uses a team-teaching approach to combine college-readiness classes…
Cai, Dong-Ping; He, Yong-Ming
China is being plagued by a large-scaled lasting fog and haze, under which people have to work and live. Therefore, it matters to do what we can to minimize the adverse impact of the fog and haze on individual health on a daily basis. Relative literatures on the fog and haze have been searched and reviewed. Particular attention has been paid to the literatures on the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the people's health and on the ways minimizing this impact. Coming across the weather of fog and haze, appropriate measures taken can minimize its adverse impact on individuals on a daily basis. The measures included vitamin intake, water drinking, air cleaning indoors, stay-at-home, and mask wearing outdoors. These measures are simple and proven effective. Simple and effective measures seem to be sufficient to minimizing the adverse impact of the fog and haze on the individual's health on a daily basis. Lifestyle changes, awareness of environment protection, energy conservation, and new and clean energy use are ultimate ways to curb the air pollution and reduce the occurrence of the fog and haze.
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Barnett, Lisa M.; Hardy, Louise L.; Brian, Ali S.; Robertson, Sam
The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument’s discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1) and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback. Key points Golf is becoming an increasingly popular sport among young children, however there is no standard protocol available to assess and identify skill deficits, mastery level, and talent identification in beginner young golf players. Process rather than product oriented outcomes better identify areas of skill deficit in young children. The proposed swing and putt instrument can reliably identify skill deficits in children of elementary school age who are new to golf and can be used by a range
Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Slaets, Joris P J; Smits, Carolien H M
Objective: This study explores older adults' perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative
Gårdling, Jenny; Törnqvist, Erna; Edwinson Månsson, Marie; Hallström, Inger
The aim of radiotherapy is to provide a cure and/or symptomatic relief for children with cancer. Treatment is delivered on a daily basis, 5 days per week, over the course of 5 to 35 days. Many parents find that leaving their children alone during treatment and exposing them to radiation is a challenging experience. To gain an understanding of parents' lived experiences, 10 parents were asked to keep a diary while their children underwent radiotherapy. A descriptive inductive design with a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was chosen to analyze the diaries. The parents were asked to write down their lived experiences while their children underwent radiotherapy. Daily notes, both short and long, were desirable. The parents described radiotherapy as a balancing act involving a constant attempt to maintain a balance between coercing and protecting their children in order to improve their children's chances of survival. Meanwhile, the parents themselves were struggling with their own despair and feelings of powerlessness. While protecting their children, they experienced a sense of hope and felt that they had gained control. Parents' daily written reflections are important for clinical practice and provide vital knowledge. Parents need support when focusing on coercing and protecting their children and help with information and routines that enable them gain control.
Disability and Quality of Life among People Living. With HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, ... activities of daily living as well as challenges with. 7,8 ... infected individuals, their family and the society at large. ... Independence, Social Relationships, Environment ..... efavirenz on neuropsychological performance .... Acta paul. enferm. 2015 ...
Full Text Available Critical thinking skill is the priority in the goals of education. In this case, the critical thinking has the higher process, such as analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflecting which enables the individual to make the reasonable assessment both in the classroom and in the daily life. This research is aimed to determine the students’ critical thinking skill in learning Chemistry at senior high school. This research used descriptive method in which the instruments were developed based on the indicators of critical thinking skill. The population of this research was 100 students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade from senior high schools in Surakarta which was chosen using cluster random sampling technique. The result of the research shows that the students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade have adequate critical thinking skills.
With the aim of investigating the role of first language skills in second language acquisition and school achievement in the immigration context, this study presents the findings of the home language skills of the third-generation Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (n=24) living in the Netherlands by
Chong, Yen Wan; Rahman, Maria Abdul
In today’s global work environment characterised by workplace diversity, multicultural skills or cultural intelligence (CQ) are essential soft skills for managerial success. In a multi-cultural country like Malaysia, the development of multicultural sensitivity is also important so that its citizens will learn to live in harmony. This paper reports on a study which reviews the effectiveness of a campus wide program that was implemented by a Malaysian public university which specializes in man...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of living arrangements with functional disability among older persons and explore the mediation of impact factors on the relati