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Sample records for da radiacao gama

  1. Identification from the Natural Response of Vasco Da Gama Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, A.; Caetano, E.; Brincker, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the reanalysis of the ambient vibration data of Vasco da Gama cable-stayed bridge with the purpose of testing the efficiency and accuracy of two recent and promising identification methods in a large application: the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and the Stochastic...... Subspace Identification (SSI) methods. The modal estimates obtained using these alternative approaches are compared, taking also into account the estimates previously obtained with the conventional Peak Picking technique from the free vibration test of the bridge, performed at the end of construction....

  2. Sebastião da Gama : milagre de vida em busca do eterno : uma leitura da sua obra

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alexandre Francisco Ferreira dos

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudos Portugueses Interdisciplinares apresentada à Universidade Aberta Resumo - Pela Poesia se vai até à verdade… (Sebastião da Gama) Sebastião da Gama (1924-52) legou-nos uma obra tão vasta como breve e intensa foi a sua vida. É o poeta da vida integral, pura e luminosa, tão amargamente ceifada pelo destino como alegremente vincada por um optimismo sem limites. O trabalho que se apresenta incide sobre um corpus textual restrito: obras publicadas em...

  3. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  4. Gamma radiation effects on polycarbonate-Durolon; A interacao da radiacao gama com o policarbonato Durolon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelina

    1996-12-31

    In this work, the commercial polycarbonate-Durolon, was characterized through measurements of its mechanical, optical viscosimetric and thermal properties, after being irradiated with a {sup 60} Co gamma-source at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These irradiations were carried out different doses and dose rates in air and in vacuum. From the results obtained it was shown that irradiation causes degradation in PC mainly by chain scission, leading to the formation of phenoxy and phenyl radicals which are associated with the yellowness of the material. Both, the concentration of radicals and yellowness of PC increase with the irradiation doses and dose rates. The irradiated PC-Durolon shown a good mechanical stability up to the doses analyzed, but on the other hand, its optical properties do not have the same performance. The viscosity and glass transition temperature of the Durolon decreases with the increase of dose and dose rates. This behavior indicates that main chain scission is the predominant process during irradiation. Furthermore in PC this degradation is higher when the material is irradiated in air, which shows that oxygen also plays an important role in this degradation process. (author). 37 refs., 30 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Dias en Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw en Camões (herbesoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L. Coetser

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dias and Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw and Camões (revisited. Although he was the first Portuguese explorer who rounded the southernmost cape of Africa, world history does not herald Bartholomew Dias as an important figure. His compatriot Vasco da Gama was the first mariner who reached the Orient by navigating around the Cape. Despite Dias’s relative historical unimportance, N.P. van Wyk Louw preferred to write a radio play about him and his journey around the South African coast. Luís Vaz de Camões, on the other hand, wrote an epic poem about da Gama’s journey, which he titled Os Lusíadas (1572, or The sons of Portugal. The question I set out to answer, relates to the position and importance that the playwright of Dias (1952 attaches to themes in Canto 5 of Os Lusíadas (1572. I assume that the two can be compared due to the presence of the mythical character Adamastor in both. As in Os Lusíadas (1572, Adamastor takes the form of a storm in Dias (1952. I conclude that, in spite of different origins, both texts are allegorical and national in character. The differences in origin inspired a revised reading of Dias (1952.

  6. Dias en Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw en Camões (herbesoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L. Coetser

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alhoewel Bartolomeus Dias die eerste Portugese ontdekker was wat om die suidelikste kaap van Afrika geseil het, neem hy in die wêreldgeskiedenis ’n geringe plek in. Sy landgenoot Vasco da Gama het, deur ook om die Kaap te vaar, die eerste seevaarder geword om die Ooste te bereik. Nieteenstaande Dias se geringer prestasie, het N.P. van Wyk Louw verkies om ’n radiodrama oor die gedeelte van Dias se vaart om die Suid-Afrikaanse kus te skryf. Daarteenoor is die geskiedenis van Da Gama se vaart in ’n epiese gedig deur Luís Vaz de Camões opgeteken in sy Os Lusíadas (1572, of Die seuns van Portugal. Die vraag wat ek wil beantwoord, gaan oor die plek en belang wat die dramaturg in Dias (1952 aan temas heg wat teruggevoer kan word tot kanto 5 van Os Lusíadas (1572. Ek neem aan dat die twee tekste met mekaar vergelyk kan word op grond van die teenwoordigheid van die mitiese karakter Adamastor in albei. Soos in Os Lusíadas (1572 neem Adamastor in Dias (1952 die vorm aan van ’n storm. My gevolgtrekking is dat albei tekste, ondanks verskillende oorspronge, ’n allegoriese en ’n nasionale aard vertoon. Die verskillende oorspronge maak dit moontlik om ’n hersiene interpretasie van Dias (1952 te gee.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of prato cheese; Efeito da radiacao gama na maturacao do queijo prato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Erika Maria Roel

    2001-07-01

    The Prato (cheese washed dough) is one of the must popular cheese of Brazil and must be ripening for 45 to 60 days for to reach characteristics of flavors and texture. The present work studied the effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of Prato cheese. Two periods of irradiation was studied, in first day and 15{sup th} day of ripening. The cheese was irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy at a rate of 0,9696 kGy/h from a cobalto-60 source in the period referred and stored at 10-12 deg C and +- 85% RH for 60 days. The physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics and organoleptic properties were analysed every each 15 days of ripening. Through of the results observed that with the increase of the dose of radiation, decreased the total microbial count and that the irradiation retarded the ripening according to increase of the dose, this probability of the destruction of bacterial lactic. The greatest difference found was in the colour according the increasing of the dose, the cheese was more colorless, less yellow and red. Which the organoleptic properties verified that with the increase of the dose of radiation, there was a lost about the color. The cheese increase the firmness, became dryer and less creamy and tasted flavors less intense, a little more bitter and smoking compared with a control. Even though about these differences there was no refuse of Prato cheese, among the sensorial group for irradiated cheese until 2 kGy. (author)

  8. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a aguardente de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-07-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p {<=}0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA statistics for the sensory analysis, no significant difference between samples, related to odor, taste, global impression was verified. However, a significant difference related to color was observed. (author)

  9. [Antonio de Saldanha da Gama's proposals to improve the slave trade "for humanitarian and economic reasons," Rio de Janeiro, 1810].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Ana Carolina de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    In 1808, Dom João VI issued an edict which regulated the shipping and treatment of slaves on the transatlantic crossing from Africa. Two years later, Antonio de Saldanha da Gama, a member of the Treasury Council, drafted a letter discussing some points of the resolution. This key figure in the Portuguese administration of Brazil argued that his respectful considerations concerning the determinations of His Royal Highness were designed to improve them "for humanitarian and economic reasons." Safeguarded in the archives of Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino, this letter is transcribed, annotated, and contextualized here, supplying an interesting perspective on the prevailing concerns and justifications about the trafficking of African slaves to Brazil.

  10. Gamma radiation in some microbiological and biochemical parameters of ethanolic fermentation.; Efeito da radiacao gama em alguns parametros microbiologicos e bioquimicos da fermentacao alcoolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation in reducing the bacterial population of the sugar cane must and verify its influence in the ethanolic fermentation. For this purpose, some microbiological and biochemical parameters of the ethanolic fermentation were analyzed, such as bacterial count; viability, replication and living replicates of the yeast; p H, acidity (total and volatile), glycerol and production of organic acids (acetic, lactic and succinic) during the fermentation; and fermentative yield. Bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus are the most common contaminants of the ethanolic fermentation and they might cause a decrease in the fermentative yield. The ionizing radiations may affect the microorganisms altering the DNA of the cells, which lose the ability to reproduce themselves and die. The experimental design was in randomized blocks (three) with one replicate in each block. The must was sugar-cane juice with approximately 5% of total reducing sugar. Bacteria of the following species were tested: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. The experiments were the inoculation of each bacteria separately in the must, the inoculation of the mixture of the four bacteria in the must and the use of natural sugar-cane juice with its own contaminating microorganisms. The contaminated must was irradiated with the doses of 0.0 (control), 2.0,4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation (60-Cobalt) at an average rate of 2.0 kGy/h. After the irradiation, the fermentation of the must was carried out using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fleischmann). It was also accomplished an experiment with the inoculation of the mixture of the four bacteria in the must and, instead of using gamma radiation to decontaminate the must, it was used the antimicrobial Kamoran ID in the concentration of 3 ppm. The effects of the irradiation of the must were: reduction of the bacterial population that contaminated the must decrease of the total acidity, the volatile acidity, the p H drop and the production of the organic acids (acetic, lactic and succinic) during the fermentation; increased of the viability, the replication and the percentage of living replicates of the yeast after fermentation; and increased of the fermentative yield. The treatment of the sugar-cane must with gamma radiation reduced its bacterial population, with consequent improved of the microbiological and biochemical parameters of the ethanolic fermentation, including the fermentative yield. The irradiation of the must was a better treatment than the use of the antimicrobial Kamoran ID in the fermentation because the yeast in the experiment with the antimicrobial presented smaller viability, replication and percentage of living replicates than in the experiment with the irradiated must. (author)

  11. Effects of the gamma radiation in the refrigerated bovine meat conservation.; Efeitos da radiacao gama na conservacao da carne bovina refrigerada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Carlos Otavio

    2004-07-01

    The meat is one of our largest alimentary source of proteins, however it is bad distributed and bad taken advantage by the population in general. Some segments of the society with excess of foods and other with lack, it generated in these last ones the drama of the hunger. Today there are about 800 million people (13% of the world population) malnourished, that they live in more than 30 countries, almost in totality concentrated in Africa and Asia. But that drama also reaches our own country. Make it arrive to this segment of the less favored population, that is usually in difficult access areas, a food with nutritional quality for the consumption is the great challenge of our society. the objective is increase the shelf life of the food, maintaining their nutritional and sensorial characteristics preserved. By this way, it becomes also a challenge to protect the meat of pathogenic microorganisms and eliminate those might have been installed in the animal still alive or during the manipulation in the meat industry before arriving for the consumption. The use of the gamma radiation allowed to guarantee the product quality in the total absence of the studied pathogenic microorganisms in this project, maintaining the initials organoleptics characteristics (sensorial and physiochemical) for a large period that the one specified by the legislation, increasing this way it shelf life. The sensorial analysis indicated that until the dose of 6,0 kGy there is no alteration in the flavor and with the dose of 8,0 kGy the meat acquired a light smoked flavor, but in the appearance, aroma and texture attributes no confirmed any alterations. The color of the irradiated meat in the used doses didn't present color change compared to the no irradiated meat. The microbiological analysis pretended to verify the elimination of the pathogenic microorganisms: Salmonella ssp, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Clostridium sulphite reducers, as specified in the Resolution RDC no. 12, ANVISA 02/01/2001. The necessary dose for the elimination of the Salmonella ssp and the Bacillus cereus was of 4,0 kGy and for the other microorganisms the dose of 2,0 kGy was enough. The storage test involved a maintenance period of the product for 0, 7, 14,21 and 28 days to the temperature of 7 deg C, as specify the Portaria number 304, DIPOA 22/04/1996, being verified the physicochemical characteristics in meat irradiated with the dose of 8,0 kGy in comparison with the fresh no irradiated meat. The alterations were observed in the Acidity that increased in the period in 5,5% and 12% in comparison with the no irradiated meat; Peroxyde were only detected in the irradiated meat and they stayed constant during the period; the Lipids increased significantly in the beginning of the period arriving to 113% above the no irradiated meat, it decreased during the period and at the end it presented an index of 51% below the no irradiated meat. Finally, Creatinine increases significantly in the irradiated meat, but it stayed constant during the period. The sensorial analysis in the storage test of meat samples irradiated with 4,0 kGy and 8,0 kGy was not verified alterations between the stored and the recently irradiated samples. (author)

  12. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da qualidade da polpa de amora-preta (Rubus spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Paula da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta é uma fruta que vem despertando a atenção de produtores e consumidores devido ao seu sabor agradável, cor atrativa e por apresentar em sua composição elevado teor de compostos bioativos. O grande entrave para consumo e a comercialização dos frutos da amoreira é sua elevada taxa respiratória, o que reduz sua vida útil. Uma alternativa viável para o aproveitamento econômico dessas frutas consiste em sua industrialização, podendo ser congeladas, enlatadas, processadas na forma de polpa, ou na forma de sucos e geleias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da polpa de amora. A irradiação foi realizada no laboratório de irradiação gama do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, em uma fonte de cobalto 60, com as seguintes doses de radiação: 0,75 kGy; 1,5 kGy e 3 kGy, sob uma taxa de dose de 3,24 kGy.h-1 . A polpa não irradiada foi utilizada como controle. As polpas de amora irradiadas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 4ºC, sendo avaliadas nos tempos de 0; 7; 15; 30 e 60 dias. Para verificar os efeitos da radiação gama no processamento na polpa, foi realizada a caracterização físico-química e química através das análises de acidez, pH, sólidos solúveis, sólidos totais, teor de antocianinas, atividade antioxidante e cor. Também foi feita análise microbiológica de acordo com a legislação brasileira vigente. O processo de irradiação aumentou a vida útil de prateleira da polpa em até 60 dias, sendo que o tratamento com uma dose de 1,5 kGy foi a que proporcionou a melhor qualidade microbiológica.

  13. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs;Efeito da radiacao gama em proteina alergenica de ovos de galinhas poedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-07-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of {sup 60}Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  14. Effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.);Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em frutos de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz Lima dos

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate gamma radiation effects from Cobalt-60 on post harvest characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Brazilian savannah is the second biome of American Continent and concentrate a lot of plants and animal species. Many plants and their fruits are still unknown of Brazilian population. Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, Deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The loss humidity was proportional to radiation applied doses, the highest loss was observed on fruits to 1.0 kGy doses. Soluble fiber and protein showed no significant differences between treatments. Ash, insoluble fiber, dry matter and lipids showed little significant differences. Significant decrease of the pH values was observed for the irradiated samples in relation to control. Irradiated samples texture showed significant increase compared to control, but showed no significant differences between applied doses. The higher value for texture was (39.89 Newton g-1) for 0.6 kGy dose. Total soluble solids (TSS) showed a significant decrease compared to control, but was not significant between applied treatments. Titratable acidity showed a significant decrease for irradiated samples compared to control for all doses, but it was not significant between treatments. The ratio TSS/TTA showed no significant differences compared to control, only for irradiated fruits at 0.6 kGy doses presented differences compared to other treatments with the lowest value (24.12). Significant increases were observed between treatments and control, indicating an effective action of experimental doses on the parameter color a, both for the applied dose as to the pequi storage time. The parameter 'L' showed a decrease in brightness in relation to the storage time for all treatments, and the luminosity presented increase in relation to the radiation applied doses. There was a significant decrease in the parameter b* values for all applied doses compared to control. The storage time was not significantly influence for this parameter. The lowest values of parameter b* were observed for irradiated fruits at 10.0 kGy dose followed by 3.0 kGy, with reductions of more than 50%. There was a significant decrease in the ascorbic acid levels on irradiated pequi fruits, proportional to the applied dose. The losses were to around 49.85% for irradiated samples with 0.4 kGy dose, 82.28% for 0.6 kGy dose and 85.25% for the 1.0 kGy dose, compared to control. There was a decrease in total carotenoids levels of irradiated pequi samples compared to non irradiated (control). The losses were to 45.56% for irradiated fruits at 1.0 kGy dose compared to control. The control presented the highest total carotenoids value found (16.70 mg 100 g-1). The radiation processing presented a significant reducing effect on antioxidant activity of pequi fruits for all applied doses. Antioxidant capacity reductions were 2.92% for the 0.4 kGy dose, 5.26% to 0.6 kGy dose and 11.52% for the 1.0 kGy dose. The irradiation process using gamma rays from {sup 60}Co is efficiency to protect pequi fruits in post harvest period. (author)

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on country made polycarbonate Durolon FN2200; Efeito da radiacao gama no policarbonato nacional Durolon FN2200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, Mauro Cesar

    1996-07-01

    Type II polycarbonate, PC II, manufactured with high purity reagents as used on medical fabrication was gamma irradiated by {sup 60} Co source with doses from 0 to 300 kGy. Dose effects on the tensile strength at break (TSb) and at yield (TSy), on the molecular weight by viscosity, on optical properties by yellowness index (YI) and transmittance (T), molecular structure by transmission spectroscopy on infrared region (IR). Radical formation and decay at 100 kGy was studied too by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance of proton (NMR {sup 1}H). T S alteration was not observed up to 100 kGy, but molecular weight already suffers alteration at low doses, as well optical properties suffer significant alteration at sterilization doses (25 kGy) by yellowness index of 90% that is not desirable by medical application point of view. Molecular scission degree was calculated from viscosity measurements which value found is 1 and the crosslinking was not observed at sterilization doses. The formation of three different radicals was observed phenoxy, phenyl and isopropyl when irradiated on vacuum and after being put in air contact, scission occurs on PC II on two sites of the polymeric chain, while on PC I scission occurs only in one site. The PC II can be used in sterilized medical devices by gamma radiation from R T point of view, but looking to optical properties in a incorporation of additives will be necessary to cover up this coloration, as an optical whitener. It is interesting to note although PC II has G{sub scission} = 1 and yellowness index of 17% and P C I has G{sub scission} = 16,7 and yellowness index of 27% this difference can be attributed to the large quantity of optical whitener added to PC I. At sterilization doses PC II has an excellent radiolytic stability considering the point of view TS but it is necessary to avoid the yellowness on the fabrication of medical devices that can be radio sterilized. (author)

  16. The combined effect of gamma radiation and stress cracking in polycarbonate;Efeito combinado da radiacao gama e stress cracking no policarbonato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Raphaela N. de; Rabello, Marcelo S., E-mail: marcelo@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Silva, Leonardo G.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the combined effect of gamma irradiation and stress cracking was studied in polycarbonate (PC). Tensile test bars were produced by injection moulding and then exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. After that they were submitted to the contact with isopropanol, the stress cracking agent used in this work. The specimens were tested for mechanical properties, viscosity molecular weight and fractography. The results indicated that the previous radiation intensified the stress cracking effects, as evidenced by the reduction in tensile properties and surface damage caused to the samples. (author)

  17. Study of crosslinking induced by gamma radiation in mixtures of polyacrylamide anionic and water; Estudo da reticulacao induzida por radiacao gama de misturas de poliacrilamida anionica e agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, M.T.S.; Brant, A.J.C.; Naime, N.; Guadagnin, H.C.; Ponce, P.; Lugao, A.B., E-mail: ablugao@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are composed of three-dimensional polymeric networks that can absorb and retain body of water hundreds of times the weight of its dry weight. The hydrogels can be crosslinked by chemical or physical. In general, chemical crosslinking is performed in the presence of reactive substances of high toxicity at elevated temperatures, may cause harmful secondary reactions to final product quality. However, ionizing radiation provides the crosslinking in the absence of chemical initiators or crosslinkers, therefore without contamination or toxicity. It also allows the realization of the reaction at low temperatures. These materials find use in several application fields, such as sanitary pads, diapers, controlled release of nutrients to the soil, separation processes, water purification systems and controlled release of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gamma radiation in doses of 15 and 25 kGy, in reticulation system of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and water, which were characterized by swelling and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the importance of the amount of water in the reticulation. It was concluded that gamma radiation has excellent potential for the synthesis of hiperabsorbent hydrogels. (author)

  18. Some effects of gamma radiation in Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae); Alguns efeitos da radiacao gama em Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J M.M.

    1975-12-31

    The effect of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) was studied in this work. Experiments showed that at a dose-rate of 9820 {+-} 300 rad/hour the LD sub(100) of egg embryos was 2,2 krad, of larvae 3 krad and of pupae 22,8 krad. Total sterilization of adults irradiated of the pupal stage was 5 krad. The sterilizing dose of irradiated adults was 8 krad at a calculated dose-rate of 57.630 {+-} 5000 rad/hour, whereas the LD sub(100) was 330 krad at a dose-rate of 63650 {+-} 1500 rad/hour. It was further verified that the number of eggs laid decreased with the irradiation dose. Longevity tended by increase in the females and diminish in the males as a result of irradiation. (author).

  19. Gamma radiation effects in Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama em Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J M

    1974-12-31

    Lethal effects were studied for the egg, larval and pupal stages as well as sterilization of adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by the application of gamma radiation. Irradiation of pupae with an estimated dosis of 7887 {+-} 158 rad inhibits adult emergency. Hypotheses have been suggested that the apparent density and (or) nutrient value of food substrates decisively influence the sterilizing dosis for this insect. Thus, in rice and maize which are apparently denser and (or) of higher nutrient value than maccaroni, insects are sterilized by a dosis of 7 krad, while in maccaroni the sterilizing dosis decreases to 5 krad. (author).

  20. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene; Efeitos da radiacao gama na estrutura e nas propriedades do poliestireno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    1996-12-31

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60`s as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with {gamma} rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx {approx} 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs {approx} 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex`s molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author) 43 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  2. Caracterização da dose letal mínima por irradiação gama para Penicillium citrinum Characterization of minimum lethal dosis of gama irradiation to Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Norberg

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso das radiações ionizantes na destruição de microrganismos responsáveis pela deterioração de alimentos ou causadores de infecções ou toxinfecções alimentares, constituiu-se aplicação da energia nuclear, para fins verdadeiramente pacíficos. Penicillium citrinum é um fungo produtor de micotoxinas, responsáveis por intoxicações em humanos e animais que se utilizam de alimentos contaminados. Há escassez de informações sobre a resistência do P. citrinum à irradiação gama; assim esta pesquisa objetivou determinar a dose letal por irradiação gama para esse microrganismo. Foram irradiadas 76 suspensões, contendo aproximadamente 100.000 esporos por mililitro, com doses entre 0,2 e 2,2 KGy (KiloGray, sendo os sobreviventes re-irradiados com doses até 3,0 KGy. O fungo foi totalmente destruído com dose de 2,2 KGy. P. citrinum descendentes dos sobreviventes de 2,0 KGy, quando re-irradiados também foram totalmente destruídos com dose de 2,2 KGy. Observou-se um aumento da resistência às doses mais baixas em relação ao fungo não irradiadoThe use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microrganisms which cause food decay, and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Penicillium citrinum is a fungus which produce mycotoxins responsible for intoxication in humans and animals as a result of eating contaminated food. There is little informations on the resistance of P. citrinum to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the lethal dose of gama radiation for these microrganisms. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy (KiloGray, being one sample still alive re-irradiated with doses up to 3.0 KGy. The fungus were totally destroyed with a 2.2 KGy. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy, being one sample still alive re

  3. Caracterização agronômica de mutantes de bananeira obtidos por meio da radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perito Amorim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bananeira é uma das fruteiras de maior importância econômica, explorada quase exclusivamente por pequenos produtores. Constitui-se em fonte contínua de alimento e renda. Embora o Brasil figure como um dos maiores produtores de banana, a bananicultura nacional enfrenta sérios problemas nas fases de produção e pós-colheita, que limitam sua inserção no mercado internacional. Um dos fatores que levam a grandes perdas na produção é o tombamento resultante da altura elevada da planta das principais cultivares comerciais. Uma estratégia para a solução deste problema é a redução do porte por indução de mutação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar mutantes de banana tipo Prata (cv´s Pacovan e Preciosa irradiadas, durante dois ciclos de produção, visando à seleção de plantas com porte baixo e boas características agronômicas. Plantas in vitro das duas cultivares foram irradiadas com raios gamas nas doses de 20 Gy ('Pacovan' - 200 mudas e 30 Gy ('Preciosa' - 200 mudas, subcultivadas por quatro vezes e posteriormente avaliadas em campo durante dois ciclos de produção. Foram selecionados quatro mutantes de cada cultivar com altura inferior à média de altura das testemunhas, após dois ciclos de avaliação. Observou-se que em alguns desses mutantes houve maior precocidade e maior massa do cacho quando comparados com as testemunhas. Pelos resultados, é possível selecionar plantas mutantes com características agronômicas superiores, tanto para a 'Pacovan' quanto para a 'Preciosa', submetidas à radiação gama.

  4. Impurity-related point defects and gamma-radiation response of massive quartz from the Borborema pegmatite province, in Brazil; Estudo da suscetibilidade ao escurecimento por radiacao gama de quartzo roseo-leitoso da provincia pegmatitica da Borborema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Milena Ribas de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mineral; Gonzaga, Raysa Sthefany Gomes; Guzzo, Pedro Luiz [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas; Barreto, Sandra de Brito [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Melgarejo, Joan Carles, E-mail: milaribas@hotmail.com, E-mail: raysagonzaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: pguzzo@ufpe.br, E-mail: sandrabrito@smart.net.br, E-mail: joan.carles.melgarejo.draper@ub.edu [Universidade de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Cristalografia, Mineralogia e Depositos Minerais

    2012-06-15

    This work has investigated the changes induced by {gamma}-radiation on impurity-related point defects in massive rose quartz from one deposit located at The Borborema Pegmatite Province (Northeast Region, in Brazil). Samples extracted from rose and colorless (milky) quartz blocks were irradiated with doses of {sup 60}Co, from 0.5 to 96 kGy. Point defects related to Al, Ge, Li and OH were measured by optical, infrared, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, prior and after irradiation. The contents of Al, Li, Ge, Fe, Ti and other impurities were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in quartz fragments exhibiting rose, pale-rose, and milky colorations. It was found that [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0}, [AlO{sub 4}/H]{sup 0} and [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} were generated by the dissociation of [AlO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} and [Li-OH] centers with doses as lower as 0.5 kGy. Above 8 kGy, the electron paramagnetic resonance signal related to [GeO{sub 4}/Li]{sup 0} decreases due to the intense mobility of Li species throughout the quartz lattice, giving rise to E'{sub 1} centers perturbed by Ge. The increase in [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0} content with {gamma} doses and the consequent rise in the intensity of smoky color were similar for both rose and colorless quartz. Scanning electron microscopy carried out in insoluble residues obtained after chemical dissolution of each type of quartz revealed the presence of nanometric fibers only in rose specimens. These results suggested that the cause of rose color in massive quartz from Borborema Pegmatite Province is probably related to the presence of dumortierite inclusions. (author)

  5. EFEITO DO TEOR DE GORDURA, VÁCUO E DOSE DE RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Salmonella TYPHIMURIUM ATCC 14028 EM CARNE BOVINA MOÍDA RESFRIADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. COSTA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho avaliou a sobrevivência de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 em carnes bovinas, moída crua e resfriada (2 ºC, através do tratamento com radiação gama (Co60, utilizando doses de 0; 1,5; 2,5 e 3,5 kGy. Além do fator dose de radiação foram avaliadas as influências do emprego de vácuo e de dois teores de gordura da carne bovina moída: baixo (2-4% e alto (11-13%, bem como a interação dos fatores, na redução ou eliminação da bactéria patogênica inoculada. Os resultados demonstraram que os teores de gordura da carne e o emprego de vácuo não influenciaram significativamente a sobrevivência da Salmonella. A dose de radiação gama influenciou a inativação de Salmonella de forma dose dependente até 2,5 kGy, com reduções de 4 ciclos logarítmicos. A dose de 2,5 kGy é suficiente para exercer um controle efetivo de Salmonella em carne bovina moída independentemente do seu teor de gordura e da presença de oxigênio.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of broccoli significant difference on the yellowing during storage. It is concluded that the processing of collard greens and broccoli butter by gamma radiation may be a viable alternative to the industry, since there was a reduction of the population of microorganisms, without changes in the sensory qualities and with minimum changes in the characteristics that confer antioxidant power. (author)

  7. Evaluation gamma radiation in composite sisal fiber- polyurethane derived of castor oil by bending test; Avaliacao da influencia da radiacao gama em compositos de fibra de sisal - poliuretano derivado de oleo de mamona atraves de ensaios de flexao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Felipe H. de; Geraldo, Ricardo R.; Vasco, Marina C.; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    Materials used for making furniture and accessories or positioning in X -ray examination rooms should not exhale volatile organic compounds and are resistant to ionizing radiation. One solution is the use of vegetable fiber and polyurethane composites of vegetable origin, since they are biodegradable, derived from renewable raw materials and have no volatile organic compounds. The main difficulty in developing this material is fiber adhesion with the polymer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of composite sisal fiber composite, without further treatment, and polyurethane derived from castor oil, with a dose of 25 kGy gamma radiation, subjected to 3 points bending tests. (author)

  8. Synthesis of a gamma irradiation grafted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based olefinic copolymer; Estudo da sintese de copolimero olefinico a base de politetrafluoroetileno (PTFE) por meio da enxertia induzida por radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreto, Helio Fernando Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    The extrusion of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is limited by a process related defect known as 'melt fracture' or 'sharkskin', which is a surface defect of the extruded polymer. This defect results in a product with a rough surface that lacks luster and in alterations of specific surface properties. The aim of this study was to obtain a recycled polytetrafluoroethylene polymer with an olefin that could improve the extrudability of the LLDPE. The copolymer was obtained by irradiating recycled PTFE in an inert atmosphere followed by the addition of an olefinic monomer to graft the latter in the polymeric matrix (PTFE). After a certain time of contact, the copolymer was heat treated to permit recombination and elimination of the radicals, both in a reactive and/or inert atmosphere. Three olefinic monomers were used, namely; acetylene, ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The 1,3-butadiene monomer was found to be more effective with respect to grafting. The specimens were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). 0.2-2.0 wt% of the copolymer that was obtained was mixed with LLDPE. The rheological properties of the mixture were determined with a torque rheometer. The results indicated that the process used rendered a copolymer which when added to LLDPE, improved the extrusion process and eliminated the defect 'melt fracture'. (author)

  9. Effect of chitosan addition and gamma radiation on polymeric blends of PVP and PVAL; Efeito da adicao de quitosana e da radiacao gama em blendas polimericas de PVP e PVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, M.C.; Castro, P.J.; Miranda, L.F.; Faldini, S.B., E-mail: mauroterence@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo. SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this project is the study of the effect of chitosan addition and the radiation with gamma rays. The polymeric blend usage is a recent development that expanded the applications of the polymers, due to the improvement of the properties of a single polymer. The PVP and PVAL were chosen because they present the main required characteristics to the formation of a hydrogel, such as water absorption and crosslinking, and the chitosan to improve the interaction between the hydrogel and the organism. The flexibility of the PVP was added with the mechanical resistance of the PVAL and the chitosan biocompatibility. With a defined concentration of PVP and PVAL, films of this blend was irradiated and also solutions with different concentrations of chitosan was prepared to obtain new films of this blend. After obtaining the films, some assays were realized to evaluate the mechanical properties. (author)

  10. Influence of gamma radiation on molluscicidal and antimicrobial action of leaf and stem bark of Ziziphus joazeiro; Influencia da radiacao gama sobre a acao moluscicida e antimicrobiana da folha e casca do caule de Ziziphus joazeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabricio O.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Lima, Maira V.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Oliveira, Maria L.M.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: fabriciomendesbio@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: mairavasconceloslima@gmail.com, E-mail: larissamelo.pe@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardolclf@hotmail.com, E-mail: viniciushtmorais@hotmail.com, E-mail: mluizamarinho@gmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: fabriciomendesbio@gmail.com, E-mail: williams.wns@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation is a physical agent used in several areas of knowledge: in medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, in the industry, it is apply in the generation of energy, sterilization of equipment and food, for example. Studies show that radiation can modify the molecular structure of substances of natural origin, potentiating or inactivating their function. The compounds derived from plants have received special attention because they constitute a form of medicinal therapy that has been growing notably in recent years. In addition, products of natural origin may also aid in the control of microbiological or animal vectors of parasites. Of the various species of plants being studied, Ziziphus joazeiro, popularly known as jua, native to the Caatinga, is commercially exploited for the manufacture of cosmetics and as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti influenza, fever and gastritis, bruises and has molluscicidal activity. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on leaf and bark extracts of Z. joazeiro stem, evaluating possible changes in molluscicidal and antimicrobial action. For the experiments, the Z joazeiro extracts were irradiated with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy (Gammacell-Cobalt-60, dose rate 7.222 kGy/h). Adult mollusks (n = 60) and embryos (n = 1800) of Biomphalaria glabrata were distributed in the following groups: negative control 1 (water only); negative control 2 (extract only); positive control (CuCO{sub 3}); and three groups submitted to irradiated extracts. The antibacterial assay was performed with Gram-positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) belonging to the collection of the Departamento de Antibioticos of the UFPE by disc diffusion method. Statistical analysis was perform by Student's t-test and chi-square test, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed that the ionizing radiation was not able to potentiate the molluscicidal action of the extracts studied; however, antimicrobial activity was verify independently of the irradiation. (author)

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of spectrophotometric response of alanine gel solution for gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations; Avaliacao dosimetrica da resposta espectrofotometrica da solucao gel de alanina para radiacao gama, de fotons, de eletrons e de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo

    2009-07-01

    Alanine Gel Dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on Alanine system developed by Costa. The DL-Alanine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO{sub 2}) is an amino acid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to analyse the main dosimetric characteristics this new gel material for future application to measure dose distribution. The performance of Alanine gel solution was evaluated to gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations using the spectrophotometry technique. According to the obtained results for the different studied radiation types, the reproducibility intra-batches and inter-batches is better than 4% and 5%, respectively. The dose response presents a linear behavior in the studied dose range. The response dependence as a function of dose rate and incident energy is better 2% and 3%, respectively. The lower detectable dose is 0.1 Gy. The obtained results indicate that the Alanine gel dosimeter presents good performance and can be useful as an alternative dosimeter in the radiotherapy area, using MRI technique for tridimensional dose distribution evaluation. (author)

  12. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail: lilia@truenet.com.br; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais

    1999-12-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  13. Effect of gamma radiation in the conservation of minimally processed cassava-parsley (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) packed under vacuous;Efeito da radiacao gama na conservacao da mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) minimamente processada e embalada a vacuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iemma, Juliana

    2001-07-01

    In the third millennium, when the main words are globalization, world net of computers, genetic code and efficiency, deep transformations have been incorporated to human behavior. Among such transformations it may be pointed out, matching with the objectives of this study, the modem consumer's profile. The consumers have quickly become more and more conscious and demanding regarding to the quality of the available products in the market. In that sense, the consumer's concern about the natural and healthy appearance, as well as the preservation of the nutritious content of the foods, have been a constant sign of alert for producers and suppliers. Besides, the timeless for domestic preparation of foods have imposed the use of minimally processed as an incontestable reality. A barrier for the production of minimally processed foods is imposed by the degree of perishability of certain products, such as the cassava-parsley. This vegetable is a source of energy, calcium, phosphorus and niacin, and important in the alimentary diet of children, seniors and convalescents. Post harvest treatments try to turn foods less perishable and also conserve as much as possible their original appearance. Among these post harvest treatments for food conservation it may be stood out the irradiation, which is the focus of this study. The objective of this study was to examine the viability of including the cassava parsley in the list of the minimally processed foods. Fresh cassavas were minimally processed and packed under vacuous. Samples were divided for three treatments: control and irradiation with the doses 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. After irradiation the samples were stored under refrigeration temperature (8 deg C) during 28 days. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were carried out at each 7 days of the period of storage, and sensorial analysis were carried out in the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. The experimental design was in factorial scheme with two factors: dose of irradiation and period of storage, with 3 replications for the physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes and with 30 replications for the sensorial analysis. The results showed that gamma radiation may be considered an interesting post harvest treatment for conservation of cassava-parsley because the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 kGy did not bring out undesirable alterations in the physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics of the cassava-parsley and showed efficiency in reducing its microbial population. (author)

  14. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety; Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama com tratamento termico na conservacao de suco natural de maca da variedade Gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; heat at 80{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60{sup 0}); radiation plus heat 80{sup 0} C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5{+-}3{sup 0} C up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs.

  15. Luiz Gama: um abolicionista leitor de Renan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Fonseca Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O hisoriador e filósofo Ernest Renan exerceu grande influência, hoje um tanto esquecida, sobre uma boa parte da elite intelectual brasileira engajada em reformas e movimentos que caracterizam a transição da Monarquia para a República. Dentre eles, destaca-se o abolicionista Luiz Gama, caso único de um ex-escravo autodidata que alcança projeção no cenário político e na República das Letras. Leitor precoce de Vida de Jesus, obra seminal do pensador francês, o advogado dos escravos é um dos primeiros a referir-se à obra que contou com inédita tradução brasileira, pouco depois de sua publicação na França. Por fim, observamos a apropriação das idéias renanianas por parte de personalidades diversas do ponto de vista social e racial, estabelecendo um paralelo entre Luiz Gama e Joaquim Nabuco.Historian and philosopher Ernest Renan exerts great influence - today somewhat forgotten - on a large part of the Brazilian intellectual elite that is engaged in reforms and movements which characterize the transition of a Monarchy to a Republic. Among these, abolitionist Luiz Gama stands out as the sole case of a former autodidact slave, who achieves a projection in the political scenario, and in the Republic of Letters. An early reader of Vida de Jesus, a seminal work of the French philosopher, the slaves’ attorney is one of the first to refer to the work, which counted with a first-hand, unprecedented Brazilian translation, shortly after its publication in France. Finally, we shall see the appropriation of Renanian ideas on the part of various personalities from the social and racial point of view, while establishing a parallel between Luiz Gama and Joaquim Nabuco.

  16. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on the molecule of tetracycline concerning its behavior as complexing and extracting agent; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre a molecula de tetraciclina relativamente ao seu comportamento como agente complexante e extrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondim de

    1982-07-01

    Both solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques were used to show the alterations that gamma radiation causes in the behavior of tetracycline molecule as far as its extracting and complexing power are concerned. The effect of gamma radiation on the solid tetracycline molecule, benzyl alcohol and on the solution of both was examined in solvent extraction systems whose aqueous phases were made up by {sup 152} Eu-{sup 154}Eu radioactive tracer solutions and whose organic phases were constituted by tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions. Experiments were performed in order to determine whether or not the water used for the pre-saturation of benzyl alcohol would influence the radiolysis of tetracycline. Solvent extraction and spectrophotometry were the techniques used to obtain the necessary data. Absorption spectra of irradiated tetracycline benzyl alcohol solutions submitted to several gamma radiation doses were examined and the alterations shown by these spectra were examined. The effect of gamma radiation on the tetracycline molecule was also studied when tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions were irradiated under several gaseous atmospheres, namely: O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, SF{sub 6} and N{sub 2}O. The variation on the concentration of the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solution caused by several doses of gamma radiation was determined by using the spectrophotometric technique. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation applied to extend the shelf-life of lamb meat vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration; Radiacao gama aplicada para estender a vida util da carne de cordeiro embalada a vacuo e armazenada sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregonesi, Raul Pereira

    2013-07-01

    The State of Sao Paulo has experienced in recent years a significant increase in production, supply and consumption of lamb meat. With the current trend of demand for products of greater convenience, with speed and ease preparation, there is the need to invest in the market supply of refrigerated lamb cuts. Accordingly, irradiation with ionizing energy could be a viable alternative for the marketing of refrigerated cuts of lamb meat. The aim of this work was to study the application of different doses of gamma radiation in order to extend the stability of lamb meat vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration. For this, first a preliminary experiment was conducted aiming to determine parameters such as irradiation dose and storage time. The lamb loins (Longissimus dorsi) were vacuum packed, irradiated with doses of 1,0, 3,0 and 5,0 kGy and stored under refrigeration in cooling chamber at 1 °C. According to the results, a dose of 3,0 kGy may be indicated as the maximum dose of irradiation. After establishing these parameters, the final experiment began, and for that, the lamb loin samples were vacuum packaged and irradiated with doses zero (control), 1,5 kGy and 3,0 kGy and stored under refrigeration at 1 °C. In predetermined periods (zero, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days) microbiological and physical chemical analysis were carried out. Also, a sensory acceptance test was conducted, with 63 consumers, which evaluated aroma, texture, juiciness, flavor and overall quality attributes. All data were statistically evaluated using contrasts between means, with a significance level of 5%. The results obtained for microbiological testing of all samples were absence of Salmonella sp. and sporadic counts of coliforms at 45 °C and Staphylococcus aureus (<10 (est) CFU/g). For other microbiological analysis there were significant effects (p <0,05) of treatment, and time. However, for the physicochemical characteristics, there were only differences (p <0,05) of time from zero to 28 days for pH and color b * (yellow), which declined and increased, respectively, over this period. In the sensory acceptance test, the samples did not differ (p> 0,05) in any of the evaluated attributes. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation in the lamb loins was effective in decreasing the proliferation of microorganisms without damaging its physical and chemical characteristics. At the end of the experiment, it was possible to say that the 3.0 kGy dose was indicated because could extend the shelf life of 14 to 56 days of loin of lamb irradiated and stored at 1 °C . (author)

  18. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  19. Effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp; Efeito da radiacao gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao e qualidade de pimenta in natura e em polpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant activity and the color were influenced by irradiation during storage. Coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella not were detected in irradiated and non-irradiated samples during storage. In the dose of 6.00 kGy there was reduction of the initial count of yeasts and molds of the 5 logarithmic cycles, while other doses decreased by 2 and 3 logarithmic cycles. However, 21 days after the irradiation, the contamination by yeasts and molds increased in all treatments. In pepper Dedo-de-moca fresh, the irradiation doses studied not contributed to preserving the fruit during storage. In the pulp pepper, doses of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy, associated with 5% NaCl proved promising to increase shelf-life without affecting the bioactive compounds, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes during storage at 25 °C. (author)

  20. Effect of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on trehalose level of Saccharomyces boulardii cells; Efeito da radiacao gama {sup 60} Co nos niveis de trealose de celulas de Saccharomyces boulardii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Radiobiologia; Duarte, Rinaldo; Nicoli, Jacques R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia

    1996-07-01

    The medicine Floratil used for diarrhea treatment is composed by lyophilized yeast cells of Saccharomyces boulardii. The action mechanism of this product is unknown. The efficacy of S. boulardii depends on its viability. The increase in the trehalose level in S. cerevisiae cells submitted to a previous sub-lethal level heat shock results in resistance to a lethal shock. The aim of this work was to study weather the cell trehalose level is involved also in the resistance of gamma irradiation. It was noted that the yeast cells surviving to gamma irradiation had more trehalose level than control cells. Apparently there is a positive correlation between of trehalose level and gamma irradiation resistance of S.boulardii cells. (author)

  1. Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co; Estudo da dependencia energetica de detectores de radiacao gama para {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: rediniz@ipen.b, E-mail: vcsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors

  2. Study of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co na peconha de Apis mellifera: aspectos bioquimicos, farmacologicos e imunologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Helena

    2001-07-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA{sub 2} activity analysis, lethality assay (LD{sub 50}). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with {sup 99m}Tc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA{sub 2} activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated bee venom have been rapidly absorbed and suggested that they have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The irradiated bee venom seems to be eliminated faster than the native one, which could explain its reduced toxicity. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimally processed; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimamente processado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio

    2011-07-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to rethink their eating habits, consuming fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, therefore, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has high nutritional value, being rich in C vitamin especially, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Thus, along with papaya, passion fruit and pineapple, kiwi can be considered as an additional feature of C vitamin in the diet, or as a substitute for traditional citrus. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gamma radiation on physical and chemical characteristics of kiwis minimally processed and stored under refrigeration, since this technology increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The Kiwis was stripped, processed and cut into slices, stored in polyethylene bags of 10 cm squared and irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1 and 2 kGy. A source of {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220, dose rate of 0.429 kGy/hour, in which each treatment had 5 replicates with 15 slices of kiwifruit per replicate. After irradiation the samples were stored in a climatic chamber at 6 degree C (near the temperature of commercial refrigerators). The following criteria were physical chemical analysis: pH, color, chlorophyll content, loss of weight, moisture, acidity and Brix. The analysis were done on 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} days after irradiation. The results indicated that gamma radiation did not induce deleterious changes in the physicochemical properties of the kiwi may be used for preservation of minimally processed kiwifruit. (author)

  4. Conservation studies of peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.): effects of packaging, gamma radiation and storage temperature;Estudos de conservacao de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.): efeitos da embalagem, radiacao gama e temperatura de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiebao, Helena Pontes

    2008-07-01

    Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft.) is a tuber root that presents a short post-harvest period of conservation, 3 to 5 days, due to a phyto pathology known as soft rot or {sup m}ela{sup ,} caused by bacteria of the genus Erwinia. This bacteria release enzymes that decay the cellular wall, causing the lost of the characteristic rigidity. At present, many conservation methods have been studied in the attempt of prolonging the post harvest conservation, but the combination of processes seems to be the best alternative. The aim of this work was to study the interaction between the conservation processes (refrigeration, vacuum packaging and irradiation) to extend the post-harvest period of the roots. It was studied the combination of two temperatures (25 deg C e 4 deg C), with two packages (boxes and vacuum) and three gamma irradiation doses (1, 2 e 3kGy), obtaining a total of 16 sample groups. The samples were daily analyzed, for a 30 day period, using texture parameters (penetration energy), microbiology and pectinolitic enzymes activities (pectate lyase, polygalactunoronase and pectin methyl esterase). The samples irradiated in doses of 2 and 3kGy, vacuum packed and conserved at 4 deg C extend the post-harvest period of 5 to 28 days, with a decrease of the microbiologic population, but with decreased in the rigidity of the roots (p<0.05). The treatments affected the pectinolitic enzymes profile, however the amplitude of the results and the low number of analysed samples per day, besides the complexity of factors affecting the enzyme activity and the multiple possible sources(endogenous, bacterial or fungous), limits the carefully discussion of the results. (author)

  5. Gamma radiation effects at color, antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.); Efeitos da radiacao gama na cor, capacidade antioxidante e perfil de acidos graxos em amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Mansi, Debora Niero; Domingues, Maria Antonia Calori [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Irradiation is efficient at extinction fungi contamination in peanuts. Peanuts have high biologic value protein, minerals, vitamin E, complex B, and high concentration of lipids. The objective of this research is to evaluate the gamma irradiation effect on color, total phenolic, antioxidant activity, and fatty acid profile in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Cultivars IAC-Tatu ST and IAC-Runner 886 were submitted to gamma radiation with doses of 5.0; 7.5; 10.0, and 15.0 kGy and storage at room temperature. There was no significant difference in the color of IAC-Tatu ST. However, significant difference was found in the luminosity and Chroma in IAC-Runner 886. Total fenolics differed from the control with 33.27 mg.g{sup -1} and treatment dose of 10.0 kGy with 58.60 mg.g{sup -1} in IAC-Tatu ST. This parameter not had significant difference in IAC-Runner 886 and the control with 51.59 mg.g{sup -1}. The antioxidant activity did not present significant difference with a dose of 10.0 kGy, recommended for the elimination of fungi in peanuts. The dose of 10.0 kGy showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids, increase in unsaturated fatty acids, and an increase in linolleic acid. The oleic/linoleic relation decreased justifying further research correlating storage and oxidative stability. (author)

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  7. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha EPDM e nitrilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-07-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h{sup -1} at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  8. Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals; Aplicacao da radiacao gama na desinfestacao de racoes a base de graos para alimentacao de animais domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre microbiota fungica e micotoxinas encontradas em racao de frangos de corte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  10. Use of gamma-rays sensitivity for discrimination of upland cultivars of groups Indican and Japonica; Uso da sensitividade a radiacao gama na discriminacao de variedades de arroz-de-sequeiro dos grupos Indica e Japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Luis Roberto Franco [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Ando, Akihiko [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Sixty-five upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) were evaluated in relation to gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds were subjected to seven doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes in randomised complete block design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse during the year of 1992. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M{sub 1} generation, were evaluated. The results showed that the sensitivity to the radiation at doses 300 and 360 Gy was useful for distinguishing Indican and Japonica groups. (author)

  11. Gamma radiation physical-chemical effects on vitamin C contents in white and red guavas; Efeitos fisico-quimicos da radiacao gama nos teores de vitamina C em goiabas brancas e vermelhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Jose Daniel V.; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is valuable tropical fruit because its high C vitamin content. Red an white are the most common species of guava found in tropical areas. The ionizing radiation is normally used as a ripen ring retardant for longer storage periods. This work studies gamma radiation effects on the C vitamin concentration in white and red guava. Samples of juices were irradiated using a source of Cobalt-60, with doses of 1,0 2,5 and 5,0 kGy and storing periods of 0,15 and 30 days. The white guava juice showed a 49% loss in the C vitamin concentration with 5 kGy radiation dose, while the red guava juice showed 33% under the same condition. This shows that the juice of white guava is more sensitive to gamma radiations than the red guava. This results suggests a protection mechanism by colour pigments we believe is associated to the aromatic structures in the red specie. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the sterilization and consequently the disinfestation of all studied rations. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  14. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  15. Biodegradability and aging study of rubber films obtained by gamma radiation vulcanization processes of latex; Estudo da biodegradabilidade e envelhecimento de filmes de borracha obtidos por processos de vulcanizacao do latex por radiacao induzida de fonte gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos Felipe Pinto

    2005-07-01

    The natural rubber latex (NRL) is industrially crosslinked by the conventional process of vulcanization, which uses sulphur and heat. Otherwise, the network can also be done by the alternative process with ionizing radiation. In this work the crosslinking of NRL was studied by the comparison of the conventional vulcanization system and the ionizing radiation process of {sup 60}C source. The products obtained, the irradiated latex, the irradiated latex with approximately 1% of soy lecithin and the sulphur vulcanized latex were tested by accelerated aging with ultraviolet (UV) and outdoor aging with compostage, tensile strength at break, swelling and gel fraction, fungi micro biota, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG and DSC). The results showed that the aging with microorganisms have a great influence in the physical properties of the samples. The thermal stability order observed showed that the sulphur vulcanized latex is more resistant, what is probably associated to a network more stable under the aging conditions. On the other hand, the irradiated latex showed intense biodegradation aspects, particularly with the presence of the soy lecithin. (author)

  16. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha natural e EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CQMA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples; Efeito da radiacao gama na frequencia de fungos toxigenicos em amostras de sene (Cassia angustifolia) e cha verde (Camellia sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Reis, T.A.; Zorzete, P.; Correa, B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Goncalez, E.; Rossi, M.H. [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination.

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo); Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamao (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influencia da radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    1999-05-15

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  19. Study about the sensibility in vitro of different strains of Vibrio cholera 01 exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation; Estudo da sensibilidade in vitro de diferentes cepas de Vibio cholerae 01 a radiacao gama de 60Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servicos de Saude; Gelli, Dilma Scala; Jakabi, Miyoko [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Microbiologia; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    The presence of some microorganisms in food, or the metabolites originated during their own multiplication may bring several diseases to humans: intoxications and food borne infections. Among the agents that may cause those diseases, we find Vibrio cholerae 01. In this experiment, the studies are focused on the radiosensibility in vitro of four strains of V. cholerae 01, exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation of {sup 60} Co. The results are compared with other data related to bacterial food borne diseases, including water. (author)

  20. Determination of gamma radiation dose for destruction of Salmonella spp. in chicken flesh.; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama para a destruicao de Salmonella spp. em carne de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andreia Ferreira dos

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate: 1) the radio sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 in soy trypticase broth; 2) the radio sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 in chicken thigh and; 3) to recommend a radiation dose which can be non hazardous for human consumption

  1. Gamma radiation effects of {sup 60} Co on Bombyx mori (Lep., Bombycidae) modifying the silk fiber production; Influencia da radiacao gama ({sup 60} Co) na producao de fios de seda em Bombyx mori(Lep.,Bombycidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Francisco [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil); Bendassolli, Jose A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The present work aimed to verify the biological effects of the application of different doses of gamma radiation during the fifth instar of the silkworm catepillar. Sevently eight silkworm caterpillars (Bombyx mori) were irradiated with {gamma}{sup 60} Co radiation at the initial period of the fifth instar. The caterpillars were divided and classified in six batches of thirteen individuals each. Treatments 1 through 5 received 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy, respectively, and the control, also consisted of thirteen caterpillars, was not irradiated. The results showed a general increase in the silk fiber content in the irradiated batches compared to the control. The weight of the silk cocoons was higher with increasing doses of irradiation, from 20 to 80 Gy, respectively, followed by a decrease in weight in the treatment irradiated with 100 Gy. the results obtained in this experiment enable the conclusion that the radiation applied to the caterpillars significantly influenced the production of silk fiber in this species. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Study of the combined action of gamma radiation and static electric fields in human cells; Estudo da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    The basic principle of radiotherapy is the one of maximizing damage to the tumor, while minimizing it in neighboring health tissues. Several strategies have been worked out aiming at increasing cellular radiosensitivity, and among them is the use of exogenous fields. Our goal in this work is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 - 8 Gy doses range. The corresponding survival curve provided information on the radiosensitivity of this cell line. The rate of cell deaths per Gray in the 0 - 8 Gy range exhibited a maximum at 2 Gy, which corresponds to the most efficient irradiation dose. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours didn't induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast, without and with exposition to a SEF, have quantified the expression of the y- H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS allowed the investigation of a possible interference of radiation and SEF in the cell distributions among the cellular cycle phases. It was found that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. Therefore, it would be possible to conclude that static and exogenous electric fields are able of negatively interfering in the cellular repair and, presumably, in DNA repair. (author)

  3. Effects of gamma radiation and packaging on conservation of toyonoka strawberries stored under refrigeration.; Efeito da radiacao gama e embalagem na conservacao de morangos 'toyonoka' armazenados sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Danielle Marinelli

    2000-07-01

    Strawberries have short post harvest life due to the rapid spoilage caused by fungal infections, even when stored under refrigeration. The effects of gamma radiation (0.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy) and two kinds of packages (plastic boxes with or without PVC film wrapping) were evaluated using Toyonoka strawberries kept under refrigeration (3 to 6 deg C and relative humidity of 55%) for 1, 8, 15 and 22 days after irradiation, applied 1 day after harvesting. Deterioration progression and loss of weight occurred in the course of storage and although the content of ascorbic acid had also increased, total titratable acidity, p H and ratio remained constant during all the experimental period, independent of the samples treatments. The use of PVC film packing inhibited dehydration of the strawberries along the storage and also caused reduction in soluble solid content of the fruits stored for more than 8 days. The treatments with 2.0 and 2.5 kGy had caused significant losses of ascorbic acid the higher dose also significantly reduced the texture of the fruits. Sensorial analysis has been performed with 30 untrained judges to evaluate the acceptability of strawberries packed without the PVC wrapping and irradiated with doses of 0.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy. No irradiation effects were observed and the samples were acceptable with no significant difference between samples stored for 1 or 8 days after irradiation. PVC film packaging and irradiation were not efficient in delaying post harvest decay of Toyonoka strawberries in the conditions used in these experiments. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma radiation and electron beam on samples of the Brazil nuts artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus; Efeitos da radiacao gama e feixe de eletrons sobre amostras de castanhas-do-Brasil inoculadas artificialmente com Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Ednei Assuncao Antunes

    2012-07-01

    The high level of contamination by aflatoxin produced by fungi in lots of Brazil nuts and the strict control by importing countries in relation to the levels of toxins in food, European Union countries decided in 2003 by the return of these lots products from Brazil. Despite the economic loss represented by contamination by toxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts, a major product of extractive Northern of Brazil, studies are still preliminary as the control of contamination aflatoxigenic fungal using methods such as gamma radiation (G.R) and mainly, electron beam (E.B). These facts motivated this research, which aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation and application of electron beam in samples of Brazil nut artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. This goal, we were studied 50 samples of the Brazil nut previously inoculated with spores of A. flavus and subsequently incubated at 30 °C in relative humidity controlled at 93%. After incubation, period of 15 days, the average water activity of the samples was 0.80, the samples were divided into 5 groups that received the following doses of radiation: control (0 kGy), 5 and 10 kGy 5 E.B and G.R. The mycobiota was performed by serial dilution, plated on surface using potato dextrose agar. The results demonstrated that treatment with E.B using a dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy resulted in reduced growth of A. flavus in 74% (37/50) and 94% (47/50) of samples. The samples treated with G.R at the dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy no fungal growth occurred in 92% (46/50) 100% (50/50) of. The study of aflatoxins showed that doses of E.B of 5 kGy and 10 kGy reduced levels of AFB1 at 53.32% and 65.66% respectively. The application of gamma rays at doses of 5 and 10 kGy reduced levels of toxins in 70.61% and 84.15% respectively. This result may be attributed to higher penetrability of gamma radiation. Sensory analysis showed greater acceptance of the judges for the samples irradiated with E.B and G.R at the dose of 10 kGy. We concluded that although sensory analysis have demonstrated some loss of organoleptic characteristics, both processes of radiation were effective in reducing the count of A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination. (author)

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  6. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays; Estudo da estabilidade de acidos humicos extraidos de solo e turfa, frente a radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-07-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO{sub 2} content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation in the viscosity of gelatin and pectin solutions used in food industry; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a viscosidade de solucoes de gelatina e pectina utilizadas na industria de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Pectin is a polysaccharide substance of plant origin that may be used as gelling agent, stabilizer in jams, in yogurt drinks and lactic acid beverages. Gelatin, a protein from bovine origin, in this case, is mainly used as gelling agent due to hydrogel formation during cooling. The {sup 60} Co-irradiation process may cause various modifications in macromolecules, some with industrial application, as reticulation. The dynamic response of viscoelastic materials can be used in order to give information about the structural aspect of a system at molecular level. In the present work samples of pectin with different degree of methoxylation, gelatin and the mixture of both were employed to study the radiation sensitivity by means of viscosity measurements. Solutions prepared with citric pectin with high methoxylation content (ATM) 1 por cent, pectin with low content (BTM) 1 por cent, gelatin 0.5 por cent, 1 por cent and 2 por cent, and the mixture 1 por cent and 2 por cent were irradiated with gamma rays at different doses, up to 15 kGy with dose rate about 2 kGy/h. After irradiation the viscosity was measured within a period of 48 h. The viscosity of ATM and BTM pectin solutions decreased sharply with the radiation dose. However, the gelatin sample presented a great radiation resistance. When pectin and gelatin solutions were mixed a predominance of pectin behavior was found. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre o conteudo de tocoferois em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliacao sensorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  9. Shelf-life increase of fresh mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju using gamma radiation;Aumento da vida util de cogumelos Pleurotus sajor-caju in natura com aplicacao de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moda, Evelise Moncaio

    2008-07-01

    The production and consumption of edible mushrooms has been increasing in the last years due to its nutritional composition and sensory quality. The irradiation of mushrooms has been used with the purpose of maintaining the fresh product characteristics during shelf-life. The present study evaluated the effect of different radiation doses on the conservation of mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju, through by chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters. The packaging consisted on polystyrene trays with 250 g of sample, wrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mushrooms were irradiated with doses of 125, 250, 500 and 750 Gy in a Gamma cell 220 type irradiator, and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 10 days. The proximate composition (moisture, crude fibre, total protein, total fat and ash), total soluble solids, pH, texture, color (L, a, b, Chroma and ho), enzymatic activity (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase), microbiological (total coliform, Escherichia coli and total psychotropic bacteria) and sensory evaluation (color, taste and appearance) were determined in the 1st, 5th and 10th storage days. For the respiratory rate analysis, 30 g of sample were placed in jars and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 8 days. CO{sub 2} was analyzed every day using a gaseous chromatograph. The results were submitted to variance analysis and average test using the SAS statistical package. The total protein and total fat values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods, while the moisture, crude fibre and ash values differ between treatments and periods. The dose of 750 Gy darkness the mushroom in the last evaluation, and texture was better in control during the storage period. The color (L, a), texture and proximate composition values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods. A significant increase was observed for soluble solids, b{sup *} and enzymatic activity values in all treatments at the end of the storage period. Values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities increased in the last day of evaluation in samples irradiated with 250 Gy. This fact may be a result of the water radiolysis process, since mushrooms have high water content. The dose of 125 Gy increased the respiratory rate of the samples until the 5th storage day in comparison to the other treatments, causing reduction in the product shelf-life. The samples irradiated with 250, 500 and 750 Gy had a reduction on the respiratory rate if compared with the control, so contributing to the maintenance of the post harvest quality during the storage. The samples which received 750 Gy obtained the best results in the microbiological analyses, with reduction of total coliform and psychotropic bacteria during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the control had higher scores for color, aroma and appearance attributes; they were above the acceptability limit until the last storage day. In general, the irradiated samples were accepted for the evaluated attributes until the 5th storage day; thus, establishing the shelf-life for irradiated mushrooms (author)

  10. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  11. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei);Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama e de refrigeracao na conservacao do camarao-branco-do-pacifico (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-07-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g{sup -1} for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found in terms of instrumental color during the first day of storing when compared to the non-irradiated samples and to the 3.5 kGy irradiated ones. Statistical differences were not found (p <= 0.05) between non-irradiated and irradiated samples within the first day of sensorial analysis. Non-irradiated samples were rejected on the sensorial test after the 7th day of storage, while the 1kGy irradiated samples were accepted until the 14th day. Samples irradiated with 3.5 kGy kept viability in terms off flavour and aspect until the end of the experiment. When compared to conventional refrigerated product, the gamma-irradiation technique, (especially the 3.5 kGy doses) provided a higher stability related to physical chemical properties and microbiological safety during storage. No differences on the sensorial shrimp quality were found. Through gamma irradiation, we obtained a product with minimal procedure modifications, with enhanced shelf life under refrigeration. (author)

  12. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment; Quantificacao de micronucleos em linfocitos de pacientes expostas a radiacao gama para a avaliacao da dose absorvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-15

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  13. Analysis of the gamma radiation effects in the composite of polyurethane derived from castor oil and natural fibers; Analise dos efeitos da radiacao gama no composito de poliuretano derivado de mamona com serragem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienen, Victor D.; Todt, Matheus L.; Capellari, Giovanni S.; Azevedo, Elaine C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Neto, Salvador C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Composite of Polyurethane derived from castor oil and natural fibers are obtained from renewable raw material, low cost, and for not assaulting nature. This paper analyzes the effects of gamma radiation on composite polyurethane derived from castor with sawdust irradiated with gamma radiation of 25 kGy . It was held from 3 tips bending tests and micrograph by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that gamma radiation decreases the breakdown voltage and the micrograph of the fracture indicates brittle fracture occurred. (author)

  14. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  15. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  16. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  17. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation; Acao da sacarose na manutencao de inflorescencias cortadas de crisantemo, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, apos exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1998-07-01

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  18. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala; Efeito da radiacao gama e do tratamento termico na conservacao do suco natural de maca (Malus domestica), cv. gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60{sup 0} C/20 min and 80{sup 0} C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 {+-} 3{sup 0} C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Aplicação da radiação gama na desinfestação de rações a base de grãos para alimentação de animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Cristina Ramos Koike

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivos realizar um levantamento para identificar a entomofauna associada a rações na cidade São Paulo/SP bem como avaliar o efeito da radiação gama em rações para alimentação de animais domésticos infestadas por pragas. Amostras de 20 lojas Pet Shop de diferentes regiões da cidade São Paulo/SP foram submetidas a triagens de 1 e 45 dias para coleta de insetos com auxilio de aspirador entomológico e peneiras de diferentes granulometrias. As espécies Sitophilus z...

  20. Efeito da irradiação gama nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas de redes DGEBA/amina cicloalifática com potencial para aplicações médicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. Neves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização de sistemas epoxídicos a base do éter diglicidílico do bisfenol A (DGEBA, curado com dois co-monômeros do tipo amina cicloalifática - piperidina (Pip e 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimetildiciclohexilmetano (3DCM - antes e após a aplicação de irradiação com raios gama. Variações nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas foram investigadas através de medidas do módulo elástico, da temperatura de transição vítrea e do perfil de degradação dos materiais. Foi possível observar que uma dose de irradiação de 50 kGy provoca variações sutis em propriedades como rigidez e estabilidade, que são relevantes do ponto de vista fundamental. Este trabalho permite afirmar que as variações de propriedades observadas não implicam em impacto negativo na utilização destes sistemas como biomaterial na área médica, considerando a etapa de esterilização por radiação de que são objeto.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus Flavus aflatoxins producer and on the use of polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in samples of maize grains artificially inoculated; Efeitos da radiacao gama no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxinas e no emprego da tecnica da Reacao em Cadeia da Polimerase (RCP) em amostras de graos de milho inoculadas artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this present study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxins producer; to demonstrate the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in the diagnostic of A. Flavus, as well to verify the effect of radiation in the profile of DNA bands. Twenty samples of grains maize with 200 g each were individually irradiated with 20 kGy, to eliminate the microbial contamination. In following, the samples were inoculated with an toxigenic A. flavus (1x10{sup 6} spores/ml), incubated for 15 days at 25 deg C with a relative humidity of around 97,5% and irradiated with 0, 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The samples, 5 to each dose of irradiation, were individually analyzed for the number of fungal cells, water activity, viability test (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide), PCR and aflatoxins (AFB) detection. The results showed that the doses used were effective in reducing the number of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) mainly the doses of 5 and 10 kGy. In addition, the viability test showed a decrease of viable cells with increase of irradiation doses. The reduction of AFB{sub 1} and AFB-2, was more efficient with the use of 2 kGy in comparison with the dose of 5 kGy, while the dose of 10 kGy, degraded the aflatoxins. Thereby, it was observed that AFB2 showed to be more radiosensitive. The use of PCR technique showed the presence of DNA bands, in all samples. (author)

  2. Semiconductor scintillator detector for gamma radiation; Detector cintilador semicondutor para radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, F.T.V. der; Borges, V.; Zabadal, J.R.S., E-mail: ftvdl@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br, E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (GENUC/DEMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos Nucleares. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays the devices employed to evaluate individual radiation exposition are based on dosimetric films and thermoluminescent crystals, whose measurements must be processed in specific transductors. Hence, these devices carry out indirect measurements. Although a new generation of detectors based on semiconductors which are employed in EPD's (Electronic Personal Dosemeters) being yet available, it high producing costs and large dimensions prevents the application in personal dosimetry. Recent research works reports the development of new detection devices based on photovoltaic PIN diodes, which were successfully employed for detecting and monitoring exposition to X rays. In this work, we step forward by coupling a 2mm anthracene scintillator NE1, which converts the high energy radiation in visible light, generating a Strong signal which allows dispensing the use of photomultipliers. A low gain high performance amplifier and a digital acquisition device are employed to measure instantaneous and cumulative doses for energies ranging from X rays to Gamma radiation up to 2 MeV. One of the most important features of the PIN diode relies in the fact that it can be employed as a detector for ionization radiation, since it requires a small energy amount for releasing electrons. Since the photodiode does not amplify the corresponding photon current, it must be coupled to a low gain amplifier. Therefore, the new sensor works as a scintillator coupled with a photodiode PIN. Preliminary experiments are being performed with this sensor, showing good results for a wide range of energy spectrum. (author)

  3. Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo avaliada por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luís Bamberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade do arroz (Oryza sativa L. irrigado em solos de várzea está alicerçada na utilização da rotação e sucessão de culturas, fundamentais para o controle do arroz-vermelho e preto. Os reflexos sobre os atributos dos solos de várzea merecem estudos em especial sobre a compactação do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar camadas compactadas em Planossolo submetido a diferentes sistemas de cultivo e preparo, avaliando-se a densidade do solo (Ds pela Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama (TC. A análise foi realizada em um experimento de longa duração, conduzido de 1985 a 2004, na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Capão do Leão, RS, num delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições (T1 - um ano de arroz com preparo convencional do solo seguido de dois anos de pousio; T2 - cultivo contínuo de arroz com preparo convencional do solo; T4 - rotação de arroz e soja (Glycine max L. com preparo convencional do solo; T5 - rotação de arroz, soja e milho (Zea maiz L. em preparo convencional do solo; T6 - plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. no inverno; T7 - rotação de arroz sob plantio direto e soja sob preparo convencional do solo; T8 - testemunha: solo sem cultivo. A Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama permitiu detectar que o plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém no inverno não resultou na formação de camadas compactadas; a utilização de dois anos de pousio, no sistema de produção de arroz irrigado, não foi suficiente para evitar a formação de uma camada superficial compactada; e a rotação de arroz, soja e milho com preparo convencional do solo apresentou duas camadas compactadas (0,0 a 1,5 cm e 11 a 14 cm, indicando que essas podem limitar a produção agrícola nesse sistema de produção em Planossolos.The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. in

  4. Gama-gama angular correlations in the 105Rh nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, V.A.P.

    1979-01-01

    The Directional Correlation of γ transitions in 105 Rh have been measured from the β - decay of 105 Ru using a Ge(Li) - Nal(Tl) spectrometers. The measurements were carried out for the (316-469), (500-469), (845-499), (875-469), (878-499), (907-469), (1017-469), (350-326), (393-263), (413-263), (489-149) and (575-149) KeV gama cascades. The present results confirm the spin assignments to several levels in 105 Rh obtained in previous studies. The multipole mixing ratios Δ(E2/M1) for several gama transitions have been calculated from the measured angular correlations. The results are Δ(149)=0.34+-0.01,Δ(262)=-1.27+-0.02 or -0.14+-0.01,Δ(326)=-1.79+-0.01 or 0.014+-0.002, Δ(393)=-7.1+-0.3 or -0.36+-0.01, Δ(489)=0.25+-0.002, Δ(500)=0.7+-0.3 and Δ(907)=-21.7 +8 -31.1 or 0.21+-0.03. The structure of nuclear levels in 105 Rh is discussed briefly in terms of models applicable for nuclide in this mass region [pt

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  6. Caracterização e avaliação de três grupos de arroz-de-sequeiro de diferentes procedências por meio da sensitividade à radiação gama Characterization and evaluation of three groups of rice upland of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto Franco Rodrigues

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização e avaliação de variedades de arroz auxiliam na seleção dos parentais e na ampliação da base genética dos programas de melhoramento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar e avaliar três grupos de arroz-de-sequeiro (Oryza sativa L. de diferentes procedências por meio da sensitividade à radiação gama. Sementes de 84 variedades procedentes do Japão, Filipinas e Brasil foram submetidas a v��rias dosagens de radiação gama e semeadas em caixas de madeira no delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso com três repetições. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, em 1991, no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA, da Universidade de São Paulo (USP. Mediu-se a sensitividade por meio dos efeitos fisiológicos produzidos na geração M1; determinaram-se as porcentagens de emergência, a sobrevivência e a altura das plântulas. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas de sensitividade à radiação gama entre grupos em todos os caracteres avaliados.The characterization and evaluation of varieties of rice aid in the parents selection and in the increase of the genetic base of breeding programs. The present work was carried out to characterize and to evaluate three groups of rice upland (Oryza sativa L. of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds of 84 varieties collected from Japan, Philippines and Brazil, were submitted to various doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes. The experiment was conducted in 1991 at greenhouse according to randomized complete block design with three replications. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M1 generation, such as seed emergency, seedling height and survival rate, were determined and evaluated. The results showed significant differences of sensitivity to the radiation among three groups for all traits evaluated.

  7. Use of the gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana nanica;Utilizacao da radiacao gama, na dose de 0,4kGy, na reducao da temperatura de armazenamento da banana nanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoel, Luciana, E-mail: luciana_manoel@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Vieites, Rogerio Lopes, E-mail: vieites@fca.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulisa (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the use of gamma radiation, in a dose of 0,4 kGy, on the storage temperature reduction of the banana 'Nanica'. The bananas 'Nanica' were harvested in the Arm Taperao, Brotas (SP) town, and sent to CBE (Companhia Brasileira de Esterilizacao-Cotia-SP) for irradiation and constitution of the following treatments: T1 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 16 +-1 deg C); T2 (fruits irradiated at 0,4 kGy and stored at 14 +-1 deg C); T3 (fruit irradiated ata 0,4 kGy and stored at 12+-1 deg C); T4 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 16+-1 deg C); T5 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 14+-1 deg C) and T6 (fruits non-irradiated and stored at 12+-1 deg C). The fruits were stored in B.O.Ds. of the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, with a relative humidity of 80+-5%. The experiment was divided in two groups: control group (post harvest conservation and disease incidence) and parcel group (soluble solids and pulp/peel). The analyses were performed in intervals of five days during a period of 25 days. The experimental design employed was completely randomized (DIC) by applying a factor of 2 x 3 x 6 (irradiation x temperature x time). The Tukey test with 5% of probability was used for comparison between means. The storage temperature of the bananas 'Nanica' was not reduce by irradiation. (author)

  8. Study of seasonal variation of the gamma radiation at Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brazil: radiometry and risk analysis; Estudo da variacao sazonal dos niveis de radiacao gama na Praia da Areia Preta, Guarapari, Espirito Santo, Brasil: radiometria e analise de risco ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the natural gamma radiation at the Areia Preta Beach (APB) in Guarapari, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The level of this radiation is dependent on the concentration of the radioactive mineral monazite in the sand. Probable risks of the exposure to gamma radiation at the APB were evaluated by the preliminary environmental risk analysis technique. For this purpose were conducted two annual sets monitoring gamma radiation in the APB every two months and so, acquired the seasonal variation of the radioactive levels. Additional/y was investigated the granulometry of the heavy mineral fraction and also carried out electronic microscopic scanning and radiometric age dating of the monazites of the APB, the mineral separation by magnetic susceptibility, and the mineralogic determination of the sediment. In order to gain a more complete picture of the seasonal variation, and, consequently, of the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at the APB, the radiometric variation was also studied at some other beaches in the same region. The results indicate that the highest radiometric values are measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The radiometric dating of the monazites from the APB revealed the ages of 475 and 530 Ma. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis indicates a minimum risk of excessive radioactive exposition. It would take a period of approximately 870 years of a beach fully crowded to result in one case of bad consequences due to exposure to gamma radiation. (author)

  9. Radiação gama na redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango Gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination of chicken steaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Filet SPOTO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito da radiação gama na destruição dos microrganismos presentes em filés de frango armazenados sob refrigeração. Um dos possíveis fatores de deterioração da carne de frango é a atividade microbiana. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação de microrganismos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 5 fatores (períodos de armazenamento e 5 níveis (doses de radiação, com 3 repetições por tratamento. As amostras de filé de frango foram irradiadas com doses de 0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy e em seguida armazenadas sob refrigeração (± 5ºC por 1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias. A contagem total dos microrganismos foi realizada por plaqueamento em profundidade em meio de cultivo PCA. As amostras não irradiadas permitiram um acréscimo de dois ciclos logarítmicos na contagem microbiana ao longo dos vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10(5 para 10(7UFC/g. As amostras irradiadas com dose de 2,0kGy permitiram acréscimo de um ciclo logarítmico durante os vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10³ para 10(4UFC/g. As doses de radiação de 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy reduziram a população microbiana a níveis de 10²UFC/g no vigésimo primeiro dia e 10¹UFC/g no vigésimo oitavo dia de armazenamento. A irradiação pode ser um processo eficiente para a redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango porque a dose de radiação de 4,0kGy foi suficiente para manter os filés de frango refrigerados com uma população microbiana de 10¹UFC/g até vinte e oito dias de armazenamento.This work evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination in chicken steaks stored under refrigeration. Microbial activity causes deterioration in poultry. Irradiation is a process of food preservation by reduction of the number of the microorganisms. The experimental design was in random blocks with 5 factors (storage periods and 5 levels

  10. Efeitos do estádio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiação gama na formação de calos derivados de anteras de tomate Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina R. Brasileiro

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando: (I determinar a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de anteras de tomate sobre a formação de calos e (II analisar o efeito da radiação gama no cultivo in vitro de anteras. No primeiro experimento, anteras de híbridos de tomate IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F1 foram cultivadas em três meios nutritivos. Apesar da formação de calos ter sido induzida em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, variando de prófase I à micrósporo mononucleado, a freqüência de calos produzidos decresceu com o avanço do estádio de desenvolvimento e se apresentou de forma semelhante nos meios testados. Anteras contendo meiócitos em estádio de prófase I mostraram maior freqüência de formação de calos. Tanto o comprimento da antera quanto o do botão floral apresentaram correlação significativa com o estádio de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, sementes e botões florais dos híbridos IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2, IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2 e IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2 foram submetidos à radiação gama e suas anteras foram cultivadas em dois meios descritos por Gresshoff & Doy (1972, contendo 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 5,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 1,0 mg L-1 de cinetina. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas, no que se refere à formação de calos, para os genótipos e doses estudadas - 200 Gy, para sementes e 20 Gy, para botões florais.Two experiments were carried (I to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4 - F1 were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mononucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest

  11. Atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária, dosagens séricas de uréia e creatinina como meios diagnósticos auxiliares na nefrotoxicidade induzida por aminoglicosídeo em cães Urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, urinalysis, bun and creatinine serum dosages as a auxiliary diagnostic mean in dogs nephrotoxicity induced by aminoglycosides

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    Carla Rosane de Aguiar Hennemann

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 11 cães, hígidos, com idade entre 1 e 5 anos. Inicialmente procedeu-se à determinação dos valores basais através de cinco colheitas diárias de urina e sangue, e realizou-se a urinálise, determinação da atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária, dosagens sérica de uréia e creatinina. A nefrotoxicidade foi induzida com a utilização de10mg/kg de gentamicina, 3 vezes ao dia, durante 14 dias. As colheitas de urina foram realizadas a cada 24 hors e o sangue foi colhido a cada 48 horas, durante 14 dias. Após este período os cães foram submetidos à eutanásia, procedendo-se à necropsia, e estudo histopatológico dos rins. Os sinais clínicos apresentados foram apatia, anorexia, poliúria, oligúria, anúria, polidipsia, vômito e diarréia. Pela urinálise observou-se a ocorrência de proteinúria, glicosúria, hematúria, cilindrúria, celulúria e isostenúria; os valores de gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária elevaram-se de forma crescente a partir de 24 horas de administração da gentamicina até o final do experimento, a azotemia foi observada no 12° e 14° dias da pesquisa. Na avaliação histopatológica observou-se nefrose tubular aguda. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que a mensuração da atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária é um sensível indicador de lesão tubular renal possibilitando o diagnóstico precoce, juntamente com a urinálise.Eleven healthy dogs, ranging from one to five years old, were used for this study. Base line values were determined through five daily samples of urine for urinalysis and urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, and blood for serum dosage of BUN and creatinine. Nephrotoxicity was induced using 10mg/kg of gentamicin, 3 times a day (tid, for 14 days. Urine samples were drawn every 24 hours and blood samples every 48 hours, for 14 days. After this period, the dogs were euthanized and necropsy was done for further

  12. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp; Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli e Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

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    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of food borne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98kGy for S. poona and 0.72 e 0.88kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  13. Study of the action of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango pulp;Estudo da acao da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co sobre Salmonella poona, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris em polpa de manga congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    The application of non-thermal treatments has proven effective in inhibiting bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Mango is a fruit of national consumption with a great exportation potential. Meanwhile, outbreaks of foodborne disease related to mango consumption caused mistrust on the degree of food security offered by the product. The objective of this work was to establish the radioresistance of bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Poona and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris on the mango pulp by the calculation of the D10 values and to know the radiation effect on the sensory characteristics of the fruit pulp. The microbiological profile of frozen mango pulp available at the local market was also established using conventional methods of plating and Most Probable Number (MPN). The pulps experimentally inoculated with the bacteria listed above were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. The sensory analysis was performed using a dose of 5 kGy, using the triangular test and the test of acceptance with hedonic scale. The results of this study show that the quality of mango pulp sell in the local market is not satisfactory in accordance with the standards established by the Brazilian law and the literature, showing the need of using other tools to achieve acceptable levels of quality. The D10 values obtained are in the range of 1.01 and 1.09 kGy for E. coli ATCC 8739, 0.60 and 0.98 kGy for S. poona and 0.72 and 0.88 kGy for A. acidoterrestris respectively. The triangular test showed that a 5 kGy radiation dose changed the sensory characteristics of mango pulp. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of a food product prepared with the irradiated pulp obtained good acceptance in the attributes of global appearance, flavor and aroma. (author)

  14. Effects of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on the main physical and chemical properties of health care packaging and their compounds paper and multilayer plastic film, used for health products sterilization; Efeitos da radiacao gama (Cobalto-60) nas principais propriedades fisicas e quimicas da embalagens compostas por papel grau cirurgico e filme plastico laminado, destinadas a esterilizacao de produtos para saude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Karina Meschini Batista Geribello

    2013-07-01

    Gamma radiation is one of the technologies applied for the sterilization of packaging systems containing products for health. During sterilization process it is critical that the properties of packages are maintained. In this study two samples of commercial pouch packaging comprised of surgical grade paper on one side and the other side multilayer plastic film were irradiated with gamma rays. The following doses were applied 25 kGy (1,57 kGy/h) and 50 kGy (1,48 kGy/h). One packaging sample was paper formed by softwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/polyethylene (PE). The second type of paper sample was made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on polyethylene terephthalate (ethylene) (PET)/polypropylene (PP). The effects of radiation on the physical and chemical properties of papers and multilayer plastic films, as well as the properties of the package were studied. The paper was the more radiation sensitive among the studied materials and radiation effects were more pronounced at brightness, pH, tearing resistance, bursting strength and tensile strength. Nonetheless, worst comparatively effects were noted on the sample made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers. The porosity of paper was enhanced by 50 kGy. In the case of plastic films, radiation effects on tensile strength was the most pronounced property for both samples. In the case of the packaging the sealing resistance decreased with radiation. The effects observed for the treatment at 50 kGy were more pronounced when compared to 25 kGy. This last is the dose which is usually applied to sterilize health products. A dosimetry study was performed during irradiation at 25 kGy, 40 kGy and 50 kGy and its importance may be reported by the average dose variation 20 %. (author)

  15. Study of the effects of gamma radiation on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat throughout refrigerated and frozen storage; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama sobre a qualidade microbiologica, a oxidacao lipidica e as propriedades sensoriais da carne mecanicamente separada de frango, armazenada refrigerada e congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo

    2002-07-01

    Mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is widely used in traditional meat products such as sausages. The proceed of mechanical separation results in grinding of the bones, liberating the marrow and rupturing cells, thus making the MDCM a favorable medium for biochemical reactions and microbiological growth. Irradiation using a Co{sup 60} source is one of the processes which has been developed aimed at reducing contamination by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. The main advantages of food irradiation are the possibilities of treating the already packaged products at refrigerated and frozen temperatures, ideal for a highly perishable product such as MDCM, which, being a ground, easily spoiled product, requires rapid cooling followed by freezing, immediately after processing. Processing with ionizing radiation results in chemical alterations in the food, including the production of volatile compounds and free radicals. Irradiation of meat in the frozen state reduces or eliminates the negative sensory effects of this process. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of gamma radiation at doses of 3.0 and 4.0 kGy, on the microbiological quality, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of MDCM, at the refrigerated (2 {+-} 1 deg C) and frozen (-18 {+-} 1 deg C) storage, The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of this raw material when stored under refrigeration, as compared to non-irradiated samples. Since doses of 3.0 kGy produced increases in the shelf life of refrigerated MDCM equal or greater than those produced by doses of 4.0 kGy, this dose was considered the most adequate for the irradiation of this raw material. According to the results of microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing in irradiated MDCM samples with doses of 3.0 kGy and 4.0 kGy, the material studied presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption during the 90 days of frozen storage, whereas samples of non-irradiated MDCM were shown to be unacceptable with respect to the occurrence of S. aureus and fecal coliforms after only 30 days of frozen storage, The irradiation process produced characteristic volatile compounds, perceived as irradiation odor. These were lost from the MDCM during refrigerated and frozen storage, For the non-irradiated MDCM samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated MDCM samples this factor was lipid oxidation. (author)

  16. Effects of gamma radiation immunogenicity of ribonucleoprotein (RNPs) of rabies virus and purification of anti-RNPs antibodies for diagnosis; Efeitos da radiacao gama na imunogenicidade das ribonucleoproteinas (RNPs) do virus da raiva e purificacao de anticorpos anti-RNPs para diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Elena Boamorte da

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the direct immunofluorescence test for laboratory diagnosis and serological evaluation of rabies. To achieve this test, fluorescent anti-ribo nucleoproteins (RNPs) conjugates, produced from purified IgGs of RNP-immunized animals are employed. The aims of the present study were: investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the immunogenicity of RNPs, as well as to compare two chromatographic methodologies for the purification of anti-RNPs immunoglobulins. Sera from animals immunized with either native or irradiated RNPs were compared by direct immunofluorescence and immuno enzymatic assays. Our results indicate that the animals immunized with irradiated antigen requested a lower number of doses to reach high antibody titers. The immunofluorescence assays indicated that the conjugates produced with the anti-irradiated RNPs IgGs showed similar specificity to its anti-native counterpart, but with a higher definition of the virus inclusions. The purification methods were compared by Bradford and electrophoresis assays. According to the results, we concluded that the affinity-based process resulted in higher yields, lower execution time, and higher purity of the antibodies. (author)

  17. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on different phases of the evolutive cycle of pinworm - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera,Gelechiidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 nas diferentes fases do ciclo evolutivo da traca do tomateiro - Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, Gerson Antonio

    1996-10-01

    The effects of different gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) doses on different phases of the evolutive cycle of Tuta absoluta (Meyrich, 1917) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) have been studied under laboratory conditions in the laboratory of Entomology of Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all the treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma beam-650 was used. The doses utilized ranged from of 0,0 (Control) to 3250 Gy with a dose rate of 1110 Gy/h. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions at 25{+-} 2 deg C, 70 {+-} 5% of relative humidity and photo period of (12:12). It was verified that the lethal doses were: for eggs - 70 Gy; for larvae - 200 Gy e for pupae - 300 Gy. The sterilizing dose for adults from irradiated larvae was 45 Gy. The sterilizing dose for the crossing of irradiated female with normal males (FI X MN) was 100 Gy and for normal female with irradiated male (FN x MI) was 150 Gy, in the both crosses, doses refer to irradiation of pupae. The sterilizing dose for adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults, (FI x MN) and (FN x MI, were 150 and 200 Gy, respectively. The average longevity of adults, of both sexes, irradiated and crossed with normal adults was 8,3 days. The immediate lethal dose for adults was 3250 Gy. (author)

  18. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  19. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o conteúdo de tocoferóis em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliação sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Sinigallia Taipina

    2009-01-01

    O conteúdo e o percentual de retenção de atividade de vitamina E, bem como, as características sensoriais foram analisados em amostras de alimentos fontes de vitamina E: nozes pecãs; biscoitos integrais e alimento fortificado em pó irradiados com doses de 1 e 3 kGy de radiação gama de 60Co. Para a determinação de vitamina E (como equivalentes em -tocoferol) foram utilizados três lotes dos produtos e aplicado método colorimétrico padronizado pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz de São Paulo. Para a anál...

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed crops Efeito da radiação gama na inativação de aflatoxina B1 em alimentos e ração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ghanem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of food crops (peanut, peeled pistachio, unpeeled pistachio, rice, and corn and feed (barley, bran, corn were autoclave-sterilized, and inoculated with 10(6 of spore suspension of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus fungus known to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 . Following a 10-day period of incubation at 27 C to allow for fungal growth, food and feed samples were irradiated with gamma radiation at the doses 4, 6, and 10 kGy. Results indicated that degradation of AFB1 was positively correlated with the increase in the applied dose of gamma ray for each tested sample. At a dose of 10 kGy percentages of AFB1 degradation reached highest values at 58.6, 68.8, 84.6, 81.1 and 87.8% for peanuts, peeled pistachios, unpeeled pistachios, corn and rice samples, respectively. In feed samples percentages of AFB1 degradation were 45, 66, and 90% in barley, 47, 75, and 86% in bran, and 31, 72, and 84% in corn for the doses of 4, 6, and 10 kGy, respectively. AFB1 degradation in food samples correlated negatively with oil content in irradiated samples. Thus, in peanuts, which contained the highest oil content, percentage of AFB1 degradation at 10 kGy was not more than 56.6%, whereas, the corresponding value in corn, which contained the lowest oil content, reached as high as 80%. The above results indicate the possibility of using gamma radiation as a means of degradation of AFB1 in food and feed crops to levels lower than the maximum allowed levels.Amostras de alimentos (amendoim, pistache descascada, pistache com casca, arroz e milho e de ração (cevada, farelo de trigo e milho foram esterilizadas por autoclavação e inoculadas com uma suspensão de esporos (10(6 de um isolado de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxina B1 (AFB1. Após incubação por 10 dias a 27ºC para multiplicação do fungo, as amostras foram irradiadas com radiação gama nas doses de 4, 6 e 10 kGy. Os resultados indicaram que a degradação da AFB1 correlacionou-se positivamente

  1. Terrestrial gamma tracking: estimation of population exposition to radioactivity in urban areas; Rastreamento gama terrestre: estimativa da exposição da população à radioatividade em areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Elder Magalhães de

    2017-07-01

    In this work, measurements of Ambient Dose Equivalent, H⁎(10) in urban and rural areas is proposed to assess and estimate the dose and external dose in cases of radiological or nuclear accidents. These measurements will enable the calculation and estimation of population exposure to environmental and urban radioactivity to be performed within the parameters proposed by the IAEA and UNSCEAR. To take into account the influence of background gamma radiation on radiometric measurements, all the detectors used, AT6101C, SPARCS A1 and SPARCS M1 systems, were calibrated using IRD's extensive set of planar sources. Also, a methodology for the gamma radiation terrestrial survey is proposed to use the gamma in situ spectrometry systems in H⁎(10) measurements. Shielding effects due to the use of detection systems inside vehicles were evaluated and the corresponding corrections factors calculated are 1.45 for the AT6101C detector, 1.77 for SPARCS A1 and 1.82 for SPARCS M1. The terrestrial survey to determine the value of Ambient Dose Equivalent was performed in areas not subject to intense radioactive anomalies. Among these areas are included the cities: Angra dos Reis and Paraty (State of Rio de Janeiro), Abadia de Goiás, Goiânia, Cristalina and Itumbiara (State of Goiás), Ribeirão Preto and Campinas (State of São Paulo), Brasília-DF (Federal District), Belo Horizonte, Ubá and cities of Zona da Mata (State of Minas Gerais) and Manaus (State of Amazonas). The average altitude of the cities ranged from the sea level in the cities of Angra dos Reis and Paraty to 1100 meters in Brasilia. The number of inhabitants ranged from 3,000 in Divinésia to 3 million in Brasília-DF. The mean values of H⁎(10) ranged from 63 nSv/h in Itumbiara to 170 nSv/h in Ubá. The minimum and maximum values found ranged from 25 nSv/h in Manaus to 347 nSv/h in Belo Horizonte. The average altitude of the cities ranged from the sea level in the cities of Angra dos Reis and Paraty to 1100

  2. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  3. Tipologia de frutos e síndromes de dispersão de um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto da APA do Gama e Cabeça de Veado e montagem de Coleção Didática de frutos – Carpoteca - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v9i1.1385

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cátia Schaffer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de realizar um levantamento tipológico de frutos e síndromes de dispersão de um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto, e montar uma carpoteca, o presente trabalho partiu da premissa de que o Cerrado apresenta alta diversidade de frutos e estratégias de dispersão. Os frutos foram coletados na APA do Gama e Cabeça de Veado (Brasília-DF, entre os meses de agosto de 2009 a maio de 2010. A coleta foi feita pelo método de caminhamento com busca ativa por espécimes maduros. Os frutos foram classificados de acordo com a consistência, deiscência e as síndromes de dispersão, e divididos em grupos, tipos e subtipos. Foram coletados 79 frutos, sendo 70 frutos simples, 7 múltiplos e 2 compostos; 43 deiscentes e 36 indeiscentes; 53 secos e 26 carnosos. Anemocoria foi a síndrome de dispersão prevalecente. A diversidade florística encontrada no fragmento garantiu elevada variabilidade de formas de frutos para a carpoteca.

  4. Comportamento balístico de compósito de polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular: efeito da radiação gama Ballistic behaviour of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: effect of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia L. S. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica (PMCs reforçados por fibras são considerados excelentes materiais de engenharia. Em aplicações estruturais, quando uma elevada relação resistência peso é fundamental para o projeto, os PMCs vêm substituindo com sucesso diversos materiais convencionais. Materiais têxteis são utilizados, desde a 2ª Guerra Mundial, como blindagens balísticas. Materiais fabricados com fibra do polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular (UHMWPE são empregados na produção de blindagens, para proteção pessoal e em carros de combate. Todavia, em virtude de terem sido desenvolvidos e comercializados mais recentemente, não existem informações suficientes sobre o desempenho balístico desses materiais após a sua exposição aos agentes ambientais. No presente trabalho foi estudado o comportamento balístico de placas compósitas fabricadas com fibra de polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular (UHMWPE, após sua exposição à radiação gama. Os resultados dos testes balísticos foram relacionados com as alterações macromoleculares induzidas pela irradiação por meio de ensaios mecânicos (dureza, impacto e flexão e físico-químicos (espectroscopia no infravermelho, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e análise termogravimétrica. Foi verificado que a irradiação gama provoca modificações nas cadeias macromoleculares do polímero, que alteram as propriedades mecânicas do compósito de UHMWPE, reduzindo, nas doses de radiação mais elevadas, o seu desempenho balístico. Estes resultados são apresentados e discutidos.The fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs are considered excellent engineering materials. In structural applications, when a high strength-to-weight ratio is fundamental for the design, PMCs are successfully replacing many conventional materials. Since World War II textile materials have been used as ballistic armor. Materials manufactured with ultrahigh molecular weight

  5. Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo: influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. P. A. GOMEZ

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo, e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS, sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

  6. Gamma ({sup 60}CO) radiation effects on arcelin protein and evaluation of bean lineages against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae);Efeito da radiacao gama ({sup 60}CO) sobre a proteina arcelina e avaliacao de linhagens de feijoeiro a Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Col.: Bruchidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Ana Claudia Girardo

    2006-07-01

    The resistance of arcelin carrying seeds of bean lineages (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and the influence of gamma radiation ({sup 60}CO) on the manifestation of arcelin resistance to Z. subfasciatus were verified. Laboratorial tests, in choice and non-choice tests, with wild specimens carrying Arc-1, Arc-2, Arc-3, Arc-4, Raz-56 and Raz-59 (with Arc-5 alleles) and commercial lineages as control IAC - Carioca and IAC - Arua were conducted. Statistical design was completely randomized, with five repetitions, with 10 g of grains from each lineage samples by portion. Attractiveness, oviposition, emergence, mortality, adults' weigh and longevity, developing period, sexual rate, seeds' weigh loss, infestation and fecundity (Z. subfasciatus) were observed. Gamma radiation doses irradiations, in general, haven't affected the resistance manifestation of lineages carrying arcelin protein variants against the Z. subfasciatus bean weevil, thus, joint application use of both control methods can be recommended. Raz-56 lineage showed high resistance of the antibiosis types and non-preference for oviposition and feeding to Z. subfasciatus, while Raz-59 showed antibiosis and non-preference for feeding, and both (Raz-56 and Raz-59) showed intermediate resistance to A. obtectus, against which lineage Arc-2 was the most harmful to its development, expressing non-preference to feeding and/or antibiosis. (author)

  7. Nanocomposites of recycled polycarbonate and nano-zinc oxide (rPC/nZnO): effect of gamma radiation and nano oxide content on the thermal properties; Nanocompositos de policarbonato reciclado e nanooxido de zinco (rPC/nZnO): efeito da radiacao-gama e do teor de nanooxido nas propriedades termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A.L.F.; Mendes, L.C.; Cestari, S.P., E-mail: anafcarvalho@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano; Souza, M.C.L. [Universidade Estadual da Zona Oeste (UEZO), RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In order to promote the barrier action to the ultraviolet radiation and increase of mechanical characteristics, nanocomposites of recycled polycarbonate (rPC) and nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) containing 1, 2 and 3 % (wt/wt) of nano oxide were prepared. Since for obtaining nanocomposites and irradiating polymers are promising tools and attractive for improving the material performance, the effects of nano-zinc oxide and gamma radiation, at doses ranged from 10 to 50 kGy, were evaluated in terms of thermal characteristics of the rPC. The rPC/nZnO nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential explanatory calorimetry (DSC). There was a progressive decrease of the T{sub g} as function of gamma dosage and nano-zinc oxide content. Initially, the Tonset and Tmax decayed as function of gamma dosage but a recovery was observed. The amount of nano-zinc oxide induced a decreasing of T{sub onset} and T{sub max}. (author)

  8. Influence of gamma irradiation on natural mycoflora of poultry feed and effect on morphology, physiology and genetic of strains Aspergillus spp;Influencia da radiacao gama sobre a micobiota natural de racao avicola e seu efeito sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e genetica de cepas de referencia de Aspergillus spp.

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    Ribeiro, Jessika Mara Martins

    2008-07-01

    Maize flour samples, soy crumb and feed were collected directly from the production line of a poultry farm in Avelar, RJ, and exposed to doses of 0,3.5, 0,8 and 15 kGy of gamma irradiation. Counting, isolation and identification of the contaminant mycoflora were performed before and after irradiation. The radiosensitivity of strains of reference of Aspergillus spp. was determined in CYA medium and in corn for doses ranging from 0 to 8 kGy. Comparison between the morphologies of control and irradiated strains were performed by using macroscopy, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Toxigenic profile determination and genetic evaluation by RAPD were also carried out. Higher doses have been found to reduce the number of active colonies, causing elimination of the mycoflora at 8 kGy. A larger radiosensitivity of yeasts was observed in comparison with filamentous fungi. A significant reduction in fungi population occurred at 3.5 kGy to levels below the limit that ensures the hygienic quality of ingredients and poultry feeds. The residual mycoflora was found to decrease with post-irradiation time and included mostly Cladosporium spp., Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. and sterility of mycelium prevented further identification of the surviving species of Aspergillus spp. Differences in radioresistance were found among species of Aspergillus and the highest tolerance to radiation was observed for A. parasiticus. Initial morphologic changes were found to be more severe during the first isolation after irradiation than in later ones, with the fungi gradually recovering their normal growth rate. Ultrastructural changes in the irradiated strains were observed mostly in the plasmatic membrane and membranous organelles of nuclei and mitochondria. An increase in the rate of production of toxins by the irradiated strains has been found, however no significant alterations have been observed in their genotypes. Such findings apparently indicate that irradiation stress affected the metabolic response of the fungi, leading to a larger production of toxins. In addition, when appropriate conditions of feeding and growth were restored, the physiologic damages were gradually repaired. Therefore, under such circumstances, irradiated strains may resume growing, thus further deteriorating the substratum. (author)

  9. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain; Determinacao da dose de radiacao gama esterilizante pela avaliacao dos parametros biologicos de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), linhagem tsl - Vienna 8

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    Rocha, Aline Cristina Pereira da

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - {sup 60}Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters of emergence, flight ability, longevity under stress and sterility recommended for the sterile insect technique which consists of approximately 99%, the sterilizing dose to be used is 120 Gy. The size of the testes and the sperm number were affected by radiation. Males irradiated with 120 Gy presented a reduction about 25% in size of the testes, compared with the control (0 Gy). The testes of normal males contained an average of 41.910 sperm, and this value was decreased by increasing the dose of radiation, so that males irradiated with 120 Gy had a median of 27.921 sperm, and this allowed to recommend the use of GM male to control C. capitata. (author)

  10. Study on the formation of the nanogel and microgels polypropylene modified by gamma radiation and incorporation of silver nanoparticles to biocides activity; Estudo da formacao de nanogeis e microgeis de polipropileno modificado por radiacao gama e incorporacao de nanoparticulas de prata visando a acao biocida

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    Oliani, Washington Luiz

    2013-07-01

    The study consists of the synthesis of HMSPP (polypropylene with high melt strength), also called polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation from iPP (isotactic polypropylene) in presence of acetylene at 110 kPa pressure and irradiated with γ of {sup 60}Co source at doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The gel fraction of the samples was determined by extracting in xylene. The soluble portion of the samples was decanted to deposition on glass substrate until complete volatilization of xylene at room temperature of 25 °C. On the soluble portion of 12.5 kGy irradiated sample were added silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in proportions of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. These gel samples were characterized by: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with field emission (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), reduction of colony forming unit (CFU) (%) and cytotoxicity assay. In this study of the morphology, it has been observed the formation of microgels in polypropylene increasing with the dose PP 5 kGy < PP 12.5 kGy < 20 kGy. Nanoscale structures of gels polypropylene (nanogels and nanofibers) were found in samples of PP 12.5 kGy and 20 kGy. The nanogels are formation of crosslinking, branching and entanglement that are nucleated in regions of high energy concentration (spurs) of one irradiated sample. Efficiency in tests of bactericide activity of the gels with AgNPs was observed versus E. coli and S. aureus from 1% AgNPs and non cytotoxicity were characterized in those samples for mammalian cells. In a second stage of this work films of the blend of PP and modified PP (50/50) were produced in a twin screw extruder. AgNPs were added to the extrusion processing in proportions of 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 1.0 PVP; 2.0 and 4.0 wt%. The films obtained were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), reduction of colony forming unit (CFU) (%), antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and cytotoxicity assay. The films analyzed showed agglomeration of silver points and regions with homogeneous distribution of the particles. The bactericide effect with the interaction between silver and E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was found for PP film 1% NPsAg Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In the diffusion test for PP 1% AgNPs (PVP) was obtained 100% positive result for those bacteria. The films were not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. (author)

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples;Efeitos da radiacao gama no fungo Alternaria alternata e nas micotoxinas Alternariol e Alternariol monometil eter em amostras de cereais artificialmente contaminadas

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    Braghini, Raquel

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  12. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder; Aplicacao de baixas doses de radiacao gama para extensao da vida util de beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Nilber Kenup

    2006-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension and phyto sanitary safety of minimally processed red beet with basis on physicochemical; microbiological; chemical and sensory analyses. The samples (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Early Wonder cultivar, were cultivated in the experimental area of the Horticulture Sector of the Departamento de Fitotecnia of the Instituto de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ, as part of two experiments performed during the second semester of 2005. In each experiment, 1200 plants (40 per linear meter of terrain) were sowed. Physicochemical analyses (fresh mass; length; average diameter and total soluble solids) of the edible part of the red beets (their tuberous roots) were periodically carried out in order to assess the most appropriate time for harvest by monitoring the development of the plants. Those times were found to be 104 and 73 days after transplanting, respectively. The harvested edible part of the roots were minimally processed and separated in two groups: (1) gamma irradiated (with doses of 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and (2) non-irradiated (control). All samples were stored at 8 degree C. Microbiological analyses were performed during the storage period (22 and 21 days, for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in order to evaluate the phyto sanitary quality of the samples (Salmonella sp.; coliforms and total count of mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria). The samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy were found to remain appropriate for consumption for 21 days, as compared to only 7 days for the control. Monitoring of chemical composition was also performed and included the determination of saccharose; glucose; fructose and vitamins B1 and B2. No difference was found between the concentrations of those vitamins in irradiated and control samples at the end of the storage period, whereas significant changes in sugar contents were detected independently of the dose. In addition, physicochemical analyses investigated the evolution of pH; total acidity; total soluble solids and ascorbic acid throughout storage. Samples from experiment 2 were also subjected to sensory analyses for overall appearance and aroma at 4 different post-irradiation times. The results indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it can be concluded that the application of those doses extended the shelf life of the samples without harming their nutritional and sensory quality. Finally, the results indicate that the dose of 1.0 kGy is the most appropriate for the conservation of red beet among those tested. (author)

  13. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre algumas propriedades fisico-mecanicas de madeiras usadas em patrimonios artisticos e culturais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-07-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on the quality of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimally processed, storaged on differents temperatures and packages;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama na qualidade de abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L.) Meer) cv. Smooth Cayenne minimamente processado, armazenado em diferentes temperaturas e embalagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi

    2006-07-01

    The present work aimed to verify the effects of gamma radiation (doses until 2 kGy), types of packages and temperatures of storage (5, 8 e 12 deg C) on the physicochemical characteristics, on the microbiological contamination and on the sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The fruits were selected, washed; peeled and cutted transverse and the slices cutted were cutted on two or for pieces. The pieces were immersed in chlorinated water (100 mg/L) for 3 minutes, flowing and package, irradiated and stored. According with the results obtained in thi present work it was concluded that bigger the temperature of storage more quickly were the browning of the fruits. The loss of fresh weight of pineapple was bigger in the packages of polystyrene comparing with PET package when both are covered with PVC film and smaller in the PET packages covered with the same material. Doses of gamma radiation until 2 kGy did not change the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' minimally processed. The microbiological growth on the pieces of the processed fruit was smaller on the biggest dose. All the samples were is in good conditions for the human consume. (author)

  15. Experimental verification for in vitro technique confirmation of bystander effect induced by gamma radiation in CHO-K1 cell line; Verificacao experimental para confirmacao da tecnica in vitro do efeito bystander induzido por radiacao gama na linhagem celular CHO-K1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, P.H.L.; Goes, A.M.; Gomes, D.A., E-mail: pedroleroybio@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento Bioquimica e Imunologia. Lab. de Imunologia Celular e Molecular; Grynberg, S.E., E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The bystander effect refers to biological responses detected in cells not directly irradiated but influenced, somehow, by signals transmitted from neighboring irradiated cells. These biological responses include sister chromatid exchange, mutations, micronucleus formation, chromosomal aberrations, carcinogenesis, apoptosis and necrosis. Although its existence is unquestionable, the mechanisms involved on triggering the bystander effect are not yet completely elucidated. Previous studies have shown that the bystander effect depends on a large variety of parameters including the radiation dose, the dose rate, the type of radiation and type of cells or tissue. This study aims to confirm the technique previously used in the literature in human cell lines for the bystander effect verification. The results suggest that the working conditions adopted by the group show technical efficiency and enables the reproduction of the bystander effect. (author)

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation of the {sup 60} Co on antimicrobial action of plant extracts of bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi; Efeitos da radiacao gama do {sup 60} Co sobre a acao antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais de cascas e folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edvane Borges da; Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Jeniffer Maiza de Souza [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Xisto, Kesia; Araujo, Rosilma de Oliveira [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (DA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential for antimicrobial activity in vitro of extracts of bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius treated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. 5,0 doses were used; 7.5 and 10 kGy, being held non-irradiated controls. To determine the antimicrobial activity was applied to the disc diffusion technique to evaluate the diameter of the inhibition zones against Gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, alcohol-acid-resistant and yeast. Antimicrobial activity was considered significant for halos ≥ 15 mm. The results indicate an intensification of antimicrobial action of bark extracts, the 5.0 kGy, against S. aureus. Was held the micro dilution in broth to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of peels extracts, compared to eight clinical isolates of S. aureus. The MBC values showed that ionizing radiation did not produce the increased of anti bacteriostatic action of S. terebinthifolius, but the results indicated that S. terebinthifolius bark extracts can be used as an antimicrobial agent and ionizing radiation as an important alternative in this conservation feature.

  17. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with doses capable to promote the sterilization of the insect, without committing your qualities physical-chemistries and sensorial of the fruits. Therefore, it is suggested the treatment with the dose of 50 Gy for fruits infested with eggs and 150 Gy for fruits infested with caterpillars and pupas of S. catenifer, maintained in temperature of 10 deg C. Para the use of the Technique of the Sterile Insect it is recommended the irradiation of pupas and adults with doses of 150 Gy and 200 Gy, respectively. (author)

  18. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses that the best mixture was that formulated with sugarcane juice and 4% of lemon juice as well as 10% of pineapple juice. Sugarcane juice centesimal composition was not altered by fruit juice concentration addition. However, sugarcane juice added with 10% pineapple juice incremented manganese and reducing sugars when compared with pure sugarcane juice and added with 4% lemon juice. The market test proffered mixture was shown to be that containing sugarcane juice and natural lemon juice for evaluation the shelf life. Sugarcane juice added with 4% of lemon juice submitted to gamma radiation, heat treatment combined with gamma radiation and heat treatment remaining satisfactory microbiological, sensory and physical chemical characteristics until 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, after processing. These results indicated that the heat treatment was effective for sugarcane juice preservation. (author)

  19. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Diethyltoluamide (DEET) in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussels non-irradiated and irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Avaliacao da citotoxicidade do dietiltoluamida (DEET) em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) irradiados e nao irradiados com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela de Assis

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have identified the presence of several emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. The occurrence in different environmental matrices has been continuously reported, highlighting the need for toxicity studies. The DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient used in most insect repellents, and is present in many commercially available formulations. Apart from chemical pollutants, aquatic organisms are subject to exposure of ionizing radiation from natural sources or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DEET in organisms irradiated and non-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, and the effects that radiation causes in lysosomes of hemocytes of Perna perna mussel. For this purpose, assays were performed to identify the acute toxicity of DEET concentration and the dose of gamma radiation able to cause mortality. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays were carried out to assess the stability of the lysosomal membrane in organisms exposed to ionizing radiation and DEET. According to the results obtained in acute toxicity tests, the concentration of DEET that causes mortality of 50% exposed organisms (LC50) is 114,27 mg L{sup -1}, and the radiation dose that causes mortality (LD50) is 1068 Gy. In the cytotoxicity assays, the concentration of the non-observed effect (NOEC) for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms 0.0001 mg L-1 and observed effect concentration (LOEC) at concentrations above this. The IC25 (72h) for non-irradiated organisms was 0.0003 mg L-1 and IC50 (72h) was 0.0008 mg L{sup -1} for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. Despite of the concentrations of effect found in this study were higher than in the environment, both measurements are in the same order of magnitude and should be also take into account the possible synergistic effects of DEET with other contaminants in the aquatic environment. (author)

  20. A study about the effects of gamma radiation and electron beam irradiation in the detection of genetically modified maize (Zea Mays); Estudos dos efeitos da radiacao gama e de aceleradores de eletrons na deteccao de graos de milho (Zea mays) geneticamente modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crede, Ricardo Gandara

    2005-07-01

    The major technique to detect genetically modified organism - GMO is the polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The PCR is a method that allows the enlargement in vitro of DNA segments, using two starters ('primers') that hybridize with the opposing ribbons, in regions that match the segment to be amplified. For that, the DNA is disnatured (92-96 deg C), the 'primers' are hybridized (30 deg C a 60 deg C ) and, after that, the DNA synthesis is made with a DNA-polymerase and nucleotides (dNTPs) (72 deg C), for some repetitive cycles. The development of the PCR allowed great advances in Molecular Biology, mainly for analysis of genes, diagnosis of illnesses and pathogens, among some other examples. Currently, the PCR has been very much used for the identification of transgenic constituents in foods. In the detection of genetically modified grains, the PCR technique showed to be highly sensitive, because it allows identifying one genetically modified grain amongst a million of normal grains. Nowadays, the analysis through the PCR method is the only capable to discriminate an organism genetically modified from a not transgenic one. The identification of foods that were made of transgenic grains, as soy and maize, through the PCR technique is still controversial. Therefore the result of the test is more trustworthy when it is positive. Or either, the detection absence does not mean that the product does not have, in fact, transgenic ingredients. It happens because to detect a DNA sequence, is necessary to preserve a minimum portion of the DNA. However, what happens many times in the industrialization process is that, in the manipulation of the ingredients, the DNA can be degraded (for example, for heat or radiation) and, consequently, is not detectable any longer. This work has as a main objective the study of the viability on the use of the PCR in the detection of GMO's in radiated foods containing maize. For the irradiation of the material, a source of {sup 60}Co Irradiator Gamma Cell-220 and electron beam irradiation (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA) were used (Atomic Energy of Canada, LTD), applying doses of 1, 25 and 50 kGy. After irradiating the samples, the detection results were compared with non-irradiated samples, showing that, when the PCR technique, was used, the irradiation does not affect the perception of the genetically modified maize. (author)

  1. Physiological quality of rice seed submitted to gamma radiation; Qualidade fisiologica de sementes de arroz submetidas a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Helen Lucia da Cruz; Tillmann, Maria Angela Andre; Meneghello, Geri Eduardo, E-mail: helenllc@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sementes; Bobrowski, Vera Lucia [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Dode, Luciana Bicca [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), RS (Brazil)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on the physiological quality of rice seeds. The research was carried out through three tests; in the first test rice seeds were irradiated at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy, while for the second and third tests the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging before being irradiated. For the second test the seeds were divided into wet and dry and both groups subjected to accelerated aging previous to irradiation at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy. For the third test the seeds were dried after being subjected to accelerated aging, and then irradiated at dosages of 0, 10, 25 and 50Gy. To assess the physiological effects of the gamma radiation, all seeds were tested for germination and their germination speed index recorded. Seedling growth was graded through the measurement of the lengths of the first leaf and seminal root system and total seedling dry weight, across all tests. The enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase and alpha-amylase was measured on dry seeds from the second test. The results from all tests indicate that the applied gamma radiation dosages did not cause any changes to the physiological quality of rice seeds. (author)

  2. Recycling of chlorobutyl rubber compounds subjected of gamma radiation; Reciclagem de compostos de borracha clorobutilinica por meio de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Santos, Renato G. dos; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, as in the world, the correct destination of solid waste and its impacts on the environment are so worrying that have been treated as public policy of the State, leading to behavioral change on the part of business and society. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a growing proportion of urban and industrial waste sent to landfills. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric residues that are acceptable from an environmental point of view, and which are effective in terms of cost, has proven a difficult challenge due to the inherent complexities of all reuse polymers. To establish more efficient processes for reuse / recycling of polymeric materials remains a challenge throughout the world. Due to ionizing radiation ability to alter the structure and properties of materials and the fact that it is applicable to all types of polymers, irradiation is promising and effective for the management of solid waste which can be used as raw materials or additives chemicals. Halogenated polymers have been used on a large scale in a broad variety of applications, such as tires, spare parts (tubes, tire liners, etc.) and various artifacts (covers, gaskets, etc.). Due to the low unsaturation of chlorobutyl rubber (about 3%), shows significant levels of degradation upon exposure to radiation. The main effect of gamma rays on butyl polymers is the formation of free radicals and the chain scission. This paper aims to introduce a rubber recovery technique chlorobutyl rubber the characterization of non-irradiated and irradiated samples based on the following properties: tensile strength and elongation at break, hardness, and rheological properties. The radiation doses used in the study were degradation range: 0 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy, in order to confirm the feasibility of recycling chlorobutyl rubber. It was observed that doses greater than 100 kGy, the material exhibits a high degree of degradation. Research on rubber recycling these products will reduce the negative impact on the environment, including space saving in landfills, eliminating harmful effects on humans and the environment as well as providing future direction lines for polymeric materials. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation and the conservation of natural orange juice; Radiacao gama na conservacao do suco natural de laranja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iemma, Juliana; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: aalcarde@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    The effect of gamma radiation was evaluated on the microbiological population, soluble solids content, acidity, p H and ascorbic acid content of natural orange juice. Microbial activity may cause deterioration of orange juice. Irradiation is a process of food conservation which eliminates microorganisms. nevertheless radiation may affect some characteristics of irradiated food. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, including control and 3 rates of irradiation (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kGy) and 5 storage periods (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), with 2 replicates. Samples of juice were extracted from variety Pera oranges and irradiated at a rate of 2.0 kGy/h ({sup 60} Cobalt) and thereafter stored at 5 +- 3 deg C. Results showed small changes in soluble solids content, acidity and p H, for all treatments. The ratio soluble solids/acidity was also determined and showed little variation for all treatments. There was a reduction on ascorbic acid content of the orange juice with increased radiation dosage and storage time. Gamma radiation was effective in reducing the microbiological population of the juice. (author)

  4. Development of a gamma dosimeter using a photodiode; Desenvolvimento de um dosimetro para radiacao gama utilizando fotodiodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, F.A. de

    1988-05-01

    In the last years, the application of semiconductor detectors in radiation spectroscopy and dosimetry has increased. Silicon diodes have found utility in radiation dosimetry principally because a diode produces a current approximately 18000 times larger than of an ionization chamber of an equal sensitive volume. As the characteristics of the semiconductor detectors are the same as the common photodiode, a gamma dosimeter using this type of electronic component was developed. The photodiode SFH206 operating in photovoltaic mode was used. An electrometric unit was constructed to measure the current generated in this detector. The results obtained showed: the response of the photodiode was linear with the dose and that variation of 40 degrees in the incidence angle of the radiation caused a variation of 5% in the dose determination; the response reproducibility of the photodiode was studied, and the results showed that the variation coefficient is smaller than 0,02%; the small dimension of the silicon photodiode recommend its use as a gamma dosimeter for medical applications. (author). 19 refs, 32 figs, 1 tab.

  5. Estudo sobre a eventual utilidade de raios gama na profilaxia da malária transmissível por transfusão de sangue A study on the fortuitons advantage of gamma irradiation in the prophylaxis of transmissible malaria by blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Almeida Braz

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a eventual utilidade de raios gama na profilaxia da malária transmissível por transfusão de sangue, tendo sido, para isso, usados camundongos infectados pelo Plasmodium berghei. Na primeira fase, quando submetemos sangue deles retirado a 2.500 e 5.000rad, com associação ou não de metronidazol, não obtivemos sucesso, já que todos os animais antes sem a parasitose apresentaram parasitemia e morreram após inoculação do sangue irradiado. Porém, ocorreu êxito parcial na segunda fase, ao serem empregados 10.000 e 15.000rad, porquanto 20% e 40% dos roedores, respectivamente, embora tenham ficado infectados, sobreviveram, com posterior negativação quanto à presença do P. berghei.This study was carried out to evaluate the fortuitons advantage of using gamma irradiation in the prophylaxis of transmissible malaria by blood transfusion, with mice as the experimental model. In the first step, when the infected blood with Plasmodium berghei was submitted to 2,500rad and 5,000rad, with or without metronidazol, there was no success, because the animals presented parasitaemia and died after inoculation of irradiated blood. However, there was partial success in the second step, when the infected blood received 10,000 and 15,000rad, and was inoculated in mice, which showed infection, and presented a survival rate of 20% and 40%, respectively, with later negativation of blood infected by P. berghei.

  6. Efeito da irradiação gama nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais do arroz (Oryza sativa L. e no desenvolvimento de Sitophilus oryzae L. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L. and on the development of Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Fernanda Pedroso Zanão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a viabilidade da radiação gama como método de conservação do arroz polido (Oryza sativa L.. As amostras foram irradiadas com doses 0,5; 1,0; 3,0; e 5,0 kGy. Foram realizadas análises da quebra do grão no beneficiamento, da longevidade e reprodução do Sitophilus oryzae L., a composição centesimal, o conteúdo de amilose aparente e propriedades de pasta dos amidos, e análises para cor (instrumental e análise sensorial do arroz cru e cozido. Foi utilizado teste de Tukey (p The objective of this research was to verify the viability of the gamma radiation as polished rice (Oryza sativa L. conservation method. The samples were irradiated with doses of 0.5; 1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 kGy. Analysis of the grain breakage during the enriching process, longevity and reproduction of the Sitophilus oryzae L., centesimal composition, apparent amylose content, starch paste properties, color (instrumental, and the sensorial evaluation of raw and cooked rice were performed. It was verified that the irradiation did not change the percentage of grain breakage during the enrichment process, and it caused a negative effect on the development of insects. The irradiation did not change significantly the centesimal composition and the apparent amylase content. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was conducted to verify the differences between the treatments. Gamma irradiation affected the pasting properties of the rice flour. Pasting parameters as temperature, peak, final viscosity, and setback values showed decreasing values with irradiation doses. Differences were detected in the sensorial aspect among the samples, and the sample irradiated with the dose of 1.0 kGy presented greater averages. Regarding the instrumental color parameter, it was observed the difference in the values b* indicating that the rice changed the white color for yellowish with the increase in the irradiation dose. The irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy proved the best

  7. Alimentos industrializados congelados gama III y IV

    OpenAIRE

    Tupone Reverter, Paula

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo, indagar sobre el consumo, el grado de información y contenido de sodio, grasas saturadas y colesterol de los principales alimentos congelados Gama III y V consumidos por los encuestados. A partir de esto, se realiza una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo y preguntas varias a 250 personas de entre 30 a 60 años, que concurren a cuatro supermercados de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, para determinar el conocimiento por parte de los encuestados e...

  8. Estudo da formação de ligações cruzadas por irradiação gama em membranas híbridas de Polissulfona Bisfenol-A e sílica precipitada Study of cross-linking reactions induced by gamma rays in hybrid membranes of Bisphenol-A-Polysulfone and precipitated silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Antonio M. Furtado Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho a polissulfona bisfenol-A (PSU foi sulfonada com o agente de sulfonação trimetil silil cloro sulfônico [(CH33SiSO3Cl], em solução homogênea de dicloroetano. A reação de sulfonação foi confirmada por titulação ácido-base e análises FTIR. As membranas híbridas foram obtidas por vazamento da solução polimérica da polissulfona bisfenol-A sulfonada (SPSU e sílica precipitada Tixosil® 333 em N-N-dimetilacetamida (DMAc, e a formação das ligações cruzadas foi estudada por irradiação. Foram utilizadas doses totais de 5 a 30 kGy de radiação gama, oriunda de uma fonte de 60Co. A absorção de água foi determinada pela variação percentual da massa da membrana seca e hidratada em água deionizada a 40 e 60 °C. A condutividade protônica das membranas na forma ácida foi obtida pela técnica da espectroscopia de impedância ac utilizando um potenciostato/galvanostato. As membranas híbridas reticuladas por irradiação apresentaram condutividade protônica próxima de 10-1 S.cm-1 a 100% RH e 80 °C. O desempenho eletroquímico, as estabilidades térmica e mecânica, e o baixo custo tornam a membrana SPSU híbrida reticulada um possível substituto da membrana Nafion nas células a combustível que usam eletrólito polimérico.In this work the bisphenol-A-polysulfone (PSF was sulfonated using trimethyl silyl chlorosulfonate [(CH33SiSO3Cl] as a mild sulfonating agent in a homogeneous solution of dichloroetane. The sulfonation reaction was confirmed by acid-base titration and FTIR-spectroscopy analysis. The hybrid membranes were obtained by casting the sulfonated bisphenol-A-polysulfone (SPSF and precipitated silica Tixosil® 333 solutions in N-N-dimethylacetamide. Cross-linking in the hybrid membranes was obtained by irradiation, with doses ranging from 5 to 30 kGy using gamma ray from a 60Co source. The water uptake and the swelling of the membranes were estimated by measuring the change in weight between

  9. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação gama nos teores de carotenóides, ácido ascórbico e açúcares do futo buriti do brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L. Evaluation of gamma irradiation rffects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luís dos Santos Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L. é um típico fruto da Amazônia, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste brasileiro, muito utilizado na culinária para produção de sucos, doces e vinhos. É considerado uma excelente fonte de carotenóides precursores da vitamina A, apresentando maior concentração de β-caroteno. Além dos carotenóides também encontramos ácido ascórbico e açúcares. O ácido ascórbico administrado em quantidades suficientes pode prevenir os sinais clínicos de deficiência conhecida como escorbuto. O emprego da radiação ionizante gama tem mostrado um potencial efeito na redução de perdas pós-colheita, mantendo a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama, nas doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy, na concentração de carotenóides totais, ácido ascórbico e açúcares do buriti. A determinação dos carotenos (α, β e luteína, ácido ascórbico e açúcares foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE e os carotenóides totais por espectrofotometria. Os resultados demonstraram que o Buriti é uma excelente fonte de carotenóides totais (44600μg/100g, podendo ser utilizado no combate à hipovitaminose A. A irradiação dos frutos de buriti na dose de 0,5 kGy não alterou significativamente os teores de carotenóides e açúcares. Entretanto, houve uma redução na concentração do ácido ascórbico com o aumento da dose, que pode ter sido causada pela irradiação ou por fatores intrínsecos e extrínsecos que alteram a estabilidade do ácido ascórbico nos alimentos, podendo converter o ácido ascórbico a dehidroascórbico, mantendo ainda a forma ativa da vitamina C.Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L., a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of β-carotene. It also presents ascorbic

  10. Implementation of SQLite database support in program gama-local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Petras

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The program gama-local is a part of GNU Gama project and allows adjustment of local geodetic networks. Before realization of this project the program gama-local supported only XML as an input. I designed and implemented support for the SQLite database and thanks to this extension gama-local can read input data from the SQLite database. This article is focused on the specifics of the use of callback functions in C++ using the native SQLite C/C++ Application Programming Interface. The article provides solution to safe calling of callback functions written in C++. Callback functions are called from C library and C library itself is used by C++ program. Provided solution combines several programing techniques which are described in detail, so this article can serve as a cookbook even for beginner programmers.  This project was accomplished within my bachelor thesis.

  11. Assessement of glycaemia and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in thoroughbred horses submitted to exercise of different intensities/ Avaliação da glicemia e da atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase, creatinoquinase, gama-glutamiltransferase e lactato desidrogenase em eqüinos puro sangue inglês (PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of exercise of different intensities on biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred horses blood was collected from 60 animals, 30 males and 30 females.The animals were subdivided in two groups : 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 24 to 36 months of age and not in training, and after 12 months of training; 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 36 to 48 months of age in training. Blood samples were collected before and after trot and gallop. Plasmatic glucose was analyzed through a colorimetric method, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT were analyzed through kinetic methods. Results show a statistically significant increase in plasmatic glucose after trot and gallop independent of gender, while the increases in CK and LDH were different for males and females. Variations for AST and GGT were not statistically significant.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações na bioquímica sérica em eqüinos PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 60 eqüinos PSI, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: 30 animais sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com idade de 24 a 36 meses, não submetidos a treinamento e após um período de 12 meses de treinamento e 30 eqüinos de 36 a 48 meses, em fase de treinamento, antes e após o trote . Dos animais de 36 a 48 meses foram selecionados 20 machos e 10 fêmeas e colhido sangue antes e após o galope. Determinou-se, por métodos colorimétricos, os valores da glicose plasmática e, por métodos cinéticos, as enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatinoquinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. A análise estatística dos resultados comprovou a ocorrência de aumento significativo (p < 0,05 dos valores da glicose plasmática após o trote e galope para ambos os sexos. Para as enzimas CK e LDH ocorreram

  12. Modelos de distribuição de diâmetros utilizando a função log gama

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    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência da função log gama para a descrição da estrutura diamétrica de povoamentos equiâneos, bem como propor um modelo de distribuição diamétrica utilizando esta função. A função foi ajustada a dados de parcelas permanentes de inventário, mensuradas em seis idades. A aderência da função aos dados foi comprovada pelo teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov. A análise gráfica de resíduos não apresentou tendenciosidade para os modelos construídos. A função log gama pode ser utilizada para a construção de modelos de distribuição diamétrica de eucalipto.

  13. Determinação da dose de radiação gama para reduzir a população de Salmonella spp em carne de frango Determination of gamma radiation doses to reduce Salmonella spp in chiken meat

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    A.F. Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de carne de frango contaminada com Salmonella é uma causa importante de salmonelose em todo o mundo. Essa doença transmitida por alimentos, é um problema de saúde pública e causa de perdas econômicas substanciais. O processo de irradiação é um método eficiente de conservação de alimentos por reduzir o número de microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes, sem que as características organolépticas e nutricionais do alimento sejam alteradas significativamente. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram determinar o valor D10 de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, inoculada em sobrecoxas de frango, e recomendar uma dose de radiação para ser aplicada a esse alimento a fim de torná-lo seguro do ponto de vista microbiológico. O valor D10 foi calculado a partir da curva de sobreviventes dessa bactéria em sobrecoxas de frango, após terem sido expostas às doses de 0kGy; 0,1kGy; 0,2kGy; 0,3kGy; 0,5kGy; 0,6kGy; 0,7kGy e 0,8kGy. O valor D10 variou de 0,241kGy a 0,480kGy. Considerando o maior valor D10 e o maior nível de contaminação de Salmonella spp encontrado em sobrecoxas de frango - 0,4NMP/g - adquiridas em feiras livres da cidade de São Paulo, a dose de radiação gama recomendada para garantir a segurança do produto em relação à presença de Salmonella spp é de 3,8kGy.The consumption of chicken meat contaminated with Salmonella spp is an important cause of salmonellosis worldwide. This food-borne disease is a public health problem and causes substantial economical loss. Irradiation process is an effective method for food preservation because it causes no significant change in organoleptic and nutritional food characteristics and destroys pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. D10 values were calculated through the number of survivors for S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, inoculated in chicken thighs, after being irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation - 0.0kGy; 0.1kGy; 0.2kGy; 0.3kGy; 0.5kGy; 0.7kGy and 0.8kGy . D10

  14. Radiação gama e nitrito de sódio na composição química e textura de mortadelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Pereira Dutra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Um delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR foi conduzido para estudar os efeitos simultâneos da adição de nitrito (43,6; 150; 256,4; e 300 ppm e de doses de radiação gama (2,9; 10; 17,1; e 20 kGy nos atributos de textura e parâmetros físico-químicos de mortadelas. O pH, composição química e adesividade das mortadelas não foram afetados por nenhuma das variáveis estudadas, enquanto a dureza e a mastigabilidade foram influenciados pela aplicação da radiação gama. Modelos de regressão significativos (P<0,05 foram estabelecidos para a atividade de água, coesividade e flexibilidade das amostras. Estes modelos indicam que os efeitos da irradiação gama sobre estes parâmetros é dependente do nível de nitrito adicionado, sendo o comportamento diferente para amostras com níveis de adição menores que 150 ppm de nitrito daquelas com níveis de adição maiores.

  15. Aktivitas Inhibitor Enzim Pengubah Angiotensin (ACE dan Antioksidan Peptida Kolagen dari Teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habbib Khirzin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teripang merupakan salah satu echinodermata yang memiliki kandungan protein tinggi dan sekitar 70% dari proteinnya merupakan kolagen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas inhibitor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE dan antioksidan dari peptida kolagen teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus. Ekstraksi kolagen dilakukan menggunakan asam asetat 0,5 M. Peptida kolagen diperoleh melalui hidrolisis kolagen menggunakan enzim pepsin dengan konsentrasi 0,1 U/g kolagen, selama 0; 30; 60; 90; 120; 180; dan 240 menit. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE dan antioksidan peptida kolagen diuji dengan metode spektroskopi. Kolagen yang dihasilkan memiliki rendemen 16,40% dengan berat molekul 130,33 kDa. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE tertinggi dihasilkan dari proses hidrolisis selama 180 menit dengan penghambatan sebesar 82,31%, sedangkan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi dihasilkan oleh peptida kolagen dari hidrolisis kolagen selama 120 menit dengan nilai IC50 1,9 mg/ml.

  16. Efeito de diferentes doses de radiação gama na solução de quitosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moraes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quitosana é um polissacarídeo adquirido da desacetilização da quitina, existente em insetos e invertebrados marinhos. Possui ação fungistática e não causa reações de toxicidade ao organismo humano. Ela é utilizada como revestimento de alimentos, prolongando a vida pós-colheita e melhorando a aparência do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de radiação gama na solução de quitosana. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à cor onde foi observado que a radiação gama induz a mudança da intensidade e na tonalidade da solução de quitosana. A análise de MEV mostrou que as partículas do pó de quitosana possuem formatos irregulares, e as amostras irradiadas apresentaram grânulos menores dando uma aparência mais fina e dispersa. A solução também foi analisada quanto à viscosidade e foi visto que a irradiação alterou a viscosidade da solução, deixando-a menos viscosa. Assim, dentre as doses, a de 5 kGy foi a que apresentou alteração mais relevante às características da solução e a futuras aplicações da mesma.

  17. Prototype-based analysis of GAMA galaxy catalogue data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, A.; Wang, L.; Biehl, M; Verleysen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We present a prototype-based machine learning analysis of labeled galaxy catalogue data containing parameters from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Using both an unsupervised and supervised method, the Self-Organizing Map and Generalized Relevance Matrix Learning Vec- tor Quantization, we

  18. Book collections in the library of the Gama Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, R.U.; Soeratman, S.

    1976-01-01

    Book collection in the library of Gama Atomic Energy Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency in December 1974 is grouped according to Universal Decimal Classification. In accordance with the function of the library most of the collections are on physics, mathematics, and engineering. Authors and subjects are alphabetically indexed in the last part of the catalog. (author)

  19. Polpa de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia submetida à radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O fruto amazônico camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia, possui elevado teor de vitamina C, antocianinas, carotenóides e compostos fenólicos, fatores que fazem com este fruto venham se posicionando na preferência dos consumidores de frutas exóticas. A radiação ionizante tem sido utilizada para aumentar a vida útil dos produtos, além de preservar qualidades intrínsecas e nutricionais. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a radiação gama como método alternativo na conservação da polpa de camu-camu. As amostras de polpa do fruto foram submetidas às doses 0 (controle, 2, 4, e 6 kGy. Em seguida, foram armazenadas a 6 ºC e à temperatura ambiente (26 ºC, e avaliadas quanto a cor, pH, acidez titulável, teores de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos e antocianinas nos períodos 1 e 15 dias de armazenamento. Os atributos pH, teor de sólidos solúveis, compostos fenólicos e acidez total, não foram afetados pela irradiação e pela temperatura de armazenamento nos dois períodos analisados. A vitamina C também não se alterou com a irradiação, porém o armazenamento refrigerado manteve os teores mais constantes. A cor foi o atributo mais afetado pela irradiação e pelo armazenamento à temperatura ambiente. Portanto, a radiação gama não se mostrou eficaz no armazenamento da polpa desta fruta em nenhuma das temperaturas propostas.

  20. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae); Utilizacao da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenario de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) e Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2007-07-01

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  1. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  2. IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA COMO ALTERNATIVA DE CONSERVAÇÃO DE POLPA DE ACEROLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. J. C. GONÇALVES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Esse trabalho objetivou estudar a irradiação gama como método de conservação para a polpa de acerola. A polpa foi tratada por irradiação gama. As amostras, divididas em alíquotas, receberam diferentes doses de radiação (2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 kGy para posterior comparação com a amostra controle (0,0 kGy. Testes microbiológicos para fungos filamentosos e leveduras, após 12 dias de estocagem à temperatura ambiente, evidenciaram uma redução de 3 ciclos logarítmicos para a dose de 2 kGy e de 4 a 5 ciclos para as doses de 3 e 4 kGy, tendo a amostra controle se deteriorado (> 106 UFC.mL-1. A perda de antocianinas logo após os tratamentos foi de 23,3%, 27,8% e 29,5% para as doses de 2, 3 e 4 kGy, respectivamente, em relação à amostra sem tratamento. No entanto, análises colorimétricas revelaram que a cinética do parâmetro a* (intensidade de vermelho teve menor constante de velocidade de degradação da cor para a dose de 4 kGy, indicando, para tal dose, maior estabilidade da cor durante a estocagem da polpa à temperatura ambiente. Assim, a irradiação gama apresentase como um método alternativo para eliminar o efeito negativo do calor frente à degradação das antocianinas, viabilizando a comercialização asséptica deste produto, reduzindo os custos com a eliminação da cadeia do frio no processo de comercialização.

  3. Gamma radiation on the conservation of the pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HBK) minimally processed; Radiacao gama na conservacao de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HMK) minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoto, Marta H. F. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Walder, Julio M. M.; Domarco, Rachel E. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation on microorganisms and enzymatic darkness reaction of the minimally processed hart of palm pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HBK). The pupunha stalks came from Piraju county, State of Sao Paulo and at CENA/USP laboratory they were peeled and cut in small stalks into a solution of sodium chloride (2.5%) plus citric acid (0.8%). After packing in polyethylene bags the samples were irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. The samples were storage for 14 days period under refrigeration (5 deg C), with analysis at the 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} day. No microorganism (bacteria, fungi or yeast) were detect in the irradiated samples during the the storage period. Through the a{sup *} e b{sup *} values the control sample showed a yellow-greenish color and the irradiated samples presented almost white. The pH values kept stable and the ratio values diminished for all treatments during the storage period. (author)

  4. Corn seed response to gamma radiation as a function of water content; Resposta de sementes de milho a radiacao gama em funcao do teor de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viccini, Lyderson Facio [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Saraiva, Luiz Sergio; Cruz, Cosme Damiao [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    1997-07-01

    The study of the factors that affect the radiation efficiency is important, because it makes easier to get mutants that may be used as source of variability on improvement programs or as structural chromosomic aberrations for cytogenetics studies. The main of this research was to investigate the influence of corn seed water content on gamma radiation response. As a rule, the damage caused by irradiation was more evident on seeds with higher water content. Also, increased damages were observed with higher radiation doses. (author)

  5. Evaluation by instrumented indentation of the damage caused by gamma radiation on polymeric materials; Avaliacao por indentacao instrumentada dos danos causados pela radiacao gama em materiais polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.P.; Azevedo, E.C.; Miquelin, C.A.; Soboll, D.S., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAFIS/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Several materials with densities close to water are used as phantoms in dosimetry. Such materials are damaged because they are exposed to radiation, the surface layers suffer the largest changes. This damage can be assessed by instrumented indentation. This paper investigates the variations in hardness and elastic modulus of samples of polymethyl-methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyacetal and polypropylene before and after being irradiated with gamma radiation dose 500 Gy, using a Nanoindeter XP, with applied loads between 1 mN and 400 mN. The results are discussed correlating the variations in the mechanical properties of polymers with their applications. (author)

  6. Ftir study of gamma irradiation LDPE film in air; Estudo por FTIR de filme de polietileno de baixa densidade submetido a radiacao gama na presenca de oxigenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Silva, Andre L.A.; Gouvea, Paulo H.D.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: eabmoura@ipen.br, andrebarra@mackenzie.com.br, paulohdg@hotmail.com, lgasilva@ipen.br; Ortiz, Angel V. [Unipac Embalagens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: angelv@unipac-pack.com.br; Gouvea, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo H.R.; Wiebeck, Helio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mails: dgouvea@usp.br; rhrcastro@hotmail.com; hwiebeck@usp.br; Rossini, Edvaldo L. [Universidade Metodista de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: didirossini@yahoo.com.br; Kawano, Yoshio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The use of the ionizing radiation for application in plastic packaging, to improve some of properties and for radiation sterilization, has been gaining popularity in the packaging industry. As a consequence of the irradiation, plastic packaging materials can undergo some chemical and physical alterations in their basic function, mainly concerning the protection characteristics. Since changes in physical properties of irradiated packaging films reflect radiation-induced chemical changes in molecular structure, in this work, an investigation was performed by Ftir analysis of LDPE film before and after radiation. Film samples were irradiated with doses between 0 Gy and 100 kGy, at room temperature and in the presence of air. The results showed alterations in the molecular structure, according to the absorbed radiation dose. (author)

  7. Study of green quartz of hydrothermal origin treated by gamma radiation; Estudo do quartzo verde de origem hidrotermal tratado com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokihara, Cyro Teiti

    2013-07-01

    A specific variety of quartz showing a green color in nature or induced artificially by radiation is quite rare. This can be explained by the fact that the mechanism of formation of this color is very different from the ones widely discussed in the literature and responsible for the formation of the fumee, citrine and amethyst types of quartz, including the prasiolite (leak green quartz) formed by heating amethyst from Montezuma, Brazil. Only two occurrences are known today, where this type of quartz can be found: Canada, at the Thunder Bay Amethyst Mine, Ontario, a small district, and Brazil, at widely scattered geode occurrences along a 600 km stretch from Quarai at Brazils southernmost tip to Uberlandia in Minas Gerais. These two occurrences have been formed by strong hydrothermal activities, at Thunder Bay due to tectonics and in Brazil by meteoric and hydrothermal waters of the Guarani aquifer. That way much quartz crystals showed a very fast growth history facilitating the formation of growth defects (twinning, small angle tilting, mosaic growth, striations) and the uptake of water in form of micro inclusions, molecular water, silanol (Si-OH) and OH. This type of quartz can be considered 'wet quartz', similar to synthetic quartz. The water content with up to 3200 ppm by weight exceeds the amount of charge balancing cations (Fe, Al, Li). There is no correlation between water content and cations as in other color varieties. Instead, silanol complexes are formed, which by radiation due to gamma rays form the color center NBOHC (non-bonding oxygen hole defect), showing absorption between 590 to 620 nm and leaving a transmission window at about 550nm, responsible for the green color. To characterize samples which will be colored green by gamma rays analyses by ICP, NAA, Electron microscopy, water loss techniques and UV-VIS and NIR-FTIR spectroscopic have been made. The spectroscopic water determination showed less water (up to 2300 ppm by weight) compared with heating techniques (3200 ppm), probably due to remaining silanol complexes.To trace the influence of water on color formation, samples from 3 different geological settings (high temperature pegmatitic quartz with Al and Li, from Santana de Araguaia; intermediate temperature vein quartz with Al but without water from Curvelo; amethyst with more Fe, less Al and small silanol content from Brejinho, and low temperature regimes from geodes, high silanol and high molecular water, cations similar to the above mentioned) have been analyzed by NIR spectroscopy.The former will not show green color, only the latter one. It may be mentioned that even in geodes one has crystals with high and intermediate water content coexisting. The crystals with high silanol and molecular water are the ones to treat by radiation. The radiation induced color is heat and UV sensible with bleaching by longer exposure to these factors. (author)

  8. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of spices treated by gamma irradiation; Ressonancia paramagnetica eletronica (RPE) aplicada a analise de especiarias irradiadas (com radiacao gama)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Alexandre Soares; Rodrigues, Rogerio Rivail, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serv. de Reator e Irradiacoes; Krambrock, Klaus; Guedes, Kassilio [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-15

    The treatment of food by ionizing radiation is a method that has been increased in many countries in substitution for the use of chemical products. The knowledge of safe and reliable techniques of detection of irradiated food is a factor that can contribute to the largest acceptance for the consuming market. This work presents the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as method of detection of the irradiated spices rosemary and cilantro. The obtained results indicate that EPR can be used satisfactorily for that group of victuals in the identification of irradiated species and in the determination of the received dose. (author)

  9. XML in Projects GNU Gama and 3DGI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar, Jan; Soucek, Petr; Cepek, Ales

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents our practical experiences with XML in geodetic and geographical applications. The main concepts and ideas of XML are introduced in an example of a simple web based information system, which exploits the XHTML language. The article further describes how XML is used in GNU Gama...... for structuring data for a geodetic network adjustment. In another application of XML, it is demonstrated how XML can be used for a unified description of data from leveling registration units. Finally, the use of XML for modelling 3D geographical features within the 3DGI project is presented and a relation...

  10. EFEITO DO ÁCIDO LÁTICO E DA RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA ELIMINAÇÃO DE Pseudomonas spp. E NA PRODUÇÃO DE AMÔNIA EM PEITO DE FRANGO DESOSSADO RESFRIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. S. ANTUNEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido lático e doses de radiação gama, bem como o efeito de suas interações, na eliminação de Pseudomonas spp. e nas concentrações de amônia, em peito de frango desossado e sem pele. As amostras foram inoculadas com 106UFC.g-1 de Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, imersas em soluções de ácido lático nas concentrações 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0% (v/v, embaladas em polietileno permeável ao oxigênio, processadas por radiação gama, utilizando 60Co nas doses 1,5, 2,5 e 3,5KGy, e armazenadas sob refrigeração (4ºC. Estabeleceu-se, também, a correlação entre as contagens de Pseudomonas spp. (logUFC.g-1 e as concentrações de amônia (mg.100g-1, determinadas pelo método colorimétrico de Nessler, no 5º, 12º, 19º e 26º dias de armazenamento. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,05, para eliminação de Pseudomonas spp., no fator dose de radiação de 2,5KGy, enquanto o uso isolado do ácido lático, nas três concentrações utilizadas, promoveu somente reduções inferiores a um ciclo log nas contagens iniciais desse microrganismo. Todos os tratamentos resultaram em níveis de amônia inferiores ao do controle (2,8mg.100g-1. A interação entre a dose de 3,5KGy e ácido lático a 1,5% (v/v, resultou no menor nível de amônia obtido e que foi igual a 1,1mg.100g-1. O coeficiente de correlação (r = 0,8752 obtido, entre as contagens de Pseudomonas spp. e as concentrações de amônia, demonstra a viabilidade de uso do método químico para estabelecer, de forma simples e rápida, o grau de deterioração de peito de frango durante o armazenamento aeróbio refrigerado.

  11. Eficiência do uso de água em domicílios residenciais na cidade do Gama

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Paiva Scardua; Ricardo Silveira Bernardes; Rafael Lima de Almeida; Diego Gonçalves Duarte

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar os sistemas de descargas sanitárias e de chuveiros utilizados nos domicílios da cidade do Gama/DF. Foram selecionados 0,7% dos domicílios urbanos, distribuídos aleatoriamente, e aplicados questionários a fim de se avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e os sistemas de descarga e chuveiros utilizados. O consumo médio de água observado foi de 208,87 l/hab.dia, sendo que, 9,87% do consumo se deve ao uso de descarga sanitária, e 48,84%, ao uso do chuveiro, totalizan...

  12. Radiação gama na conservação do suco natural de laranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemma Juliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou o efeito da radiação gama na população microbiológica, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH and conteúdo de vitamina C do suco natural de laranja. A atividade microbiana pode causar a deterioração do suco de laranja. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação dos microrganismos, porém pode afetar algumas características do produto. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial 4x5 referentes ao controle mais 3 doses de radiação (2,0; 4,0 and 6.0 kGy e 5 períodos de armazenamento (1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias com 2 repetições. As amostras de suco natural foram extraídas de laranjas da variedade "Pêra", irradiadas a uma taxa de dose de 2,0 kGy por hora (cobalto-60, e em seguida foram armazenadas sob refrigeração (5 ± 3ºC. Os resultados mostraram pequenas variações no teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e pH, em relação aos tratamentos testados. A razão sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável foi determinada e também mostrou pequena variação em todos os tratamentos. Com o aumento da dose de radiação e o prolongamento do período de armazenamento houve redução no conteúdo de vitamina C do suco. A radiação gama se mostrou eficaz na redução da população microbiana do suco de laranja.

  13. California GAMA Special Study: Nitrate Fate and Transport in the Salinas Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Jean E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hillegonds, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtz, Marianne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Sarah K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Under the GAMA program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carries out special studies that address groundwater quality issues of statewide relevance. The study described here is one in a series of special studies that address the fate and transport of nitrate in basins where groundwater is the main source of water for both irrigation and public drinking water supply.

  14. Radiação gama e atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade de goiabas 'Pedro Sato'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André José de Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama associada à atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas 'Pedro Sato', verificando suas características físico-químicas. Foram utilizadas goiabas provenientes da região de Vista Alegre do Alto-SP,Brasil. Após a colheita, as goiabas foram imediatamente transportadas ao Laboratório de Frutas e Hortaliças, pertencente ao Departamento de Gestão e Tecnologia Agroindustrial, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu-SP, onde foram armazenadas a 10ºC e 90-95%UR, em câmara frigorífica, por 28 dias. Os tratamentos foram: controle 1 (sem embalagem e sem irradiação; controle 2 (embalagem de poliestireno (PS + polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e sem irradiação; tratamento 1 (PS+PEBD e 0,2kGy; tratamento 2 (PS+PEBD e 0,6kGy, e tratamento 3 (PS+PEBD e 1,0kGy. As análises realizadas foram: firmeza, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com esquema fatorial 5 x 5 (tratamento x tempo. Concluiu-se que as altas doses de irradiação promoveram efeito negativo nas características físico-químicas da goiaba 'Pedro Sato', e que apenas a menor dose utilizada (0,2kGy associada à atmosfera modificada conservou frutos com maior qualidade e aceitabilidade, indicado por maiores índice de maturação e teor de sólidos solúveis obtidos.

  15. Regulation of use of radiation for quarantine purposes; Regulamentacao do uso da radiacao para fins quarentenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio, E-mail: natanael.itepan@unianhanguera.edu.b [Faculdade Anhanguera, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges, E-mail: neivaldo@cena.usp.b, E-mail: gilfurlan@cena.usp.b, E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main aspects of Instruction No. 9 are: a) the nuclear plant that use ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for quarantine purposes, must be accredited by the agency of the Agriculture, Livestock and Supply Ministry (MAPA) and the licensing by the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) and other regulatory bodies, b) control of the applied dose will follow a standard operating procedure should be performed by independent organization, authorized by the Brazilian ONPF (Phyto sanitary Protection National Organization), c) the unit of radiation treatment should ensure traceability and must maintain records of phyto sanitary treatments, d) there should be bilateral work plan between the ONPF of Brazil and other countries for the established radiation treatment protocol. The ONPF of Brazil is the Sanitary Vegetarian Department. Ionizing radiation (cold pasteurization) is shown in an alternative technology to phyto sanitary control for quarantine purposes. (author)

  16. Structural aspects of crotoxin modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais da crotoxina modificada pela radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Albero, Felipe Guimaraes; Zezell, Denise Maria; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation of venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize the crotoxin, a venom protein of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus by Circular Dichroism (CD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. After chromatographic techniques, crotoxin was irradiated with 2.0 kGy ({sup 60}Co source). The CD spectra obtained of native and irradiated crotoxin solutions showed changes between the samples in characteristic regions of -sheet and-helix . The Infrared analyse showed expressive changes in the spectra of the native and irradiated crotoxin (amide I band region). These tests showed that crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary structure and may explain its neurotoxic activity loss. (author)

  17. Models in the estimate of the diffuse solar radiation; Modelos de estimativa da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Silva, Suedemio de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola; Quallio, Silvana [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Biologia; Batista, Vitor Roberto Lourenco [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    In this work we evaluate, by means of polynomial regression analysis, several models that relate the diffuse fraction of the global radiation (K{sub d}) with the clearness index (K{sub t}). The experiment was conducted in the Solar Radiometry Station of Cascavel/PR from the first of January to the 31st of December, in the year of 2001. The solar radiation components were monitored by the following manufactured instruments: pyranometer (KIPP and ZONEN CM3) and pirheliometer (EPPLEY NIP) connected in a sun tracker (ST-1 model). A datalogger CR10X from the CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC was used in the data acquisition. This datalogger was programmed in the frequency of 1 Hz storing an average of 5 minutes of collected data. Among the equations the best values of RMSE an MBE were find in the fourth and third degrees, respectively. We also find that the fourth degree polynomial equation (K{sub d}=1,172-1,001K{sub t}+3,992K{sub t}{sup 2}-11,742K{sub t}{sup 3}+7,698K{sub t}{sup 4}) generalizes the utilization of equations for diffuse solar radiation estimation. This means that this equation probably can be applied for any place and climatic conditions. (author)

  18. Influence of ionizing radiation on Trypanosoma cruzi; Influencia da radiacao ionizante sobre o Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szarota, Rosa Maria

    2006-07-01

    Chagas's disease is one of the major public health problems in South America, promoting high prejudice to the local population. Despite the massive efforts to control it, this disease has no cure and presents puzzling unsolved questions. Considering that many researchers have used ionizing radiation to modify protozoans or biomolecules, we investigated the immunological response aspects of susceptible and resistant mice using irradiated parasites. Low radiation doses preserved the reproductive and invasive capacities of the parasite. Both susceptible and resistant animals, after immunization with irradiated parasites produced specific antibodies. After a challenge, the animals presented low parasitaemia, excepting those immunized with the antigen irradiated with higher doses. Using low radiation doses, we were able to selectively isolate trypomastigotes, leading to an improvement in the quality of the immune response, as previously reported when performing complement system assays. These data highlight the importance of selecting trypomastigote forms for immunization against T. cruz; and point towards ionizing radiation as an alternative to achieve this selection, since when this procedure is performed using complement, the subsequent steps are impaired by the difficulties to remove this component from the system. (author)

  19. Influence of ionizing radiation on Trypanosoma cruzi; Influencia da radiacao ionizante sobre o Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szarota, Rosa Maria

    2006-07-01

    Chagas's disease is one of the major public health problems in South America, promoting high prejudice to the local population. Despite the massive efforts to control it, this disease has no cure and presents puzzling unsolved questions. Considering that many researchers have used ionizing radiation to modify protozoans or biomolecules, we investigated the immunological response aspects of susceptible and resistant mice using irradiated parasites. Low radiation doses preserved the reproductive and invasive capacities of the parasite. Both susceptible and resistant animals, after immunization with irradiated parasites produced specific antibodies. After a challenge, the animals presented low parasitaemia, excepting those immunized with the antigen irradiated with higher doses. Using low radiation doses, we were able to selectively isolate trypomastigotes, leading to an improvement in the quality of the immune response, as previously reported when performing complement system assays. These data highlight the importance of selecting trypomastigote forms for immunization against T. cruz; and point towards ionizing radiation as an alternative to achieve this selection, since when this procedure is performed using complement, the subsequent steps are impaired by the difficulties to remove this component from the system. (author)

  20. Análise sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gama glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos adultos tratados com extrato bruto de própolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Diversos trabalhos têm atribuído a própolis inúmeras propriedades farmacológicas, dentre elas podemos citar, como exemplo, efeitos antibacteriano, antiviral, antiinflamatório, regenerador do tecido cartilaginoso, inibidor da formação de radicais livres e redutor de níveis sangüíneo de glicose e triacilglicerol. Alguns efeitos colaterais são atribuídos à própolis principalmente em doses elevadas. Muitos efeitos tóxicos da própolis são atribuídos ao álcool etílico presente no extrato.Dentre alguns efeitos tóxicos citados em literatura como realmente da própolis temos a dermatite e o aumento da uréia sangüínea. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar se o extrato bruto de própolis ocasiona algum efeito adverso nos níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos saudáveis. O experimento teve 30 dias de duração, sendo as dosagens dos constituintes do sangue (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase realizadas a 0, 15 e 30 dias. Os resultados indicaram que, de o extrato bruto de própolis na forma testadea, não ocasionou alteração relevante nos níveis séricos das enzimas marcadoras de metabolismo hepático. Palavras-chave: Própolis, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, gama glutamiltranpeptidase, toxicologia.

  1. Annual report April 1974-March 1975 of the Gama Research Centre National Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities at the Gama Research Centre for the period of April 1974-March 1975, covering works at the Laboratory of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, at the Reactor Laboratory, at the Laboratory of Chemistry, and at the Laboratory of Process Technology, are described. The Center's personnel and financial accounts are also given. (RUW)

  2. Distribution of gama-tubulin in cellulatr compartments of higher plant cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binarová, Pavla; Cenklová, Věra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dryková, Denisa; Volc, Jindřich; Dráber, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2003), s. 167-169 ISSN 1065-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/1013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : sds - page * gama-tubulin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2003

  3. Análisis del riesgo microbiológico "listeria monocytogenes" en ensaladas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Jiménez, Elena

    2007-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se analiza el riesgo alimentario de listeriosis a través del consumo de ensaladas de IV gama. Listeria monocytogenes en un microorganismo patógeno prevalente en una amplia gama de alimentos, entre ellos, los vegetales, tanto crudos como tratados en forma de ensalada de IV gama o listas para consumo. En primer lugar, desde un enfoque tradicional de la seguridad alimentaria, se investigó la aplicación de criterios microbiológicos según el Reglamento (CE) Nº 2073/20...

  4. Análisis del riesgo microbiológico "listeria monocytogenes" en ensaladas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Jiménez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se analiza el riesgo alimentario de listeriosis a través del consumo de ensaladas de IV gama. Listeria monocytogenes en un microorganismo patógeno prevalente en una amplia gama de alimentos, entre ellos, los vegetales, tanto crudos como tratados en forma de ensalada de IV gama o listas para consumo. En primer lugar, desde un enfoque tradicional de la seguridad alimentaria, se investigó la aplicación de criterios microbiológicos según el Reglamento (CE) Nº 2073/20...

  5. Eficiência do uso de água em domicílios residenciais na cidade do Gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paiva Scardua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar os sistemas de descargas sanitárias e de chuveiros utilizados nos domicílios da cidade do Gama/DF. Foram selecionados 0,7% dos domicílios urbanos, distribuídos aleatoriamente, e aplicados questionários a fim de se avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e os sistemas de descarga e chuveiros utilizados. O consumo médio de água observado foi de 208,87 l/hab.dia, sendo que, 9,87% do consumo se deve ao uso de descarga sanitária, e 48,84%, ao uso do chuveiro, totalizando 58,72% do consumo de água das residências analisadas. Com a utilização de descargas e chuveiros mais eficientes a redução do consumo seria de 12,73% e 47,07%, respectivamente, e a redução total seria de 41,29% do consumo total de água. Mais de 86% dos entrevistados se mostraram interessados em trocar ou adaptar os sistemas avaliados para sistemas mais eficientes

  6. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  7. A KiDS weak lensing analysis of assembly bias in GAMA galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornik, Andrej; Cacciato, Marcello; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo; Hoekstra, Henk; Nakajima, Reiko; van Uitert, Edo; Brouwer, Margot; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Farrow, Daniel J.; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; McFarland, John; Norberg, Peder; Schneider, Peter; Sifón, Cristóbal; Valentijn, Edwin; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-07-01

    We investigate possible signatures of halo assembly bias for spectroscopically selected galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey using weak lensing measurements from the spatially overlapping regions of the deeper, high-imaging-quality photometric Kilo-Degree Survey. We use GAMA groups with an apparent richness larger than 4 to identify samples with comparable mean host halo masses but with a different radial distribution of satellite galaxies, which is a proxy for the formation time of the haloes. We measure the weak lensing signal for groups with a steeper than average and with a shallower than average satellite distribution and find no sign of halo assembly bias, with the bias ratio of 0.85^{+0.37}_{-0.25}, which is consistent with the Λ cold dark matter prediction. Our galaxy groups have typical masses of 1013 M⊙ h-1, naturally complementing previous studies of halo assembly bias on galaxy cluster scales.

  8. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja

    OpenAIRE

    Verruma-Bernardi Marta Regina; Spoto Marta Helena F.

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de radiações sobre as características sensoriais do suco fresco de laranja variedade 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L) conservado sob refrigeração. Utilizou-se amostras de suco de laranja refrigerado (controle) e suco de laranja refrigerado irradiado com 1,5 e 3,0kGy por hora (Cobalto60), armazenadas a 4ºC por 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias a 4ºC. Para a análise sensorial realizou-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa, na qual provadores selecionados e trei...

  9. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 μmol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with le...

  10. Evacuation Simulation in Kalayaan Residence Hall, up Diliman Using Gama Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridades, A. R. C.; Villanueva, J. K. S.; Macatulad, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) has recently been adopted in some studies for the modelling of events as a dynamic system given a set of events and parameters. In principle, ABM employs individual agents with assigned attributes and behaviors and simulates their behavior around their environment and interaction with other agents. This can be a useful tool in both micro and macroscale-applications. In this study, a model initially created and applied to an academic building was implemented in a dormitory. In particular, this research integrates three-dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS) with GAMA as the multi-agent based evacuation simulation and is implemented in Kalayaan Residence Hall. A three-dimensional GIS model is created based on the floor plans and demographic data of the dorm, including respective pathways as networks, rooms, floors, exits and appropriate attributes. This model is then re-implemented in GAMA. Different states of the agents and their effect on their evacuation time were then observed. GAMA simulation with varying path width was also implemented. It has been found out that compared to their original states, panic, eating and studying will hasten evacuation, and on the other hand, sleeping and being on the bathrooms will be impedances. It is also concluded that evacuation time will be halved when path widths are doubled, however it is recommended for further studies for pathways to be modeled as spaces instead of lines. A more scientific basis for predicting agent behavior in these states is also recommended for more realistic results.

  11. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz submetidas à radiação gama Physiological quality rice seed submitted to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lúcia da Cruz Miranda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama (Co60 na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz. O estudo foi realizado em três ensaios. No primeiro ensaio, sementes de arroz foram irradiadas com doses de 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy e, para o segundo e o terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram submetidas a envelhecimento acelerado, antes da irradiação. No segundo ensaio, as sementes foram dividas em úmidas e secas após envelhecimento acelerado e, então, foram irradiadas nas doses 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy. No terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram secas após o envelhecimento acelerado e irradiadas com doses de 0, 10, 25 e 50Gy. Para avaliação dos efeitos fisiológicos da radiação gama, foram realizados teste de germinação - TG, índice de velocidade de germinação - IVG e crescimento de plantas (comprimento de parte aérea e sistema radicular e massa seca total, em todos os ensaios. Foram determinadas as atividades enzimáticas da fosfatase ácida e alfa amilase nas sementes secas, no segundo ensaio. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios indicam que as doses de radiação gama estudadas não afetam a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de arroz.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation (Co60 on the physiological quality of rice seeds. The research was carried out through three tests; in the first test rice seeds were irradiated at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy, while for the second and third tests the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging before being irradiated. For the second test the seeds were divided into wet and dry and both groups subjected to accelerated aging previous to irradiation at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy. For the third test the seeds were dried after being subjected to accelerated aging, and then irradiated at dosages of 0, 10, 25 and 50Gy. To assess the physiological effects of the gamma radiation, all seeds were tested for germination and their germination speed index recorded

  12. NOVOS GENÓTlPOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. OBTIDOS POR IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. de O. CAMARGO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se dezesseis linhagens mutantes tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio em solução nutritiva, uma linhagem mutante sensível e os cultivares Anahuac, IAC-60 e IAC-24, de trigo. As linhagens mutantes foram originárias de seleções realizadas em populações do cultivar Anahuac (sensível ao Al3+ cujas sementes foram submetidas ao tratamento de irradiação gama com as doses de 260 e 310 Gy. As comparações foram realizadas em dois locais através de seis experimentos em épocas diferentes, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e tolerância a solos ácidos. Quinze linhagens mutantes foram mais produtivas que o cultivar Anahuac e a linhagem mutante sensível ao Al3+, em Capão Bonito, em solo ácido e em condição de sequeiro. Nestas condições, o cultivar IAC-60 foi o que exibiu a maior produtividade, diferindo dos demais. Todos os genótipos estudados não diferiram entre si, quanto à produtividade de grãos, em Tatuí, em solo corrigido e com irrigação por aspersão. Irradiação gama no cultivar Anahuac foi eficiente possibilitando a seleção de linhagens mutantes com características agronômicas (altura de planta, ciclo da emergência ao florescimento, comprimento da espiga, número de espiguetas por espiga, número de grãos por espiga e espigueta e peso de 100 grãos similares às do cultivar original, porém com tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, tornando possível o seu cultivo em solos ácidos.Sixteen mutant lines tolerant to Al3+ toxicity in nutrient solutions, and a mutant line, sensitive to Al3+ originated from selections of a population of the cultivar Anahuac (sensitive to Al3+ previously submitted to gamma irradiation (260 and 310Gy, and the check cultivars Anahuac, IAC-24 and IAC-60, were evaluated in two locations and six trials, for grain yield, agronomic characteristics and tolerance to acid soils. ln Capão Bonito, in an acid soil and upland conditions, fifteen mutant lines

  13. Estudo comparativo de flores casmógamas, cleistógamas e de frutos de Camarea affinis St.-Hil. (Malpighiaceae Comparative study of casmogamous and cleistogamous flowers and Camarea affinis St.-Hil. fruits (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Henrique Mamede

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Camarea pertence a tribo Gaudichaudieae caracterizada pela redução no número de elementos do androceu, gineceu parcialmente sincárpico, estilete único e ginobásico e pela ocorrência de flores cleistógamas. Neste trabalho é feito o estudo de Camarea affinis St-Hil. no que se refere à morfologia e á anatomia de flores casmógamas e cleistógamas, assim como de seus respectivos frutos.The genus Camarea belongs to the tribe Gaudichaudieae, which is traditionally characterized by a solitaiy gynobasic style, presence of veiy reduced cleistogamous flowers, an androecium of 6 staminal elements and carpels only partially united. This paper presents information about the morphology and the anatomy of chamosgamous and cleistogamous flowers and fruits of Camarea affinis St HiL

  14. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  15. Chemical modification of high molecular weight polyethylene through gamma radiation for biomaterials applications; Modificacao quimica de polietileno de alto peso molecular atraves de radiacao gama para aplicacao em biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Matheus P.; Rocha, Marisa C.G., E-mail: matheusmerlim@hotmail.com [Universidade Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico

    2015-07-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene has been used in the medical field due to its high mechanical properties compared to the other polymers. Its main application is in the development of orthopedic implants, which requires high resistance to abrasion. One of the most used methods is the introduction of crosslinks in the polymer through gamma irradiation. In order to prevent oxidation reactions, studies have been developed using tacoferol (vitamin E) as an antioxidant for the material. The ascorbic acid (vitamin C), however, has been appointed as a viable alternative for vitamin E. In this work, a high molecular weight polyethylene grade (HMWPE) and polyethylene samples formulated with vitamin C were submitted to gamma radiation. Thermodynamic-mechanical methods and gel content determinations were used to characterize the samples obtained. The sample containing 1% of vitamin C and irradiated with 50 KGy of gamma radiation presented the highest content of crosslinks. (author)

  16. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis);Utilizacao de radiacao gama em meloes cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis) como tecnica de conservacao pos-colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2007-07-01

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a{sup *}) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a{sup *} and b{sup *}), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  17. Preparation of PtRu/C anode electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for methanol electro-oxidation; Preparacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C utilizando radiacao gama para aplicacao como anodo na oxidacao direta de metanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da

    2006-07-01

    Pt Ru/C (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) anode electrocatalysts were prepared using radiolytic process (gamma radiation) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation. In this process, water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions containing the metallic ions and the carbon support were submitted to gamma radiation under stirring. The water/alcohol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. A nominal Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 were used in all experiments. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed crystallite size in the range of 3-5 nm and Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed crystallite size (2-3 nm) smaller than the ones obtained in water/2-propanol, however, the Pt Ru atomic ratios obtained were approximately 80:20, showing that only part of ruthenium ions were reduced. For methanol oxidation the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the reaction medium. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed inferior performance to the ones prepared in water/ethylene glycol, which showed similar or superior performances (amperes per gram of platinum) to the commercial electrocatalyst from E-TEK. (author)

  18. Fabrication and electrical characterization of polyaniline-silicon heterojunction for gamma radiation dosimetry application; Fabricacao e caracterizacao eletrica de heterojuncoes de polianilina - silicio para aplicacao em dosimetria de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, Jane Maria Goncalves

    2004-08-15

    In this work a technique has been developed to fabricate high quality polyaniline-silicon heterojunction diodes for use as gas and/or ionizing radiation sensors. Polyaniline thin films (40 nm thick) produced by spin-coating on silicon substrates, were the active part of the junction structure. The devices presented excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics with high rectification ratio, 60,000 at {+-}1.0 V, and typical reverse current at - 1.0 V of 3 nA at 295 K. A G/I x G plot has been used to analyze the current-voltage characteristics, yielding typical series resistance of 4 k{omega} {+-} 5% and ideality factor in a range of 1,9 {+-} 0.5%. The heterojunction diode presents high sensitivity to gamma radiation in the dose range of 3 x 10{sup -2} to 7 kGy with a linear response in the forward and reverse bias. The excellent electrical characteristics together with the linear response with the dose, strongly suggest the application of this device for spectrometry or dosimetry of high doses of gamma radiation. These devices presented high sensitivity to gas moistures such as ammonia, nitric acid and trichloroethylene. In both cases the sensitivity was observed through shifts of the current-voltage curves, which can be easily monitored to provide a calibration curve of the sensor either as a radiation dosimeter or as a gas sensor for use in applications for gas monitoring or radiation dosimetry. Several aspects of the reliability physics of silicon-polyaniline heterojunction, such as degradation effects induced by local heating, charge trapping and temperature changes, have been discussed. These results further confirm the quality of the devices electrical characteristics and their suitability for radiation and gas sensors applications. Another interesting results presented in this work was the use of polyemeraldine nanofilms (thickness in the range 30-50 nm) deposited by 'spin coating' on glass substrates as an optical dosimeter for gamma radiation based on the color change of the polymer. The nanofilms devices were characterized by UV visible absorption spectroscopy. The deep blue color, characteristic of undoped polyaniline films before irradiation, becomes subsequently green as the film is being irradiated, and the film absorption coefficient exhibits a linear dependence with the logarithm of the irradiation dose from I to 10 kGy. (author)

  19. Degradation of the insecticide ethyl parathion in different environmental matrices by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60; Degradacao do inseticida paration etilico em diversas matrizes ambientais por meio de radiacao ionizante gama do cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchini, Luiz Carlos

    1995-07-01

    This work studies the use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce parathion degradation in different matrices, as well as, quantified GC-NPD and identified by GC-MS, the radiolysis resulting products. Results show that the insecticide was completely degraded in aqueous solution after treatment with 1.0 kGy dosis in a dosis rate of 3.12 kGy h{sup -1}. In methanol, parathion was completely degraded only with 30 kGy at 3.12 kGy h{sup -1}. The metabolites detected after radiolysis were the same formed by biological degradation, i.e, p-nitrophenol, p-aminophenol, paraoxon and aminoparathion. The gamma radiation also degraded paraoxon which is the most toxic metabolite of parathion. It was verified that, not only the total radiation, but also the dosis rate supplied to the aqueous solution had a significant effect on the insecticide degradation, and the formation of metabolites occurred in a selective way respecting the dosis and dosis rate. Otherwise, the gamma radiation did almost not degraded the parathion adsorbed in solid matrices as rice, moist and dry soil, even using dosis of 5,30 and 50 kGy, respectively. The parathion yield and the dosis of gamma radiation needed for 50% reduction of the insecticide initial concentration in aqueous solution were also calculated and presented. Thus, it was verified that irradiation of parathion besides to be an important instrument for environmental decontamination of this pesticide in aqueous matrix, it allows the production of parathion metabolites for ecotoxicological studies. (author)

  20. Low gamma radiation dose effect on germination and initial growing of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds; Efeito de baixas doses de radiacao gama na germinacao de sementes de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Silva, Anderson de O. Melo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we analyze the effect of low gamma irradiation doses and low concentrations of sodium alginate on the germination and growing of black beans seeds. The seeds were obtained from an organic farmer at Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State. The seeds were submitted to radiation doses between 0 and 150 Gy with a Cobalt 60 source in a Gammacell Excel 220 Nordion Irradiator with a dose rate of 70 Gy/min. After germination the seeds were left to grow three weeks on a hydroponics system. The system used was the water culture with nutritive solution that was supplemented with the nutritional needs for plant grows. We also tested the influence of the sodium alginate on the plant grows. A 4% solution of sodium alginate in distilled water was irradiated with 120 kGy gamma ray dose. Concentrations of sodium alginate irradiated and non-irradiated varying from 50 to 500 {mu}g/g were used in the hydroponics' solution. After three weeks the mass and the height of the plant were measured. Statistic analyses of he result with the SAS program show that there was no significant difference between the height and mass of seeds submitted different doses, but irradiated solution of sodium alginate with concentration of 400 and 500 {mu}g/g present a significant difference on plant grow. (author)

  1. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils; Estudos de remocao de elementos inorganicos e degradacao de compostos organicos por radiacao gama em oleos lubrificantes usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma radiation and nano-zinc oxide content on the properties of recycled polycarbonate; Efeito de radiacao gama e do teor de oxido de zinco nanometrico nas propriedades do policarbonato reciclado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Luiza F.; Mendes, Luis C.; Cestari, Sibele P., E-mail: lcmendes@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano; Souza, Mauro C.L. [Universidade Estadual da Zona Oeste (UEZO), Campo Grande, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to promote the barrier action to the ultraviolet radiation and increase of mechanical characteristics, nanocomposites of recycled polycarbonate (rPC) and nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) containing 1, 2 and 3 % (wt/wt) of nano oxide were prepared. Since for obtaining nanocomposites and irradiating polymers are promising tools and attractive for improving the material performance, the effects of nano-zinc oxide and gamma radiation, at doses ranged from 10 to 50 kGy, were evaluated in terms of thermal characteristics of the rPC. The rPC/nZnO nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential exploratory calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). There was a progressive decrease of the T{sub g} as function of gamma dosage and nano-zinc oxide content. Initially, the T{sub onset} and T{sub max} decayed as function of gamma dosage but a recovery was observed. The amount of nano-zinc oxide induced a decreasing of T{sub onset} and T{sub max}. (author)

  4. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.); Analise microbiologica de coliformes e aerobicos mesofilos em amendoas de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) irradiadas com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Study of the properties of inverted liquid sugar processed with gamma radiation and electron beam; Estudo das propriedades do acucar liquido invertido processado com radiacao gama e feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podadera, Priscilla

    2007-07-01

    Brazil occupies position of prominence in the sugar market and high consumption of this ingredient in the liquid form, in special for the beverages and food industries. The liquid sugar presents advantages in relation to the bulk granulated system such as easiness of the handling and dosage, reduced space for the storage, reduction of the losses, costs and hand of workmanship, improvement of the sanitizing and great possible variation in the ratios of different mixtures of sugars. The inverted liquid sugar is a solution of sucrose, glucose and fructose in water. This ingredient receives this name because during its production it has an inversion of the optic power of rotation of the solution. In the productive process of the inverted sugar some points occur that can generate contamination by microorganisms, so its become important the development of techniques that propitiate the efficient sanitizing of this raw material. This work aims at to consider two alternative techniques of microbiologic control: gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 and radiation with electron beam. The study was lead in the doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy. Concentration of sucrose presented in syrup decreased with the radiation indicating the scission of glycosidic linkage in addition with the glucose and fructose formation, generating the increase in solids soluble. The acid compounds formation occurred, confirmed by the reduction of pH, that it was proportional with the increase of the radiation dose. The biggest doses had provoked change of color in the syrup by the long molecular chain polymers formation. Viscosity in the samples processed by gamma radiation increased in relation to the control, indicating the prevalence of polymerization of molecules, whereas in the radiation with electron beam the polymerization was only observed in the sample that received the dose of 50 kGy, In the sensorial analysis, the judges had pointed significant difference (5%) in the flavor among control and the samples radiated with 5 kGy in the two techniques of processing. The alterations provoked for the irradiation had not been enough to provide significant changes in the inverted sugar, even in the highest dose of 50 kGy. It was not possible to identify the effect of gamma radiation in the control of molds and yeasts. (author)

  7. Fabrication and electrical characterization of polyaniline-silicon heterojunction for gamma radiation dosimetry application; Fabricacao e caracterizacao eletrica de heterojuncoes de polianilina - silicio para aplicacao em dosimetria de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, Jane Maria Goncalves

    2004-08-15

    In this work a technique has been developed to fabricate high quality polyaniline-silicon heterojunction diodes for use as gas and/or ionizing radiation sensors. Polyaniline thin films (40 nm thick) produced by spin-coating on silicon substrates, were the active part of the junction structure. The devices presented excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics with high rectification ratio, 60,000 at {+-}1.0 V, and typical reverse current at - 1.0 V of 3 nA at 295 K. A G/I x G plot has been used to analyze the current-voltage characteristics, yielding typical series resistance of 4 k{omega} {+-} 5% and ideality factor in a range of 1,9 {+-} 0.5%. The heterojunction diode presents high sensitivity to gamma radiation in the dose range of 3 x 10{sup -2} to 7 kGy with a linear response in the forward and reverse bias. The excellent electrical characteristics together with the linear response with the dose, strongly suggest the application of this device for spectrometry or dosimetry of high doses of gamma radiation. These devices presented high sensitivity to gas moistures such as ammonia, nitric acid and trichloroethylene. In both cases the sensitivity was observed through shifts of the current-voltage curves, which can be easily monitored to provide a calibration curve of the sensor either as a radiation dosimeter or as a gas sensor for use in applications for gas monitoring or radiation dosimetry. Several aspects of the reliability physics of silicon-polyaniline heterojunction, such as degradation effects induced by local heating, charge trapping and temperature changes, have been discussed. These results further confirm the quality of the devices electrical characteristics and their suitability for radiation and gas sensors applications. Another interesting results presented in this work was the use of polyemeraldine nanofilms (thickness in the range 30-50 nm) deposited by 'spin coating' on glass substrates as an optical dosimeter for gamma radiation based on the color change of the polymer. The nanofilms devices were characterized by UV visible absorption spectroscopy. The deep blue color, characteristic of undoped polyaniline films before irradiation, becomes subsequently green as the film is being irradiated, and the film absorption coefficient exhibits a linear dependence with the logarithm of the irradiation dose from I to 10 kGy. (author)

  8. New routes of preparation of polyaniline films and dosimetric characterization for high-doses gamma radiation; Novas rotas de preparacao de filmes de polianilina e caracterizacao dosimetrica para radiacao gama em altas doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Ana Paula Lima

    2003-08-15

    This work presents a new conducting polymeric material based on polyaniline thin films that will be used in the confection of dosimetric devices. On preparation of the films a homogeneous and viscous solution of poly (acrylic acid) and MnO{sub 2} is deposited on PMMA surface, which after dried, is immersed in an acid aniline solution. The films formed present low resistivity (6.10{sup 2} {omega}m), good mechanical resistance and adherence on the electrodes. The films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, conductivity measurements and manganese elemental analyses. The resistance variations show linear correlation (r{sup 2} = 0,9928) with gamma irradiation dose in the range of 1000 to 6000 Gy, with medium error less than 5% and sensitivity response. The dosimetric devices present as advantage real time measurements, low cost, use in calibration of industrial radioactive sources. Moreover, this composite could in future replace Fricke dosimeter and its applications. A calibration curve is showed for PANI dosimeter, here proposed, to use at high gamma doses. (author)

  9. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-08-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to brown, in addition to lacking been accepted sensorially. Further, eight combinations have been studied among acidification (pH<4.0), pasteurization (85 degree C/5 min.) and storage at 6 degree C and -18 degree C for 60 days with biweekly tests. The pasteurized and acidified pulp was that best maintained the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and the freezing storage was the variable of the better result. The evaluation of quality pulp dehydrated by freeze and spray drying, packaged in bags of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene-coated aluminum layer (PA) for 120 days at room temperature and protected from light, revealed that both processes conferred physicochemical quality satisfactory and conservation during storage, the packaging PA is the most suitable due to lower absorption of moisture and prevention of oxidation. Sensorially, as reconstituted juice and added to sugar and banana nanica, jucara pulp freeze dried was the more accepted. For the QDA have been trained team for the evaluation of frozen and post packaging pasteurized samples (85 degree C/5 min.) stored under refrigeration and freezing, in order to obtain the sensory profile of each. The frozen pasteurized pulp presented the best sensory characteristics, being described as aerated, slightly heterogeneous, taste slightly bitter and slightly astringent. (author)

  10. Conservation of minimally processed pineapple using calcium chloride, edible coating and gamma radiation;Conservacao de abacaxi minimamente processado utilizando como coadjuvantes cloreto de calcio, pelicula comestivel e radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilon, Lucimeire

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a convenience type pineapple subjected to fresh-cut process and calcium chloride, wheat gluten and alginate-base edible coating and irradiation treatments. The fruits were washed, sanitized with Sumaveg (Sodium Dichloro-s-Triazinetrione) in a 200 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution at 7 deg C for 15 minutes, and then manually peeled. The peeled fruits were sliced into 1 cm thick slices, rinsed in 20 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution for 3 minutes and drained for 3 minutes. In the first experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution; 1% calcium chloride + 1% alginate solution; and control. In the second experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution + 2.3 kGy; 1% calcium chloride + 2.3kGy; irradiation with 2.3kGy; and control. The packing consisted of rigid polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays with around 250 g of fruit. The irradiation was performed in a Cobalt-60 multipurpose irradiator with 92 kCi activity and dose value of 2.3 kGy h-1. The samples were stored at 5 +- 1 deg C and evaluated every other day for 12 days. In the first experiment pH and titratable acidity values showed slight variations but were similar between the treatments. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid values in all treatments. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. Although the values between the treatments were similar, the pineapple treated with calcium chloride + gluten showed firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities and CO{sub 2} and ethylene production. Mesophiles and mold and yeast counts were also reduced. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few isolated samples during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten had the lower scores for texture, appearance, and aroma; the flavor was compromised from the 4th storage day onward. In the second experiment the pH and titratable acidity values showed small changes but were similar between the treatments. There were a decrease in the ascorbic acid values in all treatments; nevertheless, the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten + 2.3 kGy retained more of this vitamin than the other treatments. Firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities were noticed in the samples with calcium chloride + 2.3 kGy. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. The darker samples were the ones treated with calcium chloride + gluten + 2.3 kGy, and irradiated with 2.3 kGy. Higher respiratory rate and ethylene synthesis were noticed in the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten + 2.3 kGy. The lowest psychotropic, mesophiles, and mold and yeast counts occurred in the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten + 2.3 kGy. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few samples during the storage period. Only the control kept the sensorial attributes within the acceptability limit during the storage period. The texture in all the other samples was unacceptable from the 8th day onward. The flavor was compromised from the first storage day onward in the samples with calcium chloride + gluten + 2.3 kGy (author)

  11. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  12. Hevea brasiliensis natural rubber latex film vulcanization by gamma radiation containing n-butyl acrylate: properties and morphology; Filme de latex de borracha natural de Hevea brasiliensis vulcanizado por radiacao gama contendo acrilato de n-butila: propriedades e morfologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula Pinho; Barros, Glaucione Gomes de [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) in the presence of n-butyl acrylate (n-Ba) as sensitizer was carried out. The RVNRL films were investigated with respect to their thermal properties and morphology. The films presented two T{sub g} values obtained by DSC which were identified as due to linear and crosslinked domains. The thermal stability of the material was similar to that of linear material rubber. The morphology showed smooth regular surface characteristic of homogeneous phase domains. (author)

  13. Thermal-kinetic study of natural rubber latex films vulcanized by using gamma radiation; Estudo termo-cinetico de filmes de latex de borracha natural de Hevea brasiliensis vulcanizada por radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Ana Paula Pinho Rodrigues; Barros, Glaucione Gomes de [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisa em Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Vulcanization of natural rubber latex by ionization radiation produces the crosslink in disperse latex particles. Advantages over conventional process of vulcanization are: the absence of carcinogenic nitrosamines, low cytotoxicity and better degradation at room conditions, due to mainly to the absence of sulfur, zinc oxide and dithiocarbamates. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) is the measurement of the weight change of a material as a function of temperature and time. TG data different heat speed provide an alternative model of the kinetics of degradation of polymeric materials. The kinetic studies of this material showed a single degradation process at least for 76,5% of mass loss. The activation energy was 49 Kcal/mol. For higher mass loss (85%) the degradation was characterized by associate mechanism. (author)

  14. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) modification induced by gamma irradiation for application as ionic polymer-metal composite; Modificacao de poli(fluoreto de vinilideno) induzida por radiacao gama para aplicacao como composito ionomerico de metal-polimero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique Perez

    2011-07-01

    Gamma-radiation-induced grafting of styrene into poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films with 0.125 mm thickness at doses from 1 to 100 kGy in the presence of a styrene/N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF) solution (1:1, v/v) and styrene/toluene (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h-1 was carried out by simultaneous method under nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature, using gamma rays from a Co-60. After grafting reactions, the polymer was then sulfonated in chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane (2 and 10%) for 3 hours. The films were characterized before and after modification by calculating the degree of grafting (DOG), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). DOG results show that grafting increases with dose, and varies enormously depending on the solvent used, with DOGs about 20 times greater in DMF than in toluene. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the appearance of the new characteristic peaks and by the TG and DSC which exhibited changes in the thermal behavior of the grafted/sulfonated material. Sulfonated material was also characterized by ion exchange capacity (IEC) showed that both DOG and sulfonic acid concentration increase IEC values. Results showed that it is possible to obtain materials with ion exchange capacity of possible application as ionic polymer-metal composites. (author)

  15. Effects on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of honey bee samples submitted to gamma radiation; Efeitos nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, microbiologicas e sensoriais em amostras de mel de abelhas submetidas a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    Honey production in Brazil has increased considerably and gaining pro eminence on the international market, as a result many demands have become part of the productive honey chain. In addition to the analyses provided for the Brazilian legislation, international market demand products that meet the most stringent quality standards. Honey has interesting characteristics due to its constitution, but even so there are problems that can change some how your identity and quality. The application of gamma radiation is a viable proposal which promotes the reduction of bio burden without changing the constitution and most importantly the physicochemical properties, with smaller nutritional losses when compared to other treatments used in foods. This study beyond the physicochemical parameters required by Brazilian regulation also included other relevant analyses, including FT-IR ATR. Microbiological analyses were carried out on samples of pure honeys and subsequently inoculated microbial known loads to assess the action of gamma radiation in doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The triangular test was used to differentiate the irradiated and not irradiated. samples The major changes that have occurred in samples of honeys were mainly in concentrations of HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural) and diastase activity occurring a significant decrease in all analyzed samples. There was a reduction microbiological from the application of the 5 kGy, reaching absence with 10 kGy dose except Paenibacillus larvae. The sensory analysis conducted on samples of honey and honey irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 kGy doses, pointed out that there is no significant difference (5%) between irradiated and control samples. The application of gamma radiation in honeys proved a very useful method in microbiological decontamination, featuring few changes in the product at doses up to 10 kGy. (author)

  16. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation of Co-60 (radio-hormesis) in tomato seeds; Efeitos de baixas doses de radiacao gama do Co-60 (radio-hormesis) em sementes de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Tomato seeds of the Gladiador hybrid were exposed to gamma radiation of Co-60 with the following doses: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5; 15 e 20 Gy. Analysis were performed on germination, seedlings height to cotyledon, seedling total height, seedling fresh and dry weight, plant height, stalk diameter at the root beginning, fresh and dry weight of the 5{sup th} leaf, number of green fruits with diameter higher than 3 cm, number of green, half ripen and ripen fruits, total number of fruits, Brix and pH of fruits, average fruit weight and fruit total production. A variety of stimulation effects were observed on the different plant developing stages. The greatest stimulus for production was observed in the 10 Gy dose. The highest seedling average height and plant average height were observed for the 7,5 Gy dose. The biggest number of green fruits with diameter higher than 3 cm occurred for the 12,5 and 15 Gy treatments. Irradiation also stimulated a higher total number of fruits in all doses, having advantage the 10 Gy dose which produced 88% more fruits than control as well as 86% more weight production. The fruits pH acidified significantly in a dose of 12,5 Gy and higher. Production increased in all treatments comparing to control and the highest stimulus for production observed was for the 10, 12,5 and 15 Gy. The use of low gamma radiation doses of Co-60 applied as pre-sowing treatment in the seeds, efficiently stimulated the development of plants and the tomato production. (author)

  17. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Disinfestation of Averrhoa carambola infested with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera - Tephritidae) using gamma radiation; Desinfestacao de Averrhoa carambola infestada por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera - Tephritidae) atraves de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1994-05-01

    The disinfestation dose of gamma radiation in Averrhoa carambola infested with larvae of Anastrepha obliqua was determined. Fruits were collected in the field, each having about 11 larvae in the last instar. Fruits were irradiated with the following ganna radiation doses: 0 (control), 50, 150, 300, 600 and 900 Gy. Each treatment consisted of 9 fruits (3 replications) giving the amount of 99 larvae for each treatment. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 25{+-} 5{sup 0} C and relative humidity of 70{+-} 5{sup 0} C, until larvae left the fruit and became transformed into pupae and adults. The lethal dose (LD{sub 100}) of gamma radiation for larvae in the fuits was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the total emergency of adults. (author). 19 refs, 1 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements in soil with application of carbonatite and agricultural fertilizers in Distrito Federal; Radiacao gama e resistividade eletrica em solo com aplicacao de carbonatito e fertilizantes agricolas no Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Carvalho do; Gaspar, Jose Carlos; Pires, Augusto Cesar Bittencourt, E-mail: carlostadeu@unb.br, E-mail: gasp@unb.br, E-mail: acbpires@unb.br [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Andrade, Leide Rovenia Miranda de, E-mail: leide@cpac.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria dos Cerrados, Planaltina, DF (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) and Brasilia University developed a research project about the viability of carbonatite rock as agricultural fertilizer. As an initial experiment, several mixtures of carbonatite, limestone, phosphorous and potassium compounds were added as fertilizers in an oxisol area (red-latosol, according with Brazilian System of Soil Classification), in Distrito Federal, central Brazil. The experiment area was divided in 56 plots (4 x 7m) and each plot received a fertilizer mixture. The purpose of this work was to verify if the addition of fertilizer mixture to the soil modified its radiometric and resistivity properties and if it is possible to identify this change. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements were obtained in an experimental area and in a natural savannah type vegetation area. The results showed that the fertilizer addition modified soil natural properties causing a small increase in K, U, Th levels and decreasing ten times electrical resistivity. A low contrast of radiation was observed between plots, and then it was not possible to differentiate the several treatments in base of gamma-ray measurements. Electrical resistivity was efficient to identify three groups of plots related to mixtures characteristics, respectively with phosphorous, potassium and limestone / carbonatite predominance. (author)

  20. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co; Estudo bioquimico e farmacologico das crotaminas nativa e irradiada com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with {sup 60} Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60} Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD{sub 50} and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of {sup 125} I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35{+-} 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal muscle and they did not pass the blood - brain barrier. (author)

  1. Development and implementation of an automated system for antiquated of the process of gamma radiation monitors calibration; Desenvolvimento e implantacao de um sistema automatizado para adequacao do processo de calibracao de monitores de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Iremar Alves

    2012-07-01

    In this study it was carried out the development and implementation of a system for the appropriate process of gamma radiation monitors calibration, constituted by a pneumatic dispositive to exchange the attenuators and a positioning table, both actuated through a control panel. We also implemented a System of Caesa-Gammatron Irradiator, which increased the range of the air kerma rates, due to its higher activity comparing with the current system of gamma radiation in use in the calibration laboratory of gamma irradiation. Hence, it was necessary the installation of an attenuator dispositive remotely controlled in this irradiator system. Lastly, it was carried out an evaluation of the reduction in the rates of the occupational dose. This dissertation was developed with the aim of improving the quality of the services of calibration and tests of gamma radiation monitors - provided by the IPEN Laboratory of Instrument Calibration - as well as decreasing the occupational dose of the technicians involved in the process of calibration, following thus the principles of radiation protection. (author)

  2. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams; Projeto, construcao e caracterizacao de camaras de ionizacao para utilizacao como sistemas padroes em feixes de radiacao X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  3. Morphofunctional evaluation of human skin preserved in glycerol and exposed to gamma radiation: a study in athymic mice; Avaliacao morfofuncional de pele humana conservada em glicerol e submetida a radiacao gama: estudo em camundongos atimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for autograft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, induces alterations in skin preserved in glycerol at 85%, reducing the tensile strength of irradiated tissue. Clinical observation also suggests faster integration of such graft with the receptors tissue. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. The skin of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis, optical coherence tomography imaging, histological and biomechanical assays. It was possible to conclude that grafts irradiated with 25 kGy promoted greater initial contraction, without alteration of the final dimensions of the repair area, also displaying a faster closing of the wound. Moreover, the use of irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) enabled the formation of a more organized healing process without significant effects on biomechanical properties. (author)

  4. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  5. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-09-01

    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  6. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  7. Reunión de consenso para recomendaciones sobre la gama de productos Restylane Skinboosters ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Anido

    Full Text Available Con motivo del 10º aniversario de Restylane Skinboosters® se llevó a cabo una reunión de consenso entre un grupo de médicos españoles con el objetivo de aumentar el estándar de seguridad, mejorar y dar coherencia a los tratamientos, favorecer la buena praxis, posibilitar mejores resultados y aumentar la seguridad con esta gama de productos. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de los estudios clínicos publicados que demuestran cómo Restylane Skinboosters® mejora la calidad de la piel, disminuyendo la rugosidad, aumentando la firmeza e hidratación a largo plazo y reduciendo las cicatrices de acné, así como estimulando la creación de colágeno tipo I. Por último, los participantes pusieron en común su experiencia clínica para realizar un resumen de las indicaciones y los protocolos más empleados con esta gama de tratamientos.

  8. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on human skin allografts; Caracterizacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em pele humana para aloenxerto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourroul, Selma Cecilia

    2004-07-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of the human body. In the cases of extensive wounds, allograft skin provides an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol (above 85%), the skin can be stored in the Skin Banks. The glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduces the quarantine period for transplantation in patients and its safety is considered excellent. The objectives of this work were to establish procedures using two sources of ionizing radiation for sterilization of human skin allograft, and to evaluate the skin after gamma and electron beam irradiation. The analysis of stress-strain intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Skin samples were submitted to doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy in an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and in an electron beam accelerator. Morphology and ultra-structure studies were also accomplished. The samples irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy seemed to maintain the bio mechanic characteristics. The gamma irradiated samples with a dose of 50 kGy and submitted to an electron beam at doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy presented significant differences in the values of the elasticity modulus, in relation to the control. The analysis of the ultramicrographies revealed modifications in the structure and alterations in the pattern of collagen fibrils periodicity of the irradiated samples. (author)

  9. Effects of the ionizing radiation in natural food colours; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em corantes naturais de uso alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosentino, Helio Morrone

    2005-07-01

    The world's fast growing population and its consequent increase in demand for food has driven mankind into improving technologies which ensure a safer supply of such commodities. Both food radiation processing and its constituents are highlighted as a feasible alternative technique capable of meeting food safety standards. Natural dyes are extensively employed in the food industry thanks to their colour enhancing properties on food products. This paper has aimed at studying the effects of ionizing radiation on three natural dyes: carminic acid and its derivatives (cochineal dyes), bixine and its salts (annatto dyes) and curcumin (turmeric dyes), used in the food and cosmetic industries within dilutions and doses those goods might eventually be processed in. It also envisages clarifying the compatibility of the irradiation technique with the keeping of such relevant sensorial attribute which is the product colour. Spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis were the analytic methods employed. All in all, a colour decrease proportional to the increase on the applied gamma radiation (1 to 32 kGy) has been observed. The annatto dyes have proven moderately stable whereas turmeric has shown to be highly sensitive to radiation. Those results shall be taken into account as far as the need to alter the formulae additive amount in the product is concerned whenever undergoing radiation processing. (author)

  10. Instalación eléctrica para una industria de procesado de alimentos IV Gama

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ FLOR, ALEJANDRO

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Electrical installation LV for food industry. [ES] Instalación eléctrica en BT para industria alimentaria. Martínez Flor, A. (2017). Instalación eléctrica para una industria de procesado de alimentos IV Gama. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/88215. TFGM

  11. Synergism between Ni and W in the NiW/gama-Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spojakina, A.A.; Palcheva, R.; Jirátová, Květa; Tyuliev, G.; Petrov, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 104, 1-2 (2005), s. 45-52 ISSN 1011-372X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : NiW/gama-Al2O3 * Thiophene hydrodesulfurization * TPR, XPS Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2005

  12. APLICACIÓN DE LA TECNICA DE IV GAMA PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ENSALADAS EVALUATION OF IV GAMA TECHNIQUE TO PREPARE VEGETABLE SALADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Méndez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, esta dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa, zanahoria (Daucus carota L., radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. y escarola (Cichorium endivia L., destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comercial de las ensaladas y garantizar la seguridad alimentaria para la población potencialmente consumidora. La aplicación combinada de soluciones de cloruro de calcio al 1%, acido cítrico a 0,1% y oxido de magnesio al 0,5% contribuyo a mantener la calidad de las ensaladas por un período de 16 días bajo refrigeración a 5 + 1 °C y 95 + 5% HR. En conclusión las técnicas ensayadas, posibilitaron extender el valor comercial de estos productos.The purpose of applying the fresh-cut technique in preparing vegetable salads ready for fresh consumption, was aimed to control the damage American lettuce (Lactuca sativa; carrot (Daucus carota L; Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L and endive (Cichorium endivia L.“ Mediterranean and Cheff” style salads were prepared for evaluation. The methodology allowed selecting and evaluating fresh-cut technique as well as good manufacturing practices, to extend the commercial life, and guarantee alimentary food safety to people. Use of 1% calcium chloride; 0.1% citric acid and 0.5% magnesium oxide solutions; allowed to maintain the quality of the salads for a period of 16 up to days, under refrigeration at 5± 1ºC and 95 ± 5 % RH. Finally the assays techniques let to extend the commercial value of these vegetables.

  13. Saberes e sabores da cultura baiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Farani López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bahia tem se mostrado um terreno fértil de diálogo entre as práticas da TCI e a antropologia cultural. A Bahia apresenta uma complexa e rica gama de histórias e características oriundas de diversas raízes, produzindo um terreno mágico, acolhedor, com memórias de lutas e prazeres. Sempre envolto de muita comida, cores e exuberância, a prática da TCI na Bahia tem tido como elemento central o fortalecimento das matrizes formadoras do nosso povo, resgatando com isso a autoestima de uma gente tão vibrante.

  14. California GAMA Program: A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Bakersfield Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MTBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin that underlies Bakersfield, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water

  15. Podridão por Fusicoccum em mangas submetidas a baixas doses de radiação gama Fusicoccum rot in mangoes submitted to low doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria Gonçalves Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da radiação gama em doses baixas no controle pós-colheita da podridão por Fusicoccum em manga 'Tommy Atkins', bem como avaliar o efeito desse método sobre as características físico-químicas da fruta. Frutos aparentemente livres de doenças no estádio de maturação 1,5 foram inoculados com 10 μL de suspensão de Fusicoccum parvum a 10(6 conídios mL-1. Após a inoculação, os frutos foram irradiados com as doses de 0,24, 0,35 e 0,45 kGy e armazenados a 13ºC, durante 15 dias, seguidos de mais seis dias em temperatura ambiente, a 25ºC. A dose mais alta de radiação gama foi eficiente em retardar o desenvolvimento da doença em razão do atraso causado na maturação das frutas. Não houve efeito significativo da radiação sobre as características físico-químicas das frutas. Os frutos mantiveram características ideais para comercialização, mesmo após o armazenamento refrigerado, com a presença de filme plástico, por 15 dias.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in low doses on the postharvest control of 'Tommy Atkins' mango rot caused by Fusicoccum, and to evaluate the effect of this method on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. Fruits in ripening stage 1,5 and apparently free of disease were inoculated with 10 μL of a Fusicoccum parvum suspension at 10(6 conidia mL-1. They were gamma irradiated with the doses 0.24, 0.35 and 0.45 kGy, and stored under 13°C for 15 days, followed by a further six days at room temperature, 25°C. The higher dose of gamma radiation was effective in delaying the disease development due to fruit delayed maturation. No significant effect of radiation was observed on fruit physicochemical characteristics. Fruit maintained ideal commercialization features even after cold storage, in the presence of plastic film, for 15 days.

  16. California GAMA Special Study: Analysis of Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine and Metabolites as Wastewater Tracers in Water Resource Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vu, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA Special Studies project provides analyses and interpretation of constituents of concern that allow assessment of current groundwater conditions. In addition, the Special Studies project develops analyses that will enhance the monitoring and assessment effort by focusing on specific constituents of concern and water quality parameters, such as disinfection byproducts (DBP), wastewater indicators, and redox conditions, as it relates to irrigation and groundwater management. This study developed a robust analytical method for the quantitation of CBZ, OXC, CBZ-E, CBZ-DiOH, and CBZ-10-OH in wastewater treatement plant (WWTP) effluent and in groundwater in the parts per trillion range.

  17. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  18. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, (delta) 15 N values greater than 10(per t housand) indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO 3 L -1 . In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low (delta) 15 N value (3.1(per t housand)) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer

  19. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 206 (Australia); Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P. [Scottish Universities' Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liske, J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baldry, I. K. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, The School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brough, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L., E-mail: meiert.grootes@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  20. Ionizing radiation effects on volatiles formation in Camellia sinensis (L) teas; Efeito da radiacao ionizante na formacao de volateis em chas da planta Camellia sinensis (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white, green, oolong and black teas. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydro distillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results show that the volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. The white tea showed less influence of ionizing radiation, as 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all doses of radiation and formed 47.53% of new compounds after irradiation. The green tea was the tea that has the greatest influence of radiation effects, increasing 66.12% of volatiles identified in relation to the control sample and only 21.77% of volatiles found naturally were resistant to all doses of radiation. The oolong tea, despite suffering a partial enzymatic treatment, was the second tea that has least interference of radiation in increasing the formation of new volatile. >From this tea, was able to detect 49.59% of new compounds after irradiation and 30.08% of the compounds found naturally were also found after irradiation. The black tea has the second greatest influence of radiation on formation of new volatile (60.94%) and only 17.97% of all identified compounds were not degraded after radiation. (author)

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania ssp; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Franco C.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Junior A, Heitor F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Medicina Tropical

    2000-07-01

    The Leishmania spp is a pathogenic protozoan, which cause different diseases in man. The human diseases, in America, caused by this group of protozoa are divided in cutaneous or tegumentar and visceral, known as kala-azar. In this work, our principal study object was the specie that causes tegumentar leishmaniasis, in Brazil. Metabolic studies of cellular respiration and proteins and nucleic acids synthesis were accomplished using radiation as a form of sterilizing the parasites without however affecting their immunogenic capacity The promastigotes forms of irradiated Leishmania spp were totally sterilized with the dose of 1500 Gy, with their reproductive and nucleic acids, as well as protein synthesis capacity blocked. (author)

  2. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.co [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  3. Game, game, game and again game, de Jason Nelson: aspectos da contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Pereira Senra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora pensadores como o escritor Mario Vargas Llosa afirmem que os tempos hodiernos têm como característica principal a frivolidade, por conta da velocidade e quantidade de informações a serem digeridas diariamente, artistas em sua pulsão criativa exploram tais paradoxos de grandeza/pequenez em suas obras de arte. Este artigo visa apreender na obra Game, game, game and again game aspectos da contemporaneidade, como o conceito de lúdico e a enorme gama de entretenimentos voltados a um público imerso na indústria da cultura, através da forma como eles são trabalhados junto a conceitos como interatividade como forma de coautoria da obra de arte, finitude artística e permanência no meio digital, e transmidialidade na criação estética.

  4. Studies on the rice seed (Oryza sativa) sensitivity to gama radiation, neutrons di-enthyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1978-04-01

    Dry rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce' variety were treated with gama-rays, thermal and fast neutrons, di-ethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). Biologial effects on survival, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophy 11 mutation frequency were studied in the M 1 generation. The data obtained were analysed by 'independent test'. Survival was not affected by increased gama ray dosage, but by increased DES and SA dosages, as well as by SA treatments with increased solution acidity for seeds pretreated in distilled water. Seedling height was decreased with the increase of gama-ray dosage, DES concentration. SA acidity and concentration. Plant fertility was reduced drastically with higher gama-ray and neutron dosages and with high SA acidity and concentrations. The maximum chlorophy 11 mutation frequency was obtained in the SA treatment. Seeds pretreated with distilled water showed larger physiological damages in the SA treatments and higher mutation frequencies. Regarding chlorophyll mutation frequency, thermal neutrons were more efficient than gama-rays. SA was the most efficient mutagen used . DES showed lower physiological damages in the M 1 plants, but did not induce mutations in the used conditions [pt

  5. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)).

  6. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Morphological transformation of galaxies across the green valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.; Phillipps, S.; Kelvin, L. S.; De Propris, R.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J.; Bamford, S.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Häußler, B.; Holwerda, B.; Hopkins, A.; James, P. A.; Liske, J.; Percival, S.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-05-01

    We explore constraints on the joint photometric and morphological evolution of typical low redshift galaxies as they move from the blue cloud through the green valley and on to the red sequence. We select Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey galaxies with 10.25 sensitive K-band profiles of red and green galaxy populations are very similar while g-band profiles indicate more disc-like morphologies for the green galaxies: apparent (optical) morphological differences arise primarily from radial mass-to-light ratio variations. Two-component fits show that most green galaxies have significant bulge and disc components and that the blue to red evolution is driven by colour change in the disc. Together, these strongly suggest that galaxies evolve from blue to red through secular disc fading and that a strong bulge is present prior to any decline in star formation. The relative abundance of the green population implies a typical time-scale for traversing the green valley ˜1-2 Gyr and is independent of environment, unlike that of the red and blue populations. While environment likely plays a rôle in triggering the passage across the green valley, it appears to have little effect on time taken. These results are consistent with a green valley population dominated by (early type) disc galaxies that are insufficiently supplied with gas to maintain previous levels of disc star formation, eventually attaining passive colours. No single event is needed to quench their star formation.

  7. Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Ye, Lan; Liu, Chongxi; Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Zheng, Weiwei; Sun, Pengyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2017-04-01

    During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel species and natural products, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Gz11 T , was isolated from a soil sample, which was collected from Gama, Chad. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Gz11 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T (98.0 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. However, the physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness could differentiate the isolate genotypically and phenotypically from S. hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T . Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz11 T (=CGMCC 4.7304 T =DSM 101531 T ).

  8. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  10. A qualidade de água como indicador de uso e ocupação do solo: bacia do Gama - Distrito Federal The water quality as an indicator of land use and occupation: Gama basin-DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Amorim Moura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of Brasília isn't accompanied by correct support of land occupation, situation that is reflected in water quality. Under the optics of land use and occupation, working with multivariate statistics as main tool, water physical and chemical quality of Gama Catchment were assessed. During two years samples were collected and analyzed for 24 parameters. The statistical analysis showed the influence of civil buildings, agricultural activities and the best statistical parameters to a quickly assessment: nitrate, ammonia, suspended solids and aluminium.

  11. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation; Atenuacao da forma leveduriforme do Paraccocidioides Brasiliensis por irradicao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L {sup 35}S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C{sub 57}Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- {sup 35}S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  12. Application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis; Aplicacao da tecnica de irradiacao gama para preservacao de propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi

    2002-07-01

    Irradiation has been recognized as an efficient method for the reduction of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. Propolis is a resinous product made by bees from material processed by the bee's own metabolism and resins from plants. The aim of this work was the application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis, because of its efficiency in the reduction of the microbial load. The changes on the total flavonoids content, phenolic compounds and other characteristics required for the qualification and characterization of Brazilian propolis were also analysed. Propolis samples from Juiz de Fora region, Minas Gerais, were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source, with doses from 0 to 10kGy for the microbiological analyses and 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0kGy for the physico-chemical analyses. The physico-chemical that have been made were: determination of total flavonoids content, semi-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds (artepelin-C, kempferol, chrysin, galangin and quercetin), dry matter analysis, humidity, ash content, mechanical mass and waxes. The ionizing radiation has shown to be efficient in the reduction of the microbial load. Total coliforms determination showed a great reduction with the dose of 3kGy and concerning mesophile aerobic bacteria a systematic reduction was observed, achieving values <10 UFC/g for the dose of 10kGy; similar results was obtained for molds and yeasts. Salmonella assays were negative for all samples. There was no significant alteration on total flavonoids contents nor on the composition of phenolic compounds as a consequence of radiation application at the assayed conditions. The complementary analyses of dry matter and humidity contents, ashes, mechanical mass and waxes did not shown changes after irradiation even with the maximum dose of 10kGy, remaining the results within the standards required by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  13. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  14. Resposta de sementes de amendoim a diferentes doses de radiação gama (60Co Response of peanut seeds to different levels of gamma radiation (60Co

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    Tatiana da S. Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A radiação gama, proveniente da fonte de 60Co, é bastante utilizada para esterilização, visando a prevenção da decomposição e a toxidez de origem microbiana em diversos produtos. O grau de radiossensibilidade de um embrião vegetal depende da espécie, do estágio de seu desenvolvimento durante a radiação, da dose empregada e do critério usado para medir o efeito biológico, sendo comumente utilizado o teste de germinação. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a sensibilidade do amendoim a radiação gama e seus efeitos na germinação, no vigor e na micoflora das sementes da cultivar BRS Havana, irradiadas com uma fonte de 60Co, tipo gammacell, com taxa de dosagem de 12,5 kGy h-1. As doses testadas em kGy foram as seguintes: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0; 12,0; 15,0; 18,0; 21,0 e 24,0. Com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que as doses acima de 3,0 kGy prejudicaram a viabilidade das sementes e as doses acima de 12 kGy comprometeram totalmente o vigor e a germinação das sementes de amendoim. A radiação a partir da dose 2,0 kGy eliminou os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus niger e, a partir da dose 3,0 kGy, eliminou o Aspergillus glaucus. O Penicilium spp. permaneceu em mais de 30% das sementes em todos os tratamentos com radiação, não sendo eliminado até a dose de 24 kGy.The gamma radiation from 60Co source is widely used for sterilization aiming at preventing decomposition and toxicity from microbes in several products. The degree of radiosensitvity of a plant embryo depends on the species, the development stage during radiation, doses used and the criteria used to measure the biological effect, the germination test, being commonly used.This work aimed to study the peanut sensitivity to gamma radiation and its effects in the germination, in the vigour and seeds microflora of cultivar BRS Havana, irradiated with 60Co source, type gammacell with rate of dosage of 12.5 kGy h-1. The tested doses were the

  15. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  16. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): deconstructing bimodality - I. Red ones and blue ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Colless, Matthew; Driver, Simon; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Gunawardhana, Madusha; Kelvin, Lee S.; Liske, Jochen; Conselice, Christopher J.; Croom, Scott; Foster, Caroline; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lara-Lopez, Maritza; Loveday, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We measure the mass functions for generically red and blue galaxies, using a z 8.7 field galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our motivation is that, as we show, the dominant uncertainty in existing measurements stems from how `red' and `blue' galaxies have been selected/defined. Accordingly, we model our data as two naturally overlapping populations, each with their own mass function and colour-mass relation, which enables us characterize the two populations without having to specify a priori which galaxies are `red' and `blue'. Our results then provide the means to derive objective operational definitions for the terms `red' and `blue', which are based on the phenomenology of the colour-mass diagrams. Informed by this descriptive modelling, we show that (1) after accounting for dust, the stellar colours of `blue' galaxies do not depend strongly on mass; (2) the tight, flat `dead sequence' does not extend much below log M* ˜ 10.5; instead, (3) the stellar colours of `red' galaxies vary rather strongly with mass, such that lower mass `red' galaxies have bluer stellar populations; (4) below log M* ˜ 9.3, the `red' population dissolves into obscurity, and it becomes problematic to talk about two distinct populations; as a consequence, (5) it is hard to meaningfully constrain the shape, including the existence of an upturn, of the `red' galaxy mass function below log M* ˜ 9.3. Points 1-4 provide meaningful targets for models of galaxy formation and evolution to aim for.

  17. Halo ellipticity of GAMA galaxy groups from KiDS weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Schneider, Peter; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Schrabback, Tim; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We constrain the average halo ellipticity of ˜2600 galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, using the weak gravitational lensing signal measured from the overlapping Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). To do so, we quantify the azimuthal dependence of the stacked lensing signal around seven different proxies for the orientation of the dark matter distribution, as it is a priori unknown which one traces the orientation best. On small scales, the major axis of the brightest group/cluster member (BCG) provides the best proxy, leading to a clear detection of an anisotropic signal. In order to relate that to a halo ellipticity, we have to adopt a model density profile. We derive new expressions for the quadrupole moments of the shear field given an elliptical model surface mass density profile. Modelling the signal with an elliptical Navarro-Frenk-White profile on scales R < 250 kpc, and assuming that the BCG is perfectly aligned with the dark matter, we find an average halo ellipticity of ɛh = 0.38 ± 0.12, in fair agreement with results from cold dark matter only simulations. On larger scales, the lensing signal around the BCGs becomes isotropic and the distribution of group satellites provides a better proxy for the halo's orientation instead, leading to a 3σ-4σ detection of a non-zero halo ellipticity at 250 < R < 750 kpc. Our results suggest that the distribution of stars enclosed within a certain radius forms a good proxy for the orientation of the dark matter within that radius, which has also been observed in hydrodynamical simulations.

  18. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  19. Neurotoxoplasmose como primeira manifestação da Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida

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    Vanessa Barsotti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A AIDS (Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida é uma patologia caracterizada por depressão da atividade do sistema imune, principalmente da imunidade celular que se manifesta por alergias cutâneas, linfopenia, inversão da proporção das células T auxiliares/T supressoras e resposta linfoproliferativa diminuída a vários antígenos e mitógenos in vitro. É esta falha da função imune que explica o desenvolvimento de uma ampla gama de infecções oportunistas e neoplasias incomuns. Quase todos os sistemas orgânicos são vulneráveis incluindo todas as partes do SNC, os nervos periféricos e raízes.

  20. Tratamento do Carcinoma da Próstata Metastizado: Surgimento de Novos Horizontes Terapêuticos

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    Paulo Mota

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A evolução no tratamento do carcinoma da próstata metastizado proporciona atualmente ao Urologista uma vasta gama de possibilidades terapêuticas que comprovadamente melhoram a sobrevida e a qualidade de vida dos doentes. É apresentado um caso clínico neste artigo onde é patente não só a eficácia destas terapêuticas mas também a sua rápida evolução. Recebido: 27/05/2016  - Aceite: 07/06/2016

  1. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. Relacionamentos entre as espécies autógamas de Cuphea P. Browne seção Brachyandra koehne (Lythraceae Relationships among autogamous species of Cuphea P. Browne section Brachyandra (Lythraceae

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    Shirley A Graham

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A seção Brachyandra, uma das 13 seções de Cuphea, é excepcional por compreender a maioria das espécies autógamas do gênero. A maior parte das outras espécies de Cuphea, embora autocompatíveis, são alógamas protândricas. A seção Brachyandra é definida pela presença de estames com filetes curtos e profundamente inseridos no tubo floral, caracteres diretamente relacionados à autogamia. Entre as espécies da seção, existem poucas diferenças na morfologia floral e os caracteres vegetativos são variáveis e sobrepostos. As similaridades poderiam ser atribuídas à recente especiação dentro de um grupo monofilético, definido pela aquisição do modo autógamo de reprodução, ou a seção poderia ser polifilética, com similaridades resultantes de convergência, dirigidas pela mudança de alógamas para autógamas. A morfologia do pólen e da semente, descrita agora para este grupo, sugere que a seção Brachyandra não seja monofilética, mas sim que compreenda um mínimo de três diferentes linhas evolutivas, representadas por: 1 quatro espécies com sementes aladas e pólen oblato, sincolporado e estriado, com poros proeminentes; 2 duas espécies com sementes grandes e não aladas e pólen psilado, sem poros proeminentes e leves espessamentos interaperturados; 3 oito espécies com sementes pequenas, não aladas e quase esferoidais, pólen não sincolpado, psilado a rugulado. A variação neste último grupo sugere que o mesmo seja derivado de mais do que um ancestral. Na análise cladística, as espécies da seção Brachyandra ocorrem dentro de ciados de espécies das seções Euandra, Pseudochvaea, Trispernuun e Amazoniana. Os resultados indicam que não existe base filogenética sólida para o reconhecimento da seção Brachyandra como presentemente definida.Section Brachyandra, one of 13 sections of Cuphea, is exceptional in comprising the majority of self-fertilizing species in the genus; most other Cuphea, although

  3. H-ATLAS/GAMA: magnification bias tomography. Astrophysical constraints above ∼1 arcmin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Nuevo, J.; Bonavera, L. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Federico García Lorca 18, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Lapi, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Negrello, M.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M.W.L.; Valiante, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ivison, R.J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Loveday, J., E-mail: gnuevo@uniovi.es [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    An unambiguous manifestation of the magnification bias is the cross-correlation between two source samples with non-overlapping redshift distributions. In this work we measure and study the cross-correlation signal between a foreground sample of GAMA galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2< z <0.8, and a background sample of H-ATLAS galaxies with photometric redshifts ∼>1.2. It constitutes a substantial improvement over the cross-correlation measurements made by Gonzalez-Nuevo et al. (2014) with updated catalogues and wider area (with S / N ∼> 5 below 10 arcmin and reaching S / N ∼ 20 below 30 arcsec). The better statistics allow us to split the sample in different redshift bins and to perform a tomographic analysis (with S / N ∼> 3 below 10 arcmin and reaching S / N ∼ 15 below 30 arcsec). Moreover, we implement a halo model to extract astrophysical information about the background galaxies and the deflectors that are producing the lensing link between the foreground (lenses) and background (sources) samples. In the case of the sources, we find typical mass values in agreement with previous studies: a minimum halo mass to host a central galaxy, M {sub min}∼ 10{sup 12.26} M {sub ⊙}, and a pivot halo mass to have at least one sub-halo satellite, M {sub 1∼} 10{sup 12.84} M {sub ⊙}. However, the lenses are massive galaxies or even galaxy groups/clusters, with minimum mass of M {sub min}{sup lens}∼ 10{sup 13.06} M {sub ⊙}. Above a mass of M {sub 1}{sup lens}∼ 10{sup 14.57} M {sub ⊙} they contain at least one additional satellite galaxy which contributes to the lensing effect. The tomographic analysis shows that, while M {sub 1}{sup lens} is almost redshift independent, there is a clear evolution of increase M {sub min}{sup lens} with redshift in agreement with theoretical estimations. Finally, the halo modeling allows us to identify a strong lensing contribution to the cross-correlation for angular scales below 30 arcsec. This

  4. Sepse por Salmonella associada à deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rb1

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    Carvalho Beatriz Tavares Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever caso clínico de uma criança que desenvolveu septicemia por Salmonella enteritidis, sendo diagnosticada imunodeficiência primária. DESCRIÇÃO: paciente masculino, de um ano e 9 meses, com febre e lesões de pele há 50 dias, internado com lesão perilabial ulcerada com secreção purulenta, lesão ulcerada friável em língua, lesões ulcerocrostosas em membros, pneumonia bilateral com derrame pleural e choque séptico, sendo diagnosticado Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico. A identificação desta bactéria direcionou a investigação para a síndrome MIM. O diagnóstico de deficiência do receptor da interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1 foi confirmado através da dosagem de IL-12 e do interferon (IFN-gama produzido pelas células do paciente em meio de cultura. O resultado demonstrou ausência de produção de IL-12 e do IFN-gama mesmo após estímulo adequado. COMENTÁRIOS: a identificação da Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico de septicemia sugere uma disfunção do sistema imunológico. Foi realizada avaliação laboratorial das imunidades humoral, celular e inata. Após avaliação laboratorial direcionada para síndrome MIM, foi confirmada a deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1. O uso do IFN-gama é recomendado nos casos graves, assim como o tratamento de suporte e o aconselhamento genético.

  5. Research on large area VUV-sensitive gaseous photomultipliers for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Artur Emanuel Cardoso

    Desde cedo que a comunidade cientifica compreendeu que gases nobres em liquido sao excelentes meios de deteccao de radiacao, combinando a sua elevada densidade, elevado grau de homogeneidade e de elevado rendimento de cintilacao. Para alem destas caracteristicas inerentes, estes tem a potencialidade de fornecer ambos sinais de ionizacao - criando electroes livres - e cintilacao em resposta a interaccao com radiacao ionizante e, tendo em vista a sua aplicacao em experiencias de eventos raros relacionados com fisica de neutrinos ou materia-escura, a capacidade de autoblindagem garante a exclusao de eventos induzidos por radiacao de fundo. O facto de nao absorverem a sua propria luz, emergente dos eventos de cintilacao, permite a expansao deste tipo de detectores ate grandes volumes, sendo que as colaboracoes mais recentes propoem detectores com dezenas de toneladas de xenon em estado liquido. As experiencias actuais que usam gases nobres em estado liquido empregam xenon ou argon numa so fase (estado liquido) ou em dupla-fase (estado liquido + gasoso) e as suas aplicacoes abrangem desde as ja referidas experiencias de procura de eventos raros, passando por imagiologia medica tais como detectores de radiacao gama para PET ou câmaras Compton "3-gamma" em combinacao com PET, passando tambem por aplicacoes de seguranca como sistemas de inspeccao para deteccao de material fissil e, finalmente, em câmaras Compton para aplicacoes de astrofisica. Em ambas as configuracoes a leitura dos sinais de cintilacao e geralmente feita atraves de um grande numero de dispendiosos fotomultiplicadores de vacuo agrupados. A presente tese de doutoramento e dedicada aos fotomultiplicadores gasosos de grande area para aplicacoes criogenicas desenvolvidos no contexto do programa doutoral, tendo em vista a sua eventual aplicacao como um dispositivo complementar aos metodos existentes de deteccao de cintilacao, para aplicacao em futuras experiencias de grande escala. Esta pesquisa foi

  6. Alterações funcionais da junção neuromuscular provocadas em ratos pela administração diária e prolongada de um agente curarizante Functional changes of the neuromuscular junction induced in rats by a daily and prolonged ministration of a curare agent

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    Antonio Carlos Zanini

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available A ratos adultos, machos, foi administrado durante 8 semanas, uma vez ao dia, o iodeto do dimetiléter da d-tubocurarina (DMT, pela via intraperitoneal. Os animais foram distribuídos em 3 lotes: os do 1.°, receberam 5,5 gama de DMT/kg/dia; os do 2.°, 16,6 gama/kg/dia; os do 3.° (controle, 1 ml da solução isotônica de cloreto de sódio. A força muscular dos animais foi avaliada uma vez por semana, de acordo com o método descrito no texto, antes e após a injeção intraperitoneal da referida substância. Com o decorrer da experimentação, observou-se que: a houve diminuição significativa da força muscular dos animais, avaliada após esvaecimento da atividade curarizante do DMT; b a determinação da força muscular, feita logo após a injeção, mostrou que a dose de 5,5 gama/kg/dia provoca um aumento da suscetibilidade dos animais à ação curarizante do DMT; c o efeito inibidor provocado pela dose de 16,6 gama/kg/dia de DMT aumentou no início mas diminuiu significantemente após a 5ª semana, muito embora houvesse uma progressiva diminuição da força muscular, sugerindo independência entre os dois efeitos. Com base nesses resultados, são discutidos alguns fenômenos que podem ocorrer na instalação e tratamento da miastenia grave.Dimethylether of d-tubocurarine iodide (DMT was administered daily, by intraperitoneal route, to adult male rats during 8 weeks. The animals were divided in three groups: the animals of the first group were given 5.5 gama/kg/day of DMT; those of the second group were given 16.6 gama/ kg/day; the rats of the 3rd (the control group, received 1 cm³ of isotonic saline solution. The animals muscular force was evaluated once a week right before and after intraperitoneal injection of the drug. During the course of the trial, it was noted: aa significant reduction of the animals muscular force, evaluated after disappearance of the DMT curarizing effect; bmeasurements of muscular force, performed straight

  7. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model Equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela

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    Paula Cristina Fada dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. METHODS: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc99 radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. RESULTS: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of limphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. CONCLUSIONS: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement.OBJETIVO: Investigar o equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos machos, adultos jovens. Depois de anestesiados, os animais foram distribuidos em dois grupos de 15 animais cada. O grupo A recebeu radiofármaco dextran 500 - Tc99 e azul patente V e o grupo B, somente azul patente V para realização do mapeamento linfático. Foi realizada a medição da captação radioativa da região de fundo, do sítio de injeção e do linfonodo sentinela ex vivo do grupo A. Após a ex

  8. Effect of irradiation gamma to reduction colony counting-units in Jerked Beef; Efeito da irradiacao gama na reducao da carga microbiana em Jerked Beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.A.; Solidonio, E.G.; Vicalvi, M.C.V.; Colaco, W., E-mail: evelyne_solidonio@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Microbiologia do Solo; Silva, G.R.; Sena, K.X.R.F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Antibioticos. Lab. de Farmacos e Estudos Antimicrobianos

    2013-08-15

    The increasing meat production triggered the need to develop preservation techniques, and between them salting is the most common. From the twentieth century another method of conservation was now being applied irradiation, treatment terminal used in the packaged product. The most salted meat consumed in Brazil is the Jerked Beef that differs to Jerky from that having higher moisture content and ripening faster. The objective of this study was to determine by counting colonies, the effectiveness of irradiation in reducing to the colony-forming units per grams (CFU/g). Three batches were obtained with three samples weighing 500g each. Under sterile conditions, the meat was cut and weighed generating sub-samples which were assigned to the control group and the radiation source for irradiating with cobalt-60 (dose rate 6,619 kGy/h). We used doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy. The sub-samples were added to an Erlenmeyer with sterile distilled water, and were left to stand having forming a water desalting. Aliquots of these waters were plated and incubated. The results were for the control group ranged from 5.0x10{sup 5} to 5.0x10{sup 16} CFU /g, at a dosage of 2kGy was 1.7x10{sup 5} to 1.1x10{sup 12} CFU /g, at a dosage of 4kGy 0 to 9.0x10{sup 10} CFU/g and the dose of from 6kGy was 0 to 1.3x10{sup 5} CFU /g. In the final analysis it was found that all lots were presented contamination upon which would be allowed in the order of 5.0x10{sup 3}.For the reducing CFU/g the doses 4kGy and 6kGy were the most effective. (author)

  9. Ação de raios gama sobre formas sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi: estudo experimental em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentilda K. F. Takeda

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue de animais infectados com cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi foram submetidas, respectivamente, a 200 e 300 krad de radiação gama. Para verificar a eficácia do método na eliminação do parasita, o material foi inoculado em camundongos e os parâmetros utilizados na avaliação foram: parasitemia, cultura, xenodiagnóstico, subinoculação, reinoculação com cepa virulenta e exame anátomo-patológico das vísceras. Os sangues expostos às duas diferentes intensidades de radiação e inoculados em dois períodos após o processo, mostraram-se inócuos quanto a capacidade de produzir infecção nos animais

  10. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): small-scale anisotropic galaxy clustering and the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, J.; Christodoulou, L.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; Driver, S. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Liske, J.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    The galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion (PVD) can provide important tests of non-standard gravity and galaxy formation models. We describe measurements of the PVD of galaxies in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey as a function of projected separation and galaxy luminosity. Due to the faint magnitude limit (r PVD to smaller scales (r⊥ = 0.01 h - 1 Mpc) than previous work. The measured PVD at projected separations r⊥ ≲ 1 h - 1 Mpc increases near monotonically with increasing luminosity from σ12 ≈ 200 km s - 1 at Mr = -17 mag to σ12 ≈ 600 km s - 1 at Mr ≈ -22 mag. Analysis of the Gonzalez-Perez et al. (2014) GALFORM semi-analytic model yields no such trend of PVD with luminosity: the model overpredicts the PVD for faint galaxies. This is most likely a result of the model placing too many low-luminosity galaxies in massive haloes.

  11. Sobre a dinâmica da ideologia à luz da interpretação lukácsiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Roberta Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconhecendo que o conceito de ideologia apresenta uma gama de significados, acepções e definições, o artigo procura debatê-lo dentro da leitura de György Lukács – considerando que não há uma concepção de ideologia sistematizada pelo próprio Karl Marx. Com isso, parte-se da relação não dicotômica entre realidade objetiva e subjetividade visualizada através do trabalho, cerne da teoria marxiana, e define-se ideologia a partir de sua função social de intervir nos conflitos, impasses, questões etc. de cunho também social. Em decorrência, considerando seu caráter de consciência eminentemente prática, exploram-se então aspectos concernentes à complexa dinâmica da ideologia, que possibilitam compreender sua atuação e sua influência em meio a uma dada formação social – dinâmica esta sintetizada no que optamos por chamar de linguagem da evidência.

  12. KiDS+GAMA: cosmology constraints from a joint analysis of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and angular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin; Joudaki, Shahab; Amon, Alexandra; Heymans, Catherine; Köhlinger, Fabian; Asgari, Marika; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Farrow, Daniel J.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas D.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Schneider, Peter; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from a joint analysis of three cosmological probes: the tomographic cosmic shear signal in ˜450 deg2 of data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), the galaxy-matter cross-correlation signal of galaxies from the Galaxies And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey determined with KiDS weak lensing, and the angular correlation function of the same GAMA galaxies. We use fast power spectrum estimators that are based on simple integrals over the real-space correlation functions, and show that they are practically unbiased over relevant angular frequency ranges. We test our full pipeline on numerical simulations that are tailored to KiDS and retrieve the input cosmology. By fitting different combinations of power spectra, we demonstrate that the three probes are internally consistent. For all probes combined, we obtain S_8≡ σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}=0.800_{-0.027}^{+0.029}, consistent with Planck and the fiducial KiDS-450 cosmic shear correlation function results. Marginalizing over wide priors on the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions yields consistent results for S8 with an increase of 28 {per cent} in the error. The combination of probes results in a 26 per cent reduction in uncertainties of S8 over using the cosmic shear power spectra alone. The main gain from these additional probes comes through their constraining power on nuisance parameters, such as the galaxy intrinsic alignment amplitude or potential shifts in the redshift distributions, which are up to a factor of 2 better constrained compared to using cosmic shear alone, demonstrating the value of large-scale structure probe combination.

  13. A divulgação pela imprensa da notícia do descobrimento do Brasil por Álvares Cabral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Oscar Marcondes de Souza

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Não pertence aos cronitas quinhentistas de Portugal a prioridade da divulgação da notícia do descobrimento da Terra de Santa Cruz por Álvares Cabral, quando da sua viagem para Calicute . Tais cronistas só a partir do comêço do terceiro quartel do século XVI é que começaram a narrar o que ocorreu com a frota de Álvares Cabral quando, para evitar as calmarias do gôlfo de Guiné e os alisados de sudeste, como aconselhava Vasco da. Gama, engolfou-se no Atlântico Sul des-cobrindo o Brasil.

  14. Influência da temperatura, da massa molar e da distribuição de massa molar na tensão superficial de PS, PP e PE: experimento e teoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira José C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho a influência da temperatura, da massa molar (n e da distribuição de massa molar (MWD na tensão superficial de poliestireno (PS foi avaliada utilizando o método da gota pendente. A influência da temperatura na tensão superficial de polipropileno isotático (i-PP e de polietileno de baixa densidade (PELBD também foi estudada aqui. As teorias de Patterson-Rastogi e Dee-Sauer foram utilizadas em conjunção com a teoria de equação de estado de Flory, Orwoll, e Vrij (FOV para prever a tensão superficial (gama utilizando dados de pressão-volume-temperatura (PVT dos polímeros. Ambas teorias prevêem que a tensão superficial diminui linearmente com o aumento da temperatura e aumenta com a massa molar concordando com os resultados experimentais. Entretanto, ambas teorias subestimam a mudança de entropia de formação de superfície por unidade de área a volume constante para sistemas poliméricos de baixa massa molar e polidisperso e subestimam o efeito da distribuição de massa molar na tensão superficial

  15. Beatriz Balzi e o piano da América Latina: a música erudita deste continente analisada a partir das gravações da pianista na série de CDs Compositores Latino-Americanos

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Maria de Almeida Monteiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho foi dividido em duas partes, por se tratar de uma pesquisa em que assuntos se complementam sem abrir mão de sua importância individual. Estes assuntos são a figura da pianista Beatriz Balzi e a música erudita latino-americana para piano. Seus caminhos se cruzam em 1984, ano em que Beatriz Balzi iniciou uma série de gravações deste repertório, registrando peças compostas entre 1898 e 1997 em uma coleção de CDs intitulada Compositores Latino-americanos. Uma vasta gama de técnicas,...

  16. Stability of phenolic compounds of the propolis processed by ionizing radiation; Estabilidade de compostos fenolicos da propolis processada por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea H.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: amatsuda@net.ipen.br; nelida@usp.br

    2002-07-01

    Propolis is the generic term of a resin of different colors and consistency collected by bees, Apis mellifera, from diverse parts of plants, buds and resinous exudates. It possesses antibacterial , antifungal and antiviral properties and many other biological activities such as antiinflammatory, antiulcer, local anaesthetic, antitumor, etc. The aim of this work is to study the effect of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiation on the stability of phenolic compounds of propolis. (author)

  17. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1996-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Ionizing radiation effect on different types of flours used in bakery technology; Efeito da radiacao ionizante em diferentes tipos de farinhas utilizadas em tecnologia de panificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Christian Alexandre Heinz Melsheimer

    2011-07-01

    In this work, an evaluation of the changes caused by ionizing radiation in different types and quantities of products rich in starch (wheat flour, cassava, rye, whole wheat, green banana pulp and maize) on rheological, technological, physical and texture characteristics was studied. The samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source with doses up to 10kGy, and dose rate about 2kGy/h. It was studied the force and the extensibility of strong and weak wheat flours and the rheological behavior was observed for one, five and thirty days after irradiation. The technological characteristic studied for up to 1 month after irradiation, was the enzymatic activity of the irradiated, weak and strong flours. The physical characteristics: height, weight and moisture loss and texture of loaves made with a partial replacement (30%) of wheat flour by different irradiated flours was established. The results showed that with the increase of radiation dose there was an increase of enzymatic activity, especially for higher doses (9kGy). These results corroborate for the understanding that there would be no need of addition of enzymatic improvers for the bread confection. The height, weight, and loss of moisture from the products developed with different substitutions of flours used in the formulations, showed different behaviors. With an increasing of the radiation dose applied, there was an increase in the height of the loaves, as well as a reduced loss of moisture on the products developed with substitution of 30% of the wheat flour with irradiated wheat flour and pulp of green banana flour. From a technological standpoint, the enzymatic activity was not adversely affected by radiation. Considering the characteristics studied, the dose of 9kGy would be recommended seeking the production of loaves. Although the irradiation process is generally applied in the preservation of hygienic quality of food products, its use on different kinds of flours used in bread production may induce some beneficial technological characteristics. (author)

  20. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em materiais utilizados em restauracoes dentarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio

    2009-07-01

    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  1. Development of capacity for measuring ionizing radiation in aircraft crew; Desenvolvimento da capacitacao para efetuar medicoes de radiacao ionizante em tripulacoes de aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.b [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the activities performed in a research program of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Brazil, belonging to the Brazilian Air Force, joining to researches from Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, in order to bring to Brazil the capacity and acknowledge necessary to the evaluation of dose from ionizing radiation originated in the cosmic radiation and its by products which fall on aircraft crews

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation exposure in the morphology of modified HDPE with amphiphilic particles; Efeito da exposicao a radiacao ionizante na morfologia de PEAD modificado com particulas anfifilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Ana Luiza M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vivas, Viviane; Zylberberg, Marcel P.; Silva, Tamara I.; Cardoso, Andre Luis V.; Pereira, Iaci M., E-mail: iacipere@gmail.com [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Patricio, Patricia S.O. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerias (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    One of the techniques used to improve the properties of high performance polymers is the addition of hybrid particles in the polymer. In this context, amphiphilic particles were synthesized in order to provide surface characteristics that enhance the interaction of the interface with the polymeric matrix of high density polyethylene (HDPE). The amphiphilic particles were added to matrix of HDPE and the modified polymer composites were exposed to ionizing radiation (x-rays) for different times. The changes caused by exposure to ionizing radiation in the composite morphology was observed through the small angle x-ray technique. The results suggest that the addition of amphiphilic particles increased the stability of the composite to degradation by radiation. (author)

  3. Effect of the ionizing radiation in the sensorial characteristics of the pineapple; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas sensoriais do abacaxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda Maria da, E-mail: jmnilda@yahoo.com.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Silva, Juliana Pizarro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    The post-harvest quality of the pineapple cultivar Smooth Cayenne was evaluated after the fruit was irradiated with doses of 100 and 150 Gy and stored for 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 deg C ( +-1) and relative humidity of 85% (+- 5). The controls were untreated fruits. Sensorial analyses were made for each storage period to obtain information about the effects of ionizing radiation on the quality of the fruit. The ionizing radiation dosage had little effect on the sensorial characteristics of the pineapple, although the best results were obtained with fruit irradiated with 100 Gy. The 20-day storage period resulted in the highest consumer acceptability, while the 30-day storage period impaired the fruit's external and internal appearance. (author)

  4. Study of the sensitivity of the radiation transport problem in a scattering medium; Estudo da sensibilidade do problema de transporte de radiacao em meio espalhador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin

    2002-03-15

    In this work, the system of differential equations obtained by the angular approach of the two-dimensional transport equation by the discrete ordinates method is solved through the formulation of finite elements with the objective of investigating the sensitivity of the outgoing flux of radiation with the incoming flux and the properties of absorption and scattering of the medium. The variational formulation for the system of differential equations of second order with the generalized boundary conditions of Neumann (third type) allows an easy implementation of the method of the finite elements with triangular mesh and approximation space of first order. The geometry chosen for the simulations is a circle with a non homogeneous circular form in its interior. The mapping of Dirichlet-Neumann is studied through various simulations involving the incoming flux, the outgoing flux and the properties of the medium. (author)

  5. Food safety through the training of 2-alcilciclobutanonas in processed foods by ionizing radiation; Seguranca alimentar atraves da formacao de 2-alcilciclobutanonas em alimentos processados por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Rodrigo Mendes

    2016-11-01

    Food irradiation is a means of preserving food which uses a processing technique that exposes the foods at a controlled high energy ionizing radiation. The treatment with the use of ionizing radiation in foods has many applications technologically and technically feasible, including the ability to improve the microbiological safety and reducing levels of pathogenic bacteria, inhibiting the germination of tubers plant application, preserving stored foods or the stability of storage and is also used to increase the shelf life of certain products due to the reduction of contamination by microorganisms. Due to the increase of international trade in food and the growing regulatory requirements of consumer markets increasingly importing and exporting countries have shown interest in food irradiation and conducted research in the practical application of this technology and detection methods of treatment. Numerous surveys were conducted worldwide, resulting in efficient protocols to identify which foods were irradiated or not. Until then, the 'myth' that irradiated food could not be detected and they were not formed any single radiation products has been replaced by the knowledge that many changes can occur in irradiated foods and these changes could be used as tools to identify this technology. The radiation processing resulting in characteristic patterns formations of saturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, methyl and ethyl esters and 2-alcilciclobutanonas, depending on the fatty acid composition of the lipid that composes the food. Thus the purpose of this study was to collect data to compare the effects of different doses of gamma radiation and electron in foods that have fat to determine possible changes resulting from the use of irradiation, as the presence of 2-Alcilciclobutanonas and also show main equipment used for food irradiation and its categories, with the aim of informing the general public. (author)

  6. Case study on the effect of cosmic radiation in embedded systems in aircraft; Estudo de caso sobre o efeito da radiacao cosmica em sistemas embarcados em aeronaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adriane C.M.; Pereira, Marlon A., E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    High-energy neutrons generated from the interaction of cosmic radiation with atoms of the atmosphere, can cause adverse effects on avionics devices. These effects are referred to as 'Single Event Effects' (SEE) and may occur especially in aircraft onboard computers, from change the logic state of memory cells or functional interruptions, which could compromise flight safety. The effects of the SEE must first be evaluated and entered into the safety analysis process in order to determine the susceptibility to failures by SEE devices. SEE rate can be evaluated separately for thermal neutrons and fast neutrons with energy above 10 MeV. This paper presents an exploratory study of susceptibility to radiation to a specific type of SRAM memory, during periods of maximum and minimum solar, in situations of equatorial and polar flight in the typical flight altitude of existing aircraft and, at higher altitudes, near the maximum of Pfotzer. This study was conducted using estimates of particle flows employing the EXPACS QARM codes and evaluating the expected rate of SEE due to thermal neutrons and fast neutrons separately. The distribution in energy and the flow of neutrons inside the airplane are influenced by the total mass of the aircraft and this influence are also discussed.

  7. Utilization of ultraviolet radiation in effluent disinfestation of domestic waste treatment systems; Utilizacao da radiacao ultravioleta na desinfeccao de efluentes de sistemas de tratamento de esgotos domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, P.R.R. [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade e Silva, L.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet radiation disinfection of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Biodigestor (UASB) and UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluents is possible to be reached utilizing a single low pressure mercury lamp arc (15 W nominal power) in a shell tube flow through reactor (1.2 L useful volume). Fecal coliforms, total coliforms and colifages were used as microbiological parameters. For fecal coliforms, about 3 logarithmic units (log. un.) was removed from UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluent and 4 log. un. from UASB effluent with 7 and 30 seconds of hydraulic retention time, respectively. Good empirical correlations were obtained between microbiological parameters and hydraulic retention times. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs.

  8. Application of electron beam radiation for peat sterilization and suppression of microbe contaminants; Aplicacao da radiacao por feixe de eletrons como agente esterilizante de microorganismos em substrato turfoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, David

    2006-07-01

    Inoculation of root nodule bacteria into legume seeds such as soybean [Glycine max. (L.)], common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and forage pasture has been effective and convenient as this simple procedure may introduce effective strains of Bradyrhizobium/Rhizobium into agricultural soils without a past history of successful cropping systems with the legume hosts. Peat-based substrates previously sterilized have been used for decades as bacteria carrier, protecting them from the prevailing harsh conditions in tropical soils and ensuring their survival with nutrient and protection against the soil antagonists. The Brazilian Government requires that all peat-based substrates must be gamma-sterilized from a cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) source, prior the introduction of the root nodule bacteria into the package. The recommendation is for a dose up to 50 kGy for an effective suppression of pathogens and saprophytes, in order to avoid competition among the substrate microbiota. Recently, the use of the electron beam (EB) accelerator has shown to be a new alternative for peat pre-sterilization, as this technique may promote reactive free-radicals which are efficient to suppress microbial contaminants. This fast technology is considered more environment and ecology friendly-sound than gamma radiation ({gamma}). The disadvantage of not reaching higher depth than gamma rays from {sup 60}Co must be considered, and attempts of optimizing the technique are crucial. This study compared both methods by using increasing rates of radiation by {sup 60}Co by the EB method - O, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kGy in a commercial peat used for inoculants. Experimental data from days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days (growth period) and 150, 180 and 210 days (storage period) indicated high numbers of the strain Rhizobium tropici CM-01, labelled with gusA{sup +} (Study 1) and celB{sup +} (Study 2) from both eat-sterilizing techniques, reaching values above the minimum of 1x10{sup 8} cells g{sup -1} peat. At high rates, above 40 kGy, and after long incubation periods (ex. after 150 days), EB method was more efficient to suppress actinobacteria, one serious antagonist for rhizobia. Strain CM-01 celB{sup +}, data for the period of bacterial growth confirmed the efficiency of the method even at rates as low as 10 kGy. (author)

  9. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 766-square-mile South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The SCRC study unit was the 25th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. The SCRC study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the SCRC study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 70 wells in two study areas (Basins and Uplands) in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 15 wells were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). In addition to

  11. Uso da técnica da radiohormese para aumento no desenvolvimento de plantas de alho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cristina Aparecida Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O alho tem se destacado não só como uma das principais fontes de temperos dentro da gastronomia, como também um importante vetor de estudo agronômico tanto pela sua peculiar característica de cultivo como pela aplicação das propriedades na quebra de dormência em cultivares como maçã e pera. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aplicar a técnica da radiohormese em bulbos de alho para avaliação do potencial desenvolvimento de suas mudas. Foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente – CENA/USP, utilizando bulbos de alho obtidos no comércio local que, após prévia seleção, foram submetidos aos tratamentos pela radiação gama, nas doses 0 (controle 15, 50, 75 e 100kGy numa taxa de dose de 0,456Gy/h. De acordo com os resultados obtidos pode-se observar que as doses utilizadas influenciaram negativamente a germinação das plantas de alho, devendo portanto que sejam realizados novos testes afim de que se obtenha a dose adequada para este fim.

  12. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy stellar mass function to z = 0.1 from the r-band selected equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; da Cunha, E.; Davies, L. J. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Kelvin, L. S.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Phillipps, S.; Rowlands, K.; Taylor, E. N.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    We derive the low-redshift galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), inclusive of dust corrections, for the equatorial Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data set covering 180 deg2. We construct the mass function using a density-corrected maximum volume method, using masses corrected for the impact of optically thick and thin dust. We explore the galactic bivariate brightness plane (M⋆-μ), demonstrating that surface brightness effects do not systematically bias our mass function measurement above 107.5 M⊙. The galaxy distribution in the M-μ plane appears well bounded, indicating that no substantial population of massive but diffuse or highly compact galaxies are systematically missed due to the GAMA selection criteria. The GSMF is fitted with a double Schechter function, with M^\\star =10^{10.78± 0.01± 0.20} M_{⊙}, φ ^\\star _1=(2.93± 0.40)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3, α1 = -0.62 ± 0.03 ± 0.15, φ ^\\star _2=(0.63± 0.10)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3 and α2 = -1.50 ± 0.01 ± 0.15. We find the equivalent faint end slope as previously estimated using the GAMA-I sample, although we find a higher value of M^\\star. Using the full GAMA-II sample, we are able to fit the mass function to masses as low as 107.5 M⊙, and assess limits to 106.5 M⊙. Combining GAMA-II with data from G10-COSMOS, we are able to comment qualitatively on the shape of the GSMF down to masses as low as 106 M⊙. Beyond the well-known upturn seen in the GSMF at 109.5, the distribution appears to maintain a single power-law slope from 109 to 106.5. We calculate the stellar mass density parameter given our best-estimate GSMF, finding Ω _\\star = 1.66^{+0.24}_{-0.23}± 0.97 h^{-1}_{70} × 10^{-3}, inclusive of random and systematic uncertainties.

  13. Cenouras minimamente processadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas e tratadas com radiação gama: avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e química Minimally processed carrots in modified atmosphere packaging and gama irradiation treatment: microbiological, fisical-chemistry and chemistry evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As cenouras são as principais fontes de origem vegetal em carotenóides provitamínicos A (a e o b-caroteno e podem ser transformados em vitamina A dentro do organismo animal. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. As cenouras minimamente processadas foram acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2/10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, e tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy. Os produtos após o emprego da radiação foram armazenados em refrigeração de 5°C durante 24 dias. Os diferentes tratamentos da cenoura e o grupo controle foram avaliados através das análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e microbiologia. Os resultados de microbiologia evidenciaram que os produtos tratados com as doses de 0,50, 0,75 e 1,0kGy apresentaram redução de 3 a 4 ciclos logarítmicos na contagem total de mesófilos (CTM logo após a irradiação e uma vida-útil de 20 dias. Não foram detectados coliformes totais e E. coli até o 24º dia. Os patógenos B. cereus, Salmonella e Estafilococos coagulase positivos em 0,1g do produto, também não foram detectados. As contagens de bactérias láticas mantiveram-se menores que 100UFC/g. O processo de irradiação em baixas doses mostra-se promissor na manutenção da qualidade e apresenta-se como uma medida alternativa na redução de perdas pós-colheita.Carrots are the mains vegetable sources of carotenoids provitamin A (a and b-carotene which might be transformed into vitamin A in animal organism. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991 carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The minimally processed carrots were packaging with 5% O2/10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air, and g ionizing radiation treatments was carried

  14. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long

  15. Laboratório virtual de física moderna: sistema para espectrometria gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Canzian da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2015v32n2p542 O artigo descreve como foi implementada uma simulação computacional de um sistema de detecção de radiação ionizante semelhante ao encontrado em tradicionais laboratórios de física moderna. A simulação modela um sistema composto por “fontes” radioativas emissoras de fótons com energias bem definidas e de um “detector” de comportamento semelhante a um sistema de espectrometria de fótons (cintilador + fotomultiplicadora + analisador multicanal. Como em um sistema real, além de escolher a fonte, é possível ajustar a tensão na fotomultiplicadora, o ganho do amplificador e o ganho de conversão do analisador multicanal, observando-se o efeito disso nos “dados” adquiridos. São apresentados e discutidos resultados obtidos com o simulador para alguns roteiros de experimentos (calibração em energia, identificação de energias desconhecidas, determinação da resolução em energia etc.. A simulação foi utilizada com duas turmas do curso de licenciatura em física a distância da UFSC em 2011 e em 2014, associadas à realização do experimento real. Permeando o texto são discutidas as motivações e os problemas do uso das simulações neste contexto. À guisa de conclusão é discutido como o trabalho se relaciona às principais metas dos laboratórios introdutórios de física, segundo um comitê da American Physical Society especificamente constituído para isso.

  16. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  17. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from January to February 2011, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Santa Barbara study unit was the thirty-fourth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Santa Barbara study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the Santa Barbara study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the Santa Barbara study unit located in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, groundwater samples were collected from 24 wells. Eighteen of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and six wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds); constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]); naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace

  18. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 8,806-square-mile Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October to December 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The KLAM study unit was the thirty-third study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Klamath Mountains study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined by the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the KLAM study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the KLAM study unit, groundwater samples were collected from sites in Del Norte, Siskiyou, Humboldt, Trinity, Tehama, and Shasta Counties, California. Of the 39 sites sampled, 38 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining site was non-randomized (understanding site). The groundwater samples were analyzed for basic field parameters, organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs] and pesticides and pesticide degradates), inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, total dissolved solids [TDS]), radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta

  19. Galaxy-galaxy lensing in EAGLE: comparison with data from 180 deg2 of the KiDS and GAMA surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Schaye, Joop; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Sifón, Cristóbal; Schneider, Peter; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Brough, Sarah; Erben, Thomas; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kuijken, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    We present predictions for the galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) profile from the EAGLE hydrodynamical cosmological simulation at redshift z = 0.18, in the spatial range 0.02 < R/(h- 1 Mpc) < 2, and for five logarithmically equispaced stellar mass bins in the range 10.3 < log10(Mstar/ M⊙) < 11.8. We compare these excess surface density profiles to the observed signal from background galaxies imaged by the Kilo Degree Survey around spectroscopically confirmed foreground galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Exploiting the GAMA galaxy group catalogue, the profiles of central and satellite galaxies are computed separately for groups with at least five members to minimize contamination. EAGLE predictions are in broad agreement with the observed profiles for both central and satellite galaxies, although the signal is underestimated at R ≈ 0.5-2 h- 1 Mpc for the highest stellar mass bins. When central and satellite galaxies are considered simultaneously, agreement is found only when the selection function of lens galaxies is taken into account in detail. Specifically, in the case of GAMA galaxies, it is crucial to account for the variation of the fraction of satellite galaxies in bins of stellar mass induced by the flux-limited nature of the survey. We report the inferred stellar-to-halo mass relation and we find good agreement with recent published results. We note how the precision of the GGL profiles in the simulation holds the potential to constrain fine-grained aspects of the galaxy-dark matter connection.

  20. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  1. Gama de hospedeiros e reação de genótipos de tomateiro a Pseudomonas cichorii Host range and genotypes reaction to Pseudomonas cichorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Antônio Fernandes da Silva Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, foi constatada em dois campos comerciais de tomate no Estado de São Paulo, a ocorrência da queima bacteriana, causada por Pseudomonas cichorii. Em vista disso, foram desenvolvidos estudos visando a determinação da gama de hospedeiros de isolados de Pseudomonas cichorii (IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323, obtidos de tomateiro, provenientes de campos comerciais localizados nos municípios de Bragança Paulista e Mogi Guaçú, SP. Plantas de abobrinha, alface, beldroega, berinjela, beterraba, cenoura, couvebrócolo, datura, fumo, girassol, jiló, melão, pepino, petúnia, pimentão, rabanete, repolho, rúcula, salsa e tomateiro foram inoculadas por pulverização, separadamente, com os dois isolados de P. cichorii de tomateiro e um isolado de girassol (GIR-1. Os isolados IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323 foram patogênicos à beldroega, datura, girassol, pimentão e tomate; GIR-1 foi patogênico apenas à beldroega, datura e girassol, não sendo patogênico ao pimentão e ao tomateiro. No Brasil não se conhecem fontes de resistência dentro do gênero Lycopersicon ou a reação de cultivares de tomateiros a esta bactéria. Vinte e oito genótipos de tomateiro provenientes do Banco de Germoplasma da empresa Sakata Seed Sudamerica Ltda., foram avaliados quanto a reação aos isolados IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323 de P. cichorii, pelo método de inoculação nas folhas. Os maiores níveis de resistência foram observados em AF 11768, AF 2521, AF 11766, AF 11772, AF 229, AF 5719-1 e AF 8162. O genótipo AF 5719-1, que possui o gene Pto, que confere resistência a P. syringae pv. tomato, apresentou um bom nível de resistência a P. cichorii. A identificação de genótipos que apresentem bons níveis de resistência a este patógeno é importante para utilização em programas de melhoramento genético do tomateiro, visando a incorporação de genes de resistência a P. cichorii.The occurrence of the bacterial blight, caused by Pseudomonas cichorii, was observed

  2. Uso de la radiación UV-C en el proceso de elaboración de hortalizas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Diego; Ruiz López, Gustavo; Sgroppo, Sonia; Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los principales factores que limita la vida útil de las hortalizas frescas es el crecimiento de microorganismos durante el almacenamiento refrigerado. Es por ello que durante la etapa de procesamiento de hortalizas de IV gama siempre se incluye una etapa de lavado y sanitización para reducir la contaminación microbiana inicial. El uso de radiación ultravioleta artificial (UV) a una longitud de onda de 190 a 280 nm (UV-C) tiene poder germicida y puede ser eficaz para la descontaminación...

  3. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS FÍSICOS, MICROBIOLÓGICOS Y SENSORIALES DE RADICCHIOS (CHICHORIUM INTYBUS L. VAR. FOLIOSUM) ENVASADOS MEDIANTE IV GAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola López, Nelson; Calquín Correa, Paulina; Norambuena Aguayo, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo evaluó el comportamiento del envasado de radicchio (Chichorium intybus L. var. foliosum), con el sistema de IV Gama. Esta hortaliza fue donada por la Empresa Vital Berry S.A. y los envases por la Empresa HYC. El ensayo se realizó en el Laboratorio de la Universidad Católica del Maule, Curicó, y en el Centro de Estudios Postcosecha de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago. Los objetivos del ensayo fueron determinar la vida útil del radicchio al ser envasado en dos tipos de bols...

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  12. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Tahoe-Martis study unit was investigated in June through September 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the Tahoe-Martis study unit (Tahoe-Martis) and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in El Dorado, Placer, and Nevada Counties. Forty-one of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 11 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, strontium isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 240 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the

  13. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  14. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 25,500-square-mile Sierra Nevada study unit was investigated in June through October 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Sierra Nevada study was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for public and community drinking-water supplies. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. In the Sierra Nevada study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 84 wells (and springs) in Lassen, Plumas, Butte, Sierra, Yuba, Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Alpine, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Madera, Mariposa, Fresno, Inyo, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The wells were selected on two overlapping networks by using a spatially-distributed, randomized, grid-based approach. The primary grid-well network consisted of 30 wells, one well per grid cell in the study unit, and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality throughout the entire study unit. The lithologic grid-well network is a secondary grid that consisted of the wells in the primary grid-well network plus 53 additional wells and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality in each of the four major lithologic units in the Sierra

  15. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  18. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  20. GAMA/G10-COSMOS/3D-HST: the 0 history, stellar-mass, and dust-mass densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon P.; Andrews, Stephen K.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Davies, Luke J.; Lagos, Claudia; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Vinsen, Kevin; Wright, Angus H.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bourne, Nathan; Brough, Sarah; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Cluver, Michelle; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve A.; Gomez, Haley; Holwerda, Benne; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Loveday, Jon; Liske, Jochen; Maddox, Steve J.; Phillipps, Steven; Pimbblet, Kevin; Rowlands, Kate; Sansom, Anne E.; Taylor, Edward; Wang, Lingyu; Wilkins, Stephen M.

    2018-04-01

    We use the energy-balance code MAGPHYS to determine stellar and dust masses, and dust corrected star formation rates for over 200 000 GAMA galaxies, 170 000 G10-COSMOS galaxies, and 200 000 3D-HST galaxies. Our values agree well with previously reported measurements and constitute a representative and homogeneous data set spanning a broad range in stellar-mass (108-1012 M⊙), dust-mass (106-109 M⊙), and star formation rates (0.01-100 M⊙yr-1), and over a broad redshift range (0.0 history (CSFH), the stellar-mass density (SMD), and the dust-mass density (DMD) over a 12 Gyr timeline. The data mostly agree with previous estimates, where they exist, and provide a quasi-homogeneous data set using consistent mass and star formation estimators with consistent underlying assumptions over the full time range. As a consequence our formal errors are significantly reduced when compared to the historic literature. Integrating our CSFH we precisely reproduce the SMD with an interstellar medium replenishment factor of 0.50 ± 0.07, consistent with our choice of Chabrier initial mass function plus some modest amount of stripped stellar mass. Exploring the cosmic dust density evolution, we find a gradual increase in dust density with lookback time. We build a simple phenomenological model from the CSFH to account for the dust-mass evolution, and infer two key conclusions: (1) For every unit of stellar mass which is formed 0.0065-0.004 units of dust mass is also formed. (2) Over the history of the Universe approximately 90-95 per cent of all dust formed has been destroyed and/or ejected.

  1. The Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS): survey design, data catalogue and GAMA/WiggleZ spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Pracy, Michael B.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jurek, Russell J.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS), a spectroscopic catalogue of radio sources designed to include the full range of radio AGN populations out to redshift z ˜ 0.8. The catalogue covers ˜800 deg2 of sky, and provides optical identifications for 19 179 radio sources from the 1.4 GHz Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey down to an optical magnitude limit of Imod point-like objects are included, and no colour cuts are applied. In collaboration with the WiggleZ and Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey teams, we have obtained new spectra for over 5000 objects in the LARGESS sample. Combining these new spectra with data from earlier surveys provides spectroscopic data for 12 329 radio sources in the survey area, of which 10 856 have reliable redshifts. 85 per cent of the LARGESS spectroscopic sample are radio AGN (median redshift z = 0.44), and 15 per cent are nearby star-forming galaxies (median z = 0.08). Low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) comprise the majority (83 per cent) of LARGESS radio AGN at z < 0.8, with 12 per cent being high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs) and 5 per cent radio-loud QSOs. Unlike the more homogeneous LERG and QSO sub-populations, HERGs are a heterogeneous class of objects with relatively blue optical colours and a wide dispersion in mid-infrared colours. This is consistent with a picture in which most HERGs are hosted by galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation as well as a classical accretion disc.

  2. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 2,170-square-mile Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March to July 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The WSJV study unit was the twenty-ninth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Western San Joaquin Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the WSJV study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the WSJV study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 58 wells in 2 study areas (Delta-Mendota subbasin and Westside subbasin) in Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Kings Counties. Thirty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 wells were selected to aid in the understanding of aquifer-system flow and related groundwater-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level fumigants, and pesticides and pesticide degradates

  3. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 39,000-square-kilometer Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau (CAMP) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from July through October 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CAMP study unit is the thirty-second study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA PBP. The GAMA CAMP study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the open or screened intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CAMP study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CAMP study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 90 wells and springs in 6 study areas (Sacramento Valley Eastside, Honey Lake Valley, Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau Low Use Basins, Shasta Valley and Mount Shasta Volcanic Area, Quaternary Volcanic Areas, and Tertiary Volcanic Areas) in Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Tehama Counties. Wells and springs were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators, organic constituents, perchlorate, inorganic constituents

  4. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  5. Laboratory for Calibration of Gamma Radiation Measurement Instruments (LabCal) of Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) from Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx); Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentode Medicao de Radiacao Gama (LabCal) do IDQBRN do CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Aneuri de; Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Santos, Avelino; Vilela, Paulo Ricardo T. de; Oliveira, Luciano Santa Rita; Penha, Paulo Eduardo C. de Oliveira; Gonzaga, Roberto Neves; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Oliveira, Celio Jorge Vasques de; Fagundes, Luiz Cesar S., E-mail: aneurideamorim@gmail.com [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DQBRN/CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Defesa Quimica, Biologica, Radiologica e Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the calibration laboratory deployment steps (LABCAL) gamma ionizing radiation measuring instruments in the Army Technology Center, CTEx. Initially the calibration of radiation monitors will be held in the dosimetric quantity air kerma and operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(d). The LABCAL / CTEx has not yet authorized by CASEC / CNEN. This laboratory aims to calibrate the ionizing radiation instruments used by the Brazilian Army. (author)

  6. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cabbage and carrot minimally processed salad after radiation treatment intended to immunocompromised patients or with special diets; Avaliacao microbiologica, fisico-quimica e sensorial de salada de repolho com cenoura minimamente processada apos o tratamento por radiacao gama destinado a pacientes imunocomprometidos ou com dietas especiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    During and after the treatment of cancer, people with HIV or transplants, the food intake can offer a well-being to the patient, because the action of eating right helps people to feel strong. Healthy people have their immune system working properly and can tolerate small amounts of bacteria. However, immunocompromised persons may not be able to and however immunocompromised people cannot fight this small amount of microorganisms and require a diet with very low microbiological count to avoid contact with potentially harmful bacteria. This is called neutropenic diet. These patients are susceptible to food contamination, so that it's not advisable the ingestion of raw products. The vegetable irradiation with low doses has the purpose of reducing the microbial load. The aim of this study was to obtain data on microbiological, sensorial e physicochemical aspects in minimally processed 'Primavera' salad irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation designed to immunocompromised patients. It were used doses of 1.0kGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy irradiated in the Multipurpose Irradiator {sup 60}Co located in Radiation Technology Center. Microbiological analyzes were performed (n=25) using Petrifilm, sensory analysis using the sensory acceptance test (n=30) and triangular (n=15) and texture analysis (n=90) in the Food Microbiology Laboratory located at the Radiation Technology Center. The texture analysis was performed with the aid of a texturometer equipped with 5 kg load cell using a triangular cutting Warner-Bratzler Knife blade probe with the descent speed of 2mm/sec. All results were expressed in Newtons (N). The results showed that for microbiological analyzes the standards were followed according to the RDC 12/01 ANVISA. For the sensory test of acceptation no difference was found among the samples, however in the triangular test could be found slight differences between samples irradiated with 4.0kGy and control and there was significant difference among the sample, showing that the sample of 3.0kGy would be indicate for this specific public. It can be concluded that for a neutropenic diet the suggested dose is 2.0kGy. (author)

  7. Changes induced by gamma radiation in nanocomposites based on copper II and antimony sulfides in commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix; Alteracoes induzidas pela radiacao gama em nanocompositos a base dos sulfetos de cobre II e de antimonio na matriz de poli(metacrilato de metila) comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, M.C.C. de; Garcia, O.P.; Aquino, K.A.S.; Araujo, E.S., E-mail: esa@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2010-07-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a polymer with wide application in the manufacture of medical devices that is exposed to gamma irradiation. Currently the use of composite materials has been disseminated and PMMA is an excellent polymer matrix to package various materials. This study aimed to analyze the changes induced by gamma irradiation (25 kGy) on the properties of PMMA nanocomposites with nanoparticles of copper II sulfide (250nm-900nm) and antimony sulfite (300-500 nm). The nanoparticles were added to the polymer in different concentrations and synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from the corresponding chlorides with thioacetamide. Viscometric results showed a good radioprotective effect of nanoparticles of copper and antimony. It was found a good protection of nanoparticles on PMMA matrix in the concentration of 0.3% wt. The protections of 75% and 50% were calculated for nanoparticles of antimony and copper II, respectively. (author)

  8. In vitro mutants identification of banana (Musa sp.) with tolerance to toxin from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense, treating buds with several gamma radiation doses; Identificacao in vitro de mutantes de banana maca (Musa sp.) tolerantes a toxina do Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, a partir de gemas tratadas com diferentes doses de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Adriana Muniz Mendes de; Houllou-Kido, Laureen Michelle; Franca, Jose Geraldo Eugenio de [Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Recife, PE (Brazil); Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Mutants of banana, obtained through treatment with different level of gamma-radiation (0; 10; 20; 30; 40 Gy), were initially cultivated in vitro in medium for rapid clonal propagation during 30 days. These treatment affected the shoot tips development ratio. Some plants developed necrosis and died, but some of the shoot tips emitted new gems. These material were cultivated in medium 20% of the toxin of Fusarium oxysporum cubense. During the selection period, the necrosis occurrence and death of susceptible shoot tips were observed. Whereas the tolerant shoot tips kept themselves green during the entire selection process. At the end of the selection process, eight shoot tips were obtained. (author) 7 refs.

  9. Photoneutron cross sections measurements in {sup 9}Be, {sup 13}C e {sup 17}O with thermal neutron capture gamma-rays; Medidas das secoes de choque de fotoneutrons do {sup 9}Be, {sup 13}C e {sup 17}O com radiacao gama de captura de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, Renato

    2006-07-01

    Photoneutron cross sections measurements of {sup 9}Be, {sup 13}C and {sup 17}O have been obtained in the energy interval between 1,6 and 10,8 MeV, using neutron capture gamma-rays with high resolution in energy (3 a 21 eV), produced by 21 target materials, placed inside a tangential beam port, near the core of the IPEN/CNEN-SP IEA-R1 (5 MW) research reactor. The samples have been irradiated inside a 4{pi} geometry neutron detector system 'Long Counter', 520,5 cm away from the capture target. The capture gamma-ray flux was determined by means of the analysis of the gamma spectrum obtained by using a Ge(Li) solid-state detector (EG and G ORTEC, 25 cm{sup 3}, 5%), previously calibrated with capture gamma-rays from a standard target of Nitrogen (Melamine). The neutron photoproduction cross section has been measured for each target capture gamma-ray spectrum (compound cross section). A inversion matrix methodology to solve inversion problems for unfolding the set of experimental compound cross sections, was used in order to obtain the cross sections at specific excitation energy values (principal gamma line energies of the capture targets). The cross sections obtained at the energy values of the principal gamma lines were compared with experimental data reported by other authors, with have employed different gamma-ray sources. A good agreement was observed among the experimental data in this work with reported in the literature. (author)

  10. Microbiological, physico-chemical, and sensorial modifications during the useful life of the shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submitted to gamma radiation.; Alteracoes microbiologicas, fisico-quimicas e sensoriais durante a vida util do camarao-rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submetido a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Mariana Del Ben

    2000-07-01

    During the last years, there has been an increase in the consumption of seafood and freshwater fish as a healthier diet option. Shrimps are the most important product in the international trade market. This kind of food easily deteriorates due to autolysis, oxidation and microbial action. This research was carried out in order to study the effectiveness of radiation in preserving shrimps. Samples of shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis and P. paulensi) were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O kGy, 1 kGy, 2 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy and stored under refrigeration. The microbiological analysis was performed on days O, 2, 4, 7 10 and 14 post processing. Simultaneously, the pH and total, volatile bases (TVBN) were determined. The psychotropic population varied from <2.0 log to 8.08 log CFU/g while the mesophilic ranged from <1.0 109 to 6.03 log CFU/g; pH varied from 7.52 to 8.33 and TVBN from 28.47 to 56.00 mg N/100g, according to the radiation dose and the day of analysis. Black spots, changes in the characteristic odour and TVBN levels showed the beginning of a chemical deterioration as of the 4 th day of analysis. Doses of 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy presented the best results. Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest sensitivity to radiation. Due to the lapse of time between capturing shrimps and returning to land together with inadequate manipulation and storage in the boat, the quality of raw material is prejudiced which makes the radiation process unfeasible. (author)

  11. Analysis of FT-IR for dosimetric characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride - hexafluoropropylene) irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation; Analise de FT-IR para caracterizacao dosimetrica do poli(fluoreto de vinilideno - hexafluorpropileno) irradiado com altas doses de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liz, Otavio Souza Rocha; Medeiros, Adriana de Souza [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Faria, Luiz Oliveira de, E-mail: farialo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Polymeric materials when exposed to ionizing radiation undergo changes such as the crosslinking and chain oxidation. Recently, the optical absorption intensities in the ultraviolet visible region (273 nm) due to radio- induction of conjugated C=C bonds in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymers has been successfully used for high dose dosimetry purposes in gamma fields ranging from 0.1 to 200 kGy. In this context, the interest of performing a systematic investigation on another fluorinated copolymer of PVDF, the (Polyvinylidene fluoride - hexa fluoro propylene) [P(VDF- HFP)] has come to light, not only for UV-VIS range but also for the near and medium infrared ranges. In this investigation FTIR and UV-Vis spectra, acquired before and after irradiation, were used to investigate the relationship between optical absorbance and delivered gamma doses ranging from 100 to 3,000 kGy. The results indicate that the absorption band at 1729 cm-1, originated by the chain oxidation through the radioinduction of C=O bonds, presents an unambiguous behavior with the delivered gamma doses in a very large extension, ranging from 0 to 1,000 kGy. This results lead to conclude that P(VDF-HFP) copolymer shows excellent dosimetric properties which make it able to be investigated as a high dose dosimeter

  12. Transformações da sensibilidade musical contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jorge de Carvalho

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio visa propor uma reflexão sobre as mudanças na sensibilidade musical no mundo ocidental neste fim de século. As profundas transformações na tecnologia da produção musical ocorridas nas últimas décadas provocaram uma alteração dramática do lugar que a música ocupa na sociedade e também para o indivíduo. Interpreto o impacto dessas mudanças através de quatro elementos de análise profundamente interrelacionados: a tecnologia de gravação e reprodução, a execução musical, a recepção do produto musical e as subculturas musicais que condicionam as opções de uma vasta gama de consumidores de música, jovens e velhos. Na tentativa de construir uma sensibilidade musical deveras pluralista, procurei ilustrar esses argumentos com exemplos musicais retirados dos estilos mais diversos: eruditos, tradicionais, populares, massificados, folclóricos, ritualizados, etc. Dialogo também com teorias da música e da cultura contemporânea que cobrem um amplo eixo da Musicologia e da Etnomusicologia, de Béla Bártok, Adorno e Benjamin a John Blacking, Jacques Attali, Jean Baudrillard, Simon Frith, Lawrence Kramer, entre outros.

  13. Ultrasonic and radiographic study of laxity in hip joints of young dogs Estudo ultra-sonográfico e radiográfico da frouxidão articular em cães jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 22 hip joints of Whippet (four, Rottweiler (five and Labrador Retriever (two young dogs were evaluated with the aim of comparing the ultrasonic examination of coxofemoral joints with the radiographic evaluations, both distraction and conventional procedures, for the early diagnosis of passive laxity. The study was based on static ultrasonography, conventional radiography (CR and distraction radiography (DR methods. In order to quantify the relationship between the femur head and the acetabulum, the alpha (alpha and gamma (gamma angles were measured by ultrasonographic examination, the Norberg angle (NA was measured by CR, and the distraction index (DI was measured by DR. It was observed a negative correlation between angles alpha and gamma (r= -0,756; PAvaliaram-se 22 articulações coxofemorais de cães das raças Whippet (quatro cães, Rottweiler (cinco cães e Labrador Retriever (dois cães, com o objetivo de comparar o exame ultra-sonográfico da articulação coxofemoral de cães jovens com as avaliações radiográficas em distração e convencional, para a determinação precoce da frouxidão articular passiva. Utilizaram-se os métodos ultra-sonográfico estático, radiográfico convencional (MRC e radiográfico em distração (MRD. Para quantificar a relação entre a cabeça do fêmur e o acetábulo, foram medidos os ângulos alfa (alfa e gama (gama no exame ultra-sonográfico, o ângulo de Norberg (AN no MRC e o índice de distração (ID no MRD. Observou-se correlação negativa entre os ângulos alfa e gama (r= -0,756; P<0,001 e entre ID e AN (r= -0,474; P<0,026. Não se observou correlação entre os ângulos alfa e gama em relação ao ID e o AN (alfa e ID: r= -0,380; P<0,081; alfa e NA: r= 0,013; P<0,954; gama e ID: r= 0, 338; P<0,124; ângulo gama e AN: r= -0,192; P<0,391. O método ultra-sonográfico estático não se mostrou sensível para a detecção precoce da frouxidão passiva da articula

  14. Gamma probe-assisted brain tumor microsurgical resection: a new technique Ressecção microcirúrgica de tumor cerebral assistida por detector gama: uma nova técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Vilela Filho

    2002-12-01

    CADG, a qual foi realizada em um paciente com metástase para lobo parietal direito. O radiotraçador (99mTc-MIBI foi injetado em uma veia periférica 5 horas antes da cirurgia. Uma relação > ou = 2/1 entre a radiação gama emitida pelo tumor e pelo tecido normal foi considerada como indicativa de presença tumoral. Em um estudo piloto, SPECT cerebral com MIBI foi realizado em cinco pacientes normais. RESULTADOS: O detector gama em muito facilitou a detecção per-operatória do tumor e demonstrou a presença de um pequeno resíduo tumoral após o que se pensou tratar-se de uma completa ressecção; tal resíduo, de outro modo, não teria sido percebido, o que teria impossibilitado sua exérese. Tomografia computorizada pós-operatória confirmou a completa ressecção do tumor. O SPECT com MIBI de indivíduos normais mostrou sua captação pela hipófise, plexo coróide, crânio, couro cabeludo e glândulas salivares, mas não pelo tecido cerebral normal. Não ocorreram quaisquer complicações. CONCLUSÃO: A CADG mostrou-se, em nosso paciente, uma técnica segura e confiável para facilitar a identificação do tumor e para confirmar a presença ou ausência de resíduo tumoral.

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the G02 field, Herschel-ATLAS target selection and Data Release 3 arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I.K.; Brown, M.J.I.; Robotham, A.S.G.; Driver, S.P.; Dunne, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M.E.; Eardley, E.; Farrow, D.J.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A.M.; Kelvin, L.S.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A.J.; Norberg, P.; Owers, M.S.; Taylor, E.N.; Wright, A.H.; Bamford, S.P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M.N.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C.J.; Croom, S.M.; Davies, L.J.M.; Foster, C.; Grootes, M.W.; Holwerda, B.W.; Jones, D.H.; Kafle, P.R.; Kuijken, K.; Lara-Lopez, M.A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.R.; Meyer, M.J.; Phillipps, S.; Sutherland, W.J.; van Kampen, E.; Wilkins, S.M.

    We describe data release 3 (DR3) of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA survey is a spectroscopic redshift and multi-wavelength photometric survey in three equatorial regions each of 60.0 deg^2 (G09, G12, G15), and two southern regions of 55.7 deg^2 (G02) and 50.6 deg^2 (G23). DR3 consists of: the first release of data covering the G02 region and of data on H-ATLAS sources in the equatorial regions; and updates to data on sources released in DR2. DR3 includes 154809 sources with secure redshifts across four regions. A subset of the G02 region is 95.5% redshift complete to r<19.8 over an area of 19.5 deg^2, with 20086 galaxy redshifts, that overlaps substantially with the XXL survey (X-ray) and VIPERS (redshift survey). In the equatorial regions, the main survey has even higher completeness (98.5%), and spectra for about 75% of H-ATLAS filler targets were also obtained. This filler sample extends spectroscopic redshifts, for probable optical counterparts to H-ATLAS sub-mm sources, to 0.8 ma...

  16. A aplicação da distribuição exponencial geométrica estendida para modelagem de dados pluviométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho propõem-se o uso da distribuição Exponencial Geométrica Estendida (EGE como um modelo alternativo às distribuições comumente utilizadas tais como Gama, Weibull, Lognormal, entre outras, para a modelagem de dados de precipitação pluvial. Pouco explorada na literatura, a distribuição EGE tem se mostrado eficiente em diversos campos de pesquisa como biologia, demografia, confiabilidade de produtos eletrônicos e pode ser aplicada para analisar fenômenos meteorológicos. Proposta por Adamidis e colaboradores em 2005, uma de suas particularidades é que sua função de risco pode ser crescente ou decrescente. Outra característica importante é a facilidade em se obter diferentes níveis de probabilidade, sem a necessidade de recorrer a métodos numéricos. Testou-se o ajustamento da distribuição EGE para a estimação da precipitação pluvial total mensal de Presidente Prudente-SP. Os resultados mostraram que houve um bom ajuste do modelo para os dados ao serem comparados com outros modelos como Gama, Weibull e Lognormal, de acordo com o critério de informação de Akaike, o teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov e o teste Qui-quadrado ao nivel de 5% de significância. A partir do ajustamento da distribuição EGE aos dados, os estimadores dos parâmetros da distribuição foram obtidos através do método de máxima verossimilhança permitindo assim a estimação da precipitação pluvial total mensal para diferentes níveis de probabilidade.

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  18. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  19. Estudo comparativo da massa específica aparente e retratibilidade da madeira de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata LAM. nativa e de reflorestamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval dos Santos Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre as propriedades físicas da madeira, a massa específica aparente e a retratibilidade são características importantes na avaliação da qualidade da madeira para ampla gama de uso. A massa específica aparente, ou densidade aparente, está relacionada a uma série de outras características, principalmente àquelas relacionadas às propriedades mecânicas e anatômicas da madeira. Do mesmo modo, a retratibilidade também é importante característica, pois avalia a estabilidade dimensional das madeiras, sendo de grande importância para aplicações em que a madeira não deve apresentar contrações excessivas durante sua utilização. Com base nisso, este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a massa específica aparente e a retratibilidade da madeira de pau-brasil, proveniente de áreas naturais e de reflorestamentos com 10, 15, 20, 26 e 30 anos. Tais avaliações foram realizadas segundo a metodologia preconizada pelo Método Brasileiro 26/1940 da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. Os resultados indicaram que houve variação na massa específica aparente nas diferentes idades, com os maiores valores para a madeira de 30 anos de idade, que foram próximos aos encontrados para amostras de madeira nativa. A retratibilidade volumétrica total também variou em função da idade, não apresentando grande diferença em relação à madeira proveniente de áreas naturais.

  20. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  1. Selection of thermal-resistant leavening (Saccharomyces boulardii) through gamma irradiation; Selecao de linhagens termotolerantes de levedura (Saccharomyces boulardii) atraves da irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Maria Jose; Martins, Flaviano Santos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Yeast cells acquire resistance to a several stress condition when they are previously exposed to a mild form of the same or of a different stress. In this way yeast cells exposure to temperatures higher than the optimum for growth results in a enhancement of the heat shock proteins and accumulation of trehalose. These cells then acquire the ability to survive under more extreme conditions, a phenomenon referred as transitory thermo-tolerance. We decided to test if gamma irradiation can induced a permanent thermo-tolerance in survival cells irradiated. Lyophilized cells of S. boulardii were irradiated with a {sup 60} cobalt source. This cells were plated in solid medium. The survival cells were counted and the trehalose level were determined. In a second step, this survivals cells were incubated in liquid medium then submitted to a lethal heat shock (52 deg C, 15 min). The cells were plated and again grown at 30 deg C. The survival index and the level of trehalose were again determined. The procedure were repeated successively. The strains showed more thermo-resistance and the level of trehalose was increased without linear correlation with the number of viable cells. (author)

  2. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation; Esterilização de esgoto através da radiação gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S. [Faculdade Casa Branca, SP (Brazil). Pós-Graduação de Proteção Radiológica em Aplicações Médicas, Industriais e Nucleares; Lima, C.M.A. [MAXIM Cursos, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: franciscodasilva13uk@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Riode Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents.

  3. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected after gamma irradiation. The electronic paramagnetic resonance can be detected irradiated samples. (author)

  4. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory profile of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de radiações sobre as características sensoriais do suco fresco de laranja variedade 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L conservado sob refrigeração. Utilizou-se amostras de suco de laranja refrigerado (controle e suco de laranja refrigerado irradiado com 1,5 e 3,0kGy por hora (Cobalto60, armazenadas a 4ºC por 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias a 4ºC. Para a análise sensorial realizou-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa, na qual provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram a aparência, aroma, sabor e textura oral dos sucos. As doses de radiação alteraram características de aparência como cor, brilho e grumosidade. As amostras de suco irradiados apresentaram coloração amarelo mais claro, maior brilho e menor grumosidade que o suco controle. Os sucos irradiados apresentaram também maior intensidade de aroma cozido, passado e artificial, gosto ácido, amargo, sabor cozido, de sumo, passado e de laranja artificial. As doses de radiação utilizadas alteraram as características de corpo e adstringência. A cor e a grumosidade do suco não irradiado intensificaram-se com o tempo de armazenamento. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a irradiação do suco promoveu alterações nas características sensoriais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics of the irradiated fresh of 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinnensis L. juice and kept refrigerated. Samples of orange juice (control and samples irradiated with 1.5 and 3.0kGy per hour (Cobalt 60 were stored for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days at 4ºC. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis was conducted by a selected trained panels that evaluated appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of juices. Radiation levels affected appearance characteristics as color, shine and gummy. Irradiated juice resulted more clear and shinny and less gummy, more cooked, with past and artificial aroma, more acid, bitter, cooked, sap, past and with accentuated artificial orange than the control. Irradiation levels affected texture characteristics as body and astringency, homogeneity attribute was not affected. Color and gummy of control sample intensified with the increase of storage periods. Results lead juice irradiation promoted negatively on sensorial characteristic.

  5. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  6. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry; Metodologia para determinacao da atividade de radionuclideos por sistema de espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mariacc05@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the {sup 18}F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  7. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of {sup 60}Co; Caracterizacao bioquimica e farmacologica da crotamina irradiada por raios gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-07-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective in lowering the vas deferens twitch in rats in comparison to native crotamine. In addition, the behavior of irradiated toxin in tonic contraction, modulated by noradrenaline, was different from that observed for the native toxin. (author)

  8. Study of gel formation in polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation; Estudo da formacao de geis em polipropileno modificado por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliani, W.L.; Parra, D.F.; Fermino, D.M.; Lima, L.F.C.P.; Lugao, A.B., E-mail: washoliani@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The linearity of the chains of iPP (isotactic polypropylene) confers to this, low melt strength. This fact limits the use of iPP in processes that demand high stretching. The graft of branches confers improvements in its extensional viscosity, resulting in Polypropylene with High Melt Strength (HMS-PP). Preparation process of the HMS-PP, included iPP in pellets, conditioned in plastic container containing acetylene under pressure of 110 kPa and radiation with {gamma} source of {sup 60}Co in the doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The gel fraction of the samples was determined by the extraction of soluble components in xylene under boiling for 12 hours at 138 deg C. The soluble part of the samples was decanted with the total volatilization of the xylene to the room temperature (25 deg C) and deposition in glass blades. These samples had been characterized by Optic Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy. In this study of the morphology, we obtained the formation of gel and microgel of polypropylene with higher incidence in HMS-PP 20 kGy. (author)

  9. A search for a systematic method to bridge between pre-harvest, post-harvest, and consumer research aimed at increasing fruit consumption: The "Vasco da Gama" process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertschinger, L.; Corelli-Grappadelli, L.; Derkx, M.P.M.; Hall, S.; Kockerols, K.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Steiner, S.; Lans, van der I.A.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of ISAFRUIT to increase fruit consumption has strong foundations in the new knowledge created by a multidisciplinary team of natural and social scientists addressing critical aspects of the multi-faceted fruit chain. Bridging the gap between disciplines proved to be a substantial challenge,

  10. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds; Captacao e aproveitamento da radiacao solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijao e por plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). FItotecnia; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2003-07-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  11. Ionizing radiation effect on teas of Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities; Efeito da radiacao ionizante em chas da planta Camellia sinensis irradiados com diferentes atividades de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2013-07-01

    Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. Teas from Camellia sinensis plant have high levels of antioxidants, which mean that they may have several beneficial effects on health preservation. For centuries, mankind looks for ways to conserve better and for a longer time the food that they eat. The food irradiation process is a largely technique used worldwide, and is recommended by many health agencies and authorities of several countries. The radiation interacts with the material causing two kinds of effects, the direct and the indirect effect. In the direct effect the radiation interacts with the DNA molecule, breaking it, and then inactivates the cell. In the indirect effect, which represents 70% of the interaction, the radiation breaks the water molecule in a process denominated radiolysis, creating a number of free radicals that will interact with the cellular components, leading to the cell death. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the effects of gamma radiation on two kinds of tea from Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities. The green tea and black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (high Aw, medium Aw, and low Aw). The samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The analyses used were: microbiology by plate count, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC assay, and identification and quantification of main antioxidants in these beverages. It was noted that the greater the quantity of free water present in the medium, the lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. The green tea showed to be a little more susceptible to irradiation by high Aw once there was more variation in the amount of flavonoids and phenolics than the black tea, decreasing the amount of these compounds in some doses, but increasing the amount in other ones. However in both teas, these changes can be considered insignificant, since there was no difference in antioxidant activity at doses up to 10 kGy. The dose of 5.0 kGy was the minimum dose that secured the microbiological control and had no changes on the parameters analyzed. (author)

  12. Evaluation exposure to the ionizing radiation of workers during the operation of first Brazilian uranium mine; Avaliacao da exposicao de trabalhadores a radiacao ionizante durante a operacao da primeira mina de uranio do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Silva, Ana Claudia A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Servico de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    The production of uranium in Brazil initiated, in industrial scale, in the year of 1982, in the Miner-Industrial Complex at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper analysed the data of 13410 individual historic of dose, registered along the years of work, bay the radioprotection service of installation. Descriptive statistics and frequency histograms based on dose historic, and the annual distribution doses and the accumulated doses were evaluated during the functioning period of the CIPC, and his adequacy to the in force legislation at the time of it operation

  13. Calibration method for a in vivo measurement system using mathematical simulation of the radiation source and the detector; Metodo de calibracao de um sistema de medida in vivo atraves da simulacao matematica da fonte de radiacao e do detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John

    1998-12-31

    A Monte Carlo program which uses a voxel phantom has been developed to simulate in vivo measurement systems for calibration purposes. The calibration method presented here employs a mathematical phantom, produced in the form of volume elements (voxels), obtained through Magnetic Resonance Images of the human body. The calibration method uses the Monte Carlo technique to simulate the tissue contamination, the transport of the photons through the tissues and the detection of the radiation. The program simulates the transport and detection of photons between 0.035 and 2 MeV and uses, for the body representation, a voxel phantom with a format of 871 slices each of 277 x 148 picture elements. The Monte Carlo code was applied to the calibration of in vivo systems and to estimate differences in counting efficiencies between homogeneous and non-homogeneous radionuclide distributions in the lung. Calculations show a factor of 20 between deposition of {sup 241} Am at the back compared with the front of the lung. The program was also used to estimate the {sup 137} Cs body burden of an internally contaminated individual, counted with an 8 x 4 Nal (TI) detector and an {sup 241} Am body burden of an internally contaminated individual, who was counted using a planar germanium detector. (author) 24 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on properties of polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre as propriedades da poliamida 6 com reforco de fibra de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Clovis

    2007-07-01

    It is each time more common the use of polymers reinforced with fibreglass in the domestic market. Between them it is used polyamide 6 that it presents good tension resistance, to the impact and the humidity absorption compared with non-reinforced, being also at the present time used in the automobile industry in parts underneath the hood, especially in the radiator frames. The aim of this work is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on properties of polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement, undergone to different radiation doses. Samples were prepared and irradiated on JOB 188 accelerator with an electron beam energy of 1.5 MeV in air with different doses (100 to 600 kGy) and a dose rate of 22.61 kGy/h. Afterward the irradiation, the properties of the samples of irradiated polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement were evaluated and compared with the samples non-irradiated. It evidenced that the mechanical properties flexural resistance and tension resistance increased and the resistance to the impact decreased. Regarding the thermal properties of the temperature of fusing decreased of 224,4 deg C for 212,5 deg C but the loss of mass ahead of the constant increase of the temperature also decreased. In the property of resistance to the glow wire the polyamide 6 with fibreglass reinforcement had a good performance. The images caught for Scanning Electronic Microscopy show that the irradiation provoked a good integration enters the fibreglass and polymer what was responsible for the good performance in the property of resistance to the glow wire. (author)

  15. Utilization of rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 and ionizing radiation effect studies on this composite;Utilizacao da cinza da casca de arroz como carga em matriz de poliamida 6 submetida a radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Waldir Pedro

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the dimensional stability, as well as, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of polymers, new filler to this purpose has been developed. The mos applied filler to propitiate the features previously mentioned are the glass and carbon fibers, the mineral filler as the calcium carbonate, the talc and the micro glass sphere. The main aim of this work was to study the rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 and ionizing radiation effect studies on this composite, irradiated by electron beam at different doses, since it is constituted of at least 90% of silicon dioxide, and compared with the talc which is the most applied mineral filler. This comparison was made from a compound made through the refined rice husk ash and the polyamide 6 (PA 6), which is one of the main engineering plastic with applications in several productive areas. The samples were injected and irradiated in a electron accelerator. Afterwards, their mechanical and thermal properties were measured. It was also inject automotive parts to verify the processing of the PA 6 with CCA. The results showed that the use of the rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 composite is technically and economically viable. The irradiation of the studied composite (PA 6 with 30% of rice husk ash) did not provide any improvement for the mechanical and thermal properties previously appraised. (author)

  16. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the central-eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment.An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  18. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Madera, Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera and Chowchilla Subbasins (Madera-Chowchilla study unit) of the San Joaquin Valley Basin was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in California's Central Valley region in parts of Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in California. The primary aquifer system within each study unit is defined by the depth of the perforated or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Madera-Chowchilla study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 35 wells during April-May 2008 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of natural factors and human activities affecting groundwater quality. The primary aquifer system is represented by the grid wells, of which 90 percent (%) had depths that ranged from about 200 to 800 feet (ft) below land surface and had depths to the top of perforations that ranged from about 140 to 400 ft below land surface. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  20. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  1. The environmental sustainability of a pilot plant for the manufacture of biodiesel from frying oil: a case study: Universidade de Brasilia UNB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brazil; A sustentabilidade ambiental de uma planta piloto para fabricacao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de fritura: estudo de caso: Universidade de Brasilia UnB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glecia Virgolino da; Falla, Pilar Hidalgo; Ginoris, Yovanka Perez; Oliveira, Alessandro Borges de S.; Alves, Marcos Antonio de S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FGA/UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Whereas the efforts of the Brazilian government and its researchers to explore new renewable energy alternatives such as biofuels, and considering the existing methodologies for the production of biodiesel, including the processes of washing out, which consumes a large amount of water treated, University of Brasilia/FGA/Gama installs in about July 2010 a pilot plant for biodiesel production. The pilot plant will use feedstock used frying oil collected in homes, restaurants and coffee shop in the region, preventing this oil remains released to sewage in natura. Thus, this project aims to develop academic research and the improvement of the community in the city of Gama / DF. This study aimed to carry out preliminary studies of the methodology and water to be used in biodiesel production in order to confirm the reduction of fuel costs the University to contribute to reducing the release of oils into the sewer and use of distillers for water will wash the biodiesel, reducing the energy consumption of the plant. (author)

  2. Carbonilação catalítica de alilaminoálcoois : síntese de hidróxi-gama-lactamas e oxazolidinas bicíclicas

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Limberger

    2006-01-01

    Gama-lactamas e oxazolidinas bicíclicas são compostos importantes sob o ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Uma forma de sintetizar estes heterociclos é através de reações de carbonilação/hidroformilação de aminas insaturadas catalisadas por complexos de ródio. As gama-lactamas e as oxazolidinas são formadas concomitantemente, as primeiras através de um mecanismo de carbonilação e as últimas através de uma rota de hidroformilação, sob as mesmas condições reacionais. No presente trabalho, ...

  3. Catálogo da biblioteca: o objeto orientado ao usuário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Perea Araújo

    Full Text Available Os catálogos bibliográficos em fichas ou em linha, estes últimos também conhecidos como Online Public Access Catalogue, foram desenhados para melhor organizar e dinamizar os itens arquivados em uma biblioteca. Saciar a necessidade do consulente de biblioteca, na busca por informação, é objetivo de construção desses bancos de dados. Para muitos usuários, os objetivos iniciais de criação desses softwares não coadunam com a plasticidade dos novos sistemas, quando da apresentação da informação na hora da pesquisa. Há, no mercado de bases de dados, uma gama de softwares que hoje, atenderiam às necessidades latentes, assim como as expressas pelos usuários destes catálogos, para buscas realizadas tanto de forma remota como local. Expor novas ontologias, diferentes formatos de apresentação e apontar as reais necessidades de informação exigidas pelo usuário, são os objetivos deste trabalho.

  4. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  5. Natural radiation; A radiacao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included.

  6. Subperíodos fenológicos e ciclo da soja conforme grupos de maturidade e datas de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Trentin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a duração dos subperíodos fenológicos e do ciclo de desenvolvimento da soja, de acordo com grupos de maturidade e datas de semeadura, e determinar as funções de distribuição de probabilidades que melhor caracterizam a distribuição destes dados. Foram avaliadas as funções exponencial, gama, lognormal, normal e Weibull, tendo-se verificado a de melhor ajuste aos dados de desenvolvimento simulado da cultura, de acordo com dados meteorológicos diários coletados de outubro de 1968 a julho de 2012, na estação climatológica principal de Santa Maria, RS. A simulação do desenvolvimento da cultura foi feita para diferentes datas de semeadura, com os grupos de maturidade (GM: 5.9-6.8, ciclo precoce/semiprecoce; 6.9-7.3, ciclo médio; e 7.4-8.0, ciclo semitardio/tardio. A função lognormal é a que melhor se ajusta à duração dos subperíodos e do ciclo da soja. Esta duração varia conforme a data de semeadura, com ciclo maior nas semeaduras antecipadas (outubro e menor nas tardias (dezembro.

  7. Significados e práticas da espiritualidade no contexto dos cuidados paliativos em pacientes oncológicos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Iaros Silva da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer os significados e práticas da espiritualidade para os pacientes oncológicos adultos, enfermeiros e família no contexto dos cuidados paliativos. Elaborou-se uma revisão integrativa nas bases de dados CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS e MEDLINE, com os descritores palliative care, spirituality e nursing, no período de novembro de 2007 a novembro de 2009. A amostra constituiu-se de 11 artigos. Dentre os significados que se destacaram, para os pacientes e enfermeiros evidenciou-se fonte de conforto e para a família fonte de cura e manutenção da saúde. Dentre as práticas evidenciadas encontram-se, para os pacientes, ir a igreja, para os enfermeiros, estar presente e, para a família, exercício da caridade. Diferentes significados e práticas reveladas neste estudo evidenciam uma gama de possibilidades que poderão ser aplicadas na prática clínica. Conclui-se que a espiritualidade pode ajudar pacientes, familiares, enfermeiros e demais profissionais a enfrentarem melhor as situações de iminência de fim da vida ou mesmo a morte em si.

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system. The depth of the primary aquifer system for the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was delineated by the depths of the screened or open intervals of wells in the State of California’s database of public-supply wells. Two types of assessments were made: a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and an understanding assessment that made evaluations of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors representing characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  11. Caracterización molecular de la cadena gama común y Jak3 en un individuo afectado con inmunodeficiencia severa combinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Patiño Grajales

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La Inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada (IDSC es una enfermedad
    de origen genético, que se puede heredar de forma autosómica
    recesiva o ligada al cromosoma X. La IDSC se caracteriza por un
    defecto en el número y la diferenciación de los linfocitos T y NK. Los
    individuos afectados desarrollan diarrea crónica, infecciones persistentes y severas como neumonía, septicemia e infecciones fúngicas.
    Estos pacientes presentan retardo en el crecimiento y pueden morir a
    temprana edad si no se realiza una terapia de corrección genética o un
    trasplante de células hematopoyéticas. Las mutaciones responsables
    de la IDSC comprometen principalmente el gen de la cadena gama
    común (γc y la proteína Jak3 que son proteínas fundamentales en la
    transducción de señales de los receptores para varias citoquinas esenciales en la diferenciación y activación de células del sistema inmune, las cuales incluyen IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 e IL-15 (1,2.

     

     

  12. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  13. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  14. In vitro assessment of the composition and microhardness of hard tissues of oral cavity submitted to gamma irradiation; Avaliacao in vitro da composicao e microdureza dos tecidos duros da cavidade bucal submetidos a irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Wilber Edison Bernaola

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Radiotherapy is extremely important for the treatment of malignant lesions of the head and neck region, however, exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to systemic or local complications during and after radiation treatment. Among these immediate local complications are the oral cavity xerostomia and the consequent oral mucositis. Regarding late complications produced by radiation, tooth decay of radiation and osteoradionecrosis are included, which are considered dose-dependent lesions, with high incidence in recent decades and difficult to manage, although these appear after completion of treatment and under the influence of local factors. The methodology proposed in this study consists in evaluating the effect of gamma radiation after irradiation of the samples, using the dose used in patients suffering with head and neck cancer. The samples were obtained from human enamel and root dentin; and swine mandibular bone, which were previously polished, and then submitted to the analysis of the initial surface microhardness of all groups. Subsequently, the samples were irradiated in a dose rate of 4 Gy per day, completing a total dose of 72 Gy. Finally, the samples were submitted to surface microhardness analysis after irradiation, which presented statistically significant results from the Student t, ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests referred to the difference of the mean of the initial and final values of each study group with a significant value of p = 0.00 (<0.05). Regarding the morphological analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the deleterious effect of gamma irradiation was evidenced as structural cracks, breaks and superficial fractures of the analyzed tissues and the biochemical analysis by Attenuated Total Reflection technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR - FTIR) showed degradation of inorganic components and denaturation of organic compounds; whereby, the effect of gamma irradiation on the hard tissues of the oral cavity with respect to mechanical, compositional and morphological properties was deleterious and this study highlighted the isolated action of this ionizing radiation which contributes highly for its appearance, independent of local and systemic factors in the irradiated patients. (author)

  15. Influência da radiação gama e de diferentes dietas na qualidade da carne de cordeiros Santa Inês Influence of the radiation and of different diets on quality of meat lambs Santa Ines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Régia Marques de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de irradiação é um método eficiente de conservação de alimentos, pois reduz o número de microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes. Com doses baixas, as características organolépticas e nutricionais do alimento não são alteradas significativamente, principalmente quando são controlados outros fatores como, por exemplo, a embalagem. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a cor, capacidade de retenção de água (CRA e formação de bases voláteis na carne de cordeiros Santa Inês tratados com diferentes dietas e doses de radiação. Amostras de carne de cordeiro tratados com diferentes dietas - controle, TAC1, TAC2 (taninos altamente condensados e sorgo - foram embaladas a vácuo e, excetuando-se a controle (sem irradiação, irradiadas nas doses 2 e 4 kGy e armazenadas por 15 dias à temperatura de 4 °C. As medidas de a* (redness e b* (yelowness não sofreram influência das diferentes dietas e doses empregadas no experimento. Os valores de L* (lightness se mostraram diferentes para dietas no controle (sem irradiação e na dose 2 kGy, mas, quando comparados os efeitos das doses em cada dieta, estas não apresentaram diferenças. Os valores de H e C calculados não mostraram diferenças estatísticas. O tempo de armazenamento influenciou as medidas de a*, b* , L, H e C. A irradiação diminuiu os teores de bases voláteis e CRA, porém o tempo de estocagem aumentou-os.The irradiation process is an effective method for food preservation because it reduces the pathogenic and/or the number of deteriorating microorganisms. The use of low doses did not alter the organoleptic and sensorial food characteristics significantly, especially when other factors such as packaging are considered. The objective of this work is to evaluate the color, water holding capacity (WHC, and formation of volatile bases in the meat of Santa Ines lambs treated with different diets and radiation doses. Lamb samples treated with different diets: control, TAC1, TAC2 (tannins highly condensed, and sorghum were vacuum wrapped, irradiated in the doses 2 and 4 kGy and control (without irradiation, and stored under 4 °C for 15 days. The values of a* (redness and b * (yellowness were not influenced by the different diets and doses used in the experiment. The values of L* (lightness differed statistically for the control diets (without irradiation and for 2 kGy dose diet. However, the effects of the doses in each diet were not different. The values of H and C values obtained did not show statistical differences. The storage time influenced the measures of a*, b*, L, H, and C. The irradiation reduced the levels of the volatile bases and water holding capacity (WHC although these parameters were increased due to the storage time.

  16. Feasibility study of photodiodes utilization in the soil-moisture determination by gamma transmission; Estudo da viabilidade da utilizacao de fotodiodos na determinacao de umidade de solos por transmissao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L A.P. dos

    1992-08-01

    This study was done to verify the viability of photodiodes, as gamma radiation detector ({sup 241} Am - Energy=60 KeV), to measure soil water content. The photodiodes used had different mechanical and electrical characteristics, and were tested on soils of different textures. A good linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and soil-moisture demonstrated such viability, and that the low photopeak efficiency of these devices is not a limitation to the measurement of soil water content. Furthermore, the stability, the portability, and low cost of such semiconductor devices, including its electronic system, represent relevant characteristics that may justify the development of a reliable gamma meter system for field studies. (author). 37 refs, 21 figs, 20 tabs.

  17. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  18. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  19. Filosofia da análise da estabilidade da liquidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antônio Chaves da Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A informação foi considerada finalidade de nosso conhecimento, até o período em os pensadores e pesquisadores da contabilidade passaram a raciocinar sobre o conteúdo e o significado dos informes. Nesta busca da razão sobre os estados patrimoniais, surgiu a análise contábil que procura por meio de relações e identidades, o significado da dinâmica expressa da estaticamente na informação. O primeiro aspecto que surgiu no objeto de análise foi o estudo da liquidez, que é um dos principais exercícios do patrimônio. A estabilidade também é outro exercício básico e imprescindível, pois este é que promove o equilíbrio do organismo administrativo. A ciência contábil após a sua dignidade científica passou a trilhar caminhos esplendorosos, amparados em doutrina que permite alcançar os píncaros filosóficos. Os estudos concernentes aos aspectos de interação da estabilidade na liquidez são, complexos e somente com os recursos filosóficos da contabilidade se pode estudá-los com o panorama holístico e sublime. A filosofia da contabilidade não é alheia às suas práticas tecnológicas, podendo buscar pontos sublimes de panoramas abrangentes, para o estudo analítico da liquidez e estabilidade, observando todas as dimensionalidades e essencialidades de acontecimentos, na comprovação e orientação dos estados de ineficácia e eficácia patrimonial.

  20. A expressão cênica como elemento facilitador da performance no coro juvenil Scenic expression as a facilitator in the youth choir performance

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    Patricia Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo nasceu do desejo de pesquisar e divulgar este excelente veículo facilitador do canto coral - sobretudo para adolescentes - que é a expressão cênica. Tal recurso vem oferecer uma gama maior de possibilidades criativas e soluções originais para o desenvolvimento da linguagem coral, além de instigar os envolvidos ao exercício do autoconhecimento. Este trabalho é parte de pesquisa do Mestrado em Música desenvolvido na UNIRIO.The present paper results from the need to research and promote scenic expression as an ideal facilitator for singing, especially among adolescents. It may offer a wider range of creative possibilities and original solutions for the development of the choral language, besides encouraging the exercise of self-knowledge. This paper is part of a Masters Degree in Music research developed at UNIRIO (Brazil.

  1. A produção das desigualdades: análise da relação entre trabalho infantil e indicadores sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Natércia Janine Dantas da

    2014-01-01

    A Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT) estima que haja cerca de 118 milhões de crianças em todo o mundo submetidas ao trabalho infantil. No Brasil, há 3,5 milhões de trabalhadores entre 5 e 17 anos. Esse exercício de exploração constitui um grave problema da sociedade, inclusive de Saúde Pública, já que esses trabalhadores estão expostos a uma gama de riscos, quais sejam à saúde, à integridade física e até à vida, podendo torná-los adultos doentes e/ou interrompendo precocemente suas v...

  2. Produção de sulfato ferroso a partir do resíduo proveniente da mineração de ferro

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Kelly Araldi

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Florianópolis, 2012. O ferro é o metal de transição mais abundante da crosta terrestre e o quarto de todos os elementos. O ferro é encontrado em uma gama de minerais, destacando-se: a hematita (Fe2O3), a magnetita (Fe3O4), a limonita (FeO(OH)), a siderita (FeCO3), a pirita (FeS2) e a ilmenita (FeTiO3). O ferro é também um nutriente essencial para a vida e at...

  3. Variação sazonal nos atendimentos de emergência por asma em Gama, Distrito Federal Seasonal variations in emergency room visits for asthma attacks in Gama, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Moreira Valença

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar o atendimento por asma em um serviço de emergência público e estudar a flutuação sazonal, considerando as condições climáticas locais, caracterizadas por duas estações, uma chuvosa e úmida e outra seca. MÉTODOS: Levantamento retrospectivo conduzido em um hospital geral comunitário. Um total de 37.642 consultas emergenciais por asma, bronquite, pneumonia, infecções de vias aéreas superiores e outras condições foram identificadas durante um período de dois anos. As informações constantes em cada guia de atendimento foram levantadas para posterior análise. RESULTADOS: Asma foi o segundo diagnóstico mais freqüente dentre as condições respiratórias (24%. A maioria das consultas por asma foi feita em crianças de zero a catorze anos (56,6%. A análise de regressão mostrou uma variação sazonal dos atendimentos, com concentração significativamente maior de casos de asma no mês de março (p = 0,0109 e concentração menor nos meses de agosto e setembro (p = 0,0485 e p = 0,0169, respectivamente. A correlação entre asma e clima foi mais significativa em relação à flutuação da umidade defasada de um e dois meses (p = 0,0026 e p = 0,0002, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: As visitas por asma ao pronto-socorro foram mais freqüentes durante a estação úmida. O aumento do número de casos cresceu um a dois meses após o aumento da umidade e diminuiu no período seco. Essa correlação positiva levanta a possibilidade de uma relação causal com a proliferação de ácaros domésticos e fungos ambientais.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of asthma attacks treated in the emergency room of a public hospital and to study seasonal fluctuations, taking into consideration the local climate, which is characterized by having only two seasons: a rainy/humid season and a dry season. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted in a community general hospital. A total of 37,642 emergency room consultations

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  5. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  8. Implementación del núcleo de un microcontrolador compatible con los PIC de la gama media en FPGA de Altera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Escartín

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-TRAD X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} En este trabajo se describe, el diseño del núcleo de un procesador compatible con el juego de instrucciones de microcontroladores PIC de la gama media. La estructura utilizada posee un pipeline de dos etapas. Se utiliza el lenguaje de descripción de hardware VHDL con dispositivos programables de las familias Cyclone de Altera. La metodología de diseño empleada es un proceso recurrente que se inicia con la definición de la arquitectura a nivel de bloques funcionales del sistema a diseñar, se realiza la modelación estructural y la implementación de cada bloque. Finalizando con la simulación funcional y temporal. Todo este proceso tiene como objetivo lograr un dispositivo con la mayor velocidad posible en su funcionamiento y sintetizarlo con el  menor número de celdas.

  9. El mercado mediático de la belleza. Estudio de la estructura de ingresos en revistas femeninas de alta gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez Serrano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El sector de la comunicación no es ajeno a la crisis y sus correlatos. La bajada de la inversión publicitaria está teniendo consecuencias drásticas que se manifiestan, por ejemplo, en un reajuste en su estructura de ingresos. Además de esta crisis “coyuntural” –aunque larga-, hay otra que afecta significativamente a las empresas periodísticas: la reducción paulatina de lectores de medios impresos. En este estudio se parcela esta tipología de empresas de comunicación, centrándonos en aquellas que tienen como output las revistas. Y, para que el universo se reduzca aún más, abordaremos aquellas que se califican como “de alta gama”, que por su exclusiva idiosincrasia se sitúan ante el contexto económico imperante de una forma distinta.  De ellas, se analizará su estructura económica, en concreto, los ingresos provenientes de la publicidad, aunque de manera tangencial, se estudiará su precio de venta al número y su tirada. Con una metodología sustentada en el análisis cualitativo, con transposición cuantitativa, pretendemos conocer la cuantía de ingresos que perciben tres de estas arquetípicas revistas en un mes a través de la publicidad que muestra el prototipo de belleza actual. Para llegar a corroborar –o no- la siguiente hipótesis: “las revistas de alta gama, como medios de comunicación impresos no diarios, son un vehículo de la expresión de la belleza y, a través de ella, se consiguen ingresos sustanciales”.

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water

  11. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2: qual o papel da insulina na expressão de NF-kappaB, PPARγ e CD36?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 e na síndrome de resistência à insulina, as complicações cardiovasculares resultam de um conjunto de processos aterogênicos envolvendo hiperglicemia crônica, excessiva glicação de proteínas (AGEs, ativação do fator nuclear kappa B (NKκB associada com o aumento da expressão de citocinas inflamatórias e estresse oxidativo, observando-se ainda alteração de LDL e expressão do receptor de scavenger CD36. A contribuição da hiperinsulinemia nesta sequência não é completamente elucidada. Nesta revisão, relata-se como a insulina pode modular a expressão proteica de NFκB, PPAR gama (PPARγ e CD36 em células da musculatura lisa vascular (CMLV da aorta de ratos estimuladas pelos AGE.

  12. Change of the natural radiation exposure due to agriculture and industrial activities in a high natural radioactivity area from Brazil; Modificacao da exposicao a radiacao natural devido a atividades agricolas e industriais numa area de radioatividade natural elevada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da

    1993-12-31

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. This study has shown the expected value for the mean annual radiation exposure due to the agricultural activities ranges from 6 up to 14 mSv/a depending on the age and living habits of the population group. The inhalation exposure of radon, thoron and their progenies represents the largest radiological health hazard (70-90%); this is followed by the external gamma irradiation from soil (10-25%). Ingestion of natural radionuclides with local food is only of minor radiological consequence. It was found that the lethal cancer risk might increase by 4% for a person born at the plateau, living and working there for the rest of her life. For the remote population the consumption the consumption of food products exported from the plateau leads to an expected value for the collective dose of 19 man Sv/a. This corresponding nominally to the small calculated number of 1 additional case of cancer per year. Therefore the main radiation impact of the agricultural activities are not the increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in food products but the fact that they are produced there with human labor and thus increasing the radiation exposure to a large number of farm workers and their families that move for occupational reasons to that region. The radiation exposure due to the mining and milling activities is, in spite of the significant increase of radionuclide activity concentrations in river waters, only of the order of 0.3 mSv/a. However as a recognized industrial source the ICRP dose limitation system has to be applied. Under this aspect the exposure calculated here, 0.3 mSv/a, should be considered as acceptable. (author). 93 refs, 16 figs, 58 tabs.

  13. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  14. Use of ionizing radiation in the recycling of unserviceable tires of automotive and its adequate environmental disposal; Utilizacao da radiacao ionizante na reciclagem de pneus inserviveis de automovel e sua destinacao ambiental adequada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clecia de Moura

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use ionizing radiation in the recycling of scrap tires of automotive. Samples of rubber unserviceable tires were irradiated with radiation doses 200, 400 and 600kGy in an electron accelerator. Subsequently, they were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength mechanical test, spectrophotometry Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By thermogravimetry was possible to observe the effects of radiation in the mass loss of material. In the DSC curves were observed exothermic decomposition peaks and associated values of enthalpy variation (ΔH). The mechanical properties of the elastomeric matrix with unserviceable tires powder were studied and its behavior to ionizing radiation was analyzed. FTIR spectra were obtained in the 4000 - 650cm-1 region. It was observed that there was no change in the peaks due irradiation. For SEM the micrographs were enlarged from 32 times up to 1000 times and observed in sizes from 1mm up to 20μm. It was observed at doses of 200 and 400kGy, roughness corresponding to breaks or ruptures possibly caused by radiation. In 600kGy radiation dose was observed cavities caused by radiation. It was observed that at all doses occurred degradation. For samples without powder and with 10, 30 and 50% of unserviceable tires powder it was obtained micrographs of 100μm and 200μm amplification. Also it was possible to observe the incorporation of unserviceable tires powder of automotive in the elastomeric matrix of non-irradiated and irradiated samples. (author)

  15. Ionizing radiation effect on central venous catheters (CVC) of polyurethane coatings with silver nanoparticles; Efeito da radiacao ionizante nos revestimentos de cateteres venosos centrais (CVC) de poliuretano com nanoparticulas de prata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman, Sonia; Silva, Leonardo G.A., E-mail: sheilman@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hewer, Thiago L.R.; Souza, Michele L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    The present work aimed to study the use of ionizing radiation for coating of silver nanoparticles on central polyurethane catheters, providing reduction of infections associated with contamination of catheters introduced into the bloodstream. Silver nanoparticles have physical, chemical and biological properties only when compared to metal on a macroscopic scale, and have been used in the medical field because of its remarkable antimicrobial activity. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol gel method were used as the coating catheters for subsequent impregnation of silver nanoparticles with ionizing radiation at doses of 25 and 50 kGy. A Raman spectrometry was used to identify the polymorph of titanium oxide, rutile. In trials with (ICP OES) were evaluated amounts of titanium and silver coated catheters in titanium oxide and silver.(author)

  16. Dose rate range extension of the calibration of dosemeters at LNMRI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Expansao da faixa de taxas de dose para a calibracao de instrumentos de medir radiacao no LNMRI, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, T.S.; Carlos, M.T.; Ramos, M.M.O., E-mail: tschirn@ird.gov.b, E-mail: marcia@ird.gov.b, E-mail: mmoramos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work has an objective the implantation of a experimental arrange for application of essays of instrument calibration for measurement of low dose rate, which measure rate less than 10 {mu}Sv/h

  17. Mechanical and thermal properties of castor oil polyurethane bone cement after gamma irradiation;Propriedades mecanicas e termicas de poliuretanas derivadas do oleo de mamona usadas como cimento osseo depois da irradiacao com radiacao gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, E.C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DF/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Soboll, D.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, G.O.; Claro Neto, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lepiesnki, C.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DF/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DM/UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    Polyurethanes from castor oil are being employed as bone cement in medical applications. In this work the thermal and mechanical properties of gamma irradiated polyurethanes derivative from castor oil were investigated by instrumented indentation, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. A slightly increase in hardness is observed only for doses as high as 100 kGy. Thermal analysis indicates stability at human body temperature. The glass transition temperature has small changes after gamma irradiation. (author)

  18. Study of poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET post consumption and its properties, when it is undergone ionizing radiation; Estudo da reciclagem do poli(tereftalato de etileno) (PET) pos-consumo e de suas propriedades, quando submetido a radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Claudio dos

    2008-07-01

    The plastic materials have an important role in the life style changing, in the lives of the people and it is more and more utilized in the production and consumption by the world population. By the plastic utilization, it became possible the growth phenomenon of disposable products. As a consequence of this conjecture, the recycling of these materials becomes an obliging option of the modern society. The economy provided by the reutilization of the recycling materials is advantageous not only in consideration to the reutilization of the natural resources involved in these products, but specially for its benefit provided in which concern to the preservation of the environmental matters. Within the big universe of the plastics and plastic packaging materials, available in the current market, it was carried out, during this work, the mechanical recycling of the packagings post consumption, produced from PET polymer and more specifically, the bottles used in packagings for beverages as a whole; such as carbonated beverages, mineral water, isotonic, and so on. Thus, the aim of this work was to recycle the PET post-consumption and evaluate the effects provoked by the action of different ionizing radiation doses, in the properties of this recycled polymer, based on virgin PET. Based on the conclusive results, it was taken for granted that the effects provoked by the action of the ionizing radiation from the electron beam by electron accelerators and gamma rays emitted by {sup 60}Co source in the virgin and recycled PET polymer promoted the predominance of the scission reactions at random of the main chain, with consequent decrease of the polymer molecular weight. Such fact was corroborated by the flow index essay and intrinsic viscosity. It was also carried out, thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) proving the decreasing of molecular weight in the irradiated PET samples. (author)

  19. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength observed in the composites specimens. Besides that, this reduction did not affect negatively mechanical properties of blends compared to the composites. Ionizing radiation neither promoted detectable interaction between polymeric matrix and fibers. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that lixiviation products from homopolymers, blend and composites did not release sufficient amount of substances to induce significant cellular death. Thermal processing used to obtain composites and previous acetylation by chemical treatment contributed to the bioburden reduce. Furthermore, reducing initial bioburden it was possible to diminish radiation doses needed to perform sterilization. Enzymatic and soil degradation were not negatively affected by radiation processing. Even though fiber incorporation to the polymer blend slightly reduced degradation process, composites continued degrading through time. Artifacts produced by means of the materials studied here can be radiation processed with doses up to 100 kGy without prejudice of their biodegradability. (author)

  20. Ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant working with unsealed sources; Controle da dose de radiacao ionizante para trabalhadores em uma instalacao radiativa com fontes nao seladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2006-07-01

    With the liberation of the use of the nuclear energy for peaceful applications, International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP, founded in 1928, created a system of protection of the undesirable doses of ionizing radiation in 1958. This has been received by workers, members of the public and environment and hence it became possible for the introduction of these applications. This protection system is adopted by the International Agency of Energy Atomic, IAEA, that publishes recommendations in safety series, 88 and by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN, which publishes these regulations. The international recommendations and national regulations were adapted and they need to be applied in this way. The present paper uses recommendations of the publication 75 from ICRP, of the publication 115 from 88 and regulations of the regulation NN 3.01 from CNEN to present, through radiological protection measures, the ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant that works in the research, production, division and packing of unsealed sources to be used in clinical applications. In that way it is possible to prevent appropriately the undesirable doses and to confirm the received doses. (author)

  1. Radiation doses in mammography as planning parameters for premature breast cancer tracking programs; Doses de radiacao em mamografias como parametros de planejamento para programas de rastreamento do cancer precoce da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Ferreira, Rubemar de

    1994-12-31

    Radiation doses are the main parameters applied to the evaluation of mammographic radiological impact. This study, for a sample of 407 women, were analyzed, through the thermoluminescent dosimetry, radiation doses in the surface of skin and glandular absorbed doses for cranio-caudal view. The results show the presence of a large dose range to the same mammographic procedure, which, analyzed enclosed with 585 facilities, suggest be necessary the standardization of the mammographic technique. From that results, with the additive model, the excess of breast cancer (radioinduced) and lifetime loss risk, for age groups between 30 and 70 years were estimated. Is demonstrated that the benefits from dedicated mammography, overcome the relationship among the epidemiological aspects of breast cancer and ionizing radiation as an harmful agent, which may show an important correlation for large exposed populations, point out the importance of the continuous risk and benefit evaluation to the new technologies introduced. (author). 86 refs., 40 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Change of the natural radiation exposure due to agriculture and industrial activities in a high natural radioactivity area from Brazil; Modificacao da exposicao a radiacao natural devido a atividades agricolas e industriais numa area de radioatividade natural elevada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da

    1992-12-31

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. This study has shown the expected value for the mean annual radiation exposure due to the agricultural activities ranges from 6 up to 14 mSv/a depending on the age and living habits of the population group. The inhalation exposure of radon, thoron and their progenies represents the largest radiological health hazard (70-90%); this is followed by the external gamma irradiation from soil (10-25%). Ingestion of natural radionuclides with local food is only of minor radiological consequence. It was found that the lethal cancer risk might increase by 4% for a person born at the plateau, living and working there for the rest of her life. For the remote population the consumption the consumption of food products exported from the plateau leads to an expected value for the collective dose of 19 man Sv/a. This corresponding nominally to the small calculated number of 1 additional case of cancer per year. Therefore the main radiation impact of the agricultural activities are not the increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in food products but the fact that they are produced there with human labor and thus increasing the radiation exposure to a large number of farm workers and their families that move for occupational reasons to that region. The radiation exposure due to the mining and milling activities is, in spite of the significant increase of radionuclide activity concentrations in river waters, only of the order of 0.3 mSv/a. However as a recognized industrial source the ICRP dose limitation system has to be applied. Under this aspect the exposure calculated here, 0.3 mSv/a, should be considered as acceptable. (author). 93 refs, 16 figs, 58 tabs.

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation over the structure, metabolism and infectivity of a pathogenic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante sobre a estrutura, metabolismo e infectividade de um protozoario patogenico, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole and Manceau, 1908)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi

    1998-07-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa), has as definitive host domestic and wild felines and as intermediate hosts most species of mammals and birds, Including man. The infection in man is usually asymptomatic, but can become a severe and lethal illness in some special groups like the fetus of primoinfected pregnant woman, or in AIDS and transplanted patients. The transmission is due to ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts from cat feces as well as raw or rare cooked cyst containing meet. There is no available vaccine against toxoplasmosis, with some reports of the use ionizing radiation in order to attenuate or suppress the parasite. These studies are promising, but more research is needed to optimize the radiation process and to clarify those alterations caused on T gondii.Using a increasing doses of {sup 60} Co irradiation on T.gondii tachyzoites, we studied many parameters such as morphology, both at optical and electron microscopy level, detection of DNA fragmentation, metabolism alterations (cellular oxidative burst, protein, nucleic acids and DNA synthesis), determination of the parasite survival both in in vivo and in vitro models, antigenicity and immunogenicity after the process, cellular invasion and irradiated tachyzoite induced protection. After definition of 200 Gy of {sup 60} Co irradiation as the lower radiation dose that suppress parasite growth in vitro and in vivo, we found no detectable changes in parasite viability, its cell invasion capacity or in its structural proteins. DNA fragmentation like apoptosis or alterations of the parasite metabolism were similarly not affected by radiation. Mice infection with irradiated parasites induce partial protection when these animals were re-inoculated with non irradiated virulent parasites, inducing greater specific IgG levels as well as a longer survival. Irradiated T.gondii maintains its the ability of invasion, even under radiation effects. Based on our results we conclude that ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible tool in vaccine production due to similar viability, invasivity and metabolism and absence of reproductive capacity, of irradiated tachyzoites. (author)

  4. Study of the electron beam irradiation effect on some properties of aromatic aliphatic copolyester films; Estudo do efeito da radiacao por feixe de eletrons nas propriedades de filmes de copoliester alifatico aromatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Patricia Negrini Siqueira

    2008-07-01

    Biodegradable and green plastics are the new tendency in the world. The effect of the electron beam irradiation in aromatic aliphatic copolyester and the blend with corn starch films (Ecoflex{sup R} and Ecobras{sup R}) were studied by tensile strength at break, elongation at break, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), crosslinking degree and biodegradability. The measurements in both, the machine direction and the transverse direction were made for mechanical tests. It was found that, the electron irradiation caused an increase in the strength at break of the blend with corn starch film, when doses of up to 10 kGy were applied. A significant decrease of the elongation at break of the blend with corn starch was observed at doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy. It was not found important change in tensile properties for aromatic aliphatic copolyester. Structural changes of the samples (crosslinking or degradation) by SEM were not observed. The FT-IR identified the characteristic peaks of each involved functional group (copolyester and corn starch). However, it was not found bands of oxidation of the samples. In the DSC, changes in the melting temperature of the irradiated Ecoflex{sup R} and Ecobras{sup R} samples, was not identified when compared with the samples of reference. However, it was verified a reduction in the melting enthalpy of the Ecobras{sup R} samples after irradiation. The Ecobras{sup R} material presented crosslinking, when submitted to doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy. The Ecoflex{sup R} material did not present crosslinking when submitted to these doses. The biodegradability of the materials was evaluated by two methods of test: soil simulated and enzymatic. In both methods, the irradiated samples presented faster biodegradation than the references not irradiated. (author)

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em membranas amnioticas gliceroladas empregadas como substrato ao cultivo de epitelio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates its loss when exposed to the de-epithelialized protocol. The basement membrane’s loss may explain the difference between the keratinocytes cultivation on MA-I and MA-ni. (author)

  6. Effects of the low-intensity laser therapy on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats; Efeitos da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade na prevencao de carie dental induzida em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karin Praia

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low intensity laser therapy, associated or not to an acidulated phosphate fluoride, on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats. It was used 40 wistar rats, female, weaned with 18 days, fed with a cariogenic diet during 48 days and inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans by three consecutive days starting from the second day of the diet. On the fifth day of experiment the animals were divided into five groups: G{sub c} (control) the animas were no submitted to any treatment; G{sub L} (laser) irradiation with low power laser (GaAlAs, {lambda}=660 nm, P=30 mW, {delta}t=5 sec, 5 J/cm{sup 2}); G{sub F} (fluoride) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF 1,23%) for four minutes; G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride) irradiation with low power laser followed by topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride followed by low power laser. The animals were sacrificed after 48 days; the molars were extracted and prepared to determine the dental caries lesions area by optical microscopy, enamel microhardness and analysis of the calcium and phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p

  7. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  8. Effect of gamma radiation and storage on cholesterol oxidative stability of raw and processed eggs;Efeito da radiacao ionizante e do armazenamento sobre a estabilidade oxidativa do colesterol em ovos crus e processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Marliz Klaumann Julca

    2005-07-01

    The egg have being studied due its nutritional wealth, for show industrial interest as a raw material, e due its higher cholesterol content. At the same time, due its susceptibility to contamination mainly with salmonella, it is being proposed the ionizing radiation as a hygienic measure. Cholesterol is subject to oxidation, that it is facilitated by several factors, among them ionizing radiation. Formed cholesterol oxides, by its turn, show harmful biological properties to human health, as atherogenicity, cytotoxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, among others. The objectives of this work were evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation over pH, viscosity and color, besides the oxidative stability of cholesterol, in stored and processed crude eggs. With the increase of used doses (1, 2 and 3 KGy), there was an reduction in the viscosity of the egg white and in the color yolk egg, besides the increase in lipidic oxidation, measured through tiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Specifications as humidity, total lipids and egg yolk cholesterol were not influenced. In the subject of humidity and of cholesterol, there was an meaningful alteration due storage (30 days in 4 deg C). The sum of the analyzed oxides didn't variate with the irradiation, only individually, although it did vary with storage. The thermal processing caused an meaningful increase of TBARS, but despite this, the oxides sum didn't differed between treatments. (author)

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation on nutritional properties of table grapes Benitaka and dark raisins; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas propriedades nutricionais das uvas de mesa Benitaka e uvas passas escuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda Galassi

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is a major producer of fruits, but its tropical climate with high humidity and temperature, eventually creates unfavorable conditions for the preservation of food and especially the fruit. Ionizing radiation has the potential to solve problems affecting the food supply in many countries. Using the right dose, this technology can be used to extend shelf life and safety of many fresh fruits in addition to controlling their rates of maturation. There are thousands of grape varieties around the world, most of them belonging Vitis vinifera. This fruit can be dried to obtain raisins in order to maintain the natural characteristics of the product and hinder the growth of microorganisms that can promote the deterioration of fresh fruit. One of the major sources of phenolic compounds are found in grapes, compared to other fruits and vegetables. One of the phenolic compounds represented by resveratrol is that stands out when it comes to fighting various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurological diseases. The irradiations were performed in {sup 60}Co irradiator Multipurpose Center installed on Radiation Technology (CTR-IPEN-CNEN/SP) with different doses: control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy for the analysis of color, texture, sensory and microbiological shelf life. For analysis of phenolic compounds and resveratrol were radiated only at doses: control, 1.5 and 3 kGy. With the results it was found that doses of 0.5, 1.5 kGy grape variety Benitaka have been accepted well both in sensory and shelf life tests. Samples of raisins had no variation in this analysis. No microbial growth was found and after treatment with radiation it was possible to prove the presence of resveratrol in all samples. (author)

  10. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate whether exposure to ionizing radiation to which women are subjected can be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Goiania. The defined study area is the central region of Goiania, or the Sanitary Districts of Campinas-Centro and Sul, in which are the seven major accident sources of contamination with Cesium 137, and also, as shown by previous study, the majority of new cases of breast cancer (60,43 %). We used the geographical division of the city in census tracts and health districts. The data collection was divided in two stages: the first, for the survey of radiometric measurements, and the second, for identifying the addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The radiometric survey occurred between 2010 and 2014, in which was used an environmental gamma radiation mobile measuring system. This system was composed by a high-sensitivity detector coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a microcomputer. The assembly was installed on a motor vehicle so that the height of the detector is found at one meter from the ground, and programmed to obtain a measurement of the doses absorbed in the air rate each second. The data collected were: doses absorbed in the air rate, geographical coordinates, altitude, date and time of acquisition. From Mobisys software, files were generated and from ArcGIS 10.0 platform, geospatial assessment survey through the elaboration of thematic maps and geospatial analysis statistics. The annual averages of effective doses and collective effective doses were estimated from the rate of doses absorbed in air collected by the system and the resident population in the census tracts. The second stage begun from the data collection at the Registry of Goiania's Population Based Cancer (RCBPGO), in which were identified addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2001 and 2010. Part of the data was geographically referenced and using census data were estimated and compared the annual averages of crude rates of incidence. The spatial correlation of groups (clusters) of new cases has been verified, through the Moran index, and from geographically referenced radiometric measurements obtained in the previous step, the correlation between the incidence of breast cancer and ionizing radiation levels was assessed by unconditional linear regression. The results were presented in two papers. In the first, radiometric surveys were conducted in 1.405 of the 1.636 (85,9%) census tracts sectors that make up the seven Sanitary Districts in the city of Goiania. In total 197.811 geographically referenced measures of the absorbed dose rate in the air were made, with a average of 29,85 ± 7,47 and amplitude from 9,17 to 629,88 nGy/h. From these values were estimated the average of annual effective dose and collective effective dose for outdoor environments, with values of 0,036 ± 0,003 mSv/year and 28,51 ± 11,68 man.mSv/year, respectively. The levels of exposure to external gamma radiation, found in the city of Goiania 28 years after the radiological accident with Cesium-137, are compatible with the values estimated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). And the value of the annual average of effective dose in Goiania, is lower than in other places in Brazil, which have only 'background' of natural radiation outdoors. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dosimetric situation in Goiania does not present undue risk to people and the environment. In the second article, were identified 4.105 new cases of breast cancer, 2.233 in the study area and 1.286 (57,59%) of these geographically referenced. The annual average values of crude rates of incidence, considering the total numbers of cases and geographically referenced presented in the study area are, respectively, 102,91 and 71,86 new cases per 100.000 women. The crude rate of incidence in Goiania was 66,59 cases per 100.000, while in the study area was 102,91 cases per 100.000 and, outside the area, 46,86 ca ses per 100.000. These value s are within the range of average values presented by other Brazilian capitals, which is 130,99 cases per 100.000 in Porto Alegre-RS, and 20,04 cases in Macapa/AP, and the national average in the capital of 79,37 cases per 100.000 women. The cluster analysis showed a slight spatial correlation of crude rates of breast cancer incidence in three small sets of census tracts, far from the accident sources of contamination with Cesium-137. The scatter plot points and the R{sup 2} value did not indicate any association between the crude rates of incidence and radiometric measurements. This study supports the hypothesis that ionizing radiation levels to which women living in Goiania are exposed, are not associated with the emergence of new cases of breast cancer. (author)

  11. Implantation of radiation qualities for mammography in accordance with the IEC 61627 and TRS 457 criteria; Implantacao das qualidades de radiacao para mamografia, segundo os criterios da IEC 61627 e do TRS 457

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Evandro J.; David, Mariano G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: pires@lcr.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab de Ciencias Radiologicas; Peixoto, J. Guilherme, E-mail: guilhem@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work it is discussed the technical conditions of the implantation of radiation qualities adequate for dosemeter applied to mammography at the Radiological Science Laboratory (RSL) of the University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It performed tests for evaluation the homogeneity of the radiation field, the scattering, the half-layers and the system stability. The test results point for adequacy of the laboratory installed at the LCR for calibration of the mentioned dosemeters in seven qualities of radiation and the expanded uncertainty with better capacity of measurement at those qualities was of {+-}1.8% (k = 2)

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on the oxidation of cholesterol in frozen chicken and beef hamburgers;Efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a oxidacao do colesterol em hamburgueres de frango e bovino congelados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Andrea Figueiredo Procopio de

    2004-07-01

    Several technologies have been developed to assure food quality. Among these technological processes, ionizing radiation has been described as a feasible alternative for food conservation, mainly for meat products, since it keeps their natural properties. In hamburgers, the use of irradiation has been studied due to the frequent implication of such products in outbreaks of food-borne diseases. Some of the outbreaks, which even killed consumers, were caused by E. coli O157:H7. But the use of ionizing radiation in hamburgers may form free radicals able to trigger lipid oxidation in the muscle tissue. As a component of the cell membrane lipids, cholesterol may also undergo oxidation and form biologically active compounds, with atherogenic, mutagenic, cytotoxic and cancerous properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of cholesterol oxidation products in chicken hamburgers and beef hamburgers submitted to irradiation and stored frozen, aerobically and under vacuum. The results showed that irradiation caused an increase of around 11% in the concentration of cholesterol oxides in frozen hamburgers. In chicken hamburgers, an increase in the levels of cholesterol oxides was observed ali over the storage period, while in beef hamburgers it was observed only in the final part of the storage period. Packaging itself did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of cholesterol oxides in either of the types of hamburgers studied. However, it showed a significant interaction with irradiation, that is, vacuum packaging prevented the formation of cholesterol oxides in irradiated beef hamburgers. (author)

  13. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen; Estudo do efeito da radiacao ionizante em compostos organicos do diesel e do petroleo: hidrocarbonetos, sulfurados e nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  14. Study of ionizing radiation effects in human costal cartilage by thermogravimetry and optical coherence tomography; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em cartilagem costal humana por meio de termogravimetria e tomografia por coerencia optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Tissue Banks around the world have stored human cartilages obtained from post mortem donors for use in several kinds of reconstructive surgeries. To ensure that such tissues are not contaminated, they have been sterilized with ionizing radiation. However, high doses of gamma radiation may cause undesirable changes in the tissues. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to identify possible structural modifications caused by both preservation methods of cartilage and gamma irradiation doses. Cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -70 deg C or preserved in glycerol. Irradiation was performed by {sup 60}Co source with doses of 15, 25 and 50 kGy. Our TGA results showed that glycerolized cartilages irradiated with different doses of radiation does not presented statistical differences when compared to the control group for the dehydration rate. However, the same was not observed for deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 15 kGy. The results of OCT associated to total optical attenuation coefficient showed that doses of 15 kGy promote cross-link between collagen fibrils, corroborating the results obtained from TGA. Moreover, total optical attenuation coefficient values are proportional to stress at break of cartilages, what will be very useful in a near future to predict the quality of the allografts, without unnecessary loss of biological tissue, once OCT is a nondestructive technique. By PS-OCT images, we found that high doses of ionizing radiation does not promote sufficient impairments to promote complete loss of tissue birefringence. Thus, TGA and OCT are techniques that can be used for tissue banks to verify tissue quality before its transplant. (author)

  15. Evaluation of occupational radiation dose in nuclear medicine: radiopharmaceutical administration to scintiscanning exams of myocardial perfusion; Avaliacao da dose de radiacao ocupacional em medicina nuclear: administracao de radiofarmacos em exames de cintilografria de perfusao miocardica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Cassio V., E-mail: cassiok@yahoo.com [Medicina Nuclear do Triangulo (MNT), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Michelin, Charlie A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela R., E-mail: charlie@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: requi@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lemes, Alyne O.; Silva, Juliana L.M., E-mail: alyne275@gmail.com, E-mail: jujumontesdocinho@gmail.com [Faculdade do Trabalho (FATRA), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    In nuclear medicine, workers directly involved in exams are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation. The procedure for administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient is one of the most critical times of exposure. In tests of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) administration of radiopharmaceutical repeats the steps of rest and cardiac stress. In this study, we used a Geiger -Mueller detector for measuring occupational radiation doses for during the administration of technetium- {sup 99m}- sestamibi in MPS tests. In the evaluation, discriminated the stages of examination and related professional experience time to doses measures at home. It were followed 110 procedures at home (55 conducted by professionals with over 5 years experience and 55 conducted by professionals with less than 1 year of experience) and 55 effort procedures. The results showed that the rest of the procedure time and dose are related to the experience of the worker. More experienced workers were faster (mean: 43 {+-} 16 vs 67 {+-} 25 seconds / procedure), and therefore received lower doses (mean 0.57 {+-} 0.16 versus 0.80 {+-} 0.24 {mu}Sv / procedure), both with statistical significance (p <0.001). In step effort, there were procedures lasting longer (mean: 19 {+-} 2 minutes / procedure), which resulted in higher doses (mean 3.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}Sv / procedure)

  16. Study of uptake and endocytosis of gamma rays-irradiated crotoxin by mice peritoneal macrophages; Avaliacao do mecanismo de captacao e endocitose de crotoxina submetida a acao da radiacao, por macrofagos peritoneais de camundongos

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    Cardi, Bruno Andrade

    1999-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and endocytosis of 2000 Gy {sup 60}Co irradiated crotoxin through mouse peritoneal macrophages, correlating with native one and another non related protein, the ovalbumin. Native (CTXN) or 2000 Gy {sup 60} Co {gamma}-rays (dose rate 540 Gy/hour) irradiated crotoxin (CTXI) or ovalbumin processed of same manner (OVAN - OVAI) were offered to mouse peritoneal macrophages and their uptake was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative in situ ELISA. The involvement of scavenger receptors (ScvR) was evaluated by using blockers drugs (Probuco-PBC or Dextran Sulfate - SD) or with nonspecific blocking using fetal calf serum (FBS). The morphology and viability of macrophages were preserved during the experiments. CTXI showed irradiation-induced aggregates and formation of oxidative changing were observed on this protein after gamma rays treatment. By immunohistochemistry we could observe heavy stained phagocytic vacuole on macrophages incubated with CTXI, as compared with CTXN. Quantitatively by in situ ELISA, the sema pattern was observed, displaying a 2-fold CTXI incorporation. In presence of PBC or SD we could find a significant decrease of CTXI uptake but not of CTXN. However the CTXN uptake was depressed by FBS, not observed with CTXI. OVA, after gamma rays treatment, underwent a high degradation suffering a potent incorporation and metabolism by macrophages, with a major uptake of OVAI in longer incubation (120 minutes). Gamma rays ({sup 60} Co) produced oxidative changes on CTX molecule, leading to a uptake by ScvR-mice peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that the relation antigen-presenting cells and gamma rays-modified proteins are responsible for the better immune response presented by irradiated antigens. (author)

  17. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao laser de emissao vermelha em baixa intensidade na incorporacao de fluor no esmalte. Estudo clinico

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    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G{sub C} (control, which was untreated; group G{sub F} (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser ({lambda}= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm{sup 2}) with APF application after irradiation and group G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G{sub LF}. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G{sub F}, G{sub LF} and G{sub FL} when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G{sub LF} with respect to G{sub F}, there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  18. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites; Toxoplasma gondii vs radiacao ionizante: estudo da imunidade intestinal em camundongos C57Bl/6j experimentalmente vacinados com taquizoitos irradiados

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    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez. E-mail: galisteo@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  19. Study on the stability of the Maytenus aquifolium Martius chemical components submitted to ionizing radiation (X-ray and {gamma}); Estudo da estabilidade dos componentes quimicos de Maytenus aquifolium Martius frente a radiacao ionizante (X e {gamma})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Patricia

    1995-07-01

    The interest for medicinal plants has raised again in the last decades, after overcoming a declination period caused by the advances in the researches and development of the synthetic drugs industries. This growing interest has been stimulated mainly by searching cheap and accessible alternative therapies. However, in order to have natural products based treatment in an efficient and safety way, it is necessary to guarantee the plant authenticity, finding adulterations and to assure a low level of microbiological contaminations to avoid damages to consumer's health. The decontamination method should be chosen for eliminating or reduce the microorganisms level without loss of the plant active constituents that would destroy its therapeutic action. At the present work, the possibility of using {gamma} and X electromagnetic radiations to sterilize a Brazilian medicinal plant (Maytenus aquifolium Martius, Celastraceae), which shows anti-ulcer activity, was studied by accomplishing its actives constituent behavior, the triterpenes friedeline and friedelan-3-ol and the phenolic compounds by spectrophotometric techniques (UV-Vis.), high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). (author)

  20. Measures and modelling of PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) for the Northeast of Brazil; Medidas e modelagem da radiacao PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) para o nordeste do Brasil

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    Tiba, Chigueru; Leal, Sergio da S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: tiba@rce.neoline.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Photosynthetically active solar radiation, known by its acronym in the English language as PAR, is the principal driving force of innumerable biological and physical processes related to biomass production, such as, the evolution of vegetal covering, agricultural productivity, and countless environment aspects, among others. Unfortunately in Brazil and particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, the PAR radiation measures are not a routine part of meteorological station measures, and therefore are still rarer than solar irradiation measures. In this context, a station was installed in Recife, Pernambuco in 2003, to carry out simultaneous measures of daily solar irradiation and PAR irradiation, which permits the modelling and valuation of the relationship between these two parameters and thus makes the estimation of PAR radiation possible, where there used to be only information on solar irradiation. Three others stations are being installed, one on Fernando de Noronha-PE, another in Pesqueira-PE, and the other in Xingo-SE, which complete a group of 4 between Latitudes 8 deg and 10 deg South and Longitudes 34 deg to 38 deg West, each having differentiated Equatorial Climates: island maritime, continental maritime, sylvan (Agreste) and semi-arid. (author)

  1. The benefits of prone SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in reducing both artifact defects and patient radiation exposure; Beneficio da aquisicao de imagem na posicao Prona em perfusao miocardica com SPECT para reducao de artefatos e exposicao do paciente a radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathaki, Maria; Koukouraki, Sophia; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos, E-mail: mariast_cha@yahoo.gr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Prone imaging has been demonstrated to minimize diaphragmatic and breast tissue attenuation. Objectives: To determine the role of prone imaging on the reduction of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed, thus decreasing investigation time and radiation exposure. Methods: We examined 139 patients, 120 with an inferior wall and 19 with an anterior wall perfusion defect that might represented attenuation artifact. Post-stress images were acquired in both the supine and prone position. Coronary angiography was used as the 'gold standard' for evaluating coronary artery patency. The study was terminated and rest imaging was obviated in the presence of complete improvement of the defect in the prone position. Quantitative interpretation was performed. Results were compared with clinical data and coronary angiographic findings. Results: Prone acquisition correctly revealed defect improvement in 89 patients (89/120) with inferior wall and 12 patients (12/19) with anterior wall attenuation artifact. Quantitative analysis demonstrated statistically significant difference in the mean summed stress scores (SSS) of supine and mean SSS of prone studies in patients with disappearing inferior wall defect in the prone position and patent right coronary artery (true negative results). The mean difference between SSS in supine and in prone position was higher with disappearing than with remaining defects. Conclusion: Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging with the patient in the prone position overcomes soft tissue attenuation; moreover it provides an inexpensive, accurate approach to limit the number of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed. (author)

  2. Effects of low intensity laser radiation on osteointegration mechanism of implants: study 'in vivo'; Efeitos da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade no mecanismo de osseointegracao de implantes: estudo 'in vivo'

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    Blay, Alberto

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the process of bone integration of implants placed in rabbit tibia is changed in any way if the region is radiated with laser, as compared to the time required for the bone integration process without radiation. Thirty adult male white New Zealand rabbits were submitted to implant surgery, for subsequent evaluation of the removal torque and resonance frequency. Each animal received two implants of pure titanium, one in each proximal metaphysics of the tibia, which were inserted with a 40 Ncm torque, and their initial stability was also monitored by means of a resonance frequency analyzer. The rabbits were then divided into 3 groups: one control group and two laser groups. The groups were evaluated in regard to removal torque and resonance frequency of the implants, after 3 and 6 weeks. One of the laser groups was radiated with a laser beam of a wavelength in the infrared range (830 nm) and the other group was radiated with a laser beam emitted in the visible range (680 nm). Ten radiation sessions were performed, 48 hours apart, the first of them during the immediate post-operation period. Radiation energy density was 4 J/cm{sup 2} per point, and there were two points at each side of the tibia. Results of the statistical analysis of the resonance frequency indicated that for both laser groups there was a significant difference between frequency values at the time of implant and the values obtained after 3 and 6 weeks. Furthermore, the results obtained for the removal torque of the three groups showed a statistically significant difference after a period of 6 weeks; removal torque values for the laser groups were, in the average, much greater than those of the control group. From these results it is possible to conclude that implants in rabbit tibia, that were exposed to laser radiation with wavelengths of 680 nm and 830 nm, had a better degree of bone integration than the control group.(author)

  3. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

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    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 {mu}m), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 {mu}m). The structures of packaging were submitted to radiation doses between 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy, in one electron accelerator of 1,5 M and V, 25 mA and 37,5 kW, dose tax of 11,22 kGy / s, room temperature and air presence . Eight days, Two and Six months after irradiations, mechanical resistance experiment were accomplished to tension and elongating in rupture, sealing resistance and perforation resistance, all based in respective ASTM norms. The perforation experiment by insects were realized in an acclimatized room, where irradiated samples in doses of 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy were sealed containing 40 g of granola, 40 g of pasta and cereal bar in number of nine by experiment, and equally divided in three plastic screened boxes by studied dose. In each box 20 adults of each insect were added in for 60 days, when the packages were evaluated to verify possible perforations. The differences between the sample results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA (p<0.05). The results showed that concerning the perforation resistance by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais the polymeric structures evaluated showed low resistance by insects perforation before and after the treatment. BOPPmet/BOPP (50 {mu}m), PETmet/BOPP (32 {mu}m), PET/PP1 (72 {mu}m) and PET/PP2 (32 {mu}m) structures showed significant losses in mechanical properties studied. The BOPP/PP (50 {mu}m) showed the best set of answers in mechanical properties to the radiation treatment with electrons sheaf up to 10 kGy doses. Among the mechanical properties evaluated, sealing was the most affected by ionizing radiation, has shown, in general, increasing losses with radiation dose. (author)

  4. Radiation exposure evaluation of the professional working interventionist procedures in a hemodynamics service; Avaliacao da exposicao a radiacao dos profissionais que executam procedimentos intervencionistas em um servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Leonardo Peres

    2004-07-01

    An evaluation of the dose distribution received by all the workers involved on coronary angioplasty, arteriography, coronary angiography and mitral valvuloplasty procedures has been made in this work. For the measurements, LiF:Mg, Ti TLD(TLD 100) was used, located in seven different points on the worker's body: hands, knees, neck, forehead and thorax, inside and outside lead apron.) The measurements have been done for each hemo dynamical procedure, and the TLD calibrated in personal dose equivalent (H{sub p}(d)) operational quantity for 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm depth. Nurses and auxiliary doctors did not receive expressive dose values, indicating that the adopted radioprotection procedures seem to be appropriate and sufficient for them. However, the same is not true for the doctors direct in charge of the procedure. The results show the importance of the use of thyroid protections in these cases. This work discusses the main factors that cause occupational dose increase. From all interventionist hemo dynamical procedures analyzed, the dose values received by the doctors on coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary angiography were higher than the ones found on arteriography and mitral valvuloplasty. The higher dose values has been found for coronary angiography procedures in X-ray tools, that work with fluoroscopy on continuous mode and have been executed with brachial way, even in the eyes, hands, knees and thyroid, with or without shield. Multiplying these high dose values, measured in one procedure by the mean number of annual procedures made at the studied hospital by each doctor, the individual dose annual limits can be surpassed. Based on these estimations, some optimizations suggestions have been made and one discussion about the need of additional monitoring points is presented. Different algorithms have been used in order to estimate the effective dose, including a new proposal. The obtained results using the actual Radiodiagnostic Brazilian regulation underestimate the dose, in the major part of the measured cases. The proposed algorithm seem sto offer a better estimation for the occupational effective dose for Interventional Radiology. (author)

  5. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon; Neutrons, radiacao e arqueologia: estudo de caso multianalitico de ceramicas da tradicao borda incisa na Amazonia Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups. (author)

  6. Radiation exposure evaluation of the professional working interventionist procedures in a hemodynamics service; Avaliacao da exposicao a radiacao dos profissionais que executam procedimentos intervencionistas em um servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Leonardo Peres

    2004-07-01

    An evaluation of the dose distribution received by all the workers involved on coronary angioplasty, arteriography, coronary angiography and mitral valvuloplasty procedures has been made in this work. For the measurements, LiF:Mg, Ti TLD(TLD 100) was used, located in seven different points on the worker's body: hands, knees, neck, forehead and thorax, inside and outside lead apron.) The measurements have been done for each hemo dynamical procedure, and the TLD calibrated in personal dose equivalent (H{sub p}(d)) operational quantity for 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm depth. Nurses and auxiliary doctors did not receive expressive dose values, indicating that the adopted radioprotection procedures seem to be appropriate and sufficient for them. However, the same is not true for the doctors direct in charge of the procedure. The results show the importance of the use of thyroid protections in these cases. This work discusses the main factors that cause occupational dose increase. From all interventionist hemo dynamical procedures analyzed, the dose values received by the doctors on coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary angiography were higher than the ones found on arteriography and mitral valvuloplasty. The higher dose values has been found for coronary angiography procedures in X-ray tools, that work with fluoroscopy on continuous mode and have been executed with brachial way, even in the eyes, hands, knees and thyroid, with or without shield. Multiplying these high dose values, measured in one procedure by the mean number of annual procedures made at the studied hospital by each doctor, the individual dose annual limits can be surpassed. Based on these estimations, some optimizations suggestions have been made and one discussion about the need of additional monitoring points is presented. Different algorithms have been used in order to estimate the effective dose, including a new proposal. The obtained results using the actual Radiodiagnostic Brazilian regulation underestimate the dose, in the major part of the measured cases. The proposed algorithm seem sto offer a better estimation for the occupational effective dose for Interventional Radiology. (author)

  7. Statistical analysis of natural radiation levels inside the UNICAMP campus through the use of Geiger-Muller counter; Analise estatistica dos niveis de radiacao natural dentro da UNICAMP atraves do uso de contador Geiger-Muller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontolan, Juliana A.; Biral, Antonio Renato P., E-mail: fontolanjuliana@gmail.com.br, E-mail: biral@ceb.unicamp.br [Hospital das Clinicas (CEB/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica

    2013-07-01

    It is known that the distribution at time intervals of random and unrelated events leads to the Poisson distribution . This work aims to study the distribution in time intervals of events resulting from radioactive decay of atoms present in the UNICAMP where activities involving the use of ionizing radiation are performed environments . The proposal is that the distribution surveys at intervals of these events in different locations of the university are carried out through the use of a Geiger-Mueller tube . In a next step , the evaluation of distributions obtained by using non- parametric statistics (Chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff) will be taken . For analyzes involving correlations we intend to use the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical tool . Measured in six different places within the Campinas , with the use of Geiger- Muller its count mode and a time window of 20 seconds was performed . Through statistical tools chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff tests, using the EXCEL program , it was observed that the distributions actually refer to a Poisson distribution. Finally, the next step is to perform analyzes involving correlations using the statistical tool ANOVA.

  8. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao e filmes radiocromicos para verificacao da coerencia metrologica entre campos padroes de radiacao beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-07-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 85}Kr and {sup 147}Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with radiochromic films in both BSS2 showed that some of them were not geometrically aligned. (author)

  9. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

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    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  10. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  11. Energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules mono and polycrystalline in function of global solar radiation; Eficiencia energetica de modulos fotovoltaicos mono e poli-cristalinos em funcao da radiacao solar global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Silva, Carliane Diniz e [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Fiorentino, Jair de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: jairfiorentino@terra.com.br; Araujo, Joao Alberto Borges de [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Botucatu (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes a methodology to evaluate the acting of the solar energy conversion in electric energy, generated by photovoltaic modules installed under field conditions, constituted monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon cells. The modules were appraised with relationship to energy efficiency for different marks and potency levels, in function of the readiness of solar radiation, being used loads sized for the nominal potency level of each module. The energy efficiency values calculated with the data obtained in field, didn't agree with the technical information presented by the makers of the modules monocrystalline, as being more efficient than the polycrystalline. Was ended, therefore, that the modules of the appraised marks presented inferior medium efficiency at 50% of the values supplied by the makers (author)

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  13. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  14. Detecção do linfonodo sentinela em câncer da mama: comparação entre métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nilton Leite

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a eficiência da cintilografia mamária, do detector manual de raios gama (probe e do corante azul vital para a localização do linfonodo sentinela (LNS, estabelecendo a sensibilidade, o valor preditivo negativo (VPN e a acurácia do mapeamento do LNS. Métodos: neste estudo estão incluídas 88 pacientes com câncer de mama atendidas consecutivamente e com axila clinicamente negativa. Foi utilizado o radiofármaco tecnécio ligado ao colóide dextran 500 (Dextran 99mTc, para cintilografia pré-operatória, realizada em 58 pacientes, e detecção transoperatória com o probe em 53 pacientes. Destas, 47 tiveram as contagens de irradiação gama anotadas e também o intervalo de tempo decorrido entre a injeção e a cirurgia. Foram empregados 2 mL do corante vital Bleu Patente V, injetado em torno do tumor, 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica na axila em todos os casos. O LNS foi avaliado por congelação em 77 casos e todos pela coloração por hematoxilina e eosina. Resultados: a linfocintilografia, realizada em 58 casos, foi útil em 62,1%, sendo que em nove ocorreu mapeamento de dois linfonodos, e com o probe foram confirmados 45 casos (84,9% dos 53 avaliados. Das 47 com anotação de contagens de raios gama e do tempo decorrido da injeção do radiofármaco até a cirurgia, constituíram-se dois grupos para análise, o grupo dia (27 casos e o grupo outro dia (20 casos, que se mostraram diferentes, com significância estatística, tanto no tempo decorrido quanto nas contagens de raios gama, porém sem interferência nos resultados de detecção do LNS. A associação do probe e do corante azul resultou em sucesso nos 53 casos avaliados, assim como em 32 dos 35 casos em que só o corante foi usado. A média de idade das pacientes foi 58 anos. Quarenta e uma pacientes tiveram linfonodos axilares com metástase e apenas duas com LNS falsamente negativo, dando sensibilidade de 95,3%, VPN de 95,5% e acurácia de 97,6. Conclus

  15. Paulo Freire: impacto e apropriação da sua obra na produção da pós-graduação no Brasil (1987-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Sánchez Gamboa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pretensão de aprofundamento sobre o impacto do trabalho de Paulo Freire na produção de pesquisas na pós-graduação stricto sensu no Brasil, bem como as formas de apropriação de seu pensamento delimitam a problematização que gerou este estudo. Sua influência é significativa no campo da educação, dos movimentos sociais, da extensão rural, da política educacional e da teologia da libertação, no entanto, é pouco conhecida a sua repercussão na produção de investigação científica. O objetivo central é limitado à análise das diferentes leituras e apropriações do trabalho de Paulo Freire apresentadas na pesquisa produzida em programas de pós-graduação entre 1987 e 2010. Os resultados indicam que a obra de Paulo Freire está presente em forma direta em 233 dissertações e 138 teses, localizados em 32 diferentes universidades e suas referências são utilizadas numa ampla gama de temáticas e áreas de concentração. A desigual apropriação das categorias geradoras: ser-no-mundo (realidade, ser-com-outros (o diálogo e ser inconcluso (liberdade/libertação, indicam inconsistências com a visão do mundo do pensamento de Freire. A categoria "diálogo" é amplamente utilizada, no entanto, as categorias "liberdade/libertação" e "realidade", indicando a dinâmica e permanente transformação histórica são pouco utilizadas.

  16. A Sintaxe da Janela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Jorge

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação fundamenta! do trabalho é de caráter ontológico: esboçar o problema das significações apriorísticas e autônomas dos elementos que compõem a sintaxe arquitetônica. O trabalho elege um desses elementos: a janela. Este artigo parte da aproximação histórica entre a janela e a secção da pirâmide visual, construção imaginária da teoria da perspectiva renascentista. A consideração da janela na linguagem arquitetônica implica reconhecer uma ambigüidade essencial: a janela deve inserir-se ordenadamente no plano da parede - raciocínio típico da modenatura - mas também relacionar-se com a imagem vista através dela, que extrapola o plano, ressaltando a tridimensionalidade - herança da perspectiva renascentista, fundamentada no espaço euclidiano. Ver janela ou ver através da janela são alternativas que se colocam tanto ao observador interno ao edifício, quanto ao externo. Texto de duplaface, a sintaxe da janela versa sobre o relacionamento desses dois lados

  17. Study of acute hepatotoxicity of Equisetum arvense L. in rats Estudo da hepatotoxicidade aguda da Equisetum arvense L. em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo César do Vale Baracho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the acute hepatotoxicity of Equisentum arvense L. in rats. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were used, these being divided in four groups, one being the control (receiving only water and the other groups receiving gra