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Sample records for cytotoxic t-lymphocyte escape

  1. Antigenic drift in the influenza A virus (H3N2) nucleoprotein and escape from recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); N.J. Nieuwkoop; R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J.T.M. Voeten; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractViruses exploit different strategies to escape immune surveillance, including the introduction of mutations in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. The sequence of these epitopes is critical for their binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules

  2. Quantifying the impact of human immunodeficiency virus-1 escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

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    Ulrich D Kadolsky

    Full Text Available HIV-1 escape from the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL response leads to a weakening of viral control and is likely to be detrimental to the patient. To date, the impact of escape on viral load and CD4(+ T cell count has not been quantified, primarily because of sparse longitudinal data and the difficulty of separating cause and effect in cross-sectional studies. We use two independent methods to quantify the impact of HIV-1 escape from CTLs in chronic infection: mathematical modelling of escape and statistical analysis of a cross-sectional cohort. Mathematical modelling revealed a modest increase in log viral load of 0.051 copies ml(-1 per escape event. Analysis of the cross-sectional cohort revealed a significant positive association between viral load and the number of "escape events", after correcting for length of infection and rate of replication. We estimate that a single CTL escape event leads to a viral load increase of 0.11 log copies ml(-1 (95% confidence interval: 0.040-0.18, consistent with the predictions from the mathematical modelling. Overall, the number of escape events could only account for approximately 6% of the viral load variation in the cohort. Our findings indicate that although the loss of the CTL response for a single epitope results in a highly statistically significant increase in viral load, the biological impact is modest. We suggest that this small increase in viral load is explained by the small growth advantage of the variant relative to the wildtype virus. Escape from CTLs had a measurable, but unexpectedly low, impact on viral load in chronic infection.

  3. Mathematical modeling of escape of HIV from cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Neher, Richard A.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 or simply HIV) induces a persistent infection, which in the absence of treatment leads to AIDS and death in almost all infected individuals. HIV infection elicits a vigorous immune response starting about 2-3 weeks postinfection that can lower the amount of virus in the body, but which cannot eradicate the virus. How HIV establishes a chronic infection in the face of a strong immune response remains poorly understood. It has been shown that HIV is able to rapidly change its proteins via mutation to evade recognition by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Typically, an HIV-infected patient will generate 4-12 CTL responses specific for parts of viral proteins called epitopes. Such CTL responses lead to strong selective pressure to change the viral sequences encoding these epitopes so as to avoid CTL recognition. Indeed, the viral population ‘escapes’ from about half of the CTL responses by mutation in the first year. Here we review experimental data on HIV evolution in response to CTL pressure, mathematical models developed to explain this evolution, and highlight problems associated with the data and previous modeling efforts. We show that estimates of the strength of the epitope-specific CTL response depend on the method used to fit models to experimental data and on the assumptions made regarding how mutants are generated during infection. We illustrate that allowing CTL responses to decay over time may improve the model fit to experimental data and provides higher estimates of the killing efficacy of HIV-specific CTLs. We also propose a novel method for simultaneously estimating the killing efficacy of multiple CTL populations specific for different epitopes of HIV using stochastic simulations. Lastly, we show that current estimates of the efficacy at which HIV-specific CTLs clear virus-infected cells can be improved by more frequent sampling of viral sequences and by combining data on sequence evolution with

  4. Targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes for cancer immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, J; Davies, E. T.

    2004-01-01

    In light of their preeminent role in cellular immunity, there is considerable interest in targeting of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to cancer. This review summarises the active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches under development to achieve this goal, emphasising how recent advances in tumour immunology and gene transfer have impacted upon this field.

  5. Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Wee, Edmund; Burgevin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly. We show here that CTL immunodominance in regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group-associated ......Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly. We show here that CTL immunodominance in regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group...

  6. C1-esterase inhibitor blocks T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Bregenholt, S; Nording, J A

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that activated C1s complement and activated T cells cleave beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in vitro leading to the formation of desLys58 beta2m. This process can specifically be inhibited by C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). Furthermore we showed that exogenously added desLys58...... beta2m in nanomolar amounts to a one-way allogenic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) increased the endogenous production of IL-2 and the generation of allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. C1-inh was purified from fresh human plasma and added to human or murine MLC and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte...... of allospecific cytotoxic activity, and changed the endogenous production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma. These data clearly demonstrate a regulatory function of C1-inh on T cell-mediated immune functions....

  7. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune synapse at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nele M G; Frazer, Gordon L; Asano, Yukako; Stinchcombe, Jane C; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2016-08-01

    The immune synapse provides an important structure for communication with immune cells. Studies on immune synapses formed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) highlight the dynamic changes and specialised mechanisms required to facilitate focal signalling and polarised secretion in immune cells. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we illustrate the different steps that reveal the specialised mechanisms used to focus secretion at the CTL immune synapse and allow CTLs to be such efficient and precise serial killers.

  8. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus.

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    Letvin, N L; Schmitz, J E; Jordan, H L; Seth, A; Hirsch, V M; Reimann, K A; Kuroda, M J

    1999-08-01

    A non-human primate model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to explore the role of the AIDS virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in disease pathogenesis. This CTL response was measured using the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/peptide tetramer technology. Large numbers of tetramer-binding CD8+ T lymphocytes were demonstrable not only in the peripheral blood, but in lymph nodes and even in semen of chronically SIV-infected monkeys. The central role of these effector T lymphocytes in containing SIV spread during primary infection was demonstrated by showing that early SIV clearance during primary infection correlated with the emergence of the tetramer binding CD8+ T lymphocytes and that in vivo depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes eliminated the ability of the infected monkeys to contain SIV replication. These observations suggest that an effective AIDS vaccine should elicit a potent virus-specific CTL response. In fact, a live, recombinant SIV vaccine constructed using the attenuated pox virus vector modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) elicited a high-frequency CTL response, comparable in magnitude to that elicited by SIV infection itself. This suggests that vaccine modalities such as MVA may prove useful in creating an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. These studies also indicate the power of both the SIV/macaque model and MHC class I/peptide tetramers for assessing AIDS vaccine strategies.

  9. Direct Microbicidal Activity of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes

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    Paul Oykhman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL are famous for their ability to kill tumor, allogeneic and virus-infected cells. However, an emerging literature has now demonstrated that CTL also possess the ability to directly recognize and kill bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Here, we review past and recent findings demonstrating the direct microbicidal activity of both CD4+ and CD8+ CTL against various microbial pathogens. Further, this review will outline what is known regarding the mechanisms of direct killing and their underlying signalling pathways.

  10. The imbalance of helper T lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in acute renal transplantation rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JIANG; ZHI QIN TANG; LIN PENG; YU LIANG WANG; ZHI PING WANG

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the imbalance state of helper T lymphocytes (Th) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc) and the roles of Th1/Th2/Th3 and Tc1/Tc2 cells in renal transplantation rejection, the percentages of these cells in peripheral blood of 24 cases of renal transplantation recipients with acute rejection and the dynamic changes of the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined by flow cytometry analysis,while 30 cases of healthy individuals were set up as controls. In these healthy controls, the percentages of the Th1, Th2 and Th3 cells were (10.45±8.15)%, (5.05±4.15)% and (3.90±3.21)%,and those of Tc1 and Tc2 cells were (9.83±7.03)% and (4.51±2.17)%, respectively. However,the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells in peripheral blood of the stable recipients after transplantation were (7.29±5.62)% and (7.04±5.15)%, showing definite reduction, while those of Th2, Th3and Tc2 cells showed significant increase, (6.34±5.67)%, (4.94±4.14) % and ( 6.86 ±4.42) %, respectively. In case of recipients with acute rejection, the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells appeared to be (18.55±13.21)% and (15.84±11.72)%, also showing significant increase, but those of Th2,Th3 and Tc2 cells appeared to be reduced, (4.19±3.62)%, (3.02±2.83)% and (3.88±1.63) %, respectively. Significant differences could be detected among these three groups (P <0.05). The CD4/CD8 ratio in cases with acute rejection was higher than those of stable recipients (2.24±0.59 vs 1.95±0.45), but that of the stable recipients and healthy controls (1.98±0.31 )showed no any significant difference. From the above observation, it is evident that imbalance between Th1, Th2 and Th3 with Te1 and Tc2 cells may exist after renal transplantation and probably, the immune imbalance may be induced through the secretion of cytokines INF-γ by Th1 or Te1 cells , I1-4 by Th2 and Tc2 cells and TGF-β by Th3.

  11. Therapeutic potential of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in SLE☆

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    Puliaeva, I.; Puliaev, R.; Via, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the idea that following a break in tolerance, CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) may be an important but unrecognized mechanism for limiting expansion of autoreactive B cells. Failure of this mechanism could allow persistence of CD4 T cell driven polyclonal B cell activation resulting in clinical lupus. Although CD8 CTL failure may occur early in disease, work in mice supports the concept that therapeutic CTL enhancement may be both practical and beneficial in lupus. Devising such therapy for humans will first require an understanding of the in vivo mechanisms critical in CTL expansion and down regulation, particularly in the lupus setting which may differ from CTL generation in other clinical settings (e.g. tumors, infections). PMID:18725326

  12. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in children infected with HIV.

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    Froebel, K S; Aldhous, M C; Mok, J Y; Hayley, J; Arnott, M; Peutherer, J F

    1994-01-01

    Of the Edinburgh cohort of approximately 130 children born to HIV-infected women, 9 are infected and alive. This article describes results from the first 18 months of a natural history study of seven of these, and two adopted children, studying the CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against HIV proteins (Gag, Tat, Pol, and Env), over time, and relating it to clinical progression and viral activity. Autologous EBV cell lines infected with vaccinia-HIV constructs were used as target cells, and bulk-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells. The children ranged in age from 0 to 93 months, with six of the nine showing CTL activity to one or more HIV proteins. The specificity of the response was directed against Tat in the younger children, switching to Pol, then Gag or Env. Preliminary analysis of virological data showed no association between CTL and virus activity. The children with CTLs tended to be well clinically, but the cohort needs to be studied longer before conclusions can be made about CTL activity and HIV disease progression. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity has also been observed in two children diagnosed as HIV uninfected. These results show the importance of looking at CTL specificity, and may have implications in vaccine design.

  13. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

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    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  14. Protective Role of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Filovirus Hemorrhagic Fever

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    Kelly Lyn Warfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with many emerging viruses, such as the hemorrhagic fever disease caused by the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV, and Ebola virus (EBOV, leaves the host with a short timeframe in which to mouse a protective immune response. In lethal cases, uncontrolled viral replication and virus-induced immune dysregulation are too severe to overcome, and mortality is generally associated with a lack of notable immune responses. Vaccination studies in animals have demonstrated an association of IgG and neutralizing antibody responses against the protective glycoprotein antigen with survival from lethal challenge. More recently, studies in animal models of filovirus hemorrhagic fever have established that induction of a strong filovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response can facilitate complete viral clearance. In this review, we describe assays used to discover CTL responses after vaccination or live filovirus infection in both animal models and human clinical trials. Unfortunately, little data regarding CTL responses have been collected from infected human survivors, primarily due to the low frequency of disease and the inability to perform these studies in the field. Advancements in assays and technologies may allow these studies to occur during future outbreaks.

  15. Consequences of cytotoxic T lymphocyte interaction with major histocompatibility complex class I-expressing neurons in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Neurons have evolved strategies to evade immune surveillance that include an inability to synthesize the heavy chain of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC), proteins that are necessary for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition of target cells. Multiple viruses have taken advantage of the lack of CTL-mediated recognition and killing of neurons by establishing persistent neuronal infections and thereby escaping attack by antiviral CTL. We have expressed a class I MHC molecule ...

  16. Common antiviral cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitope for diverse arenaviruses.

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    Oldstone, M B; Lewicki, H; Homann, D; Nguyen, C; Julien, S; Gairin, J E

    2001-07-01

    Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521-1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505-1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups-LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses-cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118-126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2(d) mice (32). This L(d)-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2(d) BALB mice. NP 118-126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to L(d). The primary H-2(d) CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118-126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118-126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition.

  17. Anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 antibodies in melanoma

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    Tosti G

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Giulio Tosti, Emilia Cocorocchio, Elisabetta PennacchioliDivisione Melanomi e Sarcomi, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano, ItalyAbstract: Approaches aimed at enhancement of the tumor specific response have provided proof for the rationale of immunotherapy in cancer, both in animal models and in humans. Ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 antibody, is a new generation immunotherapeutic agent that has shown activity in terms of disease free and overall survival in metastatic melanoma patients. Its use was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2011 to treat patients with late stage melanoma that has spread or that cannot be removed by surgery. The mechanism of action of CTLA-4 antibodies in the activation of an antitumor immune response and selected clinical studies of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients are discussed. Ipilimumab treatment has been associated with immune related adverse events due to T-cell activation and proliferation. Most of these serious adverse effects are associated with the gastrointestinal tract and include severe diarrhea and colitis. The relationship between immune related adverse events and antitumor activity associated with ipilimumab was explored in clinical studies. Potential biomarkers predictive for clinical response and survival in patients treated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy are presently under investigation. Besides the conventional patterns of response and stable disease as defined by standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria, in subsets of patients, ipilimumab has shown patterns of delayed clinical activity which were associated with an improved overall survival. For this reason a new set of response criteria for tumor immunotherapy has been proposed, which was termed immune related response criteria. These new criteria are presently used to better analyze clinical activity of immunotherapeutic regimens. Ipilimumab is currently under

  18. A novel method for producing target cells and assessing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in outbred hosts

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    Bendinelli Mauro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytotoxic T lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immunological control of microbial infections and in the design of vaccines and immunotherapies. Measurement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity requires that the test antigen is presented by target cells having the same or compatible class I major hystocompatibility complex antigens as the effector cells. Conventional assays use target cells labeled with 51chromium and infer cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by measuring the isotope released by the target cells lysed following incubation with antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This assay is sensitive but needs manipulation and disposal of hazardous radioactive reagents and provides a bulk estimate of the reporter released, which may be influenced by spontaneous release of the label and other poorly controllable variables. Here we describe a novel method for producing target in outbred hosts and assessing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by flow cytometry. Results The method consists of culturing skin fibroblasts, immortalizing them with a replication defective clone of simian virus 40, and finally transducing them with a bicistronic vector encoding the target antigen and the reporter green fluorescent protein. When used in a flow cytometry-based assay, the target cells obtained with this method proved valuable for assessing the viral envelope protein specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in domestic cats acutely or chronically infected with feline immunodeficiency virus, a lentivirus similar to human immunodeficiency virus and used as animal model for AIDS studies. Conclusion Given the versatility of the bicistronic vector used, its ability to deliver multiple and large transgenes in target cells, and its extremely wide cell specificity when pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope protein, the method is potentially exploitable in many animal species.

  19. CRTAM determines the CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte lineage.

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    Takeuchi, Arata; Badr, Mohamed El Sherif Gadelhaq; Miyauchi, Kosuke; Ishihara, Chitose; Onishi, Reiko; Guo, Zijin; Sasaki, Yoshiteru; Ike, Hiroshi; Takumi, Akiko; Tsuji, Noriko M; Murakami, Yoshinori; Katakai, Tomoya; Kubo, Masato; Saito, Takashi

    2016-01-11

    Naive T cells differentiate into various effector T cells, including CD4(+) helper T cell subsets and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Although cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells (CD4 +: CTL) also develop from naive T cells, the mechanism of development is elusive. We found that a small fraction of CD4(+) T cells that express class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM) upon activation possesses the characteristics of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. CRTAM(+) CD4(+) T cells secrete IFN-γ, express CTL-related genes, such as eomesodermin (Eomes), Granzyme B, and perforin, after cultivation, and exhibit cytotoxic function, suggesting that CRTAM(+) T cells are the precursor of CD4(+)CTL. Indeed, ectopic expression of CRTAM in T cells induced the production of IFN-γ, expression of CTL-related genes, and cytotoxic activity. The induction of CD4(+)CTL and IFN-γ production requires CRTAM-mediated intracellular signaling. CRTAM(+) T cells traffic to mucosal tissues and inflammatory sites and developed into CD4(+)CTL, which are involved in mediating protection against infection as well as inducing inflammatory response, depending on the circumstances, through IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxic activity. These results reveal that CRTAM is critical to instruct the differentiation of CD4(+)CTL through the induction of Eomes and CTL-related gene.

  20. A three-dimensional organotypic assay to measure target cell killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigelin, B.; Friedl, P.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediate antigen- and cell-cell contact dependent killing of target cells, such as cancer cells and virus-infected cells. In vivo, this process requires the active migration of CTL towards and away from target cells. We here describe an organotypic 3D collagen matrix

  1. Peptide microarrays for the profiling of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity using minimum numbers of cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, A.; Bagu, A.C.; Andre, T.; Roth, G.; Wiesmuller, K.H.; Guckel, B.; Brock, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of epitopes that elicit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity is a prerequisite for the development of cancer-specific immunotherapies. However, especially the parallel characterization of several epitopes is limited by the availability of T cells. Microarrays have enabled an unpreceden

  2. Role of interferon-γ and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in intraocular tumor rejection.

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    Ligocki, Ann J; Brown, Joseph R; Niederkorn, Jerry Y

    2016-05-01

    The eye is normally an immunosuppressive environment. This condition is better known as immune privilege and protects the eye from immune-mediated inflammation of tissues that cannot regenerate. However, immune privilege creates a dilemma for the eye when intraocular neoplasms arise. In some cases, immune privilege is suspended, resulting in the immune rejection of intraocular tumors. This study employed a mouse model in which interferon-γ-dependent intraocular tumor rejection occurs. We tested the hypothesis that this rejection requires interferon-γ for the generation and functional capacity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated rejection of intraocular tumors. Tumors grew progressively in the eyes of interferon-γ knockout mice, even though the mice generated tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in the periphery. However, interferon-γ knockout mice rejected tumors that were introduced into extraocular sites. Subcutaneous tumor immunization before intraocular challenge led to tumor rejection and preservation of the eye in wild-type mice. By contrast, tumors grew progressively in the eyes of interferon-γ knockout mice despite their ability to generate peripheral tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes as well as the capacity of CD8(+) T cells to enter the eye as shown by the presence of CD8 and perforin message and CD3(+)CD8(+) leukocytes within the tumor-bearing eye. We found that cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated in wild-type mice and adoptively transferred into interferon-γ knockout mice mediated the rejection of intraocular tumors in interferon-γ knockout hosts. The results indicate that interferon-γ is critical for the initial priming and differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes residing in the periphery to produce the most effect antitumor function within the eye.

  3. Neuroinflammation by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes impairs retrograde axonal transport in an oligodendrocyte mutant mouse.

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    Chi Wang Ip

    Full Text Available Mice overexpressing proteolipid protein (PLP develop a leukodystrophy-like disease involving cytotoxic, CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Here we show that these cytotoxic T-lymphocytes perturb retrograde axonal transport. Using fluorogold stereotactically injected into the colliculus superior, we found that PLP overexpression in oligodendrocytes led to significantly reduced retrograde axonal transport in retina ganglion cell axons. We also observed an accumulation of mitochondria in the juxtaparanodal axonal swellings, indicative for a disturbed axonal transport. PLP overexpression in the absence of T-lymphocytes rescued retrograde axonal transport defects and abolished axonal swellings. Bone marrow transfer from wildtype mice, but not from perforin- or granzyme B-deficient mutants, into lymphocyte-deficient PLP mutant mice led again to impaired axonal transport and the formation of axonal swellings, which are predominantly located at the juxtaparanodal region. This demonstrates that the adaptive immune system, including cytotoxic T-lymphocytes which release perforin and granzyme B, are necessary to perturb axonal integrity in the PLP-transgenic disease model. Based on our observations, so far not attended molecular and cellular players belonging to the immune system should be considered to understand pathogenesis in inherited myelin disorders with progressive axonal damage.

  4. Serglycin determines secretory granule repertoire and regulates natural killer cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Vivien R; Brennan, Amelia J; Ellis, Sarah; Danne, Jill; Thia, Kevin; Jenkins, Misty R; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Pejler, Gunnar; Johnstone, Ricky W; Andrews, Daniel M; Trapani, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The anionic proteoglycan serglycin is a major constituent of secretory granules in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)/natural killer (NK) cells, and is proposed to promote the safe storage of the mostly cationic granule toxins, granzymes and perforin. Despite the extensive defects of mast cell function reported in serglycin gene-disrupted mice, no comprehensive study of physiologically relevant CTL/NK cell populations has been reported. We show that the cytotoxicity of serglycin-deficient CTL and NK cells is severely compromised but can be partly compensated in both cell types when they become activated. Reduced intracellular granzyme B levels were noted, particularly in CD27(+) CD11b(+) mature NK cells, whereas serglycin(-/-) TCR-transgenic (OTI) CD8 T cells also had reduced perforin stores. Culture supernatants from serglycin(-/-) OTI T cells and interleukin-2-activated NK contained increased granzyme B, linking reduced storage with heightened export. By contrast, granzyme A was not significantly reduced in cells lacking serglycin, indicating differentially regulated trafficking and/or storage for the two granzymes. A quantitative analysis of different granule classes by transmission electronmicroscopy showed a selective loss of dense-core granules in serglycin(-/-) CD8(+) CTLs, although other granule types were maintained quantitatively. The findings of the present study show that serglycin plays a critical role in the maturation of dense-core cytotoxic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes and the trafficking and storage of perforin and granzyme B, whereas granzyme A is unaffected. The skewed retention of cytotoxic effector molecules markedly reduces CTL/NK cell cytotoxicity, although this is partly compensated for as a result of activating the cells by physiological means.

  5. Dengue virus-specific cross-reactive CD8+ human cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, J F; Kurane, I; Lai, C J; Bray, M.; Falgout, B.; Ennis, F A

    1989-01-01

    Stimulation with live dengue virus of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a dengue virus type 4-immune donor generated virus-specific, serotype-cross-reactive, CD8+, class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) capable of lysing dengue virus-infected cells and cells pulsed with dengue virus antigens of all four serotypes. These CTL lysed autologous fibroblasts infected with vaccinia virus-dengue virus recombinant viruses containing the E gene or several nonstructural dengue virus type...

  6. Large-scale validation of methods for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lundegaard, Claus; Lamberth, K.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable predictions of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes are essential for rational vaccine design. Most importantly, they can minimize the experimental effort needed to identify epitopes. NetCTL is a web-based tool designed for predicting human CTL epitopes in any given protein....... of the other methods achieved a sensitivity of 0.64. The NetCTL-1.2 method is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCTL.All used datasets are available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/suppl/immunology/CTL-1.2.php....

  7. Large-scale validation of methods for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lundegaard, Claus; Lamberth, K.;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable predictions of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes are essential for rational vaccine design. Most importantly, they can minimize the experimental effort needed to identify epitopes. NetCTL is a web-based tool designed for predicting human CTL epitopes in any given protein....... of the other methods achieved a sensitivity of 0.64. The NetCTL-1.2 method is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCTL.All used datasets are available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/suppl/immunology/CTL-1.2.php....

  8. CRISPR knock out CTLA-4 enhances the anti-tumor activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

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    Shi, Long; Meng, Tongyu; Zhao, Zhilong; Han, Jinsheng; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Fei; Cai, Jianhui

    2017-09-06

    T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity plays a pivotal role in cancer immune surveillance. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a protein receptor mainly expressed in activated T cells and regulatory T cells. CTLA-4 competes with CD28 for ligand binding and generates inhibitory signals to attenuate T cell activation. The blockade of CTLA-4 mediated immune inhibitory checkpoint has been associated with enhanced anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we use CRISPR-Cas9 system to knock out (KO) CTLA-4 from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and evaluate its effect on the anti-tumor activity of the CTLs. CTLA-4 KO CTLs robustly enhanced tumor cell death by 40% compared to the control and facilitated apoptosis and caspase activities in tumor cells. The knockout of CTLA-4 also increased TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion of the CTLs by approximately 2-fold. The effectiveness of CTLA-4 KO in enhancing anti-tumor activity of the CTLs was verified in vivo using mouse xenograft model. The xenografted mice treated with CTLA-4 KO CTLs demonstrated repressed tumor growth and prolonged survival compared to the control group. Our data suggest that CRISPR targeting CTLA-4 immune checkpoint could significantly improve the anti-tumor activity of CTLs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Role of vitamin D in cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunity to pathogens and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Surojit; Hewison, Martin; Studzinski, George P; Li, Yan Chun; Kalia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in immune cells has opened up a new area of research into immunoregulation by vitamin D, a niche that is distinct from its classical role in skeletal health. Today, about three decades since this discovery, numerous cellular and molecular targets of vitamin D in the immune system have been delineated. Moreover, strong clinical associations between vitamin D status and the incidence/severity of many immune-regulated disorders (e.g. infectious diseases, cancers and autoimmunity) have prompted the idea of using vitamin D supplementation to manipulate disease outcome. While much is known about the effects of vitamin D on innate immune responses and helper T (T(H)) cell immunity, there has been relatively limited progress on the frontier of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity--an arm of host cellular adaptive immunity that is crucial for the control of such intracellular pathogens as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this review, we discuss the strong historical and clinical link between vitamin D and infectious diseases that involves cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity, present our current understanding as well as critical knowledge gaps in the realm of vitamin D regulation of host CTL responses, and highlight potential regulatory connections between vitamin D and effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation events during infections.

  10. Syntaxin 8 is required for efficient lytic granule trafficking in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shruthi S; Friedmann, Kim S; Knörck, Arne; Hoxha, Cora; Leidinger, Petra; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas; Rettig, Jens; Hoth, Markus; Qu, Bin; Schwarz, Eva C

    2016-07-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) eliminate pathogen-infected and cancerous cells mainly by polarized secretion of lytic granules (LG, containing cytotoxic molecules like perforin and granzymes) at the immunological synapse (IS). Members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) family are involved in trafficking (generation, transport and fusion) of vesicles at the IS. Syntaxin 8 (Stx8) is expressed in LG and colocalizes with the T cell receptor (TCR) upon IS formation. Here, we report the significance of Stx8 for human CTL cytotoxicity. We found that Stx8 mostly localized in late, recycling endosomal and lysosomal compartments with little expression in early endosomal compartments. Down-regulation of Stx8 by siRNA resulted in reduced cytotoxicity. We found that following perforin release of the pre-existing pool upon target cell contact, Stx8 down-regulated CTL regenerate perforin pools less efficiently and thus release less perforin compared to control CTL. CD107a degranulation, real-time and end-point population cytotoxicity assays, and high resolution microscopy support our conclusion that Stx8 is required for proper and timely sorting and trafficking of cytotoxic molecules to functional LG through the endosomal pathway in human CTL.

  11. Human infection with Trypanosoma cruzi induces parasite antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizel, B; Palmieri, M; Mendoza, C; Arana, B; Sidney, J; Sette, A; Tarleton, R

    1998-09-01

    Experimental models of Chagas' disease, an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, have demonstrated the crucial immunoprotective role played by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These cells dominate inflammatory foci in parasitized tissues and their elimination from mice leads to uncontrolled parasite replication and subsequent death of the infected host. A trypomastigote surface antigen, TSA-1, and two amastigote surface molecules, ASP-1 and ASP-2, were recently identified as targets of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in T. cruzi-infected mice. Until now, however, there was no evidence for the development of parasite-specific CTL in T. cruzi-infected humans. In this study, human CTL specific for TSA-1-, ASP-1-, and ASP-2-derived peptides were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 of 24 HLA-A2(+) T. cruzi-infected patients. CTL recognition was antigen specific, A2-restricted, and CD8(+) T cell-dependent. Demonstration of human CTL against T. cruzi and against target molecules identified using the murine model provides important information for the optimal design and evaluation of vaccines to prevent or ameliorate Chagas' disease.

  12. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism and autoimmune blood diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Aktürk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4 is expressed on T lymphocytes, and inhibits the T-cell responses. In animal models, it has been shown that complete CTLA-4 deficiency was lethal due to massive infiltration of tissues by polyclonally proliferating lymphocytes. CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism, which has been suggested to reduce the inhibitory function of the CTLA-4 molecule, was found to be associated with various autoimmune diseases in recent studies. Material and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the frequency of CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism in 46 patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, 62 patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, and 150 healthy individuals. Results: Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were similar in both ITP and AIHA patients compared to healthy individuals. In subgroup analysis, however, we found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients with AIHA (n=4, all patients had CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism (3 had AG, 1 had GG. There was no significant statistical association between G allele and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or AIHA.Conclusion: These data suggest that CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism does not contribute to the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative diseases itself, nor does it increase the risk of autoimmune complications in patients with lymphoproliferative disease.

  13. ELISPOT Assay for Monitoring Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL Activity in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Sayers

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The profiling and monitoring of immune responses are key elements in the evaluation of the efficacy and development of new biotherapies, and a number of assays have been introduced for analyzing various immune parameters before, during, and after immunotherapy. The choice of immune assays for a given clinical trial depends on the known or suggested immunomodulating mechanisms associated with the tested therapeutic modality. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity represents a key mechanism in the immune response to various pathogens and tumors. Therefore, the selection of monitoring methods for the appropriate assessment of cell-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be crucial. Assays that can detect both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL frequency and function, such as the IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT have gained increasing popularity for monitoring clinical trials and in basic research. Results from various clinical trials, including peptide and whole tumor cell vaccination and cytokine treatment, have shown the suitability of the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay for monitoring T cell responses. However, the Granzyme B ELISPOT assay and Perforin ELISPOT assay may represent a more direct analysis of cell-mediated cytotoxicity as compared to the IFN-γ ELISPOT, since Granzyme B and perforin are the key mediators of target cell death via the granule-mediated pathway. In this review we analyze our own data and the data reported by others with regard to the application of various modifications of ELISPOT assays for monitoring CTL activity in clinical vaccine trials.

  14. Specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚红; 韩晓旭; 王亚男; 周立平; 张子宁; 姜拥军; 张旻; 于旭

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are considered to play a central role in the immune response against HIV-1. During untreated acute HIV-1 infection, virus-specific CTL activity is associated with the initial decrease in viremia.1 After HIV infection, those individuals with a slow progressive course develop stronger CTL responses than those with typical disease progression.2,3 Restoring HIV-1-specific CTL responses have been considered a key factor in immune reconstitution and vaccine development. Here we present the analysis of HIV-1 Gag-specific CTL responses in 23 Chinese HIV/AIDS cases in order to take the initial steps at identifying the epitopes that dominate the CTL response in Chinese patients.

  15. Posttranscriptional clearance of hepatitis B virus RNA by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-activated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L V; Guidotti, L G; Ishikawa, T; Chisari, F V

    1995-01-01

    Using transgenic mice that replicate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome, we recently demonstrated that class I-restricted, hepatitis B surface antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can noncytolytically eliminate HBV pregenomic and envelope RNA transcripts from the hepatocyte. We now demonstrate that the steady-state content of these viral transcripts is profoundly reduced in the nucleus and cytoplasm of CTL-activated hepatocytes, but their transcription rates are only slightly reduced. Additionally, we demonstrate that transcripts covering the HBV X coding region are resistant to downregulation by the CTL. These results imply the existence of CTL-inducible hepatocellular factors that interact with a discrete element(s) between nucleotides 3157 and 1239 within the viral pregenomic and envelope transcripts and mediate their degradation, thus converting the hepatocyte from a passive victim to an active participant in the host response to HBV infection. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8618909

  16. Engineered cytotoxic T lymphocytes with AFP-specific TCR gene for adoptive immunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; He, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and could serve as a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and potential target for adoptive immunotherapy. However, low frequency and severe functional impairment of AFP-specific T cells in vivo hamper adoptive infusion. TAA-specific T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer could be an efficient and reliable alternation to generate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Autologous dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with AFP158-166 peptides were used to stimulate AFP-specific CTLs. TCR α/β chain genes of AFP-specific CTLs were cloned and linked by 2A peptide to form full-length TCR coding sequence synthesized into a lentiviral vector. Nonspecific activated T cells were engineered by lentivirus infection. Transgenetic CTLs were evaluated for transfection efficiency, expression of AFP158-166-specific TCR, interferon (IFN)-γ secretion, and specific cytotoxicity toward AFP+ HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the AFP158-166-MHC-Pentamer positive transgenetic CTLs was 9.86 %. The number of IFN-γ secretion T cells and the specific cytotoxicity toward HpeG2 in vitro and in tumor-bearing NOD/SCID mice were significantly raised in transgenetic CTLs than that of AFP158-166-specific CTLs obtained by peptide-pulsed DCs or control group. TCR gene transfer is a promising strategy to generate AFP158-166-specific CTLs for the treatment of HCC.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of antigen-specific CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, P A; Roderiquez, G L; Peden, K W; Norcross, M A

    1998-11-01

    The effect of macrophage (M)-tropic and T cell line (T)-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on antigen-specific CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has been studied using a CD4 CTL line specific for a peptide from influenza B virus hemagglutinin. In the absence of antigen presentation, the production of CC chemokines was low. Both the M-tropic HIV-1 strain (HIV-1AD) and the T-tropic HIV-1 strain (HIV-1LAI) established productive infections in the CD4 CTLs, decreasing antigen-specific cytotoxicity. Peptide presented to the CD4 CTLs increased their secretion of RANTES and MIP-1beta, suppressed M-tropic HIV-1 replication, downmodulated CCR5 expression, and preserved CTL recognition. The suppression of M-tropic HIV-1 replication and downmodulation of the CCR5 receptor likely resulted from CC chemokine secretion since antibodies to CC chemokines restored M-tropic HIV-1 replication. Antigen presentation did not protect CD4 CTLs from T-tropic HIV-1 infection or preserve their CTL recognition. Thus, these CD4 CTLs do not make suppressor factors that inhibit the T-tropic HIV-1LAI isolate. The results indicate that these CD4 CTLs can either harbor or suppress M-tropic HIV-1 infection, depending on whether antigen is present. CD4 CTLs might therefore provide some protection in the early stages of HIV-1 infection when M-tropic isolates are present.

  18. A general functional response of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated killing of target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhamsetty, Saikrishna; Marée, Athanasius F M; Beltman, Joost B; de Boer, Rob J

    2014-04-15

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and play a critical role in immune protection. Our knowledge of how the CTL killing efficiency varies with CTL and target cell numbers is limited. Here, we simulate a region of lymphoid tissue using a cellular Potts model to characterize the functional response of CTL killing of target cells, and find that the total killing rate saturates both with the CTL and the target cell densities. The relative saturation in CTL and target cell densities is determined by whether a CTL can kill multiple target cells at the same time, and whether a target cell can be killed by many CTLs together. We find that all the studied regimes can be well described by a double-saturation (DS) function with two different saturation constants. We show that this DS model can be mechanistically derived for the cases where target cells are killed by a single CTL. For the other cases, a biological interpretation of the parameters is still possible. Our results imply that this DS function can be used as a tool to predict the cellular interactions in cytotoxicity data.

  19. Construction of HA-1-DC Nucleic-acid Vaccine and Induction of Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaya; ZHANG Donghua; HU Jinmei; LIU Wenli; ZHOU hongsheng; ZHANG Lu; LIU Dan; HUANG Zhenqian; TAN Huo

    2007-01-01

    An HA-1-DC nucleic-acid vaccine was constructed to induce anti-leukemia effect after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). DCs were generated from HSCT donors in vitro, and its immunologic activity was assayed by using flow cytometry and mixed lymphocytes reaction.HA-1 gene was electroporated into the cultured DCs to construct a DC nucleic-acid vaccine. After transfection for 48 h, the expression of HA-1 protein could be detected by using Western blot. The DCs were cultured with syngenic lymphocytes to induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs).The cytoxicity of the CTLs was detected by LDH assay. The results showed that The DCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) expressed the phenotype of DCs, and were effective in stimulating proliferation of the allogenic lymphocytes. After electroporating for 48-h, HA-1 protein was detected by using Western blot. The cytotoxity of inducing CTLs was higher than the control group. It was suggested that minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 could be considered as a target of immunotherapy against leukemia after HSCT.

  20. Hitchhiking nanoparticles: Reversible coupling of lipid-based nanoparticles to cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayteck, Laura; Dewitte, Heleen; De Backer, Lynn; Breckpot, Karine; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Following intravenous injection of anti-cancer nanomedicines, many barriers need to be overcome en route to the tumor. Cell-mediated delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) is promising in terms of overcoming several of these barriers based on the tumoritropic migratory properties of particular cell types. This guided transport aims to enhance the NP accumulation in the tumor and moreover enhance the infiltration of regions that are typically inaccessible for free NPs. Within this study, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells were selected as carriers based on both their ability to migrate to the tumor and their intrinsic cytolytic activity against tumor cells. Many anti-cancer nanomedicines require tumor cell internalization to mediate cytosolic drug delivery and enhance the anti-cancer effect. This proof-of-concept therefore reports on the reversible attachment of liposomes to the surface of cytotoxic T lymphocytes via a reduction sensitive coupling. The activation status of the T cells and the liposome composition are shown to strongly influence the loading efficiency. Loading the cells with liposomes does not compromise T cell functionalities like proliferation and cytolytic function. Additionally, the triggered liposome release is demonstrated upon the addition of glutathione. Based on this optimization using liposomes as model NPs, a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded NP was developed that can be coupled to the surface of CD8(+) T cells.

  1. Polymer nanoparticles for cross-presentation of exogenous antigens and enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chanyoung Song,* Young-Woock Noh,* Yong Taik Lim SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT, School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Effective induction of an antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL immune response is one of the key goals of cancer immunotherapy. We report the design and fabrication of polyethylenimine (PEI-coated polymer nanoparticles (NPs as efficient antigen-delivery carriers that can induce antigen cross-presentation and a strong CTL response. After synthesis of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA by the double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method, cationic-charged PLGA NPs were generated by coating them with PEI. In a methyl tetrazolium salt assay, no discernible cytotoxic effect of PEI-coated PLGA (OVA NPs was observed. The capacity and mechanism of PEI-coated PLGA (OVA NPs for antigen delivery and cross-presentation on dendritic cells (DCs were determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. PEI-coated PLGA (OVA NPs were internalized efficiently via phagocytosis or macropinocytosis in DCs and induced efficient cross-presentation of the antigen on MHC class I molecules via both endosome escape and a lysosomal processing mechanism. The DCs treated with PEI-coated PLGA (OVA NPs induced a release of IL-2 cytokine from OVA-specific CD8-OVA1.3 T cells more efficiently than DCs treated with PLGA (OVA NPs. Therefore, the PEI-coated PLGA (OVA NPs can induce antigen cross-presentation and are expected to be used for induction of a strong CTL immune response and for efficient anticancer immunotherapy. Keywords: antigen delivery, dendritic cells, polymer NPs, vaccine, cross-presentation

  2. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh; Mehrdad Hajilooi; Mitra Ranjbar; Farahnaz Fallahian; Seyed Mohsen Mousavi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the three polymorphism regions within cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene, a C/T base exchange in the promoter region-318 (CTLA-4 -318C/T), an A/G substitution in the exon 1 position 49 (CTLA-4 49A/G), a T/C substitution in 1172 (CTLA-4 -1172T/C) in patients with chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: Fifty-one patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and 150 healthy subjects were recruited sequentially as they presented to the hepatic clinic. Classification of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients was as asymptomatic carrier state (26 patients) and chronic hepatitis B (25 patients). Genomic DNA was isolated from anti-coagulated peripheral blood Buffy coat using Miller's salting-out method. The presence of the CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms was determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).RESULTS: We observed a significant association between -318 genotypes frequency (T+C-, T+C+, T-C+) and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B (P=0.012,OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.206-1.162). However, we did not observe a significant association for +49 genotype frequency (T+C+, T+C- T-C+) and -1172 genotype frequency (C+T+, T+C- C+T-) and state of disease.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms may partially be involved in the susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B.

  3. Tissue Dimensionality Influences the Functional Response of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Killing of Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhamsetty, Saikrishna; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J; Beltman, Joost B

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of virus infections and tumors occurs over a wide range of conditions. The spatial environments in which CTLs encounter target cells vary from narrow vessels, to two-dimensional epithelial tissues, to densely populated 3-dimensional (3D) T cell areas within lymphoid tissues. How such spatial environments alter the functional response of CTL-mediated killing, i.e., how the killing efficiency depends on cell densities, is unclear. In this study, we perform cellular Potts model simulations in different spatial configurations to investigate how the dimensionality of the space affects the functional response of CTL-mediated killing. Irrespective of the spatial configuration, the function with separate saturation constants for CTL and for target cell densities that we previously proposed can in all cases describe the response, demonstrating its generality. However, the tissue dimensionality determines at which cell densities the killing rate starts to saturate. We show that saturation in a fully 3D environment is stronger than in a "flat" 3D environment, which is largely due to accompanying differences in the CTL-target encounter rates.

  4. Human heat shock protein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes display potent antitumour immunity in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Qian, Jianfei; Zhang, Wenhao; Fu, Weijun; Du, Juan; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chunyang; Xi, Hao; Yi, Qing; Hou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Tumour cell–derived heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as vaccines for immunotherapy of cancer patients. However, it is proposed that the peptide chaperoned on HSPs, not HSPs themselves, elicited a potent immune response. Given that HSPs are highly expressed by most myeloma cells and vital to myeloma cell survival, we reasoned that HSPs themselves might be an ideal myeloma antigen. In the present study, we explored the feasibility of targeting HSPs themselves for treating multiple myeloma. We identified and chose HLA-A*0201-binding peptides from human HSPB1 (HSP27) and HSP90AA1 (HSP90), and confirmed their immunogenicity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Dendritic cells pulsed with HSPB1 and HSP90AA1 peptides were used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and myeloma patients to generate HSP peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). HSP peptide-specific CTLs efficiently lysed HLA-A*0201+ myeloma cells (established cell lines and primary plasma cells) but not HLA-A*0201− myeloma cells in vitro, indicating that myeloma cells naturally express HSP peptides in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. More importantly, HSP peptide-specific CTLs effectively reduced tumour burden in the xenograft mouse model of myeloma. Our study clearly demonstrated that HSPs might be novel tumour antigens for immunotherapy of myeloma. PMID:24824351

  5. Monitoring of WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuriko; Heike, Yuji; Kawakami, Mami; Miura, Osamu; Nakatsuka, Shin-Ichi; Ebisawa, Michiko; Mori, Shin-Ichiro; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kim, Sung-Won; Tobinai, Kensei; Takaue, Yoichi

    2006-09-15

    Donor-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that respond to tumor antigens emerge after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly in association with the status of immune recovery. To analyze the frequency of CTL against PR1, PRAME and WT1 after HSCT, a tetramer-based analysis was performed in 97 samples taken from 35 patients (9 AML, 11 MDS, 2 CML, 4 ALL, 7 lymphoma and 2 renal cell carcinoma [RCC]) with the HLA-A02 phenotype. Regarding PR1, only 1 sample showed the presence of tetramer-positive cells (0.04%/lymphocyte). Similarly, in PRAME, only 10 of 97 samples were sporadically positive with low titers. For WT1, positive results were detected in 39 of 97 samples and 7 (2 CML, 1 ALL, 2 lymphoma and 2 RCC) patients clearly showed positive results more than once. On the basis of these results, we performed serial analyses of WT1-specific CTL during the clinical course in 2 patients with RCC, who underwent HSCT with a reduced-intensity regimen, to examine the precise correlation between the kinetics of CTL, the occurrence of GVHD and the observed clinical response. A higher positive rate for WT1-specific CTL and a correlation with the clinical response suggest that WT1 may be a useful antigen for a wider monitoring application.

  6. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of human pancreatic islet cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter D; Estella, Eugene; Dudek, Nadine L; Jhala, Gaurang; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H; Mannering, Stuart I

    2008-09-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play an essential role in beta-cell destruction leading to development of type 1 diabetes and allogeneic islet graft failure. We aimed to identify the mechanisms used by CTL to kill human beta cells. CTL clones that recognize epitopes from influenza virus and Epstein-Barr virus restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A0201 and -B0801, respectively, were used to investigate the susceptibility of human beta cells to CTL. In a short-term (5-hour) assay, CTL killed human islet cells of the appropriate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I type that had been pulsed with viral peptides. Killing was increased by pretreating islets with interferon gamma that increases MHC class I on target cells. Killing was abolished by incubation of CTL with the perforin inhibitor concanamycin A. The Fas pathway did not contribute to killing because blocking with neutralizing anti-Fas ligand antibody did not significantly reduce beta-cell killing. In conclusion, we report a novel way of investigating the interaction between CTL and human islets. Human islets were rapidly killed in vitro by MHC class I-restricted CTL predominantly by the granule exocytosis pathway.

  7. HLA-G inhibits xenogenetic cytotoxicity mediated by human NK cells and T lymphocytes against PECs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate whether the non-classi-cal HLA-G classⅠmolecule protects the porcine endothelial cells (PECs) from the lysis mediated by human immune cells in pig to human discordant xenotransplantation, we have cloned HLA-G cDNA from a human placenta by RT-PCR. Mammalian expression vector, pEFG-neo, was constructed by insertion of HLA-G cDNA in pEF-neo. We obtained efficiently expressed PECs by stable transfection. Cytotoxicity assay showed that overexpression of HLA-G on PECs was sufficient to inhibit human NK-92 cell lysis. The level of lysis was equal to or less than that of the lysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells mediated by human NK-92 cells. It also indicated that HLA-G inhibited the lysis of PECs mediated by xeno-antigen specific T lymphocytes. The reduction of lysis ranged between 59.1% and 88.9%. These findings suggest that the transgenic approach to overexpress HLA-G is believed to be a new immunotherapy in overcoming the immune rejections in xenotransplantion, including delayed xenograft rejection and cell-mediated rejection.

  8. Demethylating agent decitabine induces autologous cancer testis antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-hao; YAO Yu-shi; WANG Li-xin; WANG Jia; LI Yong-hui; JIANG Meng-meng; ZHOU Min-hang

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) are a novel group of tumor associated antigens.Demethylating agent decitabine was reported to be able to up-regulate CTAs through its hypomethylation mechanism,thus enhance the immunogenicity of leukemia cells.However,few researches have ever focused on the questions that whether this immunostimulatory effect of decitabine could induce autologous CTA specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo,and if so,whether this effect contributes to disease control.In this study,we aimed to show that decitabine could induce specific autologous CTLs against some mouse CTAs in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.Methods Several mouse CTAs were screened by RT-PCR.CTL specific to one of the CTAs named P1A was detected and sorted by P1A specific dimer by flow cytometry.The activity of specific CTLs was measured by real time RT-PCR.Results We firstly screened expression of some CTAs in mouse leukemia cells before and after decitabine treatment and found that decitabine treatment did up-regulate expression of many CTAs.Then we measured the CTLs' activity specific to a mouse CTA P1A in vivo and showed that this activity increased after decitabine treatment.Finally,we sorted these in vivo induced P1A specific CTLs by flow cytometry and demonstrated their cytotoxicity against decitabine treated leukemia cells.Conclusions Our study showed the autologous immune response induced by decitabine in vivo.And more importantly,we firstly proved that this response may contribute to disease control.We believe that this immunostimulatory effect is another anti-cancer mechanism of decitabine,and this special effect would inspire new applications of decitabine in the field of leukemia treatment in the future.

  9. Transcriptional Reprogramming of Mature CD4+ T helper Cells generates distinct MHC class II-restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucida, Daniel; Husain, Mohammad Mushtaq; Muroi, Sawako; van Wijk, Femke; Shinnakasu, Ryo; Naoe, Yoshinori; Reis, Bernardo Sgarbi; Huang, Yujun; Lambolez, Florence; Docherty, Michael; Attinger, Antoine; Shui, Jr-Wen; Kim, Gisen; Lena, Christopher J.; Sakaguchi, Shinya; Miyamoto, Chizuko; Wang, Peng; Atarashi, Koji; Park, Yunji; Nakayama, Toshinori; Honda, Kenya; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Cheroutre, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    TCRαβ thymocytes differentiate to either CD8αβ cytotoxic T lymphocytes or CD4+ T helper cells. This functional dichotomy is controlled by key transcription factors, including the T helper master regulator, ThPOK, which suppresses the cytolytic program in MHC class II-restricted CD4+ thymocytes. ThPOK continues to repress CD8-lineage genes in mature CD4+ T cells, even as they differentiate to T helper effector subsets. Here we show that the T helper-fate was not fixed and that mature antigen-stimulated CD4+ T cells could terminate Thpok expression and reactivate CD8-lineage genes. This unexpected plasticity resulted in the post-thymic termination of the T helper-program and the functional differentiation of distinct MHC class II-restricted CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. PMID:23334788

  10. Immunoregulation through IL-10 gene expression and the fate of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Nitya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene analysis of tumor associated antigens revealed that tumor antigens are all normal gene product. Inducing tumor reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CT in the patients is same as inducing autoimmunity in the patients. Immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis or tolerance. To break the tumor tolerance, blocking and IL-10 secretion or intervention in the pathways of IL-10 gene activation is indeed important.

  11. Effective Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Targeting of Persistent HIV-1 during Antiretroviral Therapy Requires Priming of Naive CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie N. Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Curing HIV-1 infection will require elimination of persistent cellular reservoirs that harbor latent virus in the face of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Proposed immunotherapeutic strategies to cure HIV-1 infection include enhancing lysis of these infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. A major challenge in this strategy is overcoming viral immune escape variants that have evaded host immune control. Here we report that naive CD8+ T cells from chronic HIV-1-infected participants on long-term cART can be primed by dendritic cells (DC. These DC must be mature, produce high levels of interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70, be responsive to CD40 ligand (CD40L, and be loaded with inactivated, autologous HIV-1. These DC-primed CD8+ T cell responders produced high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ in response to a broad range of both conserved and variable regions of Gag and effectively killed CD4+ T cell targets that were either infected with the autologous latent reservoir-associated virus or loaded with autologous Gag peptides. In contrast, HIV-1-specific memory CD8+ T cells stimulated with autologous HIV-1-loaded DC produced IFN-γ in response to a narrow range of conserved and variable Gag peptides compared to the primed T cells and most notably, displayed significantly lower cytolytic function. Our findings highlight the need to selectively induce new HIV-1-specific CTL from naive precursors while avoiding activation of existing, dysfunctional memory T cells in potential curative immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infection.

  12. A Sigmoid Functional Response Emerges When Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Start Killing Fresh Target Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhamsetty, Saikrishna; Marée, Athanasius F M; Beltman, Joost B; de Boer, Rob J

    2017-03-28

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing involves the formation of a synapse with a target cell, followed by delivery of perforin and granzymes. Previously, we derived a general functional response for CTL killing while considering that CTLs form stable synapses (i.e., single-stage) and that the number of conjugates remains at steady state. However, the killing of target cells sometimes requires multiple engagements (i.e., multistage). To study how multistage killing and a lack of steady state influence the functional response, we here analyze a set of differential equations as well as simulations employing the cellular Potts model, in both cases describing CTLs that kill target cells. We find that at steady state the total killing rate (i.e., the number of target cells killed by all CTLs) is well described by the previously derived double saturation function. Compared to single-stage killing, the total killing rate during multistage killing saturates at higher CTL and target cell densities. Importantly, when the killing is measured before the steady state is approached, a qualitatively different functional response emerges for two reasons: First, the killing signal of each CTL gets diluted over several targets and because this dilution effect is strongest at high target cell densities; this can result in a peak in the dependence of the total killing rate on the target cell density. Second, the total killing rate exhibits a sigmoid dependence on the CTL density when killing is a multistage process, because it takes typically more than one CTL to kill a target. In conclusion, a sigmoid dependence of the killing rate on the CTLs during initial phases of killing may be indicative of a multistage killing process. Observation of a sigmoid functional response may thus arise from a dilution effect and is not necessarily due to cooperative behavior of the CTLs. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Gene Variants in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with or without Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Kiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 gene variants are associated with several autoimmune diseases particularly type 1 diabetes. Due to the lack of consistent data for this association with type 2 diabetes (T2D, this study explored the possible influence of CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms at -1722 (T/C, -318 (C/T, and +49 (G/A positions for susceptibility to T2D in relation with neuropathy. One hundred and eleven unrelated patients with T2D [49 patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN and 62 patients without PDN] and 100 healthy ethnic- and gender-matched controls were included in this study. The dimorphisms at -1722 (C/T, -318 (C/T and +49 (A/G for CTLA-4 gene were determined using ARMS-PCR. The CTLA-4 (+49 G/G and (+49 A/A genotypes were found to be positively and negatively associated with T2D, respectively (p=0.03. The -318 C/T and T/T genotypes were more frequent in patients than controls and -318 C/C genotype was shown to be protective for T2D (p=0.003. ACT and GTT Haplotypes were less and more frequent in controls and patients, respectively (p=3.86×10-7 and p=2.29×10-5. Genotypes distribution among T2D patients with and without DPN compared to healthy controls showed significantly lower frequencies for -318 C/C and +49 A/A genotypes and significantly higher frequencies for -318 C/T and T/T genotypes as well. Our findings indicate that CTLA-4 (+49 A/G and (-318 C/T genotypes could be considered as genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility or protection for T2D.

  14. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and CD8 subpopulations in children at risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhous, M C; Watret, K C; Mok, J Y; Bird, A G; Froebel, K S

    1994-07-01

    HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to play a major role in viral control in HIV-infected adults. Changes in the relative proportions of CD8 lymphocyte subpopulations are also thought to be associated with disease progression. Less is known about the relative effectiveness of CTL against different HIV targets, or about the relationship, if any, between CTL activity and CD8 subpopulations. We have measured CTL activity against four HIV gene products (gag, tat, pol and env) and expression of CD45RO, CD45RA, HLA-DR, CD29, S6F1, and CD57 surface markers on CD8 cells from nine HIV-infected and 11 HIV-uninfected children. Of nine HIV-infected children, six showed antigen-specific CTL activity on at least one occasion: 4/6 directed against tat, 6/6 against pol, 1/6 against env, and 1/6 against gag. However, the specificity of the CTL activity varied between children and within individual children with time. Furthermore, two uninfected children showed CTL activity, one to HIV-gag, -pol and -tat, and the other to HIV-pol. All the HIV-infected and two uninfected children had abnormal proportions of CD8 subpopulations in whole blood compared with age-matched controls. There was no correlation between CTL activity and CD8 subsets in whole blood. Five children changed from CTL-positive to CTL-negative (or vice versa) during the study. In these, the occasions when CTL activity was detected coincided with an increase in CD8 cells, an expansion of HLA-DR+ CD8 cells and a loss of CD45RA+ CD8 cells.

  15. Control of mucosal virus infection by influenza nucleoprotein-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couch Robert B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MHC class I-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL are thought to play a major role in clearing virus and promoting recovery from influenza infection and disease. This has been demonstrated for clearance of influenza virus from the lungs of infected mice. However, human influenza infection is primarily a respiratory mucosal infection involving the nasopharynx and tracheobronchial tree. The role of CD8+ CTL directed toward the influenza nucleoprotein (NP in defense against influenza virus infection at the respiratory mucosa was evaluated in two separate adoptive transfer experiments. Methods Influenza nucleoprotein (NP-specific CD8+ CTL were generated from splenocytes obtained from Balb/c mice previously primed with influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1 infection or with influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1-derived NP plasmid DNA vaccine followed by infection with A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2 virus. After in vitro expansion by exposure to an influenza NP-vaccinia recombinant, highly purified CD8+ T cells exhibited significant lysis in vitro of P815 target cells infected with A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2 virus while the CD8- fraction (CD4+ T cells, B cells and macrophages had no CTL activity. Purified CD8+ and CD8- T cells (1 × 107 were injected intravenously or interperitoneally into naive mice four hours prior to intranasal challenge with A/HK/68 (H3N2 virus. Results The adoptively transferred NP-vaccinia-induced CD8+ T cells caused significant reduction of virus titers in both the lungs and nasal passages when compared to CD8- cells. Neither CD8+ nor CD8- T cells from cultures stimulated with HIV gp120-vaccinia recombinant reduced virus titers. Conclusion The present data demonstrate that influenza NP-specific CD8+ CTL can play a direct role in clearance of influenza virus from the upper respiratory mucosal surfaces.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair the elimination of HIV-infected cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brad Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting memory CD4+ T-cells harboring latent HIV proviruses represent a critical barrier to viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis, such as suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA, romidepsin, and panobinostat have been shown to induce HIV expression in these resting cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the low levels of viral gene expression induced by a candidate HDACi may be insufficient to cause the death of infected cells by viral cytopathic effects, necessitating their elimination by immune effectors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Here, we study the impact of three HDACis in clinical development on T-cell effector functions. We report two modes of HDACi-induced functional impairment: i the rapid suppression of cytokine production from viable T-cells induced by all three HDACis ii the selective death of activated T-cells occurring at later time-points following transient exposures to romidepsin or, to a lesser extent, panobinostat. As a net result of these factors, HDACis impaired CTL-mediated IFN-γ production, as well as the elimination of HIV-infected or peptide-pulsed target cells, both in liquid culture and in collagen matrices. Romidepsin exerted greater inhibition of antiviral function than SAHA or panobinostat over the dose ranges tested. These data suggest that treatment with HDACis to mobilize the latent reservoir could have unintended negative impacts on the effector functions of CTL. This could influence the effectiveness of HDACi-based eradication strategies, by impairing elimination of infected cells, and is a critical consideration for trials where therapeutic interruptions are being contemplated, given the importance of CTL in containing rebound viremia.

  17. Blister fluid T lymphocytes during toxic epidermal necrolysis are functional cytotoxic cells which express human natural killer (NK) inhibitory receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cleach, L; Delaire, S; Boumsell, L; Bagot, M; Bourgault-Villada, I; Bensussan, A; Roujeau, J C

    2000-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life-threatening adverse drug reaction characterized by a massive destruction of the epidermis. Immunohistological studies of skin biopsies of TEN showed infiltrates of predominantly CD8+ T lymphocytes even though other authors reported a prominent involvement of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically and functionally the cells present in the cutaneous blister fluid of four patients with TEN. We first determined that lymphocytes were predominant in blister fluid obtained early, while monocytes/macrophages later became the most important population. We then showed that this lymphocyte population, mainly CD3+CD8+, corresponded to a peculiar cell subset as they expressed cutaneous leucocyte antigen, killer inhibitory receptors KIR/KAR and failed to express CD28 molecule. Functionally, we determined that blister T lymphocytes had a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)- and NK-like cytotoxicity. The role of this cytotoxic lymphocyte population present at the site of lesions during TEN remains to be understood. PMID:10606987

  18. Analysis of HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in patients with hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning DING

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression feature of hepatitis B virus(HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL,and analyze the role of CTL in immune response.Methods Peripheral venous blood was collected from 40 acute hepatitis B(AHB patients hospitalized from Oct.2008 to Jun.2010 in 302 Hospital of PLA for the detection of human leucocyte antigen-A2(HLA-A2.Out of the 40 patients,18 were HLA-A2-positive,and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at acute phase and convalescent phase if the patients could be contacted.Six HLA-A2-negative AHB patients,18 HLA-A2-positive chronic HB patients and 6 HLA-A2-positive normal persons served as controls.The CTL was stained by fluorescence-labeled anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody,anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody and HBV epitopic pentamers(S183-191,S335-343,and examined with flow cytometry,then analyzed by software Cell-quest.The peak value of alanine aminotransferase(ALT and HBV load was detected at acute phase of patients,and the correlation was analyzed.Results The average frequencies were 0.23%±0.18% for HBsAg183-191-specific CTL and 0.49%±0.31% for HBsAg335-343-specific CTL at the acute phase of the 18 AHB patients,and they were significantly higher than those in patients with chronic HB,in whom CTL frequencies were 0.07%±0.03% for HBsAg183-191-specific CTL and 0.08%±0.04% for HBsAg335-343-specific CTL(P < 0.01.There was no correlation between the frequency of HBsAg183-191-specific CTL and the peak value of ALT(r=0.4506,P=0.0528,while the frequency of HBsAg335-343-specific CTL was correlated with ALT level(r=0.5642,P=0.0119.Neither the two CTL frequencies showed correlation with virus load.Compared with the acute phase,the CTL frequencies obviously decreased at convalescent phase(P=0.011.Both kinds of CTL were not detectable in HLA-A2-negative AHB patients and HLA-A2-positive healthy individuals.Conclusion HBV-specific CTL may play an important role in both virus clearance and liver

  19. Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in dengue virus serotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianglong; Huang, Xi; Liu, Huifang; Chen, Xinyu; Jiang, Minghua; Wen, Jinsheng

    2015-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) has a serious and growing impact on global health and the exact role of DENV-specific CD8(+) T-cells in DENV infection is still uncertain. In the present study, SYFPEITHI algorithm was used to screen the amino acid sequence of Dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) for potential epitopes, and seven putative HLA-A*1101-restricted and five putative HLA-A*2402-restricted epitopes conserved in hundreds of DENV-1 strains were synthesized. The binding affinity of these epitope candidates to corresponding HLA molecules was evaluated using competitive peptide-binding assay. The immunogenicity and specificity of peptides were further tested in HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice, HLA-A*2402 transgenic mice and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients infected with DENV-1. Percentage inhibition (PI) values calculated in competitive peptide-binding assay showed that six peptides (E39-47 PTLDIELLK, NS5(505-513) GVEGEGLHK, NS2b(15-23) SILLSSLLK, NS5(561-569) ALLATSIFK, NS3(99-107) AVEPGKNPK, and NS4b(159-167) VVYDAKFEK) could bind to HLA-A*1101 molecule with high affinity and five peptides (NS3472-480 QYIYMGQPL, NS4a40-48 AYRHAMEEL, NS5(880-888) DYMTSMKRF, NS3(548-556) SYKVASEGF, and NS3(22-30) IYRILQRGL) have a high affinity for HLA-A*2402 molecule. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) results indicated that these high-affinity peptides were recognized by splenocytes of DENV-1-infected transgenic mice and high-affinity peptide-immunized transgenic mice displayed high levels of peptide-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells. In addition, both peptide-pulsed splenocytes and DENV-1-infected splenic monocytes were efficiently killed by these peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Finally, except NS2b(15-23), 10 high-affinity peptides were recognized by PBMCs of patients infected with DENV-1. These identified epitopes would contribute to the understanding of the function of DENV-specific CD8(+) T-cells.

  20. Identification of Rhodococcus equi lipids recognized by host cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Seth P.; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Mealey, Robert H.; Alperin, Debra C.; Naka, Takashi; Goda, Reina

    2010-01-01

    Immune adult horses have CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that recognize and lyse Rhodococcus equi-infected cells in an equine lymphocyte alloantigen (ELA)-A [classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I]-unrestricted fashion. As protein antigens are MHC class I-restricted, the lack of restriction suggests that the bacterial antigens being recognized by the host are not proteins. The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that these CTLs recognize unique R. equi cell-wall lipids related to mycobacterial lipids. Initial experiments showed that treatment of soluble R. equi antigen with broadly reactive proteases did not significantly diminish the ability of the antigen to stimulate R. equi-specific CTLs. R. equi-specific CTLs were also shown to lyse target cells (equine macrophages) pulsed with an R. equi lipid extract. Analysis of the R. equi lipid by TLC and MS (MALDI-TOF and ES) indicated that the extracted antigen consisted of three primary fractions: trehalose monomycolate (TMM), trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and cardiolipin (CL). ELA-A-mismatched cells pulsed with purified TMM and CL, but not the TDM fraction, were recognized and lysed by R. equi-specific CTLs. Because of their role in immune clearance and pathogenesis, transcription of the cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) was also measured in response to R. equi lipids by using real-time PCR; elevated IFN-γ, but not IL-4, was associated with host clearance of the bacteria. The whole-cell R. equi lipid and all three R. equi lipid fractions resulted in marked increases in IFN-γ transcription, but no increase in IL-4 transcription. Together, these data support the hypothesis that immune recognition of unique lipids in the bacterial cell wall is an important component of the protective immune response to R. equi. The results also identify potential lipid antigens not previously shown to be recognized by CTLs in an important, naturally occurring actinomycete

  1. Clinical-Grade Human Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells Block CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessers, Jeroen; Dekimpe, Emily; Van Woensel, Matthias; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Bullens, Dominique M; Pinxteren, Jef; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2016-12-01

    : MultiStem cells are clinical-grade multipotent adult bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (MAPCs), with extensive replication potential and broader differentiation capacity compared with mesenchymal stem cells. Human MAPCs suppress T-cell proliferation induced by alloantigens and mutually interact with allogeneic natural killer cells. In this study, the interaction between MultiStem and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was addressed for the first time. In an in vitro setting, the immunogenicity of MultiStem, the susceptibility of MultiStem toward CTL-mediated lysis, and its effects on CTL function were investigated. MultiStem was nonimmunogenic for alloreactive CTL induction and was-even after major histocompatibility complex class I upregulation-insensitive to alloantigen-specific CTL-mediated lysis. Furthermore, MultiStem reduced CTL proliferation and significantly decreased perforin expression during the T-cell activation phase. As a consequence, MultiStem dose-dependently impaired the induction of CTL function. These effects of MultiStem were mediated predominantly through contact-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, MultiStem cells considerably influenced the expression of T-cell activation markers CD25, CD69, and human leukocyte antigen-DR. The MultiStem-induced CD8(-)CD69(+) T-cell population displayed a suppressive effect on the induction of CTL function during a subsequent mixed-lymphocyte culture. Finally, the killer activity of activated antigen-specific CTLs during their cytolytic effector phase was also diminished in the presence of MultiStem. This study confirms that these clinical-grade MAPCs are an immune-modulating population that inhibits CTL activation and effector responses and are, consequently, a highly valuable cell population for adoptive immunosuppressive therapy in diseases where damage is induced by CTLs. Because multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are among the noteworthy adult mesenchymal stem cell populations for immune

  2. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells display impaired cytotoxic functions and reduced activation in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støy, Sidsel; Dige, Anders; Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard; Laursen, Tea Lund; Buus, Christian; Hokland, Marianne; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-02-15

    The dynamics and role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells in the life-threatening inflammatory disease alcoholic hepatitis is largely unknown. These cells directly kill infected and damaged cells through, e.g., degranulation and interferon-γ (IFNγ) production, but cause tissue damage if overactivated. They also assist tissue repair via IL-22 production. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the frequency, functionality, and activation state of such cells in alcoholic hepatitis. We analyzed blood samples from 24 severe alcoholic hepatitis patients followed for 30 days after diagnosis. Ten healthy abstinent volunteers and 10 stable abstinent alcoholic cirrhosis patients were controls. Using flow cytometry we assessed cell frequencies, NK cell degranulation capacity following K562 cell stimulation, activation by natural killer group 2 D (NKG2D) expression, and IL-22 and IFNγ production. In alcoholic hepatitis we found a decreased frequency of CTLs compared with healthy controls (P cells (P = 0.089). The NK cell degranulation capacity was reduced by 25% compared with healthy controls (P = 0.02) and by 50% compared with cirrhosis patients (P = 0.04). Accordingly, the NKG2D receptor expression was markedly decreased on NK cells, CTLs, and NKT cells (P cells were doubled compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05, all) but not different from cirrhosis patients. This exploratory study for the first time showed impaired cellular cytotoxicity and activation in alcoholic hepatitis. This is unlikely to cause hepatocyte death but may contribute toward the severe immune incompetence. The results warrant detailed and mechanistic studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Human infection with Trypanosoma cruzi induces parasite antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Experimental models of Chagas' disease, an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, have demonstrated the crucial immunoprotective role played by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These cells dominate inflammatory foci in parasitized tissues and their elimination from mice leads to uncontrolled parasite replication and subsequent death of the infected host. A trypomastigote surface antigen, TSA-1, and two amastigote surface molecules, ASP-1 and ASP-2, were recently identified as...

  4. Most influenza A virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes react with antigenic epitopes associated with internal virus determinants

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows that most murine (C57BL/6) influenza A virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones tested in limiting dilution did not react with the influenza A virus surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). This lysis of syngeneic target cells infected with the influenza A virus strains, Aichi (H3N2), PR8 (H1N1), or recombinant strain X31 (H3N2) indicates that most antigenic epitopes recognized are associated with internal virus determinants. X31 and ...

  5. Consequences of cytotoxic T lymphocyte interaction with major histocompatibility complex class I-expressing neurons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, G F; Mucke, L; Oldstone, M B

    1995-11-01

    Neurons have evolved strategies to evade immune surveillance that include an inability to synthesize the heavy chain of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC), proteins that are necessary for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition of target cells. Multiple viruses have taken advantage of the lack of CTL-mediated recognition and killing of neurons by establishing persistent neuronal infections and thereby escaping attack by antiviral CTL. We have expressed a class I MHC molecule (Db) in neurons of transgenic mice using the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter to determine the pathogenic consequences of CTL recognition of virally infected, MHC-expressing central nervous system (CNS) neurons. The NSE-Db transgene was expressed in H-2b founder mice, and transgene-derived messenger RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in transgenic brains from several lines. Purified primary neurons from transgenic but not from nontransgenic mice adhered to coverslips coated with a conformation-dependent monoclonal antibody directed against the Dv molecule and presented viral peptide to CTL in an MHC-restricted manner, indicating that the Db molecule was expressed on transgenic neurons in a functional form. Transgenic mice infected with the neurotropic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and given anti-LCMV, MHC-restricted CTL displayed a high morbidity and mortality when compared with controls receiving MHC-mismatched CTL or expressing alternative transgenes. After CTL transfer, transgenic brains showed an increased number of CD8+ cells compared with nontransgenic controls as well as an increased rate of clearance of infectious virus from the CNS. Additionally, an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability was detected during viral clearance in NSE-Db transgenic mice and lasted several months after clearance of virus from neurons. In contrast, LCMV-infected, nontransgenic littermates and mice expressing other gene products from the

  6. Dynamic visualization the whole process of cytotoxic T lymphocytes killing the B16 tumor cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuhong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) played a key role in the immune system to destroy the tumor cells. Although some mechanisms of CTLs killing the tumor cells are revealed already, the dynamic information of CTLs interaction with tumor cells are still not known very clearly. Here we used confocal microscopy to visualize the whole process of CTLs killing the tumor cells in vitro. The imaging data showed that CTLs destroyed the target tumor cells rapidly and efficiently. Several CTLs surrounded one or some tumor cells and the average time for CTLs destroying one tumor cell is just a few minutes in vitro. The study displayed the temporal events of CTLs interacting with tumor cells at the beginning and finally killing them and directly presented the efficient tumor cell cytotoxicity of the CTLs. The results helped us to deeply understand the mechanism of the CTLs destroying the tumor cells and to develop the cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Enhancement of lytic activity of leukemic cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated against a WT1 peptide analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qudaihi, Ghofran; Lehe, Cynthia; Negash, Muna; Al-Alwan, Monther; Ghebeh, Hazem; Mohamed, Said Yousuf; Saleh, Abu-Jafar Mohammed; Al-Humaidan, Hind; Tbakhi, Abdelghani; Dickinson, Anne; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Dermime, Said

    2009-02-01

    The Wilms tumor antigen 1 (WT1) antigen is over-expressed in human leukemias, making it an attractive target for immunotherapy. Most WT1-specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs) described so far displayed low avidity, limiting its function. To improve the immunogenicity of CTL epitopes, we replaced the first-amino-acid of two known immunogenic WT1-peptides (126 and 187) with a tyrosine. This modification enhances 126Y analogue-binding ability, triggers significant number of IFN-gamma-producing T cells (P = 0.0003), induces CTL that cross-react with the wild-type peptide, exerts a significant lytic activity against peptide-loaded-targets (P = 0.0006) and HLA-A0201-matched-leukemic cells (P = 0.0014). These data support peptide modification as a feasible approach for the development of a leukemia-vaccine.

  8. Revival of the identification of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes for immunological diagnosis, therapy and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Shihong; Tan, Shuguang; Zheng, Beiwen; Gao, George F

    2011-03-01

    Immunogenic T-cell epitopes have a central role in the cellular immunity against pathogens and tumors. However, in the early stage of cellular immunity studies, it was complicated and time-consuming to identify and characterize T-cell epitopes. Currently, the epitope screening is experiencing renewed enthusiasm due to advances in novel techniques and theories. Moreover, the application of T-cell epitope-based diagnoses for tuberculosis and new data on epitope-based vaccine development have also revived the field. There is a growing knowledge on the emphasis of epitope-stimulated T-cell immune responses in the elimination of pathogens and tumors. In this review, we outline the significance of the identification and characterization of T-cell epitopes. We also summarize the methods and strategies for epitope definition and, more importantly, address the relevance of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes to clinical diagnoses, therapy and vaccine development.

  9. Identification of the epitopes on HCV core protein recognized by HLA-A2 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Chao Zhou; De-Zhong Xu; Xue-Ping Wang; Jing-Xia Zhang; Ying-Huang; Yong-Ping Yan; Yong Zhu; Bo-Quan Jin

    2001-01-01

    AIM To identify hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein epitopes recognized by HLA-A2 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). METHODS Utilizing the method of computer prediction followed by a 4 h 51 Cr-release assay confirmation. RESULTS The results showed that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from two HLA-A2 positive donors who were infected with HCV could lyse autologous target cells labeled with peptide "ALAHGVFAL (core TS0-158)".The rates of specific lysis of the cells from the two donors were 37.5% and 15.8%,respectively. Blocking of the CTL response with anti-CD4 mAb caused no significant decrease of the specific lysis.But blocking of CTL response with anti-CD8 mAb could abolish the Iysis. CONCLUSION The peptide (core 150 - 158 ) is the candidate epitope recognized by HLA-A2 restricted CTL.

  10. Measuring melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes elicited by dendritic cell vaccines with a tumor inhibition assay in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Sophie; Shi, Honhgzhen; Saito, Hiroaki; Mannoni, Patrice; Fay, Joseph; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A Karolina

    2005-01-01

    Improving cancer vaccines depends on assays measuring elicited tumor-specific T-cell immunity. Cytotoxic effector cells are essential for tumor clearance and are commonly evaluated using 51Cr release from labeled target cells after a short (4 hours) incubation with T cells. The authors used a tumor inhibition assay (TIA) that assesses the capacity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to control the survival/growth of EGFP-labeled tumor cell lines. TIA was validated using CD8+ T cells primed in vitro against melanoma and breast cancer cells. TIA was then used to assess the CTL function of cultured CD8+ T cells isolated from patients with metastatic melanoma who underwent vaccination with peptide-pulsed CD34+ HPCs-derived DCs. After the DC vaccination, T cells from six of eight patients yielded CTLs that could inhibit the survival/growth of melanoma cells. The results of TIA correlated with killing of tumor cells in a standard 4-hour 51Cr release assay, yet TIA allowed detection of CTL activities that appeared marginal in the 51Cr release assay. Thus, TIA might prove valuable for measuring spontaneous and induced antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells.

  11. Regulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes induced by dendritic cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOLi-Zhen; LINZhi-Bin

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the regulatory effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides(Gl-PS)on cytotoxicity and mechanism of specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes(CTL)induced by dendritic cells(DC)in vitro during the stage of antigen presentation.METHODS:Cultured murine bone marrow-derived DC were pulsed with P815 tumor cell lysates and co-incubated with or without various concentrations of Gl-PS(0.8,3.2,or 12.8mg/L)at the same time.P815 specific CTL were induced by spleen lymphocytes stimulated with mature DC.Non-adherent cells and culture supernatants were harvested on d 5 for analysis of specific cytotoxicity with lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)activity assay,mRNA expression of IFNγ,granzyme B with RT-PCR assay,and protein expression of IFNγ,granzyme B with ELISA or Western blot assay,respectively,RESULTS:Three concentrations of Gl-PS promoted LDH activities released into culture supernatants(P<0.01).It also increased mRNA expression of IFNγin CTL(Gl-PS 12.8mg/L vs RPMI medium 1640,P<0.05)and granzyme B in CTL(P<0.01).Protein production of IFNγin culture supernatants(P<0.05)and protein expression of granzyme B in CTL(Gl-PS 12.8mg/L vs RPMI medium 1640,P<0.05)were also augmented by Gl-PS,CONCLUSION:Gl-PS is shown to promote the cytotoxicity of specific CTL induced by DC which were pulsed with P815 tumor antigen during the stage of antigen presentation,and the mechanism of cytotoxicity is believed to be going through IFNγ and granzyme B pathways.

  12. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Xin; Mei, Zhen-Yang; Zhou, Ji-Hao; Yao, Yu-Shi; Li, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yi-Han; Li, Jing-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Min-Hang; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Gao, Li; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xue-Chun; Shi, Jin-Long; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Li-Li; Qu, Chunfeng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+) T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC, a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia (AML and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+, but not CD4(+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Identification of a nonameric H-2Kk-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, A; Houghten, R; Corradin, G

    1995-01-01

    Class I-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) protect mice against the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and vaccines designed to produce protective CTL against the P. falciparum CSP (PfCSP) are under development. Humans and B10.BR (H-2k...

  15. The loss of immunodominant epitopes affects interferon-γ production and lytic activity of the human influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.M. Berkhoff (Eufemia); M.M. Geelhoed-Mieras (Martina); E.J. Verschuren (Esther); C.A. van Baalen (Carel); R.A. Gruters (Rob); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study, we examined the effect of the loss of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*3501-restricted nucleoprotein (NP)418-426epitope on interferon (IFN)-γ-production and lytic activity of the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in vitro. Extensive amino acid variation

  16. Persistent virus infection despite chronic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation in gamma interferon-deficient mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Wodarz, D;

    2000-01-01

    ). While wild-type mice rapidly cleared the infection, IFN-gamma -/- mice became chronically infected. Virus persistence in the latter mice did not reflect failure to generate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) effectors, as an unimpaired primary CTL response was observed. Furthermore, while ex vivo CTL activity...

  17. Spontaneous human squamous cell carcinomas are killed by a human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone recognizing a wild-type p53-derived peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Hald, J; Guldberg, Per

    1996-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone generated in vitro from the peripheral blood of a healthy HLA-A2-positive individual against a synthetic p53 protein-derived wild-type peptide (L9V) was shown to kill squamous carcinoma cell lines derived from two head and neck carcinomas, which expressed mutant...

  18. The presence of protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes does not correlate with shorter lifespans of productively infected cells in HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hilde B; Mudrikova, Tania; Schellens, Ingrid M M; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Prins, Jan M; Feuth, Thijs; Spierings, Erik; Nijhuis, Monique; van Baarle, Debbie; Borghans, José A M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are important in the control of HIV infection. Although CTL are thought to reduce the lifespan of productively infected cells, CD8+ T-cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus-macaques showed no effect on the lifespan of

  19. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD4 epitope mutations in the pre-core/core region of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis B carriers in Northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhand, Sareh; Tabarraei, Alijan; Nazari, Amineh; Moradi, Abdolvahab

    2017-07-25

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is vulnerable to many various mutations. Those within epitopes recognized by sensitized T cells may influence the re-emergence of the virus. This study was designed to investigate the mutation in immune epitope regions of HBV pre-core/core among chronic HBV patients of Golestan province, Northeast Iran. In 120 chronic HBV carriers, HBV DNA was extracted from blood plasma samples and PCR was done using specific primers. Direct sequencing and alignment of the pre-core/core region were applied using reference sequence from Gene Bank database (Accession Number AB033559). The study showed 27 inferred amino acid substitutions, 9 of which (33.3%) were in CD4 and 2 (7.4%) in cytotoxic T lymphocytes' (CTL) epitopes and 16 other mutations (59.2%) were observed in other regions. CTL escape mutations were not commonly observed in pre-core/core sequences of chronic HBV carriers in the locale of study. It can be concluded that most of the inferred amino acid substitutions occur in different immune epitopes other than CTL and CD4.

  20. Dendritic cells transduced with Rsf-1/HBXAP gene generate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes against ovarian cancer in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li [Department of Gynecology Oncology, Shan Dong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Kong, Beihua, E-mail: kongbeihua@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Sheng, Xiugui [Department of Gynecology Oncology, Shan Dong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan [Human Genetic Center, China Medical University Hospital and Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Shih, Ie-Ming [Departments of Pathology, Oncology, and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Recently, some studies have indicated that Rsf-1/HBXAP plays a role in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation that may contribute to tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer. The present study demonstrates that using dendritic cells (DCs) from human cord blood CD34{sup +} cells transduced with Rsf-1/HBXAP DNA plasmids by nucleofection generate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against ovarian cancer in vitro. After transfection, DCs were analyzed for Rsf-1/HBXAP mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. Then the DC phenotypes, T-cell stimulatory capacity, endocytic activity and migration capacity were explored by flow cytometry analysis, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, endocytosis and transwell chemotaxis assay, respectively. After transfection, Rsf-1/HBXAP expression was detected at mRNA and protein levels. Allogeneic T-cell proliferation induced by transfected DCs was obviously higher than non-transfected DCs, but the endocytosis capacity and migratory ability were not different. Rsf-1/HBXAP gene-transduced DCs could induce antigen-specific CTL and generate a very potent cytotoxicity to OVCAR3 cells. These data suggest that Rsf-1/HBXAP gene-transduced DCs may be a potential adjuvant immunotherapy for ovarian cancer in clinical applications.

  1. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes target airway CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells to suppress allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, N J; Hyde, E; Ghosh, S; Seo, K; Price, K M; Hoshino, K; Kaisho, T; Okada, T; Ronchese, F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is driven by the recognition of inhaled allergen by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the airway and lung. Allergen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can strongly reduce airway inflammation, however, the mechanism of their inhibitory activity is not fully defined. We used mouse models to show that allergen-specific CTLs reduced early cytokine production by Th2 cells in lung, and their subsequent accumulation and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In addition, treatment with specific CTLs also increased the proportion of caspase(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in mediastinal lymph node (MLN), and decreased the numbers of CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs in the lung. This decrease required expression of the cytotoxic mediator perforin in CTLs and of the appropriate MHC-antigen ligand on DCs, suggesting that direct CTL-DC contact was necessary. Lastly, lung imaging experiments revealed that in airway-challenged mice XCR1-GFP(+) DCs, corresponding to the CD103(+) DC subset, and XCR1-GFP(-) CD11c(+) cells, which include CD11b(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages, both clustered in the areas surrounding the small airways and were closely associated with allergen-specific CTLs. Thus, allergen-specific CTLs reduce allergic airway inflammation by depleting CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DC populations in the lung, and may constitute a mechanism through which allergic immune responses are regulated.

  2. Development of a serum-free medium for in vitro expansion of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes using a statistical design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gyun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum-containing medium (SCM, which has a number of poorly defined components with varying concentrations, hampers standardization of lymphocyte cultures. In order to develop a serum-free medium (SFM for the expansion of human lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, a statistical optimization approach based on a fractional factorial method and a response surface method was adopted. A basal medium was prepared by supplementing RPMI1640 medium with insulin, albumin, ferric citrate, ethanolamine, fatty acids, glutamine, sodium pyruvate, 2-mercaptoethanol, 1-thioglycerol, nonessential amino acids, and vitamins. We identified additional positive determinants and their optimal concentrations for cell growth through a statistical analysis. Results From a statistical analysis using the fractional factorial method, cholesterol and polyamine supplement were identified as positive determinants for cell growth. Their optimal concentrations were determined by the response surface method. The maximum viable cell concentration in the developed SFM was enhanced by more than 1.5-fold when compared to that in RPMI1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Furthermore, a cytotoxicity assay and an enzyme-linked immunospot assay revealed that the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated from PBMCs grown in SFM, by stimulation of peptide-presenting dendritic cells, was retained or even better than that in SCM. Conclusions The use of a developed SFM with cholesterol and polyamine supplement for human lymphocyte culture resulted in better growth without loss of cellular function when compared to SCM.

  3. Endocytosis of Cytotoxic Granules Is Essential for Multiple Killing of Target Cells by T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Fang; Bzeih, Hawraa; Schirra, Claudia; Chitirala, Praneeth; Halimani, Mahantappa; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Krause, Elmar; Rettig, Jens; Pattu, Varsha

    2016-09-15

    CTLs are serial killers that kill multiple target cells via exocytosis of cytotoxic granules (CGs). CG exocytosis is tightly regulated and has been investigated in great detail; however, whether CG proteins are endocytosed following exocytosis and contribute to serial killing remains unknown. By using primary CTLs derived from a knock-in mouse of the CG membrane protein Synaptobrevin2, we show that CGs are endocytosed in a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent manner. Following acidification, endocytosed CGs are recycled through early and late, but not recycling endosomes. CGs are refilled with granzyme B at the late endosome stage and polarize to subsequent synapses formed between the CTL and new target cells. Importantly, inhibiting CG endocytosis in CTLs results in a significant reduction of their cytotoxic activity. Thus, our data demonstrate that continuous endocytosis of CG membrane proteins is a prerequisite for efficient serial killing of CTLs and identify key events in this process.

  4. Increased breadth and depth of cytotoxic T lymphocytes responses against HIV-1-B Nef by inclusion of epitope variant sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Rolland

    Full Text Available Different vaccine approaches cope with HIV-1 diversity, ranging from centralized(1-4 to variability-encompassing(5-7 antigens. For all these strategies, a concern remains: how does HIV-1 diversity impact epitope recognition by the immune system? We studied the relationship between HIV-1 diversity and CD8(+ T Lymphocytes (CTL targeting of HIV-1 subtype B Nef using 944 peptides (10-mers overlapping by nine amino acids (AA that corresponded to consensus peptides and their most common variants in the HIV-1-B virus population. IFN-γ ELISpot assays were performed using freshly isolated PBMC from 26 HIV-1-infected persons. Three hundred and fifty peptides elicited a response in at least one individual. Individuals targeted a median of 7 discrete regions. Overall, 33% of responses were directed against viral variants but not elicited against consensus-based test peptides. However, there was no significant relationship between the frequency of a 10-mer in the viral population and either its frequency of recognition (Spearman's correlation coefficient ρ = 0.24 or the magnitude of the responses (ρ = 0.16. We found that peptides with a single mutation compared to the consensus were likely to be recognized (especially if the change was conservative and to elicit responses of similar magnitude as the consensus peptide. Our results indicate that cross-reactivity between rare and frequent variants is likely to play a role in the expansion of CTL responses, and that maximizing antigenic diversity in a vaccine may increase the breadth and depth of CTL responses. However, since there are few obvious preferred pathways to virologic escape, the diversity that may be required to block all potential escape pathways may be too large for a realistic vaccine to accommodate. Furthermore, since peptides were not recognized based on their frequency in the population, it remains unclear by which mechanisms variability-inclusive antigens (i.e., constructs enriched with

  5. A Well-Controlled Experimental System To Study Interactions Of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes With Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Jessica Neubert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While T cell-based immunotherapies are steadily improving, there are still many patients who progress, despite T cell-infiltrated tumors. Emerging evidence suggests that T cells themselves may provoke immune escape of cancer cells. Here we describe a well-controlled co-culture system for studying the dynamic T cell - cancer cell interplay, using human melanoma as a model. We explain starting material, controls and culture parameters to establish reproducible and comparable cultures with highly heterogeneous tumor cells. Low passage melanoma cell lines and melanoma-specific CD8+ T cell clones generated from patient blood were cultured together for up to three days. Living melanoma cells were isolated from the co-culture system by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We demonstrate that the characterization of isolated melanoma cells is feasible using flow cytometry for protein expression analysis as well as an Agilent whole human genome microarray and the NanoString Technology for differential gene expression analysis. In addition, we identify five genes (ALG12, GUSB, RPLP0, KRBA2 and ADAT2 that are stably expressed in melanoma cells independent of the presence of T cells or the T cell-derived cytokines IFNγ and TNFα. These genes are essential for correct normalization of gene expression data by NanoString. Further to the characterization of melanoma cells after exposure to CTLs, this experimental system might be suitable to answer a series of questions including how the affinity of CTLs for their target antigen influences the melanoma cell response and whether CTL-induced gene expression changes in melanoma cells are reversible. Taken together, our human T cell - melanoma cell culture system is well suited to characterize immune-related mechanisms in cancer cells.

  6. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 gene polymorphism is related to rheumatoid arthritis in Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Shaimaa A; Ghattas, Maivel H; Saleh, Samy M; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M

    2017-02-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a CD28-family receptor expressed on T-cells which suppresses T cell proliferation. CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism is involved in regulation of CTLA-4 expression. The study aimed to investigate the genetic association of CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the activity and severity of the disease in the Egyptian population. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs5742909) in CTLA-4 was genotyped in 100 RA patients and 100 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Diagnostic tests were measured for RA patients. The frequency of T allele in RA patients was significantly higher than in the control subjects (p = 0.002). CT and TT genotypes had high C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and disease activity score 28 while CC genotype had a high rheumatoid factor. A minor allele of CTLA-4 rs5742909 polymorphism was associated with RA and the activity but not the severity of the disease.

  7. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes promote cytarabine-induced acute myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis via inhibiting Bcl-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rui; Fan, Fang-Yi; Yi, Hai; Fu, Li; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Yi; Miao, Xiao-Juan; Shuai, Yan-Rong; He, Guang-Cui; Su, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains difficult to cure due to its drug tolerance and refractoriness. Immunotherapy is a growing area of cancer research, which has been applied for the treatment of numerous types of cancer, including leukemia. The present study generated AML cell-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro and investigated the effect of combining CTL treatment with one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of hematological malignancies, cytarabine, on AML cell apoptosis. Firstly, it was observed that monocyte-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors could be used to generate large numbers of CD3(+)CD8(+) CTLs through immune stimulation. These CD3(+)CD8(+) CTLs could effectively recognize and induce the apoptosis of human Kasumi-3 AML cells. In addition, cytarabine-induced AML cell apoptosis was enhanced by CTL treatment. Western blotting revealed that Bcl-2 expression was downregulated in AML cells following cytarabine and CTL treatment, indicating that the synergistic effect of this treatment on AML cell apoptosis is due to the downregulation of Bcl-2. These results highlight the potential application of CTL immunotherapy for the treatment of AML. Further studies optimizing the specificity and potency of CTLs, and identifying favorable combinations with other chemotherapeutic drug are required.

  8. Treatment of solid organ transplant recipients with autologous Epstein Barr virus–specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldo, Barbara; Goss, John A.; Hammer, Markus M.; Zhang, Lan; Lopez, Teresita; Gee, Adrian P.; Lin, Yu-Feng; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Reinke, Petra; Schubert, Stephan; Gottschalk, Stephen; Finegold, Milton J.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Heslop, Helen E.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the in vivo safety, efficacy, and persistence of autologous Epstein Barr virus (EBV)–specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for the treatment of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients at high risk for EBV-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). EBV-CTLs generated from 35 patients expanded with normal kinetics contained both CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes and produced significant specific killing of autologous EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Twelve SOT recipients at high risk for PTLD, or with active disease, received autologous CTL infusions without toxicity. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) monitoring of EBV-DNA showed a transient increase in plasma EBV-DNA suggestive of lysis of EBV-infected cells, although there was no consistent decrease in virus load in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. Interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay and tetramer analysis showed an increase in the frequency of EBV-responsive T cells, which returned to preinfusion levels after 2 to 6 months. None of the treated patients developed PTLD. One patient with liver PTLD showed a complete response, and one with ocular disease has had a partial response stable for over one year. These data are consistent with an expansion and persistence of adoptively transferred EBV-CTLs that is limited in the presence of continued immunosuppression but that nonetheless produces clinically useful antiviral activity. PMID:16835376

  9. Immunologic and clinical effects of antibody blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 in previously vaccinated cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodi, F Stephen; Butler, Marcus; Oble, Darryl A; Seiden, Michael V; Haluska, Frank G; Kruse, Andrea; Macrae, Suzanne; Nelson, Marybeth; Canning, Christine; Lowy, Israel; Korman, Alan; Lautz, David; Russell, Sara; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Chen, Teresa C; Neuberg, Donna; Allison, James P; Mihm, Martin C; Dranoff, Glenn

    2008-02-26

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) functions as a negative regulator of endogenous and vaccine-induced antitumor immunity. The administration of fully human anti-CTLA-4 blocking monoclonal antibodies to advanced-cancer patients increases immune-mediated tumor destruction in some subjects. Nonetheless, patients that respond also frequently manifest serious inflammatory pathologies, raising the possibility that the therapeutic and toxic effects of CTLA-4 blockade might be linked. Here we show that periodic infusions of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies after vaccination with irradiated, autologous tumor cells engineered to secrete GM-CSF (GVAX) generate clinically meaningful antitumor immunity without grade 3 or 4 toxicity in a majority of metastatic melanoma patients. The application of this sequential immunotherapy to advanced ovarian carcinoma patients also revealed that tumor destruction and severe inflammatory pathology could be dissociated, although further refinements are required to increase clinical responses and to minimize toxicity in this population. The extent of therapy-induced tumor necrosis was linearly related to the natural logarithm of the ratio of intratumoral CD8(+) effector T cells to FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in posttreatment biopsies. Together, these findings help clarify the immunologic and clinical effects of CTLA-4 antibody blockade in previously vaccinated patients and raise the possibility that selective targeting of antitumor Tregs may constitute a complementary strategy for combination therapy.

  10. FLT3-regulated antigens as targets for leukemia-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackertz, B; Conrad, H; Daniel, J; Kast, B; Krönig, H; Busch, D H; Adamski, J; Peschel, C; Bernhard, H

    2011-03-01

    The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Internal tandem duplications (ITD) of the juxtamembrane domain lead to the constitutive activation of the FLT3 kinase inducing the activation of multiple genes, which may result in the expression of leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs). We analyzed the regulation of LAA in FLT3-wild-type (WT)- and FLT3-ITD(+) myeloid cells to identify potential targets for antigen-specific immunotherapy for AML patients. Antigens, such as PR-3, RHAMM, Survivin, WT-1 and PRAME, were upregulated by constitutively active FLT3-ITD as well as FLT3-WT activated by FLT3 ligand (FL). Cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) clones against PR-3, RHAMM, Survivin and an AML-directed CTL clone recognized AML cell lines and primary AML blasts expressing FLT3-ITD, as well as FLT3-WT(+) myeloid dendritic cells in the presence of FL. Downregulation of FLT3 led to the abolishment of CTL recognition. Comparing our findings concerning LAA upregulation by the FLT3 kinase with those already made for the Bcr-Abl kinase, we found analogies in the LAA expression pattern. Antigens upregulated by both FLT3 and Bcr-Abl may be promising targets for the development of immunotherapeutical approaches against myeloid leukemia of different origin.

  11. Murine leukemia RL male 1 and sarcoma Meth A antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenaka, Akiko; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2003-11-01

    Peptide elution and expression cloning methods have been used to identify T cell-recognized antigens for which no molecular information is available. We identified a unique tumor antigen peptide pRL1a, IPGLPLSL that is recognized by CTL on BALB/c RL male 1 leukemia by peptide elution. The sequence of the peptide corresponded to the normally untranslated 5' region of akt. Cytotoxicity was generated in BALB/c spleen cells by in vivo and in vitro sensitization with pRL1a peptide in the form of multiple antigen peptide (MAP), but not the original form. pRL1a MAP immunization had a significant growth-inhibitory effect. pRL1a MAP was mostly internalized into the endosomal compartment of antigen-presenting cells, leaked to the cytosol, and degraded, and the pRL1a peptide produced was presented through the MHC class I pathway. In vivo depletion of CD4 T cells from tumor-inoculated BALB/c mice caused RL male 1 regression. Overexpression of the RLakt molecule seemed to induce CD4 immunoregulatory cells, which resulted in progressive RL male 1 growth in BALB/c mice. In vivo administration of anti-CD25 mAb (PC61) caused regression of RL male 1, suggesting that CD4(+) CD25(+) immunoregulatory cells were involved in the tumor growth. Recently, we improved the sensitivity and the efficacy of T cell antigen cloning from cDNA expression libraries by using large- and small-scale ELISPOT assays. Using the IFN-gamma ELISPOT method, we obtained a cDNA clone S35 of 937 bp recognized by AT-1 CTL on BALB/c Meth A sarcoma. S35 was a part of the retinoic acid-regulated nuclear matrix-associated protein (ramp). AT-1 CTL recognized the peptide LGAEAIFRL, which was derived from a newly created open reading frame due to the exon 14 extension.

  12. In vitro generation and characterization of acute myeloid leukemia-reactive CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones from healthy donors

    OpenAIRE

    Distler, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Donor-derived CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminating host leukemic cells mediate curative graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The leukemia-reactive CTLs recognize hematopoiesis-restricted or broadly expressed minor histocompatibility and leukemia-associated peptide antigens that are presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on recipient cells. The development of allogeneic CTL therapy in acute myelo...

  13. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Elimination of Target Cells Transduced with Engineered Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Vector In Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matt; DiPrimio, Nina; Asokan, Aravind; Goudy, Kevin; Tisch, Roland; Samulski, R. Jude

    2009-01-01

    A recent clinical trial in patients with hemophilia B has suggested that adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminated AAV-transduced hepatocytes and resulted in therapeutic failure. AAV capsids elicit a CTL response in animal models; however, these capsid-specific CTLs fail to kill AAV-transduced target cells in mice. To better model the human clinical trial data in mice, we introduced an immunodominant epitope derived from ovalbumin (OVA; SIINFEKL) i...

  14. Paraflagellar rod protein-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes target Trypanosoma cruzi-infected host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrightsman, Ruth A; Luhrs, Keith A; Fouts, David; Manning, Jerry E

    2002-08-01

    Our previous studies show that in mice immunized with the paraflagellar rod (PFR) proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi protective immunity against this protozoan parasite requires MHC class I-restricted T cell function. To determine whether PFR-specific CD8+ T cell subsets are generated during T. cruzi infection, potential CTL targets in the PFR proteins were identified by scanning the amino acid sequences of the four PFR proteins for regions of 8-10 amino acids that conform to predicted MHC class I H-2b binding motifs. A subset of the peptide sequences identified were synthesized and tested as target antigen in 51Cr-release assays with effector cells from chronically infected T. cruzi mice. Short-term cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines specific for two of the peptides, PFR-1(164-171) and PFR-3(123-130), showed high levels of lytic activity against peptide-pulsed target cells, secreted interferon (IFN)-gamma in response to parasite-infected target cells, and were found to be CD8+, CD4-, CD3+, TCRalphabeta+ cells of the Tc1 subset. Challenge of PFR immunized CD8-/- and perforin-deficient (PKO) mice confirmed that while CD8+ cells are required for survival of T. cruzi challenge infection, perforin activity is not required. Furthermore, while lytic activity of PFR-specific CD8+ T cell lines derived from PKO mice was severely impaired, the IFN-gamma levels secreted by CTLs from PKO mice were equivalent to that of normal mice, suggesting that the critical role played by CD8+ T cells in immunity to the parasite may be secretion of type 1 cytokines rather than lysis of parasite infected host cells.

  15. Identification of Melanoma-specific Peptide Epitopes by HLA-A2.1-restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Liang GE; Ying WANG; Shu-Jun WANG; Yong ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    HLA-A2.1-associated peptides, extracted from human melanoma cells, were used to study epitopes for melanoma-specific HLA-A2.1-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by epitope reconstitution, active peptide sequence characterization and synthetic peptide verification. CTL were generated from tumor-involved nodes by in vitro stimulation, initially with autologous melanoma cells and subsequently with allogeneic HLA-A2.1 positive melanoma cells. The CTLs could lyse autologous and allogeneic HLA-A2.1 positive melanomas, but not HLA-A2.1 negative melanomas or HLA-A2.1 positive non-melanomas. The lysis of melanomas could be inhibited by anti-CD3, anti-HLA class Ⅰ and anti-HLA-A2.1 monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2.1 molecules were purified from detergent-solubilized human melanoma cells by immunoaffinity column chromatography and further fractionated by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography.The fractions were assessed for their ability to reconstitute melanoma-specific epitopes with HLA-A2.1 positive antigen-processing mutant T2 cells. Three reconstitution peaks were observed in lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Mass spectrometry and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography analysis were used to identify peptide epitopes. Peptides with a mass-to-charge ratio of 948 usually consist of nine amino acid residues. The data from reconstitution experiments confirmed that the synthetic peptides contained epitopes and that the peptides associated with HLA-A2.1 and recognized by melanoma-specific CTL were present in these different melanoma cells. These peptides could be potentially exploited in novel peptide-based antitumor vaccines in immunotherapy for CTL.

  16. Identification of Immunogenic Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes Containing Drug Resistance Mutations in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Blanco-Heredia

    Full Text Available Therapeutic HIV vaccines may prove helpful to intensify antiretroviral treatment (ART efficacy and may be an integral part of future cure strategies.We examined IFN-gamma ELISpot responses to a panel of 218 HIV clade B consensus-based HIV protease-reverse transcriptase peptides, designed to mimic previously described and predicted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes overlapping drug resistance (DR positions, that either included the consensus sequence or the DR variant sequence, in 49 ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals. Next generation sequencing was used to assess the presence of minority DR variants in circulating viral populations.Although a wide spectrum of differential magnitudes of response to DR vs. WT peptide pairs was observed, responses to DR peptides were frequent and strong in the study cohort. No difference between the median magnitudes of response to DR vs. WT peptides was observed. Interestingly, of the 22 peptides that were recognized by >15% of the participants, two-thirds (64% corresponded to DR peptides. When analysing responses per peptide pair per individual, responses to only WT (median 4 pairs/individual or DR (median 6 pairs/individual were more common than responses to both WT and DR (median 2 pairs/individual; p<0.001. While the presence of ELISpot responses to WT peptides was frequently associated with the presence of the corresponding peptide sequence in the patient's virus (mean 68% of cases, responses to DR peptides were generally not associated with the presence of DR mutations in the viral population, even at low frequencies (mean 1.4% of cases; p = 0.0002.Our data suggests that DR peptides are frequently immunogenic and raises the potential benefit of broadening the antigens included in a therapeutic vaccine approach to immunogenic epitopes containing common DR sequences. Further studies are needed to assess the quality of responses elicited by DR peptides.

  17. Discovery of a Good Responder Subtype of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Signatures Activated by Chemoradiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Tanaka

    Full Text Available Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT is a less invasive therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Five-year survival rate of locally advanced ESCC patients by definitive CRT were 37%. We previously reported that tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL activation signatures were preferentially found in long-term survivors. However, it is unknown whether the CTL activation is actually driven by CRT. We compared gene expression profiles among pre- and post-treatment biopsy specimens of 30 ESCC patients and 121 pre-treatment ESCC biopsy specimens. In the complete response (CR cases, 999 overexpressed genes including at least 234 tumor-specific CTL-activation associated genes such as IFNG, PRF1, and GZMB, were found in post-treatment biopsy specimens. Clustering analysis using expression profiles of these 234 genes allowed us to distinguish the immune-activated cases, designating them as I-type, from other cases. However, despite the better CR rate in the I-type, overall survival was not significantly better in both these 30 cases and another 121 cases. Further comparative study identified a series of epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes overexpressed in the early relapse cases. Importantly, the clinical outcome of CDH2-negative cases in the I-type was significantly better than that of the CDH2-positive cases in the I-type. Furthermore, NK cells, which were activated by neutrophils-producing S100A8/S100A9, and CTLs were suggested to cooperatively enhance the effect of CRT in the CDH2-negative I-type. These results suggested that CTL gene activation may provide a prognostic advantage in ESCCs with epithelial characteristics.

  18. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-dependent tumor growth inhibition by a vascular endothelial growth factor-superantigen conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qingwen [Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jiang, Songmin [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Han, Baohui [Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Tongwen [Wuhan Junyu Innovation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Zhengnan; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Qiang [College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Sun, Jialin, E-mail: jialin_sun@126.com [Wuhan Junyu Innovation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct and purify a fusion protein VEGF-SEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around tumor cells bearing VEGFR by mice image model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester CTLs into the tumor site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced CTLs could release the cytokines, perforins and granzyme B to kill the tumor cells. -- Abstract: T cells are major lymphocytes in the blood and passengers across the tumor vasculature. If these T cells are retained in the tumor site, a therapeutic potential will be gained by turning them into tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). A fusion protein composed of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with a D227A mutation strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors (control versus VEGF-SEA treated with 15 {mu}g, mean tumor weight: 1.128 g versus 0.252 g, difference = 0.876 g). CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around VEGFR expressing tumor cells and the induced CTLs could release the tumoricidal cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Meanwhile, intratumoral CTLs secreted cytolytic pore-forming perforin and granzyme B proteins around tumor cells, leading to the death of tumor cells. The labeled fusion proteins were gradually targeted to the tumor site in an imaging mice model. These results show that VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester active infiltrating CTLs into the tumor site to kill tumor cells, and could therefore be a potential therapeutical drug for a variety of cancers.

  19. Novel plant virus-based vaccine induces protective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated antiviral immunity through dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Patrick; Denis, Jérôme; Lapointe, Réjean; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Currently used vaccines protect mainly through the production of neutralizing antibodies. However, antibodies confer little or no protection for a majority of chronic viral infections that require active involvement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to be efficient inducers of cell-mediated immune responses, but administration of an adjuvant is generally required. We recently reported the generation of a novel VLP system exploiting the self-assembly property of the papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) coat protein. We show here that uptake of PapMV-like particles by murine splenic dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo leads to their maturation, suggesting that they possess intrinsic adjuvant-like properties. DCs pulsed with PapMV-like particles displaying the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) p33 immunodominant CTL epitope (PapMV-p33) efficiently process and cross-present the viral epitope to p33-specific transgenic T cells. Importantly, the CTL epitope is also properly processed and presented in vivo, since immunization of p33-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice with PapMV-p33 induces the activation of large numbers of specific CTLs. C57BL/6 mice immunized with PapMV-p33 VLPs in the absence of adjuvant develop p33-specific effector CTLs that rapidly expand following LCMV challenge and protect vaccinated mice against LCMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate the efficiency of this novel plant virus-based vaccination platform in inducing DC maturation leading to protective CTL responses.

  20. Autoimmunity Correlates With Tumor Regression in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Treated With Anti–Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Peter; Phan, Giao Q.; Maker, Ajay V.; Robinson, Michael R.; Quezado, Martha M.; Yang, James C.; Sherry, Richard M.; Topalian, Suzanne L.; Kammula, Udai S.; Royal, Richard E.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Haworth, Leah R.; Levy, Catherine; Mavroukakis, Sharon A.; Nichol, Geoff; Yellin, Michael J.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Previously, we reported our experience treating 14 patients with metastatic melanoma using a fully human antibody to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (anti–CTLA-4) in conjunction with peptide vaccination. We have now treated 56 patients to evaluate two different dose schedules of anti–CTLA-4 and to explore the relationship between autoimmunity and tumor regression. Patients and Methods A total of 56 patients with progressive stage IV melanoma were enrolled onto the study. All had Karnofsky performance status ≥60% with no prior history of autoimmunity. Twenty-nine patients received 3 mg/kg anti–CTLA-4 every 3 weeks, whereas 27 received 3 mg/kg as their initial dose with subsequent doses reduced to 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks. In both cohorts patients received concomitant vaccination with two modified HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides from the gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, gp100:209-217(210M) and gp100:280-288(288V). Results Two patients achieved a complete response (ongoing at 30 and 31 months, respectively) and five patients achieved a partial response (durations of 4, 6, 25+, 26+, and 34+ months, respectively), for an overall objective response rate of 13%. Tumor regression was seen in lung, liver, brain, lymph nodes, and subcutaneous sites. Of 14 patients with grade 3/4 autoimmune toxicity, five (36%) experienced a clinical response compared with only two responses in the 42 patients (5%) with no autoimmune toxicity (P = .008). There were no significant differences in response rate or toxicity between the two dose schedules. Conclusion Administration of anti–CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody plus peptide vaccination can cause durable objective responses, which correlate with the induction of autoimmunity, in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:16087944

  1. Why do cytotoxic T lymphocytes fail to eliminate hepatitis C virus? Lessons from studies using major histocompatibility complex class I peptide tetramers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, F; Sullivan, J; Spiegel, H; Nixon, D F; Ferrari, B; Davis, A; Borkowsky, B; Pollack, H; Barnes, E; Dusheiko, G; Klenerman, P

    2000-08-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem, affecting an estimated 3% of the world's population, and over 10% in some countries. Infection in most cases becomes persistent, and can lead to hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and liver failure. The T lymphocyte reponse, in particular that mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), is likely to be involved in determining the outcome of infection, although its overall role is not clear. The use of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide tetrameric complexes (tetramers) to study antiviral CTL responses has revolutionized our approach to the study of human infection. We have used a panel of MHC class I tetramers to analyse immune responses in HCV-infected individuals at various stages of disease. We find that the CTL response against HCV is vigorous in its early phases but dwindles over time both in terms of lymphocyte number and function. A number of potential explanations for this 'CTL failure' are discussed.

  2. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4 and Thyroglobulin (TG Genetic Variants with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinal Patel

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hypothyroidism is known to be caused by immune responses related to the thyroid gland and its immunological feature includes presence of autoimmune antibodies. Therefore the aim was to analyze presence of anti-TPO antibodies in hypothyroidism patients in Gujarat. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4 is one of the susceptibility genes for various autoimmune diseases. Hence, exon1 +49A/G and 3'UTR CT60A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CTLA4 and its mRNA expression levels were investigated in autoimmune hypothyroidism patients. Thyroglobulin (TG is known to be associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders and thus exon 33 (E33 SNP in TG was investigated. We analyzed the presence of anti-TPO antibodies in the plasma samples of 84 hypothyroidism patients and 62 controls by ELISA. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of polymorphisms. sCTLA4 and flCTLA4 mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time PCR. 59.52% of hypothyroid patients had anti-TPO antibodies in their circulation. The genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly for +49A/G (p = 0.0004 for +49AG, p = 0.0019 for +49GG & p = 0.0004 for allele, CT60 (p = 0.0110 for CT60AG, p = 0.0005 for CT60GG & p<0.0001 for allele and TG E33 (p = 0.0003 for E33TC p<0.0001 for E33CC& p<0.0001 for allele SNPs between patients and controls. Patients had significantly decreased mRNA levels of both sCTLA4 (p = 0.0017 and flCTLA4 (p<0.0001 compared to controls. +49A/G and CT60 polymorphisms of CTLA4 were in moderate linkage disequilibrium. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association of CT49A/G, CT60A/G and TG exon 33 polymorphisms with susceptibility to autoimmune hypothyroidism when adjusted for age and gender. Our results suggest +49A/G and CT60 polymorphism of CTLA4 and E33 polymorphism of TG may be genetic risk factors for autoimmune hypothyroidism susceptibility and down regulation of both forms of CTLA4 advocates the crucial role of CTLA4 in

  3. Flavivirus-cross-reactive, HLA-DR15-restricted epitope on NS3 recognized by human CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, I; Okamoto, Y; Dai, L C; Zeng, L L; Brinton, M A; Ennis, F A

    1995-09-01

    The role of flavivirus-cross-reactive T lymphocytes in recovery from and pathogenesis of flavivirus infections is not known. In the present paper, we have defined a flavivirus-cross-reactive epitope recognized by two CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones, JK4 and JK43. The T cell clones were established from the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of a dengue-4-immune donor, using a limiting-dilution method with dengue-4 antigen. These two T cell clones were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1, 2, 3 and 4, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus, and recognized NS3 protein. The smallest synthetic peptide recognized by these T cell clones was an identical 9 amino acid peptide which contains amino acids 146 to 154 (VIGLYGNGV) of dengue-4 NS3. HLA-DR15 was the restriction allele for recognition of this epitope by JK4 and JK43. JK4 and JK43 both used T cell receptor V alpha 8, but JK4 used V beta 8 and JK43 used V beta 2. This result indicates that this epitope is recognized by two flavivirus-cross-reactive CD4+ T cell clones which originated from different T cells in vivo.

  4. Definition of an epitope on NS3 recognized by human CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones cross-reactive for dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, I; Zeng, L; Brinton, M A; Ennis, F A

    1998-01-20

    The role of dengue virus-specific serotype-cross-reactive T lymphocytes in recovery from and pathogenesis of dengue virus infections is not known. In the present paper, we have defined a dengue serotype-cross-reactive epitope recognized by two CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones, JK36 and JK46. These T cell clones were established from the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of a dengue-3-immune donor, using a limiting dilution method. JK36 and JK46 were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4, but not for type 1, and recognized the NS3 protein. The smallest synthetic peptide recognized by JK36 was an 8-amino acid peptide that contains amino acids (aa) 226 to 233 (VVAAEMEE) of NS3. The smallest peptide recognized by JK46 was an 11-amino acid peptide that contains aa 224 to 234 (TRVVAAEMEEA). HLA-DR15 was the restriction allele for recognition of these peptides by both JK36 and JK46. This is the first epitope to be defined that is recognized by human CD4+ CTL cross-reactive for dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4.

  5. Applying generalized hydrophobicity scale of amino acids to quantitative prediction of human leukocyte antigen-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; TIAN Feifei; ZHANG Mengjun; LI Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Derived from 149 hydrophobic factors of 20 natural amino acids, a novel amino acid descriptor termed as generalized hydrophobicity scale (GH-scale) was proposed by principal component analysis (PCA). Via genetic algorithm-partial least square (GPLS) method, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was constructed by GH-scale for 152 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes with the model estimated and cross-validated correlative coefficients of R2 = 0.813 and Q2 = 0.725, respectively. It was indicated that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in HLA-A*0201-CTL interaction, prominently at anchor residues.

  6. A single nine-amino acid peptide induces virus-specific, CD8+ human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones of heterogeneous serotype specificities

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    It is generally accepted that virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize nine-amino acid peptides in conjunction with HLA class I molecules. We recently reported that dengue virus- specific CD8+ CTLs of two different serotype specificities, which were established by stimulation with dengue virus, recognize a single nine- amino acid peptide of the nonstructural protein NS3 of dengue virus type 4 (D4V) in an HLA-B35-restricted fashion. To further analyze the relationships betw...

  7. Attachment of an anti-receptor antibody to non-target cells renders them susceptible to lysis by a clone of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, D M; Tonegawa, S.; Eisen, H N

    1984-01-01

    The molecular basis for the dependence of antigen recognition by T cells on products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is unknown, and the antigenic structures that are actually bound by T-cell receptors are ill-defined. In this study, we asked whether a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that reacts with the T-cell receptor of a clone of murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and not with the receptors of other CTL clones can substitute for that clone's natural ligand in specific cytolytic ...

  8. In-vitro activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by fusion of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells and lymphotactin gene-modified dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in-vitro activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by fusion of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and lymphotactin gene-modified dendritic cells (DCs).METHODS: Lymphotactin gene modified DCs (DCLptn) were prepared by lymphotactin recombinant adenovirus transduction of mature DCs which differentiated from mouse bone marrow cells by stimulation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). DCLptn and H22 fusion was prepared using 50% PEG. Lymphotactin gene and protein expression levels were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Lymphotactin chemotactic responses were examined by in-vitro chemotaxis assay. In-vitro activation of CTLs by DCLptn/H22 fusion was measured by detecting CD25 expression and cytokine production after autologous T cell stimulation. Cytotoxic function of activated T lymphocytes stimulated with DCLptn/H22 cells was determined by LDH cytotoxicity assay.RESULTS: Lymphotactin gene could be efficiently transduced to DCs by adenovirus vector and showed an effective biological activity. After fusion, the hybrid DCLptn/H22 cells acquired the phenotypes of both DCLptn and H22 cells. In T cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry showed a very high CD25 expression, and cytokine release assay showed a significantly higher concentration of IFN-γ and IL-2 in DCLptn/H22 group than in DCLptn, DCLptn+H22, DC/H22 or H22 groups. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that T cells derived from DCLptn/H22 group had much higher anti-tumor activity than those derived from DCLptn, H22, DCLptn + H22, DC/H22 groups.CONCLUSION: Lymphotactin gene-modified dendritoma induces T-cell proliferation and strong CTL reaction against allogenic HCC cells. Immunization-engineered fusion hybrid vaccine is an attractive strategy in prevention and treatment of HCC metastases.

  9. Efficient lysis of epithelial ovarian cancer cells by MAGE-A3-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes using rAAV-6 capsid mutant vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchu, Ramesh B; Gruzdyn, Oksana V; Moreno-Bost, Amberly M; Szmania, Susann; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Srivastava, Arun; Kolli, Bala K; Weaver, Donald W; van Rhee, Frits; Gruber, Scott A

    2014-02-12

    MAGE-A3 is highly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), making it a promising candidate for immunotherapy. We investigated whether dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a rAAV-6 capsid mutant vector Y445F could elicit effective MAGE-A3-specific anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vitro. MAGE-A3 was cloned and rAAV-6-MAGE-A3 purified, followed by proviral genome detection using real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence detection of rAAV-6-Y445F-MAGE-A3-transduced DCs demonstrated 60% transduction efficiency. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis confirmed chromosomal integration of rAAV vectors. Flow cytometric analysis of transduced DCs showed unaltered expression of critical monocyte-derived surface molecules with retention of allo-stimulatory activity. Co-culture of autologous T lymphocytes with MAGE-A3-expressing DCs produced CTLs that secreted IFN-γ, and efficiently killed MAGE-A3+ EOC cells. This form of rAAV-based DC immunotherapy, either alone or more likely in combination with other immune-enhancing protocols, may prove useful in the clinical setting for management of EOC.

  10. No association of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated gene CTLA4 +49A/G polymorphisms with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Hungarian population samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Magyari; Béla Melegh; Bernadett Faragó; Judit Bene; Katalin Horvatovich; Lilla Lakner; Márta Varga; Mária Figler; Beáta Gasztonyi; Gyula Mózsik

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The goal of the current work was to analyse the prevalence of the +49A/G variant of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4) in Hungarian patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: A total of 130 unrelated subjects with CD and 150 with UC, and 170 matched controls were genotyped for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).The genotypes were determined by using PCR/RFLP test.RESULTS: The G allele frequency and the prevalence of the GG genotype were 38.1% and 12.3% in the CD group, 40.6% and 18.6% in the UC patients, and 37.4%and 15.9% in the control group, respectively.CONCLUSION: The results of the current study show that carriage of the +49G SNP in heterozygous or in homozygous form does not confer risk either for CD or for UC in the Hungarian population.

  11. Suppressor T cells, distinct from "veto cells," are induced by alloantigen priming and mediate transferable suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Crispe, I N

    1985-01-01

    Primary and secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to minor alloantigens can be suppressed by priming host mice with a high dose (10(8) cells) of alloantigenic donor spleen cells (SC). Such suppression is antigen specific and transferable into secondary hosts with T cells. One interpretation...... of this is that antigen-specific host suppressor T cells (Ts) are activated. Alternatively, donor Lyt-2+ T cells, introduced in the priming inoculum, may inactivate host CTL precursors (CTLp) that recognize the priming (donor) alloantigens. Donor cells that act in this way are termed veto T cells. The experiments...... for the transfer of suppression of a secondary CTL response to B10 minors was of the host Thy-1 allotype, and so originated in the host spleen and was not introduced in the priming inoculum. Secondly, antigen-specific Ts generated in CBA female mice against B10 minors could act on CTL responses to an unequivocally...

  12. Artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing AFP(158-166) peptide and interleukin-15 activate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zhixiang; He, Xianghui

    2016-04-05

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are potent generators of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for adoptive immunotherapy; however, generation of APCs is cumbersome, expensive, and subject to the tumor microenvironment. Artificial APCs (aAPCs) have been developed as a cost-effective alternative to APCs. We developed a cellular aAPC that efficiently generated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific CTLs. We genetically modified the human B cell lymphoma cell line BJAB with a lentiviral vector to establish an aAPC called BA15. The expression of AFP(158-166)-HLA-A*02:01 complex, CD80, CD86, and interleukin (IL)-15 in BA15 cells was assessed. The efficiency of BA15 at generating AFP-specific CTLs and the specific cytotoxicity of CTLs against AFP+ cells were also determined. BA15 cells expressed high levels of AFP(158-166) peptide, HLA-A2, CD80, CD86, and IL-15. BA15 cells also exhibited higher efficiency in generating AFP-specific CTLs than did dendritic cells. These CTLs had greater cytotoxicity against AFP+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells than did CTLs obtained from dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo. Our novel aAPC system could provide a robust platform for the generation of functional AFP-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Artificial antigen-presenting cells plus IL-15 and IL-21 efficiently induce melanoma-specific cytotoxic CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yu; Yuan Fang; Xi Li; Nuo Zhou; Yong-Xiang Zhao; Xiao-Ling Lu; Jian He; Sodaly Mongkhoune; Yi Peng; Yuan Xie; Jing Su; Su-Fang Zhou; Xiao-Xun Xie; Guo-Rong Luo

    2013-01-01

    To develop a novel artificial antigen-presenting system for efficiently inducing melanoma-specific CD8+CD28+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Methods: Cell-sized Dynabeads® M-450 Epoxy beads coated with H-2Kb:Ig-TRP2180-188 and anti-CD28 antibody were used as artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) to induce melanoma-specific CD8+CD28+CTL responses with the help of IL-21 and IL-15. Dimer staining, proliferation, ELISPOT, and cytotoxicity experiments were conducted to evaluate the frequency and activity of induced CTLs. Results: Dimer staining demonstrated that the new artificial antigen-presenting system efficiently induced melanoma TRP2-specific CD8+CD28+ CTLs. Proliferation and ELISPOT assays indicated that the induced CTLs rapidly proliferate and produce increased IFN-γ under the stimulation of H-2Kb:Ig-TRP2-aAPCs, IL-15, and IL-21. In addition, cytotoxicity experiments showed that induced CTLs have specific killing activity of target cells. Conclusions: The new artificial antigen-presenting system including aAPCs plus IL-21 and IL-15 can induce a large number of antigen-specific CD8+CD28+ CTLs against the melanoma. Our study provides evidence for a novel adoptive immunotherapy against tumors.

  14. Monoclonal antibody against IFN-gamma inhibits Moloney murine sarcoma virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanovello, P.; Vallerani, E.; Biasi, G.; Landolfo, S.; Collavo, D.

    1988-02-15

    The role of autochthonous IFN- production was evaluated in immune reactions to Moloney murine sarcoma virus (M-MSV)-induced tumors which are characterized by spontaneous regression mainly caused by virus-specific CTL activity. A functional IFN- depletion, induced by repeated administration of mAb anti-IFN- at the site of virus inoculation, prevented tumor regression in M-MSV-injected mice. Moreover, this antibody inhibited in vitro both proliferation and differentiation of M-MSV-specific T lymphocytes obtained in bulk cultures, but not growth and lytic activity of the already differentiated virus-specific CTL clone CHM-14 stimulated with rIL-2 and relevant tumor Ag. In addition, in mice receiving mAb treatment the frequency of M-MSV-specific CTL precursors, evaluated by means of limiting dilution analysis, was strongly reduced in comparison with that of control mice injected only with virus. Because CTL secrete IFN- following antigenic stimulation, the possibility that non-T effector cells recruited by this lymphokine might mediate tumor regression was also considered. Adoptive immunotherapy experiments, performed in T cell-deficient (Tx + BM) and in sublethally irradiated mice, demonstrated that transfer of CHM-14 CTL clone, which secretes IFN-, was able to counteract M-MSV tumor growth despite the local mAb anti-IFN- treatment which may have prevented host cell recruitment. Moreover, repeated local rIFN- inoculations in Tx + BM mice did not counteract M-MSV tumor progression, thus confirming that other IFN- properties such as non-T cell recruitment, antiviral or anti-proliferative IFN- activities have little or no relevance when M-MSV-specific CTL are lacking. On the whole, these results indicate that in M-MSV-injected mice, tumor enhancement after mAb anti-IFN- treatment is principally caused by impaired differentiation of virus-specific CTL precursors.

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Gene 3 (EBI3) Blocking Leads to Induce Antitumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Suppress Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer by Bidirectional Reciprocal-Regulation STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanfang; Chen, Qianqian; Du, Wenjing; Chen, Can; Li, Feifei; Yang, Jingying; Peng, Jianyu; Kang, Dongping; Lin, Bihua; Chai, Xingxing; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) is a member of the interleukin-12 (IL-12) family structural subunit and can form a heterodimer with IL-27p28 and IL-12p35 subunit to build IL-27 and IL-35, respectively. However, IL-27 stimulates whereas IL-35 inhibits antitumor T cell responses. To date, little is known about the role of EBI3 in tumor microenvironment. In this study, firstly we assessed EBI3, IL-27p28, IL-12p35, gp130, and p-STAT3 expression with clinicopathological parameters of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues; then we evaluated the antitumor T cell responses and tumor growth with a EBI3 blocking peptide. We found that elevated EBI3 may be associated with IL-12p35, gp130, and p-STAT3 to promote CRC progression. EBI3 blocking peptide promoted antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response by inducing Granzyme B, IFN-γ production, and p-STAT3 expression and inhibited CRC cell proliferation and tumor growth to associate with suppressing gp130 and p-STAT3 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that EBI3 may mediate a bidirectional reciprocal-regulation STAT3 signaling pathway to assist the tumor escape immune surveillance in CRC. PMID:27247488

  16. The susceptibility to cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated lysis of chemically induced sarcomas from immunodeficient and normal mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, I M; Engel, A M; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1997-01-01

    tested for susceptibility to cytolysis by virus specific cytotoxic T cells. Tumour cells originating from tumours induced in immunocompetent C.B.-17 mice presented virus antigen more efficiently than tumour cells from immunodeficient SCID mice. No significant difference in virus antigen presentation...

  17. Tracking in vivo migration and distribution of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining during cancer immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-li; LI Suo-lin; WEN Ming; WEN Jun-ye; HAN Jie; ZHANG Hong-zhen; GAO Fei

    2013-01-01

    Background Killing of targeted tumors during adoptive cell transfer therapy is associated with cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) numbers,immunophenotype,tumor-specificity,and in vivo residence time,migration,and distribution.Therefore,tracing in vivo persistence,migration,and distribution of CTLs is important for cancer immunotherapy.Methods Optimal staining concentration for CTL proliferation was determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and killing efficiencies of CTLs or carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CFSE-CTLs) for malignant melanoma cells in vitro were compared.Additionally,CFSE-CTLs were intravenously transfused to mice receiving B16 melanoma,and their residence time,migration,and distribution in vivo were observed by measuring fluorescence intensities of CFSE-CTLs per gram of tissue (%FI/g) in various tissues and analyzing tumor/non-tumor (T/NT) values.Anti-tumor effects of transferred CTLs and correlation between %FI/g and D-value of tumor size were analyzed.Results Five-micromolar CFSE was optimal for labeling CTLs with minimal cytotoxicity.No significant difference occurred between CTLs and CFSE-CTLs for tumor cell killing (P=0.849) or interleukin-2 (P=0.318) and interferon-y (P=0.201)levels.Distribution of CTLs in vivo varied with time.A negative correlation between %FI/g in tumors and D-value of tumor sizes by Spearman correlation analysis was observed.CTLs were recruited to and killed tumors from 6 hours to 3 days after cell infusion.CTLs were observed up to three weeks later in the tumor,liver,kidneys,and spleen; this was related to the abundant blood supply or the nature of immune organs.Conclusions CCK-8 assay is a novel method to select optimal CFSE staining concentrations.Fluorescence intensity of transferred CTLs reflects their killing efficiency of tumors.CFSE fluorescent markers can trace in vivo CTL persistence,migration,and distribution because of its

  18. Identification of two epitopes on the dengue 4 virus capsid protein recognized by a serotype-specific and a panel of serotype-cross-reactive human CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones.

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, S J; Zeng, W.; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the CD4+ T-lymphocyte response of a donor who had received an experimental live-attenuated dengue 4 virus (D4V) vaccine. Bulk culture proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to noninfectious dengue virus (DV) antigens showed the highest proliferation to D4V antigen, with lesser, cross-reactive proliferation to D2V antigen. We established CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones (CTL) by stimulation with D4 antigen. Using recombinant baculovirus antigens, we ...

  19. Dendritic cells engineered to secrete anti-DcR3 antibody augment cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against pancreatic cancer in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhao, Jia-Jun; Xu, Wen-Da

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against pancreatic cancer (PC) in vitro induced by dendritic cells (DCs) engineered to secrete anti-DcR3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). METHODS DCs, T lymphocytes and primary PC cells were obtained from PC patients. DCs were transfected with a designed humanized anti-DcR3 monoclonal antibody heavy and light chain mRNA and/or total tumor RNA (DC-tumor-anti-DcR3 RNA or DC-total tumor RNA) by using electroporation technology. The identification, concentration and function of anti-DcR3 mAb secreted by DC-tumor-anti-DcR3 RNA were determined by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After co-culturing of autologous isolated PC cells with target DCs, the effects of secreting anti-DcR3 mAb on RNA-DCs’ viability and apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Analysis of enhanced antigen-specific immune response against PC induced by anti-DcR3 mAb secreting DCs was performed using a 51Cr releasing test. T cell responses induced by RNA-loaded DCs were analyzed by measuring cytokine levels, including IFN-γ, IL-10, IL4, TNF-α and IL-12. RESULTS The anti-DcR3 mAb secreted by DCs reacted with recombinant human DcR3 protein and generated a band with 35 kDa molecular weight. The secreting mAb was transient, peaking at 24 h and becoming undetectable after 72 h. After co-incubation with DC-tumor-anti-DcR3 RNA for designated times, the DcR3 level in the supernatant of autologous PC cells was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). DCs secreting anti-DcR3 mAb could improve cell viability and slow down the apoptosis of RNA-loaded DCs, compared with DC-total tumor RNA (P < 0.01). The anti-DcR3 mAb secreted by DC-tumor-anti-DcR3 RNA could enhance the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) activity toward RNA-transfected DCs, primary tumor cells, and PC cell lines, compared with CTLs stimulated by DC-total tumor RNA or control group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the antigen-specific CTL responses

  20. The PD-1/PD-L1 (B7-H1 Pathway in Chronic Infection-Induced Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Hofmeyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTLs play a pivotal role in the control of infection. Activated CTLs, however, often lose effector function during chronic infection. PD-1 receptor and its ligand PD-L1 of the B7/CD28 family function as a T cell coinhibitory pathway and are emerging as major regulators converting effector CTLs into exhausted CTLs during chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and other pathogens capable of establishing chronic infections. Importantly, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is able to restore functional capabilities to exhausted CTLs and early clinical trials have shown promise. Further research will reveal how chronic infection induces upregulation of PD-1 on CTLs and PD-L1 on antigen-presenting cells and other tissue cells and how the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction promotes CTLs exhaustion, which is crucial for developing effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against chronic infections.

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of MUC1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD137 co-stimulation in a spontaneous breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pinku; Tinder, Teresa L; Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Chen, Lieping; Gendler, Sandra J

    2004-01-01

    To study immunology in breast tumors, we have utilized a mammary gland adenocarcinoma model in which mice develop spontaneous tumors of the mammary gland which are initiated at puberty and express a human tumor antigen, MUC1. MUC1 (CD227) is over-expressed in 90% of human breast cancers and its glycosylation status and pattern of expression in cancer cells is altered. Humoral and cellular responses to MUC1 have been reported in breast cancer patients and therefore, MUC1 is being evaluated as a target for immune intervention. This mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer allows the evaluation of anti-MUC1 immune responses at all stages of the disease. In this report, we review the model as it pertains to a) the development of the tumor, b) MUC1 expression, and the native immune responses against MUC1 as tumors progress, and c) the immune suppressive microenvironment within the developing tumor. Finally, we report our latest findings describing the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred MUC1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MUC1-CTL) in these mice and discuss ways to increase their effectiveness by agonistic monoclonal antibody against CD137 T cell costimulatory molecule.

  2. Use of "one-pot, mix-and-read" peptide-MHC class I tetramers and predictive algorithms to improve detection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitek, Nicholas; Hansen, Andreas Martin; Steinaa, Lucilla

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-major histocompatibility complex (p-MHC) class I tetramer complexes have facilitated the early detection and functional characterisation of epitope specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here, we report on the generation of seven recombinant bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA....... parva CTL epitopes. Using an ELISA assay to measure peptide-BoLA monomer formation and p-MHC class I tetramers of new specificity, we demonstrate that a predicted alternative epitope Tp2(29-37) rather than the previously reported Tp2(27-37) epitope is the correct Tp2 epitope presented by BoLA-6......*04101. We also verified the prediction by NetMHCpan that the Tp5(87-95) epitope reported as BoLA-T5 restricted can also be presented by BoLA-1*02301, a molecule similar in sequence to BoLA-T5. In addition, Tp5(87-95) specific bovine CTL were simultaneously stained by Tp5-BoLA-1*02301 and Tp5-BoLA-T5...

  3. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory cells that control intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, S; Malmström, V; Powrie, F

    2000-07-17

    It is now clear that functionally specialized regulatory T (Treg) cells exist as part of the normal immune repertoire, preventing the development of pathogenic responses to both self- and intestinal antigens. Here, we report that the Treg cells that control intestinal inflammation express the same phenotype (CD25(+)CD45RB(low)CD4(+)) as those that control autoimmunity. Previous studies have failed to identify how CD25(+) Treg cells function in vivo. Our studies reveal that the immune-suppressive function of these cells in vivo is dependent on signaling via the negative regulator of T cell activation cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), as well as secretion of the immune-suppressive cytokine transforming growth factor beta. Strikingly, constitutive expression of CTLA-4 among CD4(+) cells was restricted primarily to Treg cells, suggesting that CTLA-4 expression by these cells is involved in their immune-suppressive function. These findings raise the possibility that Treg cell function contributes to the immune suppression characteristic of CTLA-4 signaling. Identification of costimulatory molecules involved in the function of Treg cells may facilitate further characterization of these cells and development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  4. Enhancement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by dendritic cells loaded with Tat-protein transduction domain-fused hepatitis B virus core antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The protein transduction domain (PTD) of human immuno-deficiency virus-1-Tat protein has a unique potency to pen-etrate the cellular membranes. To synthesize the sequence of Tat-PTD and hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg), we spliced these sequences and linked a fusion gene into the pMAL-c2x vector. The fusion proteins were purified by affin-ity chromatography and pulsed with bone marrow -derived den-dritic cells (DCs), and the transduction of recombinant pro-tein was detected by immunofluorescence antibody assay.Results showed that recombinant PTD-HBcAg could pen-etrate into DC cytoplasm while recombinant HBcAg was de-tected on the surface of cells. The percentage of DC surface molecules, such as CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibii-ity complex Ⅱ, and production of cytokine (IL-12pT0) induced by recombinant PTD-HBcAg were significantly higher than those induced by recombinant HBcAg or tumor necrosis fac-tor-α. DCs treated with PTD-HBcAg induced T cells to dif-ferentiate into specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and enhanced the CTL killing response. In conclusion, the ex-pressed and purified PTD-HBcAg fusion protein could pen-etrate into cells through the plasma membrane, promote DC maturation, and enhance T cells response to generate HBcAg-specific CTLs efficiently.

  5. Dendritic cells pulsed with alpha-fetoprotein and mutant P53 fused gene induce bi-targeted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Liwang; Ma, Bo; Jiang, Hanfang; Di, Lijun; Song, Guohong; Yu, Jing

    2008-07-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is rapidly emerging as a promising treatment in cancer therapy. We had previously shown that DC pulsed with either defined mRNA of tumor antigen (Ag) such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), or total RNA of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) could elicit Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. Therefore, we suggested a novel DC-based therapeutic method, in which DCs derived from CD34(+) cells enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells were pulsed with liposome-coated AFP and mutant P53 (mtP53) fused gene pEGFP-C3/AFP-mtP53 to induce bi-targeted specific CTL responses against HCC. Three different genotype HCC cell lines, HepG2 (human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA) A2 positive, AFP expressing positive, P53 expressing negative), SMMC7721 (HLA A2 positive, neither AFP nor P53 expressing positive), and HMCC97 (HLA A2 positive, both AFP and P53 expressing positive) were selected as targets for CTL responses. An important finding was that DCs pulsed with the liposome-coated fused gene could evoke more intensive bi-targeted Ag-specific CTL responses against HMCC97 than DCs pulsed with either AFP or P53 single gene (P gene of different Ags might induce more extensive multitargeted antitumor immunity.

  6. Interferon-gamma Inhibits Melanogenesis and Induces Apoptosis in Melanocytes: A Pivotal Role of CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Wei, Yi; Sun, Yue; Shi, Weimin; Yang, Ji; Zhu, Lubing; Li, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Increased expression of the cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ plays a pivotal role in vitiligo-induced depigmentation. However, the major source of IFN-γ in vitiligo patients and the mechanisms underlying melanocyte destruction are unknown. In this study, a large number of skin infiltrating IFN-γ+ cells and CD8+ T cells were detected in progressive vitiligo. Among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of vitiligo patients, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that express IFN-γ exhibited significant expansion, which suggests that activated CTLs are the main source of increased IFN-γ in progressive vitiligo. An in vitro analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ inhibits melanogenesis in primary cultured human melanocytes by altering melanogenic enzyme mRNA expression and, more importantly, that IFN-γ directly induces melanocyte apoptosis. Our data indicate that vitiligo pathophysiology may be linked to globally activated CD8+ CTL subpopulations, which produce increased IFN-γ and induce melanocyte dysfunction and apoptosis.

  7. Association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 +49A/G gene polymorphism with acute rejection risk in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xia; Chen, Li; Zheng, Dong-Hua; Liu, Qiong-Shan; Xie, Wen-Feng

    2017-03-23

    The conclusions on the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) +49A/G gene polymorphism and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation are still debated. This meta-analysis was performed to update the association between CTLA4 +49A/G and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation. The association investigations were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library, and eligible studies were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Fourteen reports were included into this meta-analysis for the association of CTLA4 A/G gene polymorphism and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation, consisting of 962 acute rejection patients and 2084 non-acute rejection controls. The association between CTLA4 G allele/GG genotype and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation was found in this meta-analysis (G allele: OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44, P=.02; GG genotype: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.10-1.69, P=.004). However, the AA genotype was not associated with acute rejection risk in renal transplantation. In conclusion, CTLA4 G allele/GG genotype is associated with the acute rejection risk in renal transplantation.

  8. Association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 genetic polymorphism, hepatitis C viral infection and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an Egyptian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshied, Mervat Mamdooh; Gouda, Heba Mahmoud; Khorshid, Ola M Reda

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The present study aimed to investigate the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) genetic polymorphism, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell NHL risk in Egypt. Genotyping of CTLA-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay for 181 adult patients with B-NHL and 200 controls. Our study revealed that CTLA-4 + 49 A/G polymorphism conferred increased risk of B-NHL (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-2.565). The prevalence of HCV infection in individuals harboring the mutant genotype + 49 A/G and - 318 C/T SNPs was higher in patients with B-NHL and was associated with increased risk of B-NHL (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.24-6.93 for + 49 A/G and OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.01-15.98 for - 318 C/T). In conclusion, some SNPs of CTLA-4 are genetic risk factors for B-NHL. Moreover, this study identified an association of CTLA-4 + 49 A/G and - 318 C/T promoter polymorphisms with HCV infection.

  9. Definition of an epitope on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) envelope protein recognized by JEV-specific murine CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, K; Masaki, H; Konishi, E; Takahashi, M; Kurane, I

    2000-01-01

    We defined an epitope on the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) envelope (E) protein recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). CTLs induced in JEV-infected BALB/c (H-2d) mice recognized E and/or premembrane (PrM) proteins, while CTLs in C57BL/6J (H-2b) and C3H/HeJ (H-2k) mice did not. JEV-specific CTLs had a phenotype of CD3+ CD4- CD8+. Twenty-four 9-amino acid (a.a.) peptides, which had binding motifs for H-2Kd, H-2Ld or H-2Dd, were synthesized according to the amino acid sequences of PrM and E proteins. CTLs induced by JEV infection recognized only the peptide K-3. Immunization of BALB/c mice with only a group of peptides including K-3 induced CTLs which recognized the homologous K-3 peptide, while immunization with other peptides did not. The peptide K-3 had a binding motif for H-2Kd. This is consistent with the finding that JEV-specific CTLs in BALB/c mice was H-2Kd-restricted. These results indicate that the epitope recognized by CTLs in BALB/c mice is located between a.a. 60 and 68 on the E protein, corresponding to an a.a. sequence of CYHASVTDI.

  10. Genetic vaccination against the melanocyte lineage-specific antigen gp100 induces cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumor protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, M W; de Boer, A J; Figdor, C G; Adema, G J

    1998-06-15

    Melanocyte lineage-specific antigens, such as gp100, have been shown to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses against melanoma. Therefore, these antigens are potential targets for specific antimelanoma immunotherapy. A novel approach to induce both cellular and humoral immunity is genetic vaccination, the injection of antigen-encoding naked plasmid DNA. In a mouse model, we investigated whether genetic vaccination against the human gp100 antigen results in specific antitumor immunity. The results demonstrate that vaccinated mice were protected against a lethal challenge with syngeneic B16 melanoma-expressing human gp100, but not control-transfected B16. Both cytotoxic T cells and IgG specific for human gp100 could be detected in human gp100-vaccinated mice. However, only adoptive transfer of spleen-derived lymphocytes, not of the serum, isolated from protected mice was able to transfer antitumor immunity to nonvaccinated recipients, indicating that CTLs are the predominant effector cells. CTI, lines generated from human gp100-vaccinated mice specifically recognized human gp100. Interestingly, one of the CTL lines cross-reacted between human and mouse gp100, indicating the recognition of a conserved epitope. However, these CTLs did not appear to be involved in the observed tumor protection. Collectively, our results indicate that genetic vaccination can result in a potent antitumor response in vivo and constitutes a potential immunotherapeutic strategy to fight cancer.

  11. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Interleukin-12-Induced Activation of CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes against Mouse Mammary Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanjin Cao; Zhaoying Xiang; Xiaojing Ma

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a critical cytokine representing the link between the cellular and humoral branches of host immune defense apparatus. IL-12-induced cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) development is a central mechanism in immune responses against intracellular infectious agents as well as malignant growth. However,the molecular basis of tumor-specific CTL responses mediated by IL-12 remains poorly defined. In this study,we addressed this issue in a comprehensive manner to probe into IL-12-induced anti-tumor responses by global gene expression profiling of mRNA expression in CD8+T cells in a transplantable syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma model treated or not with recombinant IL-12. A strong tumor regression was induced by the IL-12 treatment. An introspection of differential gene expression at an early stage of the IL-12-initiated CTL activation reveals interesting genes and molecular pathways that may account for the marked tumor regression,and is likely to provide a rich source of potential targets for further research and development of effective therapeutic modalities. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(5):357-366.

  12. Increasing a Robust Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response by FMDV DNA Vaccination with IL-9 Expressing Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of DNA vaccination. In this study, we sought to investigate if a DNA construct expressing IL-9 (designed as proV-IL9 as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcD-VP1 DNA vaccination. Mice immunized with pcD-VP1 combined with proV-IL9 developed a strong humoral response. In addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cytotoxic response. This agreed well with higher expression level of IFN-γ and perforin in CD8+ T cells, but not with IL-17 in these T cells. The results indicate that IL-9 induces the development of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1, but not the IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17. Up-regulated expressions of BCL-2 and BCL-XL were exhibited in these Tc1 cells, suggesting that IL-9 may trigger antiapoptosis mechanism in these cells. Together, these results demonstrated that IL-9 used as molecular adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccination, in augmenting humoral and cellular responses and particularly promoting Tc1 activations. Thus, the IL-9 may be utilized as a potent Tc1 adjuvant for DNA vaccines.

  13. Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte respones in vivo after immunotherapy with dendritic cells in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN MIN ZUO; LING ZHOU; ZHI JIAN CHEN; DE RUI LI; QI WANG; JIONG YU CHEN; ZHAN WANG; SHU QING YE; YI ZENG

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of immunotherapy with dendritic cells to elicit EBV-specific CTL-immunity in advanced cases of EBV-positive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to determine the safety and toxicity of this preparation. Nine cases of histologically confirmed patients with NPC undergoing treatment with radiological therapy were enrolled in this study. Dendritic cells, generated in vitro from blood monocytes of patients were cultured and matured with cytokines and then infected with recombinant adenovirus vaccine containing EBV-latent membrane protein-2 (Ad-LMP2). On 9 days' cultivation of cells, the matured DCs were harvested, irradiated with 60Co and then injected intradermally to patients with NPC. The injections were performed 3 times totally. After immunization, the CTL responses were assayed by means of cytotoxicity and epitope-specific IFN-γ production. The results of this trial showed that all patients could tolerate this kind of treatment without any side effect, during which marked increase of LMP2-specific CTL-responses could be demonstrated in 5 patients of this group. And the level of IgA/VCA antibody decreased in 8 of 9 patients, thus accounting for a better prognosis for these patients. All patients will be followed up for another one year. At least, the present work shows that intradermal vaccination with autologous DCs infected with recombinant Ad-LMP2 adenovirus is a safe procedure in NPC patients, in which this procedure can enhance the LMP2-specific CTL responses in patients. These data are encouraging to develop more effective vaccine strategies for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  14. Prediction and identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes from leukemia-associated protein MLAA-22 which elicit cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Bai, Ju; Gu, Liufang; He, Aili; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jianli; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Wanggang

    2014-12-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in the control of leukemia. However, few effective CTL epitopes have been identified to date yet. We previously reported that MLAA-22, a protein composed of 631 amino acid residues, is a novel acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated antigen. In the present study, ten high-score 9-mer peptides, which were selected from MLAA-22 by using ProPred1 and SYFPEITHI bioinformatics tools, were screened to identify HLA-A*0201-restricted-specific CTL epitopes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were generated in vitro to be used as antigen-presenting cells for the induction of CTLs. We found that peptide MLAA-22(379-387) (LLPNAIYKV) exhibited the highest binding affinity to HLA-A*0201 among all peptide candidates in the peptide-T2 binding assay. The percentage of positive T2 cells treated with MLAA-22(379-387) was about 96.3%, which is even higher than that of the positive control peptide CML28(173-181) (95.1%). MLAA-22(379-387)-induced CTLs showed the most significant cytotoxic activity and apparent killing effects on the cell lines including THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia), A549, T2, U937, and MCF-7, and the specific lysis ratios were 83.8, 32.6, 64.4, 64.4, and 32.6%, respectively, when the effector to target ratio (E/T) was 20:1. Specific lysis (%) of MLAA1 was significantly increased (P AML immunotherapy.

  15. TCR gamma delta cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing the killer cell-inhibitory receptor p58.2 (CD158b) selectively lyse acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolstra, H; Fredrix, H; van der Meer, A; de Witte, T; Figdor, C; van de Wiel-van Kemenade, E

    2001-05-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to play an important role in the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response. Unfortunately, GVL reactivity is often associated with life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Characterization of CTL that selectively attack leukemic cells but not normal cells may lead to the development of adjuvant immunotherapy that separates GVL from GVHD. Here, we describe TCR gamma delta (V gamma 9/V delta 1) CTL, isolated from the peripheral blood of an AML patient after stem cell transplantation (SCT), that very efficiently lysed freshly isolated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and AML cell lines. Interestingly, HLA-matched non-malignant hematopoietic cells were not killed. We revealed that the killer cell-inhibitory receptor (KIR) p58.2 (CD158b) specific for group 2 HLA-C molecules negatively regulates the cytotoxic effector function displayed by these TCR gamma delta CTL. First, an antibody against HLA-C enhances lysis of non-malignant cells. Secondly, stable transfection of HLA-Cw*0304 into the class I-negative cell line 721.221 inhibited lysis. Finally, engagement of p58.2 by antibodies immobilized on Fc gamma R-expressing murine P815 cells inhibits CD3- and TCR gamma delta-directed lysis. Compared to non-malignant hematopoietic cells, AML cells express much lower levels of MHC class I molecules making them susceptible to lysis by p58.2(+) TCR gamma delta CTL. Such KIR-regulated CTL reactivity may have a role in the GVL response without affecting normal tissues of the host and leading to GVHD.

  16. Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia family-shared peptides derived from immunoglobulin heavy chain framework region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; ZHU Ping; HU Ya-mei

    2007-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgHV) is a well-characterized tumor antigen for B-cell malignancies. It can function as a target for T cell-mediated immune response. Clinical trials of IgHV protein vaccines against lymphoma have demonstrated induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However,complementary determining regions-based individual vaccines have disadvantages for wide clinical application. Although a recent study demonstrated that immunogenic peptides are derived from framework regions (FR) shared among patients with B-cell lymphoma, how to choose the appropriate peptides for each patient is still unsolved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether immunoglobulin heavy chain FR-derived peptides shared in each IgHV family are potential CTL epitopes presented by B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Such CTL epitopes might be beneficial to shifting vaccination strategies against B-ALL from individual specificity to family specificity.Methods Seven IgHV gene families were amplified respectively by PCR and sequenced directly from 71 childhood B-ALL cases. Bioinformatics was applied in analyzing characteristics of sequences available and predicting HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes for each IgHV family. An antigen-specific T cell expansion system was used to generate peptide-specific CTLs. The cytotoxicity of CTLs against B-ALL cells was assessed in the lactate dehydrogenase release assay.Results Complete IgHV rearrangements were identified in all of the 71 B-ALL cases. All of 40 sequences available showed ≥98% homology with the nearest germline IgHV genes, indicating IgHV genes in B-ALL of germline nature.Twelve nonapeptides of high HLA-A*0201-binding scores were obtained from 26 productive IgHV protein sequences. Ten (83%) of the peptides were located in FR1 and FR3 shared among the corresponding IgHV family. CTLs specific for the peptide QLVQSGAEV located in FR1 (3-11) shared among the IgHV1

  17. Recombinant mammaglobin A adenovirus-infected dendritic cells induce mammaglobin A-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes against breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Cui

    Full Text Available Mammaglobin A (MGBA is a novel breast cancer-associated antigen almost exclusively over-expressed in primary and metastatic human breast cancers, making it a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. The development of dendritic cell (DC-induced tumor antigen specific CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs may hold promise in cancer immunotherapy. In this study we constructed recombinant replication-defective adenoviral (Ad vectors encoding MGBA and evaluated their ability to trigger anti-tumor immunity in vitro. DCs were isolated from the human peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMCs of two HLA-A33(+ healthy female volunteers, and infected with adenovirus carrying MGBA cDNA (Ad-MGBA. After that, the Ad-MGBA-infected DCs were used to stimulate CD8(+ CTLs in vitro and the latter was used for co-culture with breast cancer cell lines. The data revealed that infection with Ad-MGBA improved DC maturation and up-regulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12, but down-regulated interleukin-10 (IL-10 secretion from DCs. Ad-MGBA-infected DC-stimulated CD8(+CTLs displayed the highest cytotoxicity towards HLA-A33(+/MGBA(+ breast cancer MDA-MB-415 cells compared with other CD8(+CTL populations, and compared with the cytotoxicity towards HLA-A33(-/MGBA(+ breast cancer HBL-100 cells and HLA-A33(-/MGBA(- breast cancer MDA-MB 231 cells. In addition, Ad-MGBA-infected DC-stimulated CD8(+ CTLs showed a high level of IFNγ secretion when stimulated with HLA-A33(+/MGBA(+ breast cancer MDA-MB-415 cells, but not when stimulated with HLA-A33(-/MGBA(+ HBL-100 and HLA-A33(-/MGBA(-MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, killing of CD8(+CTLs against breast cancer was in a major histocompability complex (MHC-limited pattern. Finally, the data also determined the importance of TNF-α in activating DCs and T cells. These data together suggest that MGBA recombinant adenovirus-infected DCs could induce specific anti-tumor immunity

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cells as efficient antigen presenting cells to propagate Aspergillus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal

    2008-01-01

    To overcome the cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) expansion limitations imposed by the lack of sufficient dendritic cells (DC) alternative sources of autologous antigen presenting cells (APC) such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCL), which are easy to establish in vitro, have been considered and studied in the present work. Non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three healthy donors were repeatedly primed with autologous Aspergillus fumigatus commercial culture-filtrate antigen-pulsed fast monocyte-derived DC (Aspf-CFA-DC) alone, Aspf-CFA-pulsed BLCL (Aspf-CFA-BLCL) alone or Aspf-CFA-BLCL after one, two, or three primings with Aspf-CFA-DC (1DC/BLCL, 2DC/BLCL or 3DCIBLCL; respectively). After 5th priming, lines generated by Aspf-CFA-BLCL only showed strong/weak lytic activity for EBV/Aspf; respectively. Aspf-specific lytic activity in all donors was increased by increasing the number of primings with Aspf-CFA-DC before switching to Aspf-CFA-BLCL (18.20 +/- 1.65% versus 35.67 +/- 1.02% and 40.03 +/- 1.41% in bulk cultures generated by 1DC/BLCL versus 2DC/BLCL and 3DC/BLCL, respectively). Bulk cultures generated by Aspf-CFA-BLCL after at least two primings with Aspf-CFA-DC showed approximately the same Aspf-specific lytic activity, effector cell phenotype, expansion level and percentage expression of IFN-gamma, CD69 and CD107a without any significant differences (p > 0.05) as standard bulk cultures generated by only Aspf-CFA-DC. Thus, this study explored the use of a combined DC/BLCL protocol to establish/propagate Aspf-specific CTL for adoptive immunotherapy to prevent or treat invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

  19. A Novel CD8-Independent High-Avidity Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Response Directed against an Epitope in the Phosphoprotein of the Paramyxovirus Simian Virus 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter M.; Parks, Griffith D.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.

    2001-01-01

    Adoptive transfer studies have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) of high avidity, capable of recognizing low levels of peptide-MHC I molecules, are more efficient at reducing viral titers than are low-avidity CTL, thus establishing CTL avidity as a critical parameter for the ability of a CTL to clear virus in vivo. It has been well documented that CTL of high avidity are relatively CD8 independent, whereas low-avidity CTL require CD8 engagement in order to become activated. In this study we have analyzed the antiviral CTL response elicited following infection with the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5). We have identified the immunodominant and subdominant CTL responses and subsequently assessed the avidity of these responses by their CD8 dependence. This is the first study in which the relationship between immunodominance and CTL avidity has been investigated. The immunodominant response was directed against an epitope present in the viral M protein, and subdominant responses were directed against epitopes present in the P, F, and HN proteins. Similarly to other CTL responses we have analyzed, the immunodominant response and the subdominant F and HN responses were comprised of both high- and low-avidity CTL. However, the subdominant response directed against the epitope present in the P protein is novel, as it is exclusively high avidity. This high-avidity response is independent of both the route of infection and expression by recombinant SV5. A further understanding of the inherent properties of P that elicit only high-avidity CTL may allow for the design of more efficacious vaccine vectors that preferentially elicit high-avidity CTL in vivo. PMID:11581375

  20. Identification of Immunogenic Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes Containing Drug Resistance Mutations in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve HIV-Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Heredia, Juan; Lecanda, Aarón; Valenzuela-Ponce, Humberto; Brander, Christian; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic HIV vaccines may prove helpful to intensify antiretroviral treatment (ART) efficacy and may be an integral part of future cure strategies. Methods We examined IFN-gamma ELISpot responses to a panel of 218 HIV clade B consensus-based HIV protease-reverse transcriptase peptides, designed to mimic previously described and predicted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes overlapping drug resistance (DR) positions, that either included the consensus sequence or the DR variant sequence, in 49 ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals. Next generation sequencing was used to assess the presence of minority DR variants in circulating viral populations. Results Although a wide spectrum of differential magnitudes of response to DR vs. WT peptide pairs was observed, responses to DR peptides were frequent and strong in the study cohort. No difference between the median magnitudes of response to DR vs. WT peptides was observed. Interestingly, of the 22 peptides that were recognized by >15% of the participants, two-thirds (64%) corresponded to DR peptides. When analysing responses per peptide pair per individual, responses to only WT (median 4 pairs/individual) or DR (median 6 pairs/individual) were more common than responses to both WT and DR (median 2 pairs/individual; p<0.001). While the presence of ELISpot responses to WT peptides was frequently associated with the presence of the corresponding peptide sequence in the patient’s virus (mean 68% of cases), responses to DR peptides were generally not associated with the presence of DR mutations in the viral population, even at low frequencies (mean 1.4% of cases; p = 0.0002). Conclusions Our data suggests that DR peptides are frequently immunogenic and raises the potential benefit of broadening the antigens included in a therapeutic vaccine approach to immunogenic epitopes containing common DR sequences. Further studies are needed to assess the quality of responses elicited by DR peptides. PMID:26808823

  1. HLA-A2–Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes from Human Heparanase as Novel Targets for Broad-Spectrum Tumor Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Peptide vaccination for cancer immunotherapy requires identification of peptide epitopes derived from antigenic proteins associated with tumors. Heparanase (Hpa is broadly expressed in various advanced tumors and seems to be an attractive new tumor-associated antigen. The present study was designed to predict and identify HLA-A2– restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL epitopes in the protein of human Hpa. For this purpose, HLA-A2–restricted CTL epitopes were identified using the following four-step procedure: 1 a computer-based epitope prediction from the amino acid sequence of human Hpa, 2 a peptide-binding assay to determine the affinity of the predicted protein with the HLA-A2 molecule, 3 stimulation of the primary T-cell response against the predicted peptides in vitro, and 4 testing of the induced CTLs toward different kinds of carcinoma cells expressing Hpa antigens and/or HLA-A2. The results demonstrated that, of the tested peptides, effectors induced by peptides of human Hpa containing residues 525-533 (PAFSYSFFV, Hpa525, 277-285 (KMLKSFLKA, Hpa277, and 405-413 (WLSLLFKKL, Hpa405 could effectively lyse various tumor cell lines that were Hpa-positive and HLA-A2-matched. We also found that these peptide-specific CTLs could not lyse autologous lymphocytes with low Hpa activity. Further study revealed that Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptides increased the frequency of IFN-γ–producing T cells compared to a negative peptide. Our results suggest that Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptides are new HLA-A2–restricted CTL epitopes capable of inducing Hpa-specific CTLs in vitro. Because Hpa is expressed in most advanced malignant tumors, Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptide–based vaccines may be useful for the immunotherapy for patients with advanced tumors.

  2. Sublethal exposure to alpha radiation (223Ra dichloride) enhances various carcinomas' sensitivity to lysis by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes through calreticulin-mediated immunogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamas, Anthony S; Gameiro, Sofia R; Knudson, Karin M; Hodge, James W

    2016-12-27

    Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; 223Ra) is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical FDA-approved for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. It is also being examined clinically in patients with breast and lung carcinoma and patients with multiple myeloma. As with other forms of radiation, the aim of 223Ra is to reduce tumor burden by directly killing tumor cells. External beam (photon) and proton radiation have been shown to augment tumor sensitivity to antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, little is known about whether treatment with 223Ra can also induce such immunogenic modulation in tumor cells that survive irradiation. We examined these effects in vitro by exposing human prostate, breast, and lung carcinoma cells to sublethal doses of 223Ra. 223Ra significantly enhanced T cell-mediated lysis of each tumor type by CD8+ CTLs specific for MUC-1, brachyury, and CEA tumor antigens. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the increase in CTL killing was accompanied by augmented protein expression of MHC-I and calreticulin in each tumor type, molecules that are essential for efficient antigen presentation. Enhanced tumor-cell lysis was facilitated by calreticulin surface translocation following 223Ra exposure. The phenotypic changes observed after treatment appear to be mediated by induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response pathway. By rendering tumor cells more susceptible to T cell-mediated lysis, 223Ra may potentially be effective in combination with various immunotherapies, particularly cancer vaccines that are designed to generate and expand patients' endogenous antigen-specific T-cell populations against specific tumor antigens.

  3. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4) Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Chiung-Ling; Lin, Wen-Shan; Chang, Tzu-Yang; Yang, Horng-Woei; Chen, Wei-Fang; Lien, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Bi-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Chen, Chia-Ching; Wu, Yi-Lei; Hung, Chen-Mei; Li, Hsin-Jung; Chan, Chon-In; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto disease (HD), is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Although the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with AITD in adults, few studies have focused on children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the CTLA4 polymorphisms, including -318C/T (rs5742909), +49A/G (rs231775), and CT60 (rs3087243), were associated with GD and HD in Han Chinese adults and children. We studied 289 adult GD, 265 pediatric GD, 229 pediatric HD patients, and 1058 healthy controls and then compared genotype, allele, carrier, and haplotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found that CTLA4 SNPs +49A/G and CT60 were associated with GD in adults and children. Allele G of +49A/G was significantly associated with GD in adults (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.84; corrected P value [Pc] < 0.001) and children (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15–1.77; Pc = 0.002). Allele G of CT60 also significantly increased risk of GD in adults (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27–2.09; Pc < 0.001) and GD in children (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22–2.04; Pc < 0.001). Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between +49A/G and CT60 in GD and control subjects (D’ = 0.92). Our results showed that CTLA4 was associated with both GD and HD and played an equivalent role in both adult and pediatric GD in Han Chinese population. PMID:27111218

  4. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4 Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Ting

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD, including Graves disease (GD and Hashimoto disease (HD, is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Although the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4 polymorphism has been reported to be associated with AITD in adults, few studies have focused on children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the CTLA4 polymorphisms, including -318C/T (rs5742909, +49A/G (rs231775, and CT60 (rs3087243, were associated with GD and HD in Han Chinese adults and children. We studied 289 adult GD, 265 pediatric GD, 229 pediatric HD patients, and 1058 healthy controls and then compared genotype, allele, carrier, and haplotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found that CTLA4 SNPs +49A/G and CT60 were associated with GD in adults and children. Allele G of +49A/G was significantly associated with GD in adults (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.84; corrected P value [Pc] < 0.001 and children (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.77; Pc = 0.002. Allele G of CT60 also significantly increased risk of GD in adults (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27-2.09; Pc < 0.001 and GD in children (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22-2.04; Pc < 0.001. Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between +49A/G and CT60 in GD and control subjects (D' = 0.92. Our results showed that CTLA4 was associated with both GD and HD and played an equivalent role in both adult and pediatric GD in Han Chinese population.

  5. Adoptive transfer of PR1 cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with reduced leukemia burden in a mouse acute myeloid leukemia xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; Wang, Changqing; Jones, Dan; Quintanilla, Kathryn E; Li, Dan; Wang, Yang; Wieder, Eric D; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Alatrash, Gheath; Mj, You; Munsell, Mark F; Lu, Sijie; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H; Molldrem, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-01

    Tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been used in the treatment of human cancer, including leukemia. Several studies have established PR1 peptide, an HLA-A2.1-restricted peptide derived from proteinase 3 (P3), as a human leukemia-associated antigen. PR1-specific CTL elicited in vitro from healthy donors have been shown to lyse P3-expressing AML cells from patients. We investigated whether PR1-CTL can be adoptively transferred into NOD/SCID mice to eliminate human leukemia cells. PR1-CTL were generated in bulk culture from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with autologous dendritic cells. Human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples were injected and engrafted in murine bone marrow at 2 weeks post-transfer. Following adoptive transfer, bone marrow aspirate from mice that received AML alone had 72-88% blasts in a hypercellular marrow, whereas mice that received AML plus PR1-CTL co-infusion had normal hematopoietic elements and only 3-18% blasts in a hypocellular marrow. The PR1-CTL persisted in the bone marrow and liver and maintained a CD45RA⁻CD28+ effector phenotype. We found that adoptive transfer of PR1-CTL generated in vitro is associated with reduced AML cells in NOD/SCID mice. PR1-CTL can migrate to the sites of disease and maintain their capacity to kill the AML cells. The surface phenotype of PR1-CTL was consistent with their trafficking pattern in both vascular and end-organ tissues.

  6. In vitro priming of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes using allogeneic dendritic cells derived from the human MUTZ-3 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santegoets, Saskia J A M; Schreurs, Marco W J; Masterson, Allan J; Liu, Ying Poi; Goletz, Steffen; Baumeister, Hans; Kueter, Esther W M; Lougheed, Sinéad M; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Scheper, Rik J; Hooijberg, Erik; de Gruijl, Tanja D

    2006-12-01

    The adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced and expanded tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) presents a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. The in vitro induction of tumor-reactive CTL requires repeated stimulation of CTL precursors with dendritic cells (DC). To circumvent problems like scarcity of blood DC precursors and donor variability, it would be attractive to use DC from a non-autologous, unlimited source. DCs derived from the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line MUTZ-3 are attractive candidates since these DCs closely resemble monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) in terms of phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity. Here we demonstrate that functional CTL clones could be generated against multiple tumor-associated antigens, i.e., human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), ErbB3-binding protein-1 (Ebp1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Her-2/neu, by stimulating CD8beta(+) CTL precursors with peptide-loaded allogeneic, HLA-A2-matched MUTZ-3-derived DC. A consistent induction capacity, as determined by MHC tetramer-binding, was found in multiple donors and comparable to autologous peptide-loaded MoDC. Functional characterization at the clonal level revealed the priming of CTL that recognized endogenously processed epitopes on tumor cell lines in an HLA-A2-restricted fashion. Our data indicate that MUTZ-3-derived DC can be used as stimulator cells for in vitro priming and expansion of functional TAA-specific effector CTL. MUTZ-3-derived DCs thus represent a ready and standardized source of allogeneic DC to generate CTL for therapeutic adoptive transfer strategies.

  7. Gag Protein Epitopes Recognized by ELA-A-Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes from Horses with Long-Term Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lonning, Scott M.; McGuire, Travis C.

    1998-01-01

    Most equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-infected horses have acute clinical disease, but they eventually control the disease and become lifelong carriers. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are considered an important immune component in the control of infections with lentiviruses including EIAV, but definitive evidence for CTL in the control of disease in carrier horses is lacking. By using retroviral vector-transduced target cells expressing different Gag proteins and overlapping synthetic peptides of 16 to 25 amino acids, peptides containing at least 12 Gag CTL epitopes recognized by virus-stimulated PBMC from six long-term EIAV-infected horses were identified. All identified peptides were located within Gag matrix (p15) and capsid (p26) proteins, as no killing of target cells expressing p11 and p9 occurred. Each of the six horses had CTL recognizing at least one Gag epitope, while CTL from one horse recognized at least eight different Gag epitopes. None of the identified peptides were recognized by CTL from all six horses. Two nonamer peptide epitopes were defined from Gag p26; one (18a) was likely restricted by class I equine leukocyte alloantigen A5.1 (ELA-A5.1) molecules, and the other (28b-1) was likely restricted by ELA-A9 molecules. Sensitization of equine kidney target cells for CTLm killing required 10 nM peptide 18a and 1 nM 28b-1. The results demonstrated that diverse CTL responses against Gag epitopes were generated in long-term EIAV-infected horses and indicated that ELA-A class I molecules were responsible for the diversity of CTL epitopes recognized. This information indicates that multiple epitopes or whole proteins will be needed to induce CTL in horses with different ELA-A alleles in order to evaluate their role in controlling EIAV. PMID:9811694

  8. Major Histocompatibility Complex-Dependent Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Repertoire and Functional Avidity Contribute to Strain-Specific Disease Susceptibility after Murine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Birthe; Faller, Simone; Krempl, Christine D.; Ehl, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in mice is genetically determined. While RSV causes little pathology in C57BL/6 mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss occur in BALB/c mice. Using major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-congenic mice, we observed that the H-2d allele can partially transfer disease susceptibility to C57BL/6 mice. This was not explained by altered viral elimination or differences in the magnitude of the overall virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. However, H-2d mice showed a more focused response, with 70% of virus-specific CTL representing Vβ8.2+ CTL directed against the immunodominant epitope M2-1 82, while in H-2b mice only 20% of antiviral CTL were Vβ9+ CTL specific for the immunodominant epitope M187. The immunodominant H-2d-restricted CTL lysed target cells less efficiently than the immunodominant H-2b CTL, probably contributing to prolonged CTL stimulation and cytokine-mediated immunopathology. Accordingly, reduction of dominance of the M2-1 82-specific CTL population by introduction of an M187 response in the F1 generation of a C57BL/6N × C57BL/6-H-2d mating (C57BL/6-H-2dxb mice) attenuated disease. Moreover, disease in H-2d mice was less pronounced after infection with an RSV mutant failing to activate M2-1 82-specific CTL or after depletion of Vβ8.2+ cells. These data illustrate how the MHC-determined diversity and functional avidity of CTL responses contribute to disease susceptibility after viral infection. PMID:21795345

  9. JAK-STAT-mediated chronic inflammation impairs cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation to decrease anti-PD-1 immunotherapy efficacy in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunwan; Talukder, Asif; Savage, Natasha M; Singh, Nagendra; Liu, Kebin

    2017-01-01

    Human pancreatic cancer does not respond to immune check point blockade immunotherapy. One key feature of pancreatic cancer is the association between its progression and chronic inflammation. Emerging evidence supports a key role for the JAK-STAT pathway in pancreatic cancer inflammation. We aimed at testing the hypothesis that sustained JAK-STAT signaling suppresses cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation to counteract anti-PD-1 immunotherapy-induced CTL activity in pancreatic cancer. We show that human pancreatic carcinomas express high level of PD-L1 and exhibit low level of CTL infiltration. JAK-STAT inhibitor Ruxolitinib selectively inhibits STAT1 and STAT3 activation and increases CTL infiltration to induce a Tc1/Th1 immune response in the tumor microenvironment in an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model. Ruxilitinib-mediated tumor suppressive efficacy diminishes in T-cell-deficient mice. Pancreatic tumor grows significantly faster in IFNγ-deficient mice. However, neutralizing IFNγ does not alter tumor growth but diminishes Ruxolitinib-induced tumor suppression in vivo, indicating that lymphocytes and IFNγ are essential for Ruxolitinib-induced host antitumor immune response. Both type I and type II interferons upregulate PD-L1 expression through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in mouse pancreatic tumor cells. Tumor cells respond to activated T cells by activating STAT3. The inhibition of STAT3 downregulates immune suppressive cytokines production by tumor cells, resulting in increased T cell activation and effector function. Consequently, Ruxolitinib significantly improves the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Our data demonstrate that Ruxolitinib is effective in the inhibition of systemic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment and therefore upregulates CTL infiltration and activation to overcome pancreatic cancer resistance to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.

  10. Improved cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune responses to a tumor antigen by vaccines co-expressing the SLAM-associated adaptor EAT-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhamen, Y A; Seregin, S S; Kousa, Y A; Rastall, D P W; Appledorn, D M; Godbehere, S; Schutte, B C; Amalfitano, A

    2013-10-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated adaptor Ewing's sarcoma's-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2) is primarily expressed in dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells. Including EAT-2 in a vaccination regimen enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses toward pathogen-derived antigens, even in the face of pre-existing vaccine immunity. Herein, we investigate whether co-vaccinations with two recombinant Ad5 (rAd5) vectors, one expressing the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and one expressing EAT-2, can induce more potent CEA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antitumor activity in the therapeutic CEA-expressing MC-38 tumor model. Our results suggest that inclusion of EAT-2 significantly alters the kinetics of Th1-biasing proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses, and enhances anti-CEA-specific CTL responses. As a result, rAd5-EAT2-augmented rAd5-CEA vaccinations are more efficient in eliminating CEA-expressing target cells as measured by an in vivo CTL assay. Administration of rAd5-EAT2 vaccines also reduced the rate of growth of MC-38 tumor growth in vivo. Also, an increase in MC-38 tumor cell apoptosis (as measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining, active caspase-3 and granzyme B levels within the tumors) was observed. These data provide evidence that more efficient, CEA-specific effector T cells are generated by rAd5 vaccines expressing CEA, when augmented by rAd5 vaccines expressing EAT-2, and this regimen may be a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy in general.

  11. Computer-based design of an HLA-haplotype and HIV-clade independent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay for monitoring HIV-specific immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicosante, Massimo; Gioia, Cristiana; Montesano, Carla; Casetti, Rita; Topino, Simone; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Cappelli, Giulia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Colizzi, Vittorio; Poccia, Fabrizio; Pucillo, Leopoldo P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- specific CD8-positive cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) play a key role in controlling HIV infection. Monitoring CTL response could be clinically relevant during structured therapy interruption (STI), HIV exposure, and vaccine trials. However, HLA patients' restriction and HIV variability limited the development of a CTL assay with broad specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed an HLA-class I/HIV-1 clade independent assay for assessing HIV- specific CTL by using a computer-assisted selection ofthe CTL epitopes. Twenty-eight 15-mers were selected by peptide-binding motifs analysis using different databases (HIV-Immunology Database, SYFPEITHI, BIMAS). Altogether they putatively bind to more than 90% of HLA haplotypes in different populations, with an overall HIV-1 variability below 9%. The peptide pool was used as an antigen in an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay for quantifying HIV-specific CTL response. RESULTS: The test can be performed using both fresh and cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), whereas GAG protein as antigen works only on fresh PBMC. A significantly higher CTL response with respect to HIV-negative controls was detected in all HIV-1 infected subjects of two groups of patients with different ethnicities (Caucasians and Africans) and coming from areas with different HIV-1 clade prevalences (clade B and A/G, respectively). In Caucasian patients, after month of STI, the number of HIV-1 specific CTL (2,896 +/- 2,780 IFN-gamma specific CD8 cells/ml) was significantly higher than that found at enrolment (2,125 +/- 4,426 IFN-gamma specific CD8 cells/ml, p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that this CTL assay is broadly specific and could represent a useful clinical tool for HIV immunodiagnostic independent of HLA-haplotype and HIV-clade variabilities. PMID:12606814

  12. Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes eliminate only vector-transduced cells coexpressing the AAV2 capsid in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matthew; Asokan, Aravind; Zeithaml, Brian; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R Jude

    2007-07-01

    A recent clinical trial has suggested that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector transduction in humans induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the AAV2 capsid. To directly address the ability of AAV capsid-specific CTLs to eliminate rAAV-transduced cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, we first demonstrated that AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs could be induced by dendritic cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression or pulsed with AAV2 vectors. These CTLs were able to kill a cell line stable for capsid expression in vitro and also in a mouse tumor xenograft model in vivo. Parent colon carcinoma (CT26) cells transduced with a large amount of AAV2 vectors in vitro were also destroyed by these CTLs. To determine the effect of CTLs on the elimination of target cells transduced by AAV2 vectors in vivo, we carried out adoptive transfer experiments. CTLs eliminated liver cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression but not liver cells transduced by AAV2 vectors, regardless of the reporter genes. Similar results were obtained for rAAV2 transduction in muscle. Our data strongly suggest that AAV vector-transduced cells are rarely eliminated by AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs in vivo, even though the AAV capsid can induce a CTL response. In conclusion, AAV capsid-specific CTLs do not appear to play a role in elimination of rAAV-transduced cells in a mouse model. In addition, our data suggest that the mouse model may not mimic the immune response noted in humans and additional modification to AAV vectors may be required for further study in order to elicit a similar cellular immune response.

  13. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Eliminate Only Vector-Transduced Cells Coexpressing the AAV2 Capsid In Vivo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matthew; Asokan, Aravind; Zeithaml, Brian; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R. Jude

    2007-01-01

    A recent clinical trial has suggested that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector transduction in humans induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the AAV2 capsid. To directly address the ability of AAV capsid-specific CTLs to eliminate rAAV-transduced cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, we first demonstrated that AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs could be induced by dendritic cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression or pulsed with AAV2 vectors. These CTLs were able to kill a cell line stable for capsid expression in vitro and also in a mouse tumor xenograft model in vivo. Parent colon carcinoma (CT26) cells transduced with a large amount of AAV2 vectors in vitro were also destroyed by these CTLs. To determine the effect of CTLs on the elimination of target cells transduced by AAV2 vectors in vivo, we carried out adoptive transfer experiments. CTLs eliminated liver cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression but not liver cells transduced by AAV2 vectors, regardless of the reporter genes. Similar results were obtained for rAAV2 transduction in muscle. Our data strongly suggest that AAV vector-transduced cells are rarely eliminated by AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs in vivo, even though the AAV capsid can induce a CTL response. In conclusion, AAV capsid-specific CTLs do not appear to play a role in elimination of rAAV-transduced cells in a mouse model. In addition, our data suggest that the mouse model may not mimic the immune response noted in humans and additional modification to AAV vectors may be required for further study in order to elicit a similar cellular immune response. PMID:17475652

  14. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-mediated elimination of target cells transduced with engineered adeno-associated virus type 2 vector in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matt; DiPrimio, Nina; Asokan, Aravind; Goudy, Kevin; Tisch, Roland; Samulski, R Jude

    2009-07-01

    A recent clinical trial in patients with hemophilia B has suggested that adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminated AAV-transduced hepatocytes and resulted in therapeutic failure. AAV capsids elicit a CTL response in animal models; however, these capsid-specific CTLs fail to kill AAV-transduced target cells in mice. To better model the human clinical trial data in mice, we introduced an immunodominant epitope derived from ovalbumin (OVA; SIINFEKL) into the AAV capsid and tested CTL-mediated killing of AAV2-transduced target tissues in vivo. Initially, in vitro experiments demonstrated both classical class I and cross-presentation of the OVA antigen, following endogenous expression or AAV2-OVA vector transduction, respectively. Furthermore, an OVA-specific CTL response was elicited after muscular or systemic injection of the AAV2-OVA vector. Finally, CTL reactivity was enhanced in mice with established SIINFEKL-specific immunity after AAV2-OVA/alpha1 anti-trypsin (AAT) administration. Most importantly, these OVA-specific CTLs decreased AAT expression in mice treated with AAV2-OVA/AAT vector that followed a time course mimicking uncoating kinetics of AAV2 transduction in OVA-immunized mice. These results demonstrate that AAV capsid-derived antigens elicit CD8(+) CTL reactivity, and these CTLs eliminated AAV-transduced target cells in mice. Notably, this model system can be exploited to study the kinetics of capsid presentation from different serotypes of AAV and permit the design of novel strategies to block CTL-mediated killing of AAV-transduced cells.

  15. Regulatory B cells inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity and elimination of infected CD4 T cells after in vitro reactivation of HIV latent reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Siewe

    Full Text Available During HIV infection, IL-10/IL-10 receptor and programmed death-1 (PD-1/programmed death-1-ligand (PD-L1 interactions have been implicated in the impairment of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART, attenuated anti-HIV CTL functions present a major hurdle towards curative measures requiring viral eradication. Therefore, deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying impaired CTL is crucial before HIV viral eradication is viable. The generation of robust CTL activity necessitates interactions between antigen-presenting cells (APC, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We have shown that in vitro, IL-10hiPD-L1hi regulatory B cells (Bregs directly attenuate HIV-specific CD8+-mediated CTL activity. Bregs also modulate APC and CD4+ T cell function; herein we characterize the Breg compartment in uninfected (HIVNEG, HIV-infected "elite controllers" (HIVEC, ART-treated (HIVART, and viremic (HIVvir, subjects, and in vitro, assess the impact of Bregs on anti-HIV CTL generation and activity after reactivation of HIV latent reservoirs using suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA. We find that Bregs from HIVEC and HIVART subjects exhibit comparable IL-10 expression levels significantly higher than HIVNEG subjects, but significantly lower than HIVVIR subjects. Bregs from HIVEC and HIVART subjects exhibit comparable PD-L1 expression, significantly higher than in HIVVIR and HIVNEG subjects. SAHA-treated Breg-depleted PBMC from HIVEC and HIVART subjects, displayed enhanced CD4+ T-cell proliferation, significant upregulation of antigen-presentation molecules, increased frequency of CD107a+ and HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, associated with efficient elimination of infected CD4+ T cells, and reduction in integrated viral DNA. Finally, IL-10-R and PD-1 antibody blockade partially reversed Breg-mediated inhibition of CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Our data suggest that, possibly, via an IL-10 and PD-L1 synergistic mechanism; Bregs likely inhibit APC

  16. Attachment of an anti-receptor antibody to non-target cells renders them susceptible to lysis by a clone of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, D M; Tonegawa, S; Eisen, H N

    1984-12-01

    The molecular basis for the dependence of antigen recognition by T cells on products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is unknown, and the antigenic structures that are actually bound by T-cell receptors are ill-defined. In this study, we asked whether a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that reacts with the T-cell receptor of a clone of murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and not with the receptors of other CTL clones can substitute for that clone's natural ligand in specific cytolytic reactions. To answer the question, a mAb (1B2) to the receptor of a CTL clone (2C) was attached covalently to 51Cr-labeled cells that were not otherwise susceptible to lysis by clone 2C, and the cells thus modified were then tested as targets for clone 2C and other CTL clones of similar specificity. All labeled cells modified in this way, including a murine cell line that expresses no cell-surface MHC class I molecules and a human cell line, were lysed by clone 2C but not by other CTL clones. If, however, instead of attaching the mAb to the receptor of clone 2C, the cells were modified by attaching to them mAbs to other surface antigens on CTL [lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1), Thy-1.2], they were not lysed. In cytolytic titrations, the cells that had been converted by attachment of mAb 1B2 into specific targets for clone 2C were just as susceptible to lysis by that clone as the clone's natural H-2d targets (e.g., P815 cells). However, some accessory surface molecules (LFA-1, Lyt-2) that are required for clone 2C to lyse its natural H-2d targets seemed not to be required for this clone to lyse the mAb-converted target cells. By demonstrating that a variety of different cell types can be thus converted into target cells for CTL, the approach described in this study may provide opportunities to analyze further the mechanisms by which CTL destroy target cells.

  17. Enhanced cytotoxicity and decreased CD8 dependence of human cancer-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after vaccination with low peptide dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, Tanja; Baumgaertner, Petra; Wieckowski, Sébastien; Devêvre, Estelle; Guillaume, Philippe; Luescher, Immanuel; Rufer, Nathalie; Speiser, Daniel E

    2012-06-01

    In mice, vaccination with high peptide doses generates higher frequencies of specific CD8+ T cells, but with lower avidity compared to vaccination with lower peptide doses. To investigate the impact of peptide dose on CD8+ T cell responses in humans, melanoma patients were vaccinated with 0.1 or 0.5 mg Melan-A/MART-1 peptide, mixed with CpG 7909 and Incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Neither the kinetics nor the amplitude of the Melan-A-specific CD8+ T cell responses differed between the two vaccination groups. Also, CD8+ T cell differentiation and cytokine production ex vivo were similar in the two groups. Interestingly, after low peptide dose vaccination, Melan-A-specific CD8+ T cells showed enhanced degranulation upon peptide stimulation, as assessed by CD107a upregulation and perforin release ex vivo. In accordance, CD8+ T cell clones derived from low peptide dose-vaccinated patients showed significantly increased degranulation and stronger cytotoxicity. In parallel, Melan-A-specific CD8+ T cells and clones from low peptide dose-vaccinated patients expressed lower CD8 levels, despite similar or even stronger binding to tetramers. Furthermore, CD8+ T cell clones from low peptide dose-vaccinated patients bound CD8 binding-deficient tetramers more efficiently, suggesting that they may express higher affinity TCRs. We conclude that low peptide dose vaccination generated CD8+ T cell responses with stronger cytotoxicity and lower CD8 dependence.

  18. Site-directed mutagenesis of an HLA-A3 gene identifies amino acid 152 as crucial for major-histocompatibility-complex-restricted and alloreactive cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, E P; Jelachich, M L; Coligan, J E; Biddison, W E

    1987-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex-restricted and alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can discriminate between the HLA-A3.1 and HLA-A3.2 antigens. HLA-A3.1 and the rare variant HLA-A3.2 have been shown to differ by two amino acids in the alpha 2 domain at positions 152 (A3.1, glutamic acid; A3.2, valine) and 156 (A3.1, leucine; A3.2, glutamine). To determine the structural basis for the ability of CTL to differentiate A3.1 from A3.2, two site-directed mutants of the HLA-A3.2 gene were pr...

  19. Frequency analysis of simian virus 40-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors in the high responder C57BL/6 mouse strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, S R; Fresa, K L; Lippe, P A; Milici, J E; Tevethia, S S

    1988-10-01

    Studies in this laboratory have shown that long term simian virus 40 (SV40)-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) cultures established from the spleens of high responder C57BL/6 (B6; H-2b) mice exhibit a preference for the selection of H-2Db-restricted CTL clones. In this study, we have investigated the basis for this selection. Limiting dilution cultures were established using responder cells from the popliteal lymph nodes and the spleens of B6 mice immunized subcutaneously in the hind footpads or via the intraperitoneal route, respectively, with syngeneic SV40-transformed cells expressing a full length (1 to 708 amino acid residues) SV40 large T antigen. The relative frequency of CTL precursors (CTLp) able to expand in vitro in the presence of SV40-transformed stimulator cells and interleukin 2 and exhibit lytic activity against H-2b cells expressing full length T antigen ranged from 1/1900 to 1/15,000 in the popliteal lymph node and from 1/8000 to 1/55,000 in the spleen. In these two experimental systems, CTLp restricted to H-2Kb were apparently present at higher frequency than H-2Db-restricted CTLp. Furthermore, CTLp recognizing determinants within the amino-terminal or carboxy-terminal halves of T antigen were generated in approximately equal numbers. The relative affinity of SV40-specific CTL, assessed by inhibition with anti-Lyt 2 monoclonal antibody, indicated that CTL restricted to H-2Db interacted with their target with greater affinity than CTL restricted to H-2Kb. These data suggest that the predominance of isolation of H-2Db-restricted CTL clones from long term in vitro cultures may be a function of the relative affinity of this population as a whole, rather than due to the immunodominance of this subpopulation during the in vivo response to SV40 T antigen.

  20. Program death-1 signaling and regulatory T cells collaborate to resist the function of adoptively transferred cytotoxic T lymphocytes in advanced acute myeloid leukemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Qing; Munger, Meghan E; Highfill, Steven L; Tolar, Jakub; Weigel, Brenda J; Riddle, Megan; Sharpe, Arlene H; Vallera, Daniel A; Azuma, Miyuki; Levine, Bruce L; June, Carl H; Murphy, William J; Munn, David H; Blazar, Bruce R

    2010-01-01

    ...) and elevation of program death-1 (PD-1) expression on CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) at the tumor site. PD-1 knockout mice were more resistant to AML despite the presence of similar percentage of Tregs compared with wild type...

  1. Large-scale preparation of human anti-third-party veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes depleted of graft-versus-host reactivity: a new source for graft facilitating cells in bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviner, Shraga; Yao, Xin; Krauthgamer, Rita; Gan, Yehudit; Goren-Arbel, Rinat; Klein, Tirza; Tabilio, Antonio; McMannis, John D; Champlin, Richard; Martelli, Massimo F; Bachar-Lustig, Esther; Reisner, Yair

    2005-06-01

    Induction of donor type chimerism in mildly prepared hosts without graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a most desirable goal in bone morrow transplantation. We have recently demonstrated in a mouse model that donor veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can facilitate the induction of donor type chimerism in sublethally irradiated recipients without causing GvHD if they are effectively depleted of alloreactivity against host cells by means of stimulation against a third party. We extend this approach to human cells, by preparing CTLs in two major steps: primary culture in the absence of interleukin 2, leading to death by neglect of antihost clones, and addition of interleukin 2 and subsequent dilution of antihost clones as a consequence of the expansion of the anti-third-party clones. CTLs prepared in this way specifically suppress host cytotoxic T cells directed against antigens of the donor, but not against fourth-party antigens, as demonstrated in a standard (51)Cr release assay. We conclude that human anti-third-party CTLs afford a new source of veto cells that are depleted of potential graft-versus-host-reactive clones. The cells generated by this approach could potentially be used to facilitate engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells.

  2. Study on the Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Clone Specific for the Nucleocapsid Protein of Hantaan Virus from Peripheral Blood in Patients with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘蕾; 白雪帆; 黄长形; 李光玉

    2003-01-01

    In order to elucidate the molecular and immunological mechanisms as well as the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphecytes (CTL) clone was established directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with HFRS. The activities of CTL were detected as usual with EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL) as target cells. The results showed that the CTL clone could recognized and killed the targetcells with specificity of nucleocapsid protein of Hantaan virus (HTNVNP) with the cytotoxicity percentages of 50.2%,25.4% and 39.0% respectively. These results demonstrated that the antigenic epitopes of HTNVNP mainly located on the C-temainal of the viral nucleocapsid protein.

  3. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R; Littke, Matt H; McGuire, Travis C

    2003-09-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined.

  4. New polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 2-derived peptide with the potential to induce cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Takafumi; Minami, Tomoko; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; De Velasco, Marco A; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Harashima, Nanae; Harada, Mamoru; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    Analyses on reactivity of anti-cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and clinical application of peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine have been mainly focused on patients with HLA-A2 or -A24 alleles. In this study, we identified an enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 2-derived peptide applicable for anti-cancer vaccine for prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles. Five EZH2-derived peptides that were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A3 supertype alleles (HLA-A11, -A31, and -A33) were functionally screened for their potential to induce peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients. As a result, EZH2733-741 peptide was found to efficiently induce peptide-specific CTLs. The EZH2733-741 peptide-stimulated and purified CD8(+) T cells from PBMCs of HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients showed higher cytotoxicity against HLA-A3 supertype allele-expressing LNCaP prostate cancer cells than against parental LNCaP cells. This cytotoxicity against HLA-A3 supertype allele-expressing LNCaP cells was partially but significantly inhibited by the addition of EZH2733-741 peptide-pulsed competitive cells. These results indicate that the EZH2733-741 peptide could be a promising candidate for peptide-based immunotherapy for HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients.

  5. Induction of the Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2 Antigen-specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Using Human Leukocyte Antigen Tetramer-based Artificial Antigen-presenting Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ling LU; Zhi-Hui LIANG; Cai-E ZHANG; Sheng-Jun LU; Xiu-Fang WENG; Xiong-Wen WU

    2006-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) antigen are important reagents for the treatment of some EBV-associated malignancies,such as EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the therapeutic amount of CTLs is often hampered by the limited supply of antigen-presenting cells. To address this issue, an artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) was made by coating a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-pLMP2 tetrameric complex, anti-CD28 antibody and CD54 molecule to a cell-sized latex bead, which provided the dual signals required for T cell activation. By co-culture of the HLA-A2-LMP2 bearing aAPC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A2 positive healthy donors, LMP2 antigen-specific CTLs were induced and expanded in vitro. The specificity of the aAPC-induced CTLs was demonstrated by both HLA-A2-LMP2tetramer staining and cytotoxicity against HLA-A2-LMP2 bearing T2 cell, the cytotoxicity was inhibited by the anti-HLA class I antibody (W6/32). These results showed that LMP2 antigen-specific CTLs could be induced and expanded in vitro by the HLA-A2-LMP2-bearing aAPC. Thus, aAPCs coated with an HLApLMP2 complex, anti-CD28 and CD54 might be promising tools for the enrichment of LMP2-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy.

  6. Novel immunodominant peptide presentation strategy: a featured HLA-A*2402-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope stabilized by intrachain hydrogen bonds from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Peng; Gao, Feng; Qi, Jianxun; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Xie, Jing; Vavricka, Christopher J; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Li, Taisheng; Gao, George F

    2010-11-01

    Antigenic peptides recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC; or human leukocyte antigen [HLA] in humans) molecules, and the peptide selection and presentation strategy of the host has been studied to guide our understanding of cellular immunity and vaccine development. Here, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein-derived CTL epitope, N1 (QFKDNVILL), restricted by HLA-A*2402 was identified by a series of in vitro studies, including a computer-assisted algorithm for prediction, stabilization of the peptide by co-refolding with HLA-A*2402 heavy chain and β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)m), and T2-A24 cell binding. Consequently, the antigenicity of the peptide was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), proliferation assays, and HLA-peptide complex tetramer staining using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors who had recovered from SARS donors. Furthermore, the crystal structure of HLA-A*2402 complexed with peptide N1 was determined, and the featured peptide was characterized with two unexpected intrachain hydrogen bonds which augment the central residues to bulge out of the binding groove. This may contribute to the T-cell receptor (TCR) interaction, showing a host immunodominant peptide presentation strategy. Meanwhile, a rapid and efficient strategy is presented for the determination of naturally presented CTL epitopes in the context of given HLA alleles of interest from long immunogenic overlapping peptides.

  7. Eliciting cytotoxic T lymphocytes against acute myeloid leukemia-derived antigens: evaluation of dendritic cell-leukemia cell hybrids and other antigen-loading strategies for dendritic cell-based vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea-Lauri, Joanna; Darling, David; Mufti, Ghulam; Harrison, Phillip; Farzaneh, Farzin

    2002-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been successfully used in clinical pilot studies to induce tumor-specific immunity as well as clinical response in selected patients. However, DC-based immunotherapy remains a challenge and several parameters need to be examined in order to optimize the induction of anti-tumor immune responses. This study focuses on DC vaccination for leukemia and evaluates the in vitro efficacy of three different strategies for generating antigen-loaded DC-based vaccines for the induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted anti-leukemia cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These included direct fusion of DC with leukemia cells to generate DC-leukemia cell hybrids, and DC pulsed with either apoptotic leukemia cell fragments or whole tumor cell lysates. Using either the U937 cell line or primary human acute myeloid leukemia blasts (AML), DC-leukemia cell hybrids were found to be the most potent in vitro inducers of CTL activity. DC pulsed with apoptotic tumor cell fragments were less efficient, but induced a more potent CTL response compared to tumor lysate-pulsed DC. The CTL responses were both MHC class I-restricted and antigen-specific, as shown by the inability of the CTL to lyse other control targets. The data presented here suggest that the method of antigen loading onto DC may be critical in the design of tumor vaccines.

  8. DNA and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccines Encoding Multiple Cytotoxic and Helper T-Lymphocyte Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Are Safe but Weakly Immunogenic in HIV-1-Uninfected, Vaccinia Virus-Naive Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Mark J.; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins. PMID:22398243

  9. Maintenance or Emergence of Chronic Phase Secondary Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses after Loss of Acute Phase Immunodominant Responses Does Not Protect SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques from Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shannon Keckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV- infected rhesus macaque is the preferred animal model for vaccine development, but the correlates of protection in this model are not completely understood. In this paper, we document the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response to SIV and its effects on viral evolution in an effort to identify events associated with disease progression regardless of MHC allele expression. We observed the evolution of epitopes targeted by CTLs in a group of macaques that included long-term nonprogressing (LTNP, slowly progressing (SP, normally progressing (NP, and rapidly progressing (RP animals. Collectively, our data (1 identify novel CTL epitopes from an SP animal that are not restricted by known protective alleles, (2 illustrate that, in this small study, RP and NP animals accrue more mutations in CTL epitopes than in SP or LTNP macaques, and (3 demonstrate that the loss of CTL responses to immunodominant epitopes is associated with viral replication increases, which are not controlled by secondary CTL responses. These findings provide further evidence for the critical role of the primary cell-mediated immune responses in the control of retroviral infections.

  10. HIV感染中的特异性细胞毒T淋巴细胞反应若干研究%The specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福祥

    2005-01-01

    HIV特异性细胞毒T淋巴细胞(cytotoxic T lymphocyte,CLT)反应对于控制HIV感染和研制艾滋病疫苗发挥着重要作用.随着检测水平的提高,如Elispot、四聚体技术、细胞内因子染色技术的应用,人们逐渐确定了HIV感染者特异性CYL识别的表位和它们的限制性MHC-Ⅰ类基因型.目前人们认为HIV特异性CTL反应是机体抗HIV感染,控制病毒血症的主要机制.本文就近年CTL反应的检测技术、CTL反应在疫苗中的应用、高效抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART)对细胞免疫的影响以及HIV感染中特异性CTL表位的研究进行综述.

  11. Human T-lymphocyte subset specificity of the regulatory effects of leukotriene B4.

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, D G; Missirian-Bastian, A; Goetzl, E J

    1984-01-01

    Leukotriene B4, but not (12S)-leukotriene B4, coupled to fluorescein-labeled human serum albumin interacts specifically with human T lymphocytes, as assessed by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. Approximately 11% of blood T lymphocytes bind the fluorescent conjugate of leukotriene B4. The leukotriene B4-reactive T lymphocytes are distributed between the suppressor-cytotoxic (14%) and helper-inducer (8%) subsets, which were identified concurrently by phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antib...

  12. Demethylation of Cancer/Testis Antigens and CpG ODN Stimulation Enhance Dendritic Cell and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Function in a Mouse Mammary Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy in virtue of their restricted expression profile in normal tissues. However, CTA-targeted immunotherapy has been rather disappointing clinical setting for CTAs are downregulated by cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG methylation in their promoter regions, so that tumor cells have low immunogenicity. Methods. We reinduced mouse CTA P1A through demethylation process and generated P1A-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs by immunizing BALB/c (H-2d mice with dendritic cells pulsed with a P1A-specific peptide and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN immune adjuvant. Results. We found that demethylation and CpG ODN immune adjuvant stimulation facilitated DC maturation and enhanced the allogenic capacity of P1A-specific CTLs against target cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions. Our results suggested that CTA induction and immune adjuvant stimulation is a feasible strategy in cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein (ML-IAP) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes cross-react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek Sørensen, Rikke; Faurschou, Mikkel; Troelsen, Lone;

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of melanoma patients host a spontaneous T-cell response specifically against ML-IAP-derived peptides. In this study, we describe that some ML-IAP-specific cytotoxic T cells isolated from melanoma patients cross react with an epitope from the auto-antigen SS56. SS56 is a recently...... described target of autoantibody responses in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) as well as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe that SS56 is also an auto-antigen for T cells in SS and SLE. Hence, SS56-specific T cells could readily be detected in circulation and among the infiltrating cells of SLE...... skin lesions. SS56-specific T cells were able to lyse target cells presenting the peptide epitope on the surface. Notably, SS56-specific CD8 T cells isolated from an SS patient cross reacted with the ML-IAP epitope. This early evidence of a target for auto-reactive CTL in SS and SLE patients...

  14. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Interleukin-12-Induced Activation of CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes against MouseMammary Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShanjinCao; ZhaoyingXiang; XiaojingMa

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a critical cytokine representing the link between the cellular and humoral branches of host immune defense apparatus. IL-12-induced cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) development is a central mechanism in immune responses against intracellular infectious agents as well as malignant growth. However,the molecular basis of tumor-specific CTL responses mediated by IL-12 remains poorly defined. In this study,we addressed this issue in a comprehensive manner to probe into IL-12-induced anti-tumor responses by global gene expression profiling of mRNA expression in CD8+T cells in a transplantable syngeneic mouse mammarycarcinoma model treated or not with recombinant IL-12. A strong tumor regression was induced by the IL-12 treatment. An introspection of differential gene expression at an early stage of the IL-12-initiated CTL activation reveals interesting genes and molecular pathways that may account for the marked tumor regression,and is likely to provide a rich source of potential targets for further research and development of effective therapeutic modalities. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(5):357-366.

  15. CTLA-4基因单倍型与吸毒合并HIV感染的相关性研究%Association between Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated Antigen 4 Gene Haplotype and Drug Abuse with HIV Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 刁波; 申元英; 周芳; 冯勇; 罗凡; 侯炜

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究细胞毒T淋巴细胞相关抗原4(cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4,CTLA-4)基因外显子1的49位点和启动子-318位点单倍型与吸毒合并HIV感染的相关性.方法 采用序列特异性引物聚合酶链反应(polymeriase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers,PCR-SSP)方法,检测24例单纯吸毒者、41例吸毒合并HIV感染患者以及204例正常对照者CTLA-4基因外显子1的49位点启动子-318位点的单倍型.结果 吸毒者中CTLA-4A+ 49G和C-318T单倍型与正常对照组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).吸毒合并HIV感染组中CTLA-4单倍型1.1(C-318-A+ 49/C-318-A+ 49)显著低于对照组(2.4%vs 13.2%,P<0.05);CTLA-4单倍型3.3(T-318-A+ 49/T-318-A+49)明显高于对照组(12.2%vs2.9%,P<0.01).与吸毒组比较,吸毒合并HIV感染组中CTLA-4单倍型1.1(C-318-A十49/C-318-A+ 49)显著下降(2.4% vs 12.5%,P<0.05).结论 吸毒合并HIV感染与CTLA-4基因动态密切相关,单倍型1.1与吸毒合并HIV感染呈负相关,单倍型3.3与吸毒合并HIV感染呈正相关.%Objective To investigate the association between the haplotype of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and drug abuse with HIV infection. Methods The A + 49G transition polymorphism at position 49 (exon 1) and C-318T transition polymorphism at position 318 in the promoter of the CTLA-4 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) method in 24 drug abusers, 41 drug abusers with HIV infection and 204 healthy controls. Results Compared with the control group, no significant difference in the distribution of haplotype was observed in A + 49G and C-318T gene polymorphisms in drug abusers (P>0. 05), the frequency of haplotype 1. 1 (C-318-A + 49/C-318-A + 49) in drug abusers with HIV infection was significantly lower (2. 4% vs 13. 2%, P<0. 05), and the frequency of haplotype 3. 3 (T-318-A + 49/T-318-A + 49) was significantly higher (12. 2% vs 2. 9%, P<0. 01

  16. Crystal structure of swine major histocompatibility complex class I SLA-1 0401 and identification of 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nianzhi; Qi, Jianxun; Feng, Sijia; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaocheng; Chen, Rong; Li, Qirun; Chen, Zhaosan; Li, Xiaoying; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

    2011-11-01

    The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1 0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV(NW9); NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (Ebola(AY9); ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide-SLA-1 0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1 0401 is that Arg(156) has a "one-ballot veto" function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIV(NW9) and Ebola(AY9) bind SLA-1 0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are "featured" peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1 0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A 0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1 0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide-SLA-1 0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation.

  17. Crystal Structure of Swine Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I SLA-1*0401 and Identification of 2009 Pandemic Swine-Origin Influenza A H1N1 Virus Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope Peptides ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nianzhi; Qi, Jianxun; Feng, Sijia; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaocheng; Chen, Rong; Li, Qirun; Chen, Zhaosan; Li, Xiaoying; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1*0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIVNW9; NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (EbolaAY9; ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide–SLA-1*0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1*0401 is that Arg156 has a “one-ballot veto” function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIVNW9 and EbolaAY9 bind SLA-1*0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are “featured” peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1*0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A*0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1*0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide–SLA-1*0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation. PMID:21900158

  18. Simultaneous assessment of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against multiple viral infections by combined usage of optimal epitope matrices, anti- CD3 mAb T-cell expansion and "RecycleSpot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Johnson T

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assessment of cellular anti-viral immunity is often hampered by the limited availability of adequate samples, especially when attempting simultaneous, high-resolution determination of T cell responses against multiple viral infections. Thus, the development of assay systems, which optimize cell usage, while still allowing for the detailed determination of breadth and magnitude of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses, is urgently needed. This study provides an up-to-date listing of currently known, well-defined viral CTL epitopes for HIV, EBV, CMV, HCV and HBV and describes an approach that overcomes some of the above limitations through the use of peptide matrices of optimally defined viral CTL epitopes in combination with anti-CD3 in vitro T cell expansion and re-use of cells from negative ELISpot wells. The data show that, when compared to direct ex vivo cell preparations, antigen-unspecific in vitro T cell expansion maintains the breadth of detectable T cell responses and demonstrates that harvesting cells from negative ELISpot wells for re-use in subsequent ELISpot assays (RecycleSpot, further maximized the use of available cells. Furthermore when combining T cell expansion and RecycleSpot with the use of rationally designed peptide matrices, antiviral immunity against more than 400 different CTL epitopes from five different viruses can be reproducibly assessed from samples of less than 10 milliliters of blood without compromising information on the breadth and magnitude of these responses. Together, these data support an approach that facilitates the assessment of cellular immunity against multiple viral co-infections in settings where sample availability is severely limited.

  19. Recognition of clonogenic leukemic cells, remission bone marrow and HLA-identical donor bone marrow by CD8+ or CD4+ minor histocompatibility antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, L M; van der Hoeven, J; Goulmy, E; Hooftman-den Otter, A L; van Luxemburg-Heijs, S A; Willemze, R; Falkenburg, J H

    1995-08-01

    We investigated whether minor histocompatibility (mH) antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can discriminate between leukemic hematopoietic progenitor cells (leukemic-HPC) from AML or CML patients, the HPC from their remission bone marrow (remission-HPC), and normal HPC from their HLA-identical sibling bone marrow donor (donor-HPC). Specific lysis by CD8+ CTL clones was observed not only of the leukemic-HPC but also of the donor-HPC in 3/4 patient/donor combinations expressing mH antigen HA-1, 3/5 combinations expressing mH antigen HA-2, 2/3 combinations expressing mH antigen HA-3, and 2/2 combinations expressing mH antigen HY-A1. In four patient/donor combinations the recognition of the donor-HPC was clearly less than of the leukemic-HPC, indicating differential susceptibility to lysis by these mH CTL clones. In addition, differential recognition of leukemic-HPC and remission-HPC within seven patients was analyzed. In one patient expressing the HA-2 antigen on the leukemic cells the recognition of the remission-HPC was clearly less than of the leukemic-HPC. One CD4+ CTL clone showed specific lysis of the leukemic-HPC from an AML patient and a CML patient as well as of normal remission-HPC and donor-HPC. These results illustrate that in general CD8+ and CD4+ mH antigen specific CTL clones do not differentially recognize leukemic-HPC and normal-HPC. However, differences in susceptibility to lysis of malignant versus normal cells may contribute to a differential GVL effect.

  20. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones rapidly expanded from CD8(+) CD62L((high)+) T cells of healthy donors prevent AML engraftment in NOD/SCID IL2Rgamma(null) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Eva; Wölfel, Catherine; Köhler, Sylvia; Nonn, Marion; Kaus, Nina; Schnürer, Elke; Meyer, Ralf G; Wehler, Thomas C; Huber, Christoph; Wölfel, Thomas; Hartwig, Udo F; Herr, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Current in vitro techniques for isolating leukemia-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from healthy donors are of relatively low efficiency and yield responder populations with unknown biological significance. This study aimed at the development of a more reliable approach, allowing generation and expansion of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-reactive CTLs using primary in vitro stimulation. We established allogeneic mini-mixed lymphocyte-leukemia cultures (mini-MLLCs) by stimulating donor CD8(+) T cells with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-matched AML blasts in microtiter plates. Before culture, CD8(+) T cells were separated into CD62L((high)+) and CD62L((low)+/neg) subsets enriched for naive/central memory and effector memory cells, respectively. In eight different related and unrelated donor/AML pairs, numerous CTL populations were isolated that specifically lysed myeloid leukemias in association with various HLA-A, -B, or -C alleles. These CTLs expressed T-cell receptors of single Vbeta-chain families, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of CTL clones were obtained from mini-MLLCs initiated with CD62L((high)+) cells. Using antigen-specific stimulation, multiple CTL populations were amplified to 10(8)-10(10) cells within 6 to 8 weeks. Three of four representative CTL clones were capable of completely preventing engraftment of human primary AML blasts in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune deficient IL2Rgamma(null) mice. The mini-MLLC approach allows the efficient in vitro expansion of AML-reactive CTL clones from CD8(+)CD62L((high)+) precursors of healthy donors. These CTLs can inhibit leukemia engraftment in immunodeficient mice, suggesting their potential biological relevance.

  1. Enhanced interferon-γ secretion and antitumor activity of T-lymphocytes activated by dendritic cells loaded with glycoengineered myeloma antigens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Hong; WU Qiu-ye; HU Hong-gang; LIU Ban; GUO Zhong-wu; Daniel Man-yuan Sze; HOU Jian

    2007-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising cure for cancer. However, a severe problem in this area is the immune tolerance to tumor cells and tumor-associated antigens, as evidenced by the ability of cancer to escape immune surveillance. To overcome this problem this work examined the potential of improving the antigenicity of myeloma by metabolic engineering of its cell surface carbohydrate antigens (i.e., glycoengineering) and presentation of the modified tumor antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to generate cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs).Methods CD138+ myeloma cells were isolated from 11 multipe myeloma (MM) patients by the immunomagnetic bead method. The MM cells were treated with N-propionyl-D-mannosamine (ManNPr), a synthetic analog of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc), the natural biosynthetic precursor of N-acetyl sialic acid (NeuNAc), to express unnatural N-propionylated sialoglycans. The giycoengineered cells were then induced to apoptosis, and the apoptotic products were added to cultured functional DCs that could present the unnatural carbohydrate antigens to autologous T-lymphocytes.Results It was found that the resultant DCs could activate CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, resulting in increased expression of T cell surface markers, including CD8CD28 and CD4CD29. Moreover, upon stimulation by glycoengineered MM cells, these DC-activated T-lymphocytes could release significantly higher levels of IFN-γ (P<0.05).Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays further showed that the stimulated T-lymphocytes were cytotoxic to glycoengineered MM cells.Conclusions This work demonstrated that glycoengineered myeloma cells were highly antigenic and the CTLs induced by the DCs loaded with the unnatural myeloma antigens were specifically cytotoxic to the glycoengineered myeloma.This may provide a new strategy for overcoming the problem of immune tolerance for the development of effective immunotherapies for MM.

  2. [Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, H; Clémenceau, B

    2017-09-01

    Within a few years, the success of treatments based on the use of T-cells armed with a chimeric T-receptor for the CD19 molecule (CAR-T CD19) has revolutionized the perception of adoptive transfer approaches. The levels of responses observed in acute leukemias, of the order of 70-90 % are indeed unprecedented. The medical and financial enthusiasm aroused by these results has led to the current situation where more than 300 clinical trials are under way, against some thirty different antigens. This enthusiasm, well justified by the first successes, must however be tempered by the difficulties associated with the use of these cells. Indeed, the management of patients is made very complex both for medical reasons, because the toxicities associated with these treatments are important, and for technical reasons, because the preparation of T lymphocytes for therapeutic use requires dedicated structures. During this same period, knowledge of the mechanisms of regulation of T lymphocytes and the possibilities offered by synthetic biology and techniques of genome engineering have progressed considerably. Combined, they allow envisaging a true "programming" of the T lymphocytes, intended to improve the efficiency of the treatments and the safety of the patients. Medical and industrial perspectives and the role of these approaches in the arsenal of cancer therapies will depend largely on two conditions: the emergence of a robust demonstration of their effectiveness in solid tumors, and the establishment of an acceptable production and distribution model 1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of “one-pot, mix-and-read” peptide-MHC class I tetramers and predictive algorithms to improve detection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-major histocompatibility complex (p-MHC) class I tetramer complexes have facilitated the early detection and functional characterisation of epitope specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here, we report on the generation of seven recombinant bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) and recombinant bovine β2-microglobulin from which p-MHC class I tetramers can be derived in ~48 h. We validated a set of p-MHC class I tetramers against a panel of CTL lines specific to seven epitopes on five different antigens of Theileria parva, a protozoan pathogen causing the lethal bovine disease East Coast fever. One of the p-MHC class I tetramers was tested in ex vivo assays and we detected T. parva specific CTL in peripheral blood of cattle at day 15-17 post-immunization with a live parasite vaccine. The algorithm NetMHCpan predicted alternative epitope sequences for some of the T. parva CTL epitopes. Using an ELISA assay to measure peptide-BoLA monomer formation and p-MHC class I tetramers of new specificity, we demonstrate that a predicted alternative epitope Tp229-37 rather than the previously reported Tp227-37 epitope is the correct Tp2 epitope presented by BoLA-6*04101. We also verified the prediction by NetMHCpan that the Tp587-95 epitope reported as BoLA-T5 restricted can also be presented by BoLA-1*02301, a molecule similar in sequence to BoLA-T5. In addition, Tp587-95 specific bovine CTL were simultaneously stained by Tp5-BoLA-1*02301 and Tp5-BoLA-T5 tetramers suggesting that one T cell receptor can bind to two different BoLA MHC class I molecules presenting the Tp587-95 epitope and that these BoLA molecules fall into a single functional supertype. PMID:24775445

  4. [原著]Prethymic Nylon Wool-Passed Bone Marrow Cells Can Make Distinction between Self and Non-Self X-Chromosome-Linked Gene Products (Xir Antigens) on the Stimulator Cells, Resulting in Regulation of the Generation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Moritake; Tanabe, MasaoJ; Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Research Institute of Comprehensive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported that nylon wool-passed bone marrow cells treated with anti-Thy.1 antibody and complement (Thy.1 NW-BM cells) had helper-like activity which could augment the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In this study, we determined the antigens to which these NW-BM cells responded and recognized. When a few responder lymph node (LN) cells and an excess of NW-BM responder cells from BIOBR (H-2^k B10 background) mice were cultured with stimulator spleen cells from ei...

  5. How T lymphocytes see antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2009-03-01

    Complex organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that enables us to do battle with diverse pathogens. This flexible system can also go awry, and many diseases are the direct consequence of the adaptive immune system failing to discriminate between markers of self and non-self. The orchestrators of adaptive immunity are a class of cells called T lymphocytes (T cells). T cells recognize minute numbers of molecular signatures of pathogens, and T cell recognition of these molecular markers of non-self is both specific and degenerate. The specific (yet, cross-reactive), diverse, and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is designed in the thymus. I will describe how an approach that brings together theoretical and computational studies (rooted in statistical physics) with experiments (carried out by key collaborators) has allowed us to shed light on the mechanistic principles underlying how T cells respond to pathogens in a digital fashion (``on'' or ``off''), and how this molecular machinery coupled with frustration (a la spin glasses) plays a key role in designing the special properties of the T cell repertoire during development in the thymus.

  6. 树突状细胞诱导的细胞毒性T细胞对黑色素瘤的抑制作用%Inhibitory effects of cytotoxic T lymphocyte induced by dendritic cells on melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 谭延伟; 蔡建辉; 胡玲玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cell (Treg) in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) inhibiting B16 melanoma and the mechanism.Methods B16 melanoma cells were injected into subcutaneous tissue under the left shoulder of the C57BL/6 mouse to make the melanoma animal models.Then the animal models were irradiated by 60Co-ray on the total body in order to get a no-marrow lymphocyte deletion (NMLD) state.Eighty C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups:3 experimental groups and a control group,with 20 mice each.In vitro T cells were induced into CTL with tumor specificity.CTL were injected back into the mouse body through the vein in the tail.The changes of tumor volume and tumor weight were observed.Results The tumor inhibition rate in the three experiment groups was 90.89%,92.52% and 60.02% respectively,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05).A significant tumor inhibition was observed in groups A and B with a deletion of CD4 + CD25 + Tregs,in comparison with that in group C with no deletion of Tregs (P < 0.05).But no significant difference was found between groups A and B with deletion of Tregs at different time points (P > 0.05).Conclusion The deletion of CD4 + CD25 + Treg could significantly increase the tumor inhibition effect of antigen-specific CTL in melanoma.%目的 探讨CD4+ CD25+ Treg细胞对树突状细胞(DC)诱导的细胞毒性T细胞(CTL)对B16黑色素瘤抑瘤作用的影响及其机制.方法 制备C57BL/6小鼠B16黑色素瘤动物模型,行全身放疗达非髓性淋巴细胞删除(NMLD)状态.随机将80只小鼠分为4组.A组:在DC与T细胞共同培养前应用免疫磁珠法(MACS)删除CD4+ CD25+ Treg细胞;B组:DC与T细胞共同培养后删除CD4+ CD25+ Treg细胞;C组:DC与T细胞共同培养时不删除CD4+ CD25+ Treg细胞.D组:对照组.体外应用DC诱导T细胞产生效应细胞CTL,将CTL经鼠尾静脉回输小鼠体内,观察对黑色素瘤的抑瘤效果.结果 A

  7. T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte dichotomy in anuran amphibians: III. Assessment and identification of inducible killer T-lymphocytes (IKTL) and spontaneous killer T-lymphocytes (SKTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempau, A E; Cooper, E L

    1984-01-01

    We have established the existence of alloreactive inducible killer (IK) T-lymphocytes in Rana pipiens by injecting immunogenic concentrations of allogeneic frog erythrocytes (RBC). Assessment of specific IK activity was determined microscopically, observing effector-target conjugate formation, and spectrophotometrically as released hemoglobin (Hb) from lysed targets (RBC). The presence of spontaneous killer (SK) T-lymphocyte activity was also determined using unimmunized frogs and similar assay conditions. Assays using rabbit anti-frog Thy-1.1 antiserum inhibition, but not E-rosetted T-lymphocyte depletion, confirmed the T-lymphocyte category of both effector cell populations in Rana pipiens. For IK activity, we determined the 1) best priming doses, 2) best effector cell source (peripheral blood), 3) best priming route (intraperitoneal), 4) kinetics of immunity development, and 5) kinetics of lysis. Kinetics of lysis and organ distribution for spontaneous killer cells were also determined. Our results may assist 1) in establishing the evolutionary origin of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, and 2) in predicting where the capacity of immuno-surveillance against modified-self appeared in phylogeny. The implications are important for understanding origins of mechanisms of resistance against neoplastic conditions.

  8. Piperine from black pepper inhibits activation-induced proliferation and effector function of T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Rodgers, Gemma; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn), which is a widely consumed spice. Here, we investigated the effect of piperine on mouse T lymphocyte activation. Piperine inhibited polyclonal and antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation without affecting cell viability. Piperine also suppressed T lymphocyte entry into the S and G2 /M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased expression of G1 -associated cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. In addition, piperine inhibited CD25 expression, synthesis of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-17A, and the generation of cytotoxic effector cells. The inhibitory effect of piperine on T lymphocytes was associated with hypophosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of κBα, but not ZAP-70. The ability of piperine to inhibit several key signaling pathways involved in T lymphocyte activation and the acquisition of effector function suggests that piperine might be useful in the management of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders.

  9. T lymphocyte subset imbalances in patients contribute to ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, CHENGGONG; LIAO, QIANDE; HU, YIHE; ZHONG, DA

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. To date, the disease etiology remains unclear. In the present study, the correlation of T lymphocyte subset changes with the progression of ankylosing spondylitis was investigated. A total of 55 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (22 severe and 23 mild cases) and 20 healthy individuals were selected. Firstly, the punctured cells in the lesions and the serum were collected, and the lymphocytes and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prepared. Secondly, quantitative PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were carried out to detect the levels of a series of immunoglobulins, complements, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory cells and cytokines. The expression levels of α-globulin, γ-globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, serum complement C3, and complement C4 were found to be significantly increased in ankylosing spondylitis patients. In addition, the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells was found to be significantly higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups (mild and severe) compared with the healthy individuals. As a result, the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, T lymphocyte subset ratio imbalances contributed to an increased expression of immune mediators, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A were found to be higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups compared with the control group. The present study provided further evidence on the function and underlying mechanism of T lymphocyte subsets, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:25452811

  10. T lymphocyte subset imbalances in patients contribute to ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggong; Liao, Qiande; Hu, Yihe; Zhong, DA

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. To date, the disease etiology remains unclear. In the present study, the correlation of T lymphocyte subset changes with the progression of ankylosing spondylitis was investigated. A total of 55 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (22 severe and 23 mild cases) and 20 healthy individuals were selected. Firstly, the punctured cells in the lesions and the serum were collected, and the lymphocytes and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prepared. Secondly, quantitative PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were carried out to detect the levels of a series of immunoglobulins, complements, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory cells and cytokines. The expression levels of α-globulin, γ-globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, serum complement C3, and complement C4 were found to be significantly increased in ankylosing spondylitis patients. In addition, the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells was found to be significantly higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups (mild and severe) compared with the healthy individuals. As a result, the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, T lymphocyte subset ratio imbalances contributed to an increased expression of immune mediators, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A were found to be higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups compared with the control group. The present study provided further evidence on the function and underlying mechanism of T lymphocyte subsets, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  11. The anti-tumor activity of dendritic cell/cytotoxic T lymphocyte induced by cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosome and its ultrafiltered lysate%基于exosome裂解超滤液的树突状细胞/细胞毒性T淋巴细胞诱导及其抗胆管癌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炯煌; 丁国平; 陈文超; 曹利平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosome and ultrafiltered exosome lysate on the anti-tumor activity of dendritic celL/cytotoxic T lymphocyte (DC/CTL) cells and discuss the mechanism involved.Methods Exosomes derived from RBE cells (human cholangiocarcinoma line) were collected by ultracentrifugation,ow-osmotic splitting followed by ultrafiltration was performed to remove exosomal microRNAs and purify the ultrafiltered exosome lysate.ImDCs (immature dendritic cells) were induced from peripheral blood and were co-cultured with CTL(cytotoxic lymphocyte),which were impulsed by exosome and ultrafiltered exosome lysate,respectively.The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αt and perforin in culture medium supernatant were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of DC/CTL to RBE cells.Results The concentrations of TNF-αand perforin in E-DC/CTL group were 138.61 ng/L and 2.41 μg/L respectively,lower than those of DC/CTL (194.08 ng/L and 3.39 μg/L) and EL-DC/CTL group (210.87 ng/L and 3.79 μg/L).The killing rate of E-DC/CTL was 33.35%,lower than that of DC/CTL (47.35%) and EL-DC/CTL (66.23%) significantly.The killing rate of EL-DC/CTL was significantly higher than that of DC/CTL (P < 0.01).Conclusion RBE cell-derived exosome inhibits the anti-tumor activity of DC/CTL by down-regulating TNF-α and perforin,exosomal miRNA may play important roles in the immune escape of cholangiocarcinoma.We built a new model based on ultrafiltered exosome lysate derived from cholangiocarcinoma to enhance the anti-tumor activity of DC/CTL.%目的 观察人胆管癌细胞来源的exosome及exosome裂解超滤液(UEL)对树突状细胞/细胞毒性T淋巴细胞诱导(DC/CTL)混合细胞抗肿瘤活性的影响及机制.方法 采用超速离心法提取人胆管癌细胞(RBE细胞)释放的exosome,低渗法裂解exosome,超

  12. Recombinant poxvirus boosting of DNA-primed rhesus monkeys augments peak but not memory T lymphocyte responses

    OpenAIRE

    Santra, Sampa; Barouch, Dan H.; Korioth-Schmitz, Birgit; Lord, Carol I.; Krivulka, Georgia R.; Yu, Faye; Beddall, Margaret H; Gorgone, Darci A.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Miura, Ayako; Philippon, Valerie; Manson, Kelledy; Markham, Phillip D.; Parrish, John; Kuroda, Marcelo J.

    2004-01-01

    Although a consensus has emerged that an HIV vaccine should elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, the characteristics of an effective vaccine-induced T lymphocyte response remain unclear. We explored this issue in the simian human immunodeficiency virus/rhesus monkey model in the course of assessing the relative immunogenicity of vaccine regimens that included a cytokine-augmented plasmid DNA prime and a boost with DNA or recombinant pox vectors. Recombinant vaccinia virus, recombin...

  13. GABA, a natural immunomodulator of T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurstöm, Helen; Wang, Junyang; Ericsson, Ida

    2008-01-01

    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could......M and higher GABA concentrations decreased T cell proliferation. The results are consistent with GABA being immunomodulatory....

  14. Highly Oxygenated Sesquiterpene Lactones from Cousinia aitchisonii and their Cytotoxic Properties: Rhaserolide Induces Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocyte (Jurkat) Cells via the Activation of c-Jun n-terminal Kinase Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranshahy, Milad; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Kasaian, Jamal; Ghandadi, Morteza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Chandran, Jima N; Schneider, Bernd; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-02-01

    Infrared-guided chromatographic fractionation of sesquiterpene lactones from the extracts of Cousinia aitchisonii and Cousinia concolor led to the isolation of five pure compounds. A new sesquiterpene lactone, namely, aitchisonolide, and two known sesquiterpene lactones (desoxyjanerin and rhaserolide) were isolated from C. aitchisonii and two known lignans (arctiin and arctigenin) from C. concolor. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry. The purified and characterized compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity assay. The sesquiterpene lactones desoxyjanerin and rhaserolide showed significant cytotoxic activities against five different cancer cell lines and the normal human embryonic kidney cell line. Rhaserolide was chosen to evaluate the possible mechanism of action. Western blot analysis revealed that rhaserolide could induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells via the activation of c-Jun n-terminal kinase phosphorylation.

  15. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  16. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chang, Chu-Ting; Wang, Guei-Jane; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Yuh-Chi

    2011-03-25

    Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  17. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shwu-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang, a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC, isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  18. Tumor-Infiltrating γδ T Lymphocytes: Pathogenic Role, Clinical Significance, and Differential Programing in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Elena; Dieli, Franceso; Meraviglia, Serena

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence indicating that the immune system may either promote or inhibit tumor progression. Several studies have demonstrated that tumors undergoing remission are largely infiltrated by T lymphocytes [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)], but on the other hand, several studies have shown that tumors may be infiltrated by TILs endowed with suppressive features, suggesting that TILs are rather associated with tumor progression and unfavorable prognosis. γδ T lymphocytes are an important component of TILs that may contribute to tumor immunosurveillance, as also suggested by promising reports from several small phase-I clinical trials. Typically, γδ T lymphocytes perform effector functions involved in anti-tumor immune responses (cytotoxicity, production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and dendritic cell maturation), but under appropriate conditions they may divert from the typical Th1-like phenotype and polarize to Th2, Th17, and Treg cells thus acquiring the capability to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote tumor growth. Recent studies have shown a high frequency of γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating different types of cancer, but the nature of this association and the exact mechanisms underlying it remain uncertain and whether or not the presence of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes is a definite prognostic factor remains controversial. In this paper, we will review studies of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes from patients with different types of cancer, and we will discuss their clinical relevance. Moreover, we will also discuss on the complex interplay between cancer, tumor stroma, and γδ T lymphocytes as a major determinant of the final outcome of the γδ T lymphocyte response. Finally, we propose that targeting γδ T lymphocyte polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of cancer.

  19. Association between Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen4 gene promoter polymorphisms and patients with Graves' disease in Ningxia%细胞毒性淋巴细胞相关抗原4基因多态性与宁夏地区Graves病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康毓芝; 王立斌; 杨宝珍; 师志云

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析细胞毒性T淋巴细胞相关抗原4(cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4,CTLA-4)启动子318C/T位点基因多态性与宁夏地区Graves病(Graves' disease,GD)相关性.方法 提取61例宁夏地区GD患者和79例正常对照组的外周血白细胞基因组DNA,应用PCR-RFLP技术检测CTLA-4启动子(318)位点C318T的多态性.结果 GD组与正常对照组CTLA-4 C318T CC、CT、TT三种基因型分布(χ2=1.80,P =0.18)和等位基因频率(χ2=1.04,P =0.31)差异无统计学意义.结论 CTLA-4基因SNP-(318)C/T位点可能不是宁夏地区GD的易感基因.

  20. Analysis of Epstein-Barr viral DNA load, EBV-LMP2 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and levels of CD4+CD25+T cells in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas positive for IgA antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Wu-ning; TANG An-zhou; ZHOU Ling; HUANG Guang-wu; WANG Zhan; ZENG Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus commonly associated with several malignant diseases including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is a common cancer in Southeastem Asia. Previous studies showed that plasma levels of EBV-DNA might be a sensitive and reliable biomarker for the diagnosis, staging and evaluating of therapy for NPC. There are a few analyses of the levels of EBV-latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in patients with NPC. This study was conducted to investigate the levels of EBV-LMP2-specific CTLs, EBV-DNA load and the level of CD4+CD25+T cells in such patients.Methods From February 2006 to April 2006, 62 patients with NPC, 40 healthy virus carders positive for EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-IgA-VCA) and 40 controls were enrolled in the study. We used a highly sensitive ELISPOT assay,real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow cytometry to measure the EBV-LMP2-specific CTL response, the EBV DNA load and the level of CD4+CD25+T cells, respectively.Results The EBV-LMP2-specific CTL responses of the samples from the control, healthy virus carders and patients with NPC were significantly different from the LMP2 epitopes, with the control and healthy virus carder samples displaying a stronger response in three cases. There were significant differences in EBV DNA load in serum between NPC and the healthy groups; patients with NPC at stages Ⅲ or Ⅳ had significantly higher viral loads compared with those at stages Ⅰ or Ⅱ. A significantly higher percentage of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes were detected in the patients, compared with healthy virus carriers and healthy controls. Moreover, patients with advanced stages of NPC (Ⅲ and Ⅲ) had significantly higher percentages than the patients with early stages (Ⅰ and Ⅱ).Conclusions Patients with NPC are frequently unable to establish or maintain sufficient immunosurveillance to control proliferating B cells harboring EBV and to destroy the tumor

  1. Identification of the murine H-2D(b) and human HLA-A*0201 MHC class I-restricted HPV6 E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shiwen; Mattox, Austin; Best, Simon R; Barbu, Anca M; Burns, James A; Akpeng, Belinda; Jeang, Jessica; Yang, Benjamin; Ishida, Eiichi; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Pai, Sara I

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, most commonly types 6 (HPV-6) and 11 (HPV-11). Due to failed host immune responses, HPV is unable to be cleared from the host, resulting in recurrent growth of HPV-related lesions that can obstruct the lumen of the airway within the upper aerodigestive tract. In our murine model, the HPV-6b and HPV-11 E7 antigens are not innately immunogenic. In order to enhance the host immune responses against the HPV E7 antigen, we linked calreticulin (CRT) to HPV-6b E7 and found that vaccinating C57BL/6 mice with the HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA vaccine is able to induce a CD8+ T cell response that recognizes an H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 epitope. Additionally, vaccination of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA generated a CD8+ T cell response against the E7aa82-90 epitope that was not observed in the wild-type C57BL/6 mice, indicating this T cell response is restricted to HLA-A*0201. In vivo cytotoxic T cell killing assays demonstrated that the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells are able to efficiently kill target cells. Interestingly, the H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 sequence and the HLA-A*0201-restricted E7aa82-90 sequence are conserved between HPV-6b and HPV-11 and may represent shared immunogenic epitopes. The identification of the HPV-6b/HPV-11 CD8+ T cell epitopes facilitates the evaluation of various immunomodulatory strategies in preclinical models. More importantly, the identified HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitope may serve as a peptide vaccination strategy, as well as facilitate the monitoring of vaccine-induced HPV-specific immunologic responses in future human clinical trials.

  2. ANTI-APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF CD95 RECEPTOR IN NA VE CD8+ T-LYMPHOCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Filatova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious mononucleosis is a widespread viral disease, which most often manifests in childhood. The development of acute infectious mononucleosis is accompanied by the change of the CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes ratio and the increase of the virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes number. One of the T-lymphocytes number regulation mechanisms is the modulation of their progenitor cells apoptosis. The death receptor CD95 takes part in the regulation of T-lymphocytes apoptosis, including naïve T-cells. We studied the effect of CD95 receptor activation on apoptosis of naïve CD4+ and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes in healthy children and children with acute infectious mononucleosis. In this study children with acute infectious mononucleosis at the age of 9 to 16 years were included. For comparison healthy children of the same age with no clinical and laboratory signs of the disease were used. Naïve CD4+ and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes were isolated by negative magnetic immunoseparation. The analysis of naïve T-cells apoptosis and the CD95 receptor surface expression density was performed by using the flow cytometry analysis. The analysis of T-cells was performed in three variants: freshly isolated naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and also cells after 24 hours of the cultivation with anti-CD95 monoclonal antibodies or without them. In healthy children both CD95– and CD95+ naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes underwent apoptosis. In children with acute infectious mononucleosis CD95– naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes lost their susceptibility to apoptosis induction. In healthy children and children with acute infectious mononucleosis CD95– naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes were resistant to apoptosis in contrast to CD95+ naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes. In healthy children CD95 receptor did not induce apoptosis of isolated naïve CD4+ T-lymphocytes and naïve cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes. In children with acute

  3. Phenotypic and Functional Analysis of Porcine T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 陈应华

    2001-01-01

    Porcine and other higher mammals express clusters of differentiation (CD) antigens on the surface of T lymphocytes, such as CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, etc. However, in porcine, a high percentage of the CD4+ CD8-T lymphocyte subpopulation exist in the peripheral blood and the ratio of the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulations is reversed. These differences bring new challenges to better understanding of the phenotype and function of porcine T lymphocytes in antigen recognition and immune response.

  4. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human influenza virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Inluenza remains a global problem,resulting in 250 000–500 000 deaths in non-pandemic years according to the most recent WHO report(htp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs211/en/).he currently available inluenza vaccines mostly induce antibodies against the viral surface glycoproteins,haemagglutinin(HA)and neuraminidase,with the HA being by far the more important.Whilst neutralizing antibodies can provide sterilizing immunity by blocking infection,

  5. T-lymphocyte subsets in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P;

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets: T-helper (OKT4) and T-suppressor (OKT8) cells were studied quantitatively in 20 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) in ulcerative, as well as inactive, stages of the disease. The figures were compared with T-lymphocyte subsets from matched control do...

  6. Dynamics of immune escape during HIV/SIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs play an important role in controlling HIV/SIV infection. Notably, the observation of escape mutants suggests a selective pressure induced by the CTL response. However, it remains difficult to assess the definite role of the cellular immune response. We devise a computational model of HIV/SIV infection having a broad cellular immune response targeting different viral epitopes. The CTL clones are stimulated by viral antigen and interact with the virus population through cytotoxic killing of infected cells. Consequently, the virus population reacts through the acquisition of CTL escape mutations. Our model provides realistic virus dynamics and describes several experimental observations. We postulate that inter-clonal competition and immunodominance may be critical factors determining the sequential emergence of escapes. We show that even though the total killing induced by the CTL response can be high, escape rates against a single CTL clone are often slow and difficult to estimate from infrequent sequence measurements. Finally, our simulations show that a higher degree of immunodominance leads to more frequent escape with a reduced control of viral replication but a substantially impaired replicative capacity of the virus. This result suggests two strategies for vaccine design: Vaccines inducing a broad CTL response should decrease the viral load, whereas vaccines stimulating a narrow but dominant CTL response are likely to induce escape but may dramatically reduce the replicative capacity of the virus.

  7. DC 荷载α-GalCer 联合肿瘤特异性 CTL 对小鼠 Heps 肝癌移植瘤生长的影响%Effects of DC load α-GalCer combined with tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte on the growth of transplanted Heps hepatoma in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 栾智勇; 张南征; 吴亮群; 刘军权; 杭敏; 潘进

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨树突状细胞(DC)荷载α-半乳糖神经酰胺(α-GalCer)联合肿瘤特异性细胞毒 T 淋巴细胞(CTL)对小鼠 Heps 肝癌移植瘤生长的抑制作用。方法:诱导扩增小鼠骨髓来源的 DC 细胞和 T 淋巴细胞,培养成为具有肿瘤特异性的 CTL,DC 细胞体外荷载α-GalCer。建立 Heps 肝癌移植瘤模型,将36只模型鼠随机分为4组(n =9),分别尾静脉给予生理盐水(对照组)、CTL(CTL 组)、DC 荷载α-GalCer(DC 荷载α-GalCer 组)、DC 细胞荷载α-GalCer +CTL(联合治疗组)输注。每隔两天测量移植瘤体积,观察体积变化。于治疗后第14d,处死小鼠,取眼球血及瘤体组织。流式细胞术(FCM)检测外周血 CD4+、CD8+ T 细胞比例。免疫组织化学染色观察肿瘤组织中 Bcl -2/Bax 凋亡蛋白的表达。结果:与对照组相比,各治疗组均可抑制肿瘤的生长,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.01);联合治疗组较 DC 荷载α-GalCer 组及 CTL 组肿瘤体积明显减小(P <0.05)。联合治疗组小鼠外周血 CD4+、CD8+ T 细胞数量较另外三组显著升高(P <0.05);对照组、CTL组、DC 荷载α-GalCer 组小鼠外周血中 CD4+、CD8+ T 细胞含量无明显差异(P >0.05)。与对照组相比,各治疗组移植瘤内 Bax 阳性细胞数量明显增加(P <0.05),Bcl -2阳性细胞数量明显减少(P <0.05);与 CTL组和α-GalCer 组相比,联合治疗组移植瘤内 Bax 阳性细胞明显增加(P <0.05),Bcl -2阳性细胞明显下降(P <0.05)。结论:DC 荷载α-GalCer 与肿瘤特异性 CTL 联合应用能够对小鼠 Heps 肝癌移植瘤具有协同杀伤作用。%Objective:To investigate the inhibitory effects of dendritic cells(DC)load alpha -Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)combined with tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL)on the growth of

  8. Selective loss of T cell functions in different stages of HIV infection. Early loss of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation followed by decreased anti-CD3-induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in AIDS-related complex and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruters, R A; Terpstra, F G; De Jong, R; Van Noesel, C J; Van Lier, R A; Miedema, F

    1990-05-01

    To investigate the effects of persistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on T cell reactivity, functional properties of peripheral blood T cells from HIV-seropositive homosexual men in various stages of infection were studied. T cell activation via CD3 resulting in proliferation and differentiation was measured in a model system independent of accessory cells, using immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb). T cells from HIV-infected asymptomatic men had a decreased proliferative response compared to HIV-negative controls. T cells from AIDS-related complex (ARC) and AIDS patients, compared to T cells from asymptomatic HIV-infected men, had a significantly lower proliferative response to anti-CD3 mAb. This diminished response to anti-CD3 mAb was shown to be due to decreased interleukin (IL) 2 production and could be enhanced by co-stimulation with anti-CD28 mAb or by adding IL 2. Anti-CD3-induced generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes was fully intact in early infection but was severely decreased in T cells from ARC and AIDS patients. Cytotoxic activity could be restored to near normal levels after co-stimulation with either anti-CD28 mAb or IL 2. Our data demonstrate a differential loss of T cell functions in the course of HIV infection which is predominantly caused by a lack of IL 2 production after stimulation via the CD3/T cell receptor complex. In early HIV infection this seems to be predominantly caused by a specific loss of memory T cells. However, in later stages of infection when both naive and memory T cell subsets are depleted, resulting in a normal naive/memory T cell ratio, T cell functions further deteriorate probably due to intrinsic activation defects. These findings may be of pathogenic relevance since diminished T cell reactivity may facilitate spreading and replication of virulent HIV variants heralding development of ARC and AIDS.

  9. Broad CTL Response in Early HIV Infection Drives Multiple Concurrent CTL Escapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviyang, Sivan; Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the ability of HIV to escape from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses that concurrently target multiple viral epitopes. Yet, the viral dynamics involved in such escape are incompletely understood. Previous analyses have made several strong assumptions regarding HIV escape from CTL responses such as independent or non-concurrent escape from individual CTL responses. Using experimental data from evolution of HIV half genomes in four patients we observe concurrent viral escape from multiple CTL responses during early infection (first 100 days of infection), providing confirmation of a recent result found in a study of one HIV-infected patient. We show that current methods of estimating CTL escape rates, based on the assumption of independent escapes, are biased and perform poorly when CTL escape proceeds concurrently at multiple epitopes. We propose a new method for analyzing longitudinal sequence data to estimate the rate of CTL escape across multiple epitopes; this method involves few parameters and performs well in simulation studies. By applying our novel method to experimental data, we find that concurrent multiple escapes occur at rates between 0.03 and 0.4 day(-1), a relatively broad range that reflects uncertainty due to sparse sampling and wide ranges of parameter values. However, we show that concurrent escape at rates 0.1-0.2 day(-1) across multiple epitopes is consistent with our patient datasets.

  10. T细胞功能学与结构免疫学结合方法鉴定HLA-A2限制性的细胞毒性T淋巴细胞表位富集区%Combined Functional and Structural Methods Verification of an Epitope Clustering Region of HLA-A2-restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 齐建勋; 高峰; 严景华; 高福

    2011-01-01

    T细胞表位在抗病毒的T细胞免疫中发挥核心作用,目前已在多种病原微生物的蛋白序列上发现存在T细胞表位的聚集现象.本文建立了一套功能学与结构学结合的策略鉴定病原体上细胞毒性T细胞(Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte,CTL)表位富集区的方法,并以严重急性呼吸道综合征(SARS)相关冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)的M蛋白为例,成功地鉴定了一个HLA-A2限制性的表位富集区.首先通过生物信息学的方法预测并合成M蛋白跨膜区的HLA-A2潜在结合多肽,通过体外复性实验和T2细胞结合实验验证多肽与HLA-A2的结合力;然后在HLA-A2.1/Kb转基因小鼠中检测这些多肽的免疫原性;最后通过×射线衍射技术,成功解析了其中一条多肽与HLA-A*0201的复合物结构,其结构显示该多肽具有典型的HLA-A*0201表位的结构特点,但却呈现出与以往鉴定多肽不同的构象和锚定残基.本文对于理解机体对SARS-CoV等病原体产生的T细胞免疫反应,以及为更广泛的人群设计T细胞疫苗具有重要意义.%T cell epitopes play an important role in the anti-virus specific T cell immunity. Currently, the phenomenon of T cell epitope clustering is reported among different pathogenic microbes. Here, a strategy is established to identify Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) epitope clusters region with the combined functional and structural methods. And by using this strategy, a HLA-A2 -restricted epitope cluster in SARS-CoV M protein is successfully defined. Firstly, the computer-assisted algorithm was utilized to predict a series of potential HLA -A2 binding peptides around the sequences of two previous identified HLA -A2 epitopes Mn2 and Md3 in the transmembrane domain of SARS-CoV M protein. The HLA-A2 binding affinities of these peptides were accessed through in vitro refolding assay and T2 cell binding assay. Consequently, antigenicity of the peptides was confirmed by ELISPOT by using transgenic mice immunized with

  11. Prognostic Impact of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Relation to CD8+ T Lymphocyte Density in Human Colon Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Harry H.; Jared M Orrock; Foster, Nathan R.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Thomas C. Smyrk; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T-lymphocyte infiltration into colon carcinomas can influence clinical outcome, and interactions among T cell subsets may be more informative than either subset alone. Our objective was to examine the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in relation to cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes in patients with colon carcinomas characterized by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status who participated in adjuvant chemotherapy trials. METHODS: FoxP3(+) and CD8(+)...

  12. Observation of T lymphocyte subsets in the liver of patients with advanced schistosomiasis and advanced schistosomiasis accompanied with hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Li, Z; Cai, S; Zeng, L

    2000-01-01

    T lymphocyte subsets in the liver were detected by Avidin-Biotin Complex (ABC) assay in 22 patients with advanced schistosomiasis (AS) and 5 cases of AS accompanied with hepatitis B. T lymphocytes in the liver of AS patients were distributed in the peripheral layer of egg granuloma or the area near eggs in non-granuloma. No infiltrative T lymphocytes were observed in area with extensive fibrosis. There was infiltration of many T cells in the portal tract, piecemeal and focal necrosis area as well as in hepatic sinus in AS patients accompanied with hepatitis B. CD8+ T cells (suppressor/cytotoxic T cells, Ts/Tc) in the liver were predominant in the two groups. In AS patients, marked hepatic fibrosis, a small number of T cell infiltration and slight hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis were observed. However, obvious hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis were seen in AS patients accompanied with hepatitis B, and 3 cases of them developed active liver cirrhosis. The results indicated immune response was weak in the liver in AS patients and Ts cells might be predominant in the subset of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Cellular immune response was relatively strong in AS patients accompanied with hepatitis B and the infiltrative CD8+ T lymphocytes might be mainly Tc cells.

  13. Psychopatholgy, fundamental assumptions and CD-4 T lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in HIV-positive patients were associated with lower CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. Method: Self-rating .... depression) were excluded from participation. For comparison ... Examination (MMSE) and the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). The. MMSE is the ...

  14. Biophysical aspects of T lymphocyte activation at the immune synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eHivroz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocyte activation is a pivotal step of the adaptive immune response. It requires the recognition by T-cell receptors (TCR of peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC present at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs. T lymphocyte activation also involves engagement of co-stimulatory receptors and adhesion molecules recognizing ligands on the APC. Integration of these different signals requires the formation of a specialized dynamic structure: the immune synapse. While the biochemical and molecular aspects of this cell-cell communication have been extensively studied, their mechanical features have only recently been addressed. Yet, the immune synapse is also the place of exchange of mechanical signals. Receptors engaged on the T lymphocyte surface are submitted to many tensile and traction forces. These forces are generated by various phenomena: membrane undulation/protrusion/retraction, cell mobility or spreading and dynamic remodeling of the actomyosin cytoskeleton inside the T lymphocyte. Moreover, the TCR can both induce force development, following triggering, and sense and convert forces into biochemical signals, as a bona fide mechanotransducer. Other co-stimulatory molecules such as LFA-1, engaged during immune synapse formation, also display these features. Moreover, T lymphocytes themselves are mechanosensitive, since substrate stiffness can modulate their response. In this review, we will summarize recent studies from a biophysical perspective to explain how mechanical cues can affect T lymphocyte activation. We will particularly discuss how forces are generated during immune synapse formation; how these forces affect various aspects of T lymphocyte biology; and what are the key features of T lymphocyte response to stiffness.

  15. Correlation between Chinese Population Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Associated Antigen-4 Gene Exon-1 & Promoter Polymorphisms and Graves' Disease:A Meta-Analysis%中国人群CTLA-4基因外显子1及启动子-318的多态性与Graves病相关性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓雯; 李玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate correlation between exon-1 (locus 49, A/G) and promoter (locus -318, C/T) polymorphisms of Chinese population cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene and Graves' Disease (GD). Methods Relevant studies were electronically searched in CNKI, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase and The Cochrane Library from 1980.1 to 2011.12. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected and screened all case-control studies on the correlation between CTLA-4 exon -1 (locus 49, A/G) and promoter (locus -318, C/T) polymorphisms of Chinese population and GD. Then we extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0 and STATA 12.0 software. Results (1) Ten studies on exon-1 were included. Results of meta-analyses showed that Chinese population with genotype G/G had a higher GD risk than those with genotype A/A (OR=3.38, 95%CI 2.07 to 5.51) and A/G (OR=1.72, 95%CI 1.31 to 2.25). Also, the allele G showed significant association with increased GD risk compared to the allele A (OR=1.87, 95%CI 1.44 to 2.41). (2) Five studies on promoter-318 were included. Results of meta-analyses showed that Chinese population with genotype T/T presented no increased relative risk compared to those with genotype C/C (OR=0.75, 95%CI 0.26 to 2.12) or C/T (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.31 to 2.73). Meanwhile, the allele T showed no increased relative risk compared to the allele C (OR=0.83, 95%CI 0.61 to 1.12). Conclusion The allele G at the locus 49 of exon -1 of Chinese population is significantly associated with increased GD risks, yet the correlation between promoter -318 C/T polymorphism and GD hasn't been demonstrated. Due to the limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies are needed to test the above conclusion.%目的 系统评价中国人细胞毒性T淋巴细胞相关抗原4(cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated antigen-4,CTLA-4)

  16. Depletion of endogenous tumor-associated regulatory T cells improves the efficacy of adoptive cytotoxic T-cell immunotherapy in murine acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qing; Bucher, Christoph; Munger, Meghan E.; Highfill, Steven L.; Tolar, Jakub; Munn, David H.; Levine, Bruce L.; Riddle, Megan; June, Carl H.; Vallera, Daniel A.; Weigel, Brenda J.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    Tumor-induced immune suppression can permit tumor cells to escape host immune resistance. To elucidate host factors contributing to the poor response of adoptively transferred tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), we used a systemic model of murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML progression resulted in a progressive regulatory T-cell (Treg) accumulation in disease sites. The adoptive transfer of in vitro–generated, potently lytic anti–AML-reactive CTLs failed to reduce disease bur...

  17. Prevention of cytotoxic T cell escape using a heteroclitic subdominant viral T cell determinant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah S Butler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available High affinity antigen-specific T cells play a critical role during protective immune responses. Epitope enhancement can elicit more potent T cell responses and can subsequently lead to a stronger memory pool; however, the molecular basis of such enhancement is unclear. We used the consensus peptide-binding motif for the Major Histocompatibility Complex molecule H-2K(b to design a heteroclitic version of the mouse hepatitis virus-specific subdominant S598 determinant. We demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution at a secondary anchor residue (Q to Y at position 3 increased the stability of the engineered determinant in complex with H-2K(b. The structural basis for this enhanced stability was associated with local alterations in the pMHC conformation as a result of the Q to Y substitution. Recombinant viruses encoding this engineered determinant primed CTL responses that also reacted to the wildtype epitope with significantly higher functional avidity, and protected against selection of virus mutated at a second CTL determinant and consequent disease progression in persistently infected mice. Collectively, our findings provide a basis for the enhanced immunogenicity of an engineered determinant that will serve as a template for guiding the development of heteroclitic T cell determinants with applications in prevention of CTL escape in chronic viral infections as well as in tumor immunity.

  18. Screening and identification of HLA-A0201 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes from hepatitis B virus E antigen in vitro%HBeAg人类白细胞抗原-A0201限制性细胞毒性T淋巴细胞表位的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 吴金明; 张欢; 黄兰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify HLA-A0201 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from the hepatitis B virus e (HBe) antigen,for future use in a specific immunotherapy based on the identified epitope(s).Methods HBe gene sequences from the hepatitis B virus serotypes with the highest frequencies in China were analyzed by bioinformatic web-based interfaces for quantitative motif prediction,extended motif prediction,and peptide super-motif prediction.Four candidate peptides were identified:HBe1,HBe2,HBe3,and HBe4.The affinities of each were tested in vitro with T2 cells,which lack the transporter-associated with antigen transport (TAP) protein but express low levels of the MHC class Ⅰ surface molecule,and measured by the T2 binding assay and DC50 assay.Flow cytometry was used to detect the fluorescence index of control and experimental groups.Results The peptides HBe1 (LLWFHISCL),HBe2 (YLVSFGVWI),HBe3 (CLTFGRETV),and HBe4 (DLLDTASAL) were identified and tested as candidate targets.HBe2 and HBe3 showed higher HLA-A0201 affinity.HBe1,HBe2,and HBe3 showed better binding stability.Conclusion Two peptides based on HBe antigen,YLVSFGVWI and CLTFGRETV,possess both sufficient binding affinity and stability and may represent useful HLA-A0201-restricted CTL epitopes.Further study is needed to determine the immunogenic properties of these two peptides in vivo.%目的 通过筛选和鉴定HBeAg来源的人类白细胞抗原(HLA)-A0201限制性细胞毒性T淋巴细胞(CTL)表位,为HBeAg表位的特异性治疗性疫苗的开发奠定基础. 方法 选择中国人群最常见的B基因型中的adw血清型的HBV e基因序列,通过网络在线表位筛选服务,分析得到分数比较高,而且是一样的表位,然后采用量化基序方案、延展基序方案以及超基序方案等通用表位筛选原则进行进一步的筛选,得到4条较为理想的九肽(HBe1,HBe2,HBe3,HBe4)作为候选表位.随后借助于流式细胞技术,通过T2细胞实验分析各

  19. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  20. Characterization of human γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating primary malignant melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cordova

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes are often induced naturally in melanoma patients and infiltrate tumors. Given that γδ T cells mediate antigen-specific killing of tumor cells, we studied the representation and the in vitro cytokine production and cytotoxic activity of tumor infiltrating γδ T cells from 74 patients with primary melanoma. We found that γδ T cells represent the major lymphocyte population infiltrating melanoma, and both Vδ1(+ and Vδ2(+ cells are involved. The majority of melanoma-infiltrating γδ cells showed effector memory and terminally-differentiated phenotypes and, accordingly, polyclonal γδ T cell lines obtained from tumor-infiltrating immune cells produced IFN-γ and TNF-α and were capable of killing melanoma cell lines in vitro. The cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 cell lines was further improved by pre-treatment of tumor target cells with zoledronate. Moreover, higher rate of γδ T cells isolation and percentages of Vδ2 cells correlate with early stage of development of melanoma and absence of metastasis. Altogether, our results suggest that a natural immune response mediated by γδ T lymphocytes may contribute to the immunosurveillance of melanoma.

  1. Inferring HIV escape rates from multi-locus genotype data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A Kessinger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs recognize viral protein fragments displayed by major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules on the surface of virally infected cells and generate an anti-viral response that can kill the infected cells. Virus variants whose protein fragments are not efficiently presented on infected cells or whose fragments are presented but not recognized by CTLs therefore have a competitive advantage and spread rapidly through the population. We present a method that allows a more robust estimation of these escape rates from serially sampled sequence data. The proposed method accounts for competition between multiple escapes by explicitly modeling the accumulation of escape mutations and the stochastic effects of rare multiple mutants. Applying our method to serially sampled HIV sequence data, we estimate rates of HIV escape that are substantially larger than those previously reported. The method can be extended to complex escapes that require compensatory mutations. We expect our method to be applicable in other contexts such as cancer evolution where time series data is also available.

  2. Recombinant poxvirus boosting of DNA-primed rhesus monkeys augments peak but not memory T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Sampa; Barouch, Dan H; Korioth-Schmitz, Birgit; Lord, Carol I; Krivulka, Georgia R; Yu, Faye; Beddall, Margaret H; Gorgone, Darci A; Lifton, Michelle A; Miura, Ayako; Philippon, Valerie; Manson, Kelledy; Markham, Phillip D; Parrish, John; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Schmitz, Jörn E; Gelman, Rebecca S; Shiver, John W; Montefiori, David C; Panicali, Dennis; Letvin, Norman L

    2004-07-27

    Although a consensus has emerged that an HIV vaccine should elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, the characteristics of an effective vaccine-induced T lymphocyte response remain unclear. We explored this issue in the simian human immunodeficiency virus/rhesus monkey model in the course of assessing the relative immunogenicity of vaccine regimens that included a cytokine-augmented plasmid DNA prime and a boost with DNA or recombinant pox vectors. Recombinant vaccinia virus, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), and recombinant fowlpox were comparable in their immunogenicity. Moreover, whereas the magnitude of the peak vaccine-elicited T lymphocyte responses in the recombinant pox virus-boosted monkeys was substantially greater than that seen in the monkeys immunized with plasmid DNA alone, the magnitudes of recombinant pox boosted CTL responses decayed rapidly and were comparable to those of the DNA-alone-vaccinated monkeys by the time of viral challenge. Consistent with these comparable memory T cell responses, the clinical protection seen in all groups of experimentally vaccinated monkeys was similar. This study, therefore, indicates that the steady-state memory, rather than the peak effector vaccine-elicited T lymphocyte responses, may be the critical immune correlate of protection for a CTL-based HIV vaccine.

  3. The anti-tumor immune response of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by breast cancer stem cells RNA-DCs vaccine%乳腺癌干细胞RNA-DCs疫苗诱导特异性细胞毒性T淋巴细胞抗肿瘤免疫应答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志宏; 鄢俊; 施华球

    2013-01-01

    目的 制备负载乳腺癌干细胞RNA的树突状细胞(DCs)疫苗,研究其诱导的特异性细胞毒性T淋巴细胞(CTLs)的抗肿瘤免疫反应.方法 采用细胞毒性试剂盒检测2种乳腺癌干细胞疫苗[(A组,CD44+ CD24-+MCF-7-CTLs)、(B组,MCF-7-CTLs)]和DC-CTLs(C组)的体外细胞杀伤能力.取24只小鼠均分为四组:A1组皮下接种活化的A组疫苗+MCF-7乳腺癌细胞;B1组接种活化的B组疫苗+MCF-7乳腺癌细胞;C1组皮下注射活化的DCs-CTLs+ MCF-7乳腺癌细胞;D1组单用MCF-7乳腺癌细胞作为对照.分析裸鼠接种后肿瘤在体内的生长情况.结果 体外对CD44+CD24-+ MCF-7乳腺癌细胞杀伤能力强度:A组>B组>C组(P<0.05).体外对MCF-7乳腺癌细胞杀伤能力强度:B组>A组>C组(P<0.05).在体成瘤实验显示,B1组和A1组的成瘤时间分别为第7周和第6周,明显长于D1组(第1周)和C1组(第2周)(P<0.05).结论 CD44+CD24乳腺癌干细胞RNA-DCs疫苗诱导的CTLs能够产生特异性免疫应答,从而抑制乳腺癌细胞成瘤.%Objective To prepare dendritic cells(DCs) vaccine loaded breast cancer stem cells RNA and explore the anti-tumor immune response of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs).Methods Killing capacity of breast cancer stem cells vaccines in vitro was detected by cytotoxicity kit in groups of A(treated with CD44+ CD24-+MCF-7-CTLs),B(treated with MCF-7-CTLs) and C (treated with DC-CTLs).Twenty-four mice were equally assigned into 4 groups of A1 (subcutaneous injection of activated CD44+ CD24-+ MCF-7-CTLs + MCF-7 breast cancer cells),B1 (activated MCF-7-CTLs+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells),C1 (activated DC-CTLs+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells) and D1(MCF-7 breast cancer cells alone).The growth of xenografts was observed.Results In vitro,the killing capacity on CD44+ CD24-+MCF-7 breast cancer cells was in an order of group A >group B >group C(P<0.05) and that on MCF-7 breast cancer cells was in an order of group B >group A > grop C(P<0.05).The

  4. In vitro anti-tumor effect of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activated by antigen-loaded dendritic cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187 and GM-CSF%抗原致敏树突细胞激活细胞毒性T淋巴细胞的体外抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫斌; 沙卫红; 李瑜元; 聂玉强

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium ionophore (CI) A23187 and human recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) on the cultivation of dendritic cell (DC) from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and to evaluate the in vitro effect of DC stimulated by K562 cell lysate on inducing specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte ( CTL) against K562 cell Methods Human PBMCs isolated from healthy subjects were separated into two groups. In Group A,the cells were cultured with additional rhGM-CSF, recombinant human interleukin 4 and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-a only as control group. In Group B, the cells were cultured in the presence of rhGMCSF and CI A23187. The cells in both groups were pre-incubated with K562 cell lysate at 37℃for 30 min.The cells were harvested after a 4-day cultivation. Morphology of DC was continuously observed under inverted microscope. The surface antigens of induced cells were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Then the proliferation of allogenetic T cell and the specific cytotoxicity of T cell primed with DC were examined by colorimetry. Also, the nonspecific inhibition of DC loaded K562 cell lysate against K562 cell was detected.Results Typical morphological features of DC could be observed in both groups. The expressions of CD83,CD1a, CD86 and CD40 were stronger in Group B than those in control group (45. 2% ±1.8%, 31.5% ± 3.9%,40.1%±7.8%,36.4%±6.3% vs 16.9%±1.3%,20.4%±3.4%,26.5%±2.2%,22.3%±3.0%)(all P<0.05).The expression of CD14 Was weaker in Group B than that in control group (5.7%±0.8% vs 19.0%±1.6%)(P<0.05).As compared with the control group,DC in Group B loaded with K562 lysate could evidently stimulate the Proliferation of allogenetic T cell(P<0.05.exclusion of effector-to-target ratio of 1:40)and inhibit the growth of K562 cell(P<0.05).In addition.both groups of DC-stimulated CTL had specific cytotoxicity against K562 cell.At the effector-to-target ratios of 10:1 and 40

  5. Apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes induced by mouse sertoli cells in cocultures in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; LIN Zi-hao; ZHU Xiao-hai; LIU Shan-rong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study whether mouse sertoli cells can induce the apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes in cocultures in vitro. Methods: With TUNEL, DNA electrophoresis, eleetro-mierography and flow cytometry, we examined the apoptosis and its rates of mouse matured T lymphocytes in control group (T lymphocytes only), group A (T lymphocytes + culture medium of sertoli cells), group B (T lymphocytes + sertoli cells). Results: Under electro-micrography, chromatin condensation, karyopyknosis, karyorhexis and apoptotic body were observed in some T lymphocytes in 3 groups; some nucleuses were stained dark blue with TUNEL; a typical DNA ladder was found with DNA electrophoresis. The apoptotic rates of T lymphocytes in group A and B were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The apoptotic rate of T lymphocytes in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P<0.01). Conclusion: In coculture condition in vitro,mouse sertoli cells can induce the apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes.

  6. 前列腺特异性抗原细胞毒性T淋巴细胞表位多抗原肽的抗肿瘤免疫效应研究%Study on Anti-tumor Immune Responses of Epitopes Multiple Antigen Peptide of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes from Prostate Specific Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建川; 张波; 邵阳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate anti-tumor immune response of epitopes multiple antigen peptide of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from prostate specific antigen (PSA). METHODS: Dendritic cells (DC) were generated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers with positive (HLA)-A2.1 in vitro. Response cells were cultured and prepared in accordance with single antigen peptide group (PSA146-154 group), multiple antigen peptide group (PSA146-154-MAP4 group) and negative control group (human HIV virus epitopes peptide HIVpol476-484). Using prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, DU-145 and colon cancer SW480 cells as target cells, and the specific killing effect of the number ratio of response cell to targe cells (10:1, 20; 1, 40:1, 80:1) were determined by a standard 4 h61Cr release assay (using specific killing rate as index). ELISPOT was used to detect the number of CD8+ response cells of IFN-γ. RESULTS: There were no specific killing effects of response cells on DU-145 and SW480 cells, while significant specific killing effects of response cells on LNCaP cells were found in PSA146-154 group and PSA146-154-MAP4 group and that of PSA146-154-MAP4 group was superior to PSA146-154 group. It was positively correlated to the number ratio of response cell to targe cells. Compared with negative control group, the number of CD8+ response cells of IFN-γ in PSA145-154 group and PSA146-154-MAP4 group increased significantly; compared with PSA145-154 group, the number of CD8+ response cells in PSA146-,154-MAP4 group increased significantly (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: PSA multiple antigen peptides not only elicit a more powerful specific anti-tumor immune response, but also elicit a more powerful non-specific anti-tumor immune response, compared with single antigen peptide.%目的:研究前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)来源的细胞毒性T淋巴细胞(CTL)表位多抗原肽对前列腺癌的抗肿瘤免疫效应.方法:体外分离培养来源于人白细胞抗原(HLA)-A2.1阳

  7. HLA-A0201阳性慢性粒细胞白血病PR1特异性细胞毒性T细胞的初步研究%Research on PR1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes of HLA-A0201 positive chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 许月; 姜扬文

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨PR1特异性细胞毒性T细胞(CTL)与HLA-A0201阳性慢性粒细胞白血病(CML)患者疗效及预后的关系,探讨是否可以应用PR1肽作为疗效达到停药试验标准患者的后续免疫治疗,从而维持长期缓解状态.方法 收集28例HLA-A0201阳性CML患者外周血,利用可溶性PR1-MHC-Ⅰ类四聚体技术及流式细胞术检测PR1特异性CTL存在与否、频率高低;比较不同治疗时间CML患者PR1特异性CTL表达的差异.结果 PR1特异性CTL频率与同期PCR(bcr-abl/abl)IS(IS:国际标准值)之间呈负相关(r=-0.658,P<0.001).接受治疗3、6、9个月及1、2、3、4、5、6年的PR1特异性CTL频率分别为(0.06±0.02)%、(0.10±0.02)%、(0.14土0.02)%、(0.16±0.02)%、(0.20±0.03)%、(0.18±0.03)%、(0.18±0.01)%、(0.17±0.05)%、(0.18±0.03)%.治疗3、6、9个月的频率分别与其他时间点频率相比,差异均有统计学意义(均P< 0.05).治疗1年及以上的频率两两相比,差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).伊马替尼400 mg 1次/d治疗3、6、9、12个月,Sokal评分高危组患者PR1特异性CTL频率低于低危组、中危组.结论 治疗效果显著的CML患者体内可持续检测到PR1特异性CTL,其与肿瘤负荷呈负相关,提示PR1特异性CTL可能与抗白血病细胞作用相关,为疗效获得持续稳定MR4-5及MR5.0的CML患者使用PR1肽疫苗作为后续免疫治疗提供了依据.%Objective To evaluate the relationship between proportion of PR1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the peripheral blood and prognosis and curative effect in patients with HLA-A0201 positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML),and to discuss whether PR1 peptide could be used as the following immune therapeutic method for patients who had achieved the standard of stop treatment.Methods The soluble HLA-A0201/PR1 tetramer and flow cytometry were applied to determine the proportion and the frequency of PR1 specific CTLs in peripheral blood from 28 HLA

  8. Vaccination and timing influence SIV immune escape viral dynamics in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyen Loh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL can be effective at controlling HIV-1 in humans and SIV in macaques, but their utility is partly offset by mutational escape. The kinetics of CTL escape and reversion of escape mutant viruses upon transmission to MHC-mismatched hosts can help us understand CTL-mediated viral control and the fitness cost extracted by immune escape mutation. Traditional methods for following CTL escape and reversion are, however, insensitive to minor viral quasispecies. We developed sensitive quantitative real-time PCR assays to track the viral load of SIV Gag164-172 KP9 wild-type (WT and escape mutant (EM variants in pigtail macaques. Rapid outgrowth of EM virus occurs during the first few weeks of infection. However, the rate of escape plateaued soon after, revealing a prolonged persistence of WT viremia not detectable by standard cloning and sequencing methods. The rate of escape of KP9 correlated with levels of vaccine-primed KP9-specific CD8+ T cells present at that time. Similarly, when non-KP9 responder (lacking the restricting Mane-A*10 allele macaques were infected with SHIVmn229 stock containing a mixture of EM and WT virus, rapid reversion to WT was observed over the first 2 weeks following infection. However, the rate of reversion to WT slowed dramatically over the first month of infection. The serial quantitation of escape mutant viruses evolving during SIV infection shows that rapid dynamics of immune escape and reversion can be observed in early infection, particularly when CD8 T cells are primed by vaccination. However, these early rapid rates of escape and reversion are transient and followed by a significant slowing in these rates later during infection, highlighting that the rate of escape is significantly influenced by the timing of its occurrence.

  9. Circulating T lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with bipolar II or major depression: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zheng, Ya-li; Tian, Li-ping; Lai, Jian-bo; Hu, Chan-chan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jing-kai; Hu, Jian-bo; Huang, Man-li; Wei, Ning; Xu, Wei-juan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Lu, Shao-jia; Lu, Jing; Qi, Hong-li; Wang, Dan-dan; Zhou, Xiao-yi; Duan, Jin-feng; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the less known activation pattern of T lymphocyte populations and immune checkpoint inhibitors on immunocytes in patients with bipolar II disorder depression (BD) or major depression (MD). A total of 23 patients with BD, 22 patients with MD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The blood cell count of T lymphocyte subsets and the plasma level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were selectively investigated. The expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on T lymphocytes and monocytes, was detected. In results, blood proportion of cytotoxic T cells significantly decreased in BD patients than in either MD patients or HCs. The plasma level of IL-6 increased in patients with BD and MD. The expression of TIM-3 on cytotoxic T cells significantly increased, whereas the expression of PD-L2 on monocytes significantly decreased in patients with BD than in HCs. These findings extended our knowledge of the immune dysfunction in patients with affective disorders. PMID:28074937

  10. T lymphocyte subsets in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, K; Röpke, C; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood from 11 newly diagnosed Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were studied prospectively at three time intervals: as soon as possible after diagnosis, 3 weeks and 5 months later. Lymphocytes were marked with monoclonal OKT antibodies and examined...... in a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The percentage of T lymphocytes (OKT3) did not change significantly at the three study times. The percentage of helper/inducer T cells (OKT4) was high the first week after diagnosis, but decreased at the 5-month examination (p less than 0.05). The percentage of suppressor....../cytotoxic T cells (OKT8) was low at diagnosis but increased at 3 weeks (p less than 0.02) and 5 months (p less than 0.01). The ratio OKT4/OKT8 lymphocytes was 2.28 at diagnosis, decreasing to 1.77 at 3 weeks and 1.87 at 5 months, compared with 1.46 for 16 age-matched control subjects. There was no significant...

  11. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  12. A study of peripheral T-Lymphocytes in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of peripheral T-lymphocytes (active and total was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Boyam (1977 and West et al (1978. Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Thirty healthy subjects served as controls. Decrease in percentage of both active and total E-RFC was observed in 70% cases. The decrease was more significant in group II.

  13. IAN family critically regulates survival and development of T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nitta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The IAN (immune-associated nucleotide-binding protein family is a family of functionally uncharacterized GTP-binding proteins expressed in vertebrate immune cells and in plant cells during antibacterial responses. Here we show that all eight IAN family genes encoded in a single cluster of mouse genome are predominantly expressed in lymphocytes, and that the expression of IAN1, IAN4, and IAN5 is significantly elevated upon thymic selection of T lymphocytes. Gain-of-function experiments show that the premature overexpression of IAN1 kills immature thymocytes, whereas short hairpin RNA-mediated loss-of-function studies show that IAN4 supports positive selection. The knockdown of IAN5 perturbs the optimal generation of CD4/CD8 double-positive thymocytes and reduces the survival of mature T lymphocytes. We also show evidence suggesting that IAN4 and IAN5 are associated with anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, whereas IAN1 is associated with pro-apoptotic Bax. Thus, the IAN family is a novel family of T cell-receptor-responsive proteins that critically regulate thymic development and survival of T lymphocytes and that potentially exert regulatory functions through the association with Bcl-2 family proteins.

  14. Control of T lymphocyte morphology by the GTPase Rho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudell Eva G

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rho family GTPase regulation of the actin cytoskeleton governs a variety of cell responses. In this report, we have analyzed the role of the GTPase Rho in maintenance of the T lymphocyte actin cytoskeleton. Results Inactivation of the GTPase Rho in the human T lymphocytic cell line HPB-ALL does not inhibit constitutively high adhesion to the integrin β1 substrate fibronectin. It did however result in the aberrant extension of finger-like dendritic processes on the substrates VCAM-1, Fn, and mAb specific to β1 integrins. Time-lapse video microscopy demonstrated that C3 induced extensions were primarily the result of an altered pseudopod elongation rather than retraction. Once the stellate pseudopodia extended, none retracted, and cells became completely immobile. Filipodial structures were absent and the dendritic-like processes in C3 treated cells were rich in filamentous actin. Immunolocalization of RhoA in untreated HPB-ALL cells spreading on fibronectin demonstrated a diffuse staining pattern within the pseudopodia. In C3 treated cells, clusters of RhoA were pronounced and localized within the altered extensions. Conclusions GTPase Rho is actively involved in the regulation of T lymphocyte morphology and motility.

  15. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. The route of HIV escape from immune response targeting multiple sites is determined by the cost-benefit tradeoff of escape mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Batorsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL are a major factor in the control of HIV replication. CTL arise in acute infection, causing escape mutations to spread rapidly through the population of infected cells. As a result, the virus develops partial resistance to the immune response. The factors controlling the order of mutating epitope sites are currently unknown and would provide a valuable tool for predicting conserved epitopes. In this work, we adapt a well-established mathematical model of HIV evolution under dynamical selection pressure from multiple CTL clones to include partial impairment of CTL recognition, [Formula: see text], as well as cost to viral replication, [Formula: see text]. The process of escape is described in terms of the cost-benefit tradeoff of escape mutations and predicts a trajectory in the cost-benefit plane connecting sequentially escaped sites, which moves from high recognition loss/low fitness cost to low recognition loss/high fitness cost and has a larger slope for early escapes than for late escapes. The slope of the trajectory offers an interpretation of positive correlation between fitness costs and HLA binding impairment to HLA-A molecules and a protective subset of HLA-B molecules that was observed for clinically relevant escape mutations in the Pol gene. We estimate the value of [Formula: see text] from published experimental studies to be in the range (0.01-0.86 and show that the assumption of complete recognition loss ([Formula: see text] leads to an overestimate of mutation cost. Our analysis offers a consistent interpretation of the commonly observed pattern of escape, in which several escape mutations are observed transiently in an epitope. This non-nested pattern is a combined effect of temporal changes in selection pressure and partial recognition loss. We conclude that partial recognition loss is as important as fitness loss for predicting the order of escapes and, ultimately, for predicting conserved epitopes

  20. The route of HIV escape from immune response targeting multiple sites is determined by the cost-benefit tradeoff of escape mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorsky, Rebecca; Sergeev, Rinat A; Rouzine, Igor M

    2014-10-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are a major factor in the control of HIV replication. CTL arise in acute infection, causing escape mutations to spread rapidly through the population of infected cells. As a result, the virus develops partial resistance to the immune response. The factors controlling the order of mutating epitope sites are currently unknown and would provide a valuable tool for predicting conserved epitopes. In this work, we adapt a well-established mathematical model of HIV evolution under dynamical selection pressure from multiple CTL clones to include partial impairment of CTL recognition, [Formula: see text], as well as cost to viral replication, [Formula: see text]. The process of escape is described in terms of the cost-benefit tradeoff of escape mutations and predicts a trajectory in the cost-benefit plane connecting sequentially escaped sites, which moves from high recognition loss/low fitness cost to low recognition loss/high fitness cost and has a larger slope for early escapes than for late escapes. The slope of the trajectory offers an interpretation of positive correlation between fitness costs and HLA binding impairment to HLA-A molecules and a protective subset of HLA-B molecules that was observed for clinically relevant escape mutations in the Pol gene. We estimate the value of [Formula: see text] from published experimental studies to be in the range (0.01-0.86) and show that the assumption of complete recognition loss ([Formula: see text]) leads to an overestimate of mutation cost. Our analysis offers a consistent interpretation of the commonly observed pattern of escape, in which several escape mutations are observed transiently in an epitope. This non-nested pattern is a combined effect of temporal changes in selection pressure and partial recognition loss. We conclude that partial recognition loss is as important as fitness loss for predicting the order of escapes and, ultimately, for predicting conserved epitopes that can be

  1. Influence of dendritic cells modified with costimulatory blocker cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 immunoglobulin on the survival of renal allografts%共刺激阻断剂细胞毒性T淋巴细胞相关抗原4Ig基因修饰树突状细胞对移植肾存活的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赤兵; 李健; 张艮甫; 范明齐; 王琦

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that donor systemic injection of B7/CD28 costimulatory blocker cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 immunoglobulin (CTLA-4Ig) needed in T cell activation can markedly prolong the survival time of rat renal allografts, which, however, has limitations, such as high dose, extensive influence, poor specificity, systemic adverse reactions.OBJECTIVE: In order to improve the targeting of CTLA-4Ig, we modified the dendritic cells of donors and recipients in vitro with CTLA- 4Ig and observed the influence of two kinds of dendritic cells applied alone or together on the survival of renal allografis in rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized controlled animal experiment was performed between April 2003 and July 2004 at Laboratory of Department of Urinary Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.MATERIALS: Kidney donor: inbred Brown-Norway rats, kidney recipient: inbred Lewis rats, unrelated lymphocyte donor: Wistar rats.METHODS: Bone marrow derived dendritic cells of Lewis and Brown Norway rats were modified with CTLA- 4Ig gene recombinant adenovirus in vitro. Animal models of kidney transplantation were built with Brown Norway rats as donors while Lewis rats as recipients. The modified dendritic cells were injected into Lewis rats through femoral vein 24 hours before kidney transplantation alone (group 1 (n=8), donor dendritic cells; group 2 (n=8), recipient dendritic cells) and in combination (group 3 (n=8), donor and recipient dendritic cells). While the recipients without injection were used as control (group 4 (n=6)).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival time of renal allografts; the reaction degrees of splenocytes to donor and unrelated antigen determined by MTT method on day 20 postoperation.RESULTS: Survival time of renal allografts in group 2 was not prolonged compared with group 4 while the survival time was markedly prolonged in group 3 (P < 0.01). The response of rat splenocytes

  2. Differential induction of apoptosis by type A and B trichothecenes in Jurkat T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Thanakarn; Bosch, Remko R; Voorde, Sandra ten; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have shown that the mycotoxins T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) affect lymphocyte functioning. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of these trichothecenes are not defined yet. In this study, the potency of the type A trichothecenes T-2 toxin and DAS, and the type B trichothecenes DON (and its metabolite de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol; DOM-1) and NIV to reduce mitochondrial activity and to induce apoptosis of Jurkat T cells (human T lymphocytes) were examined. T-2 toxin and DAS are much more cytotoxic at low concentrations than DON and NIV as shown by the AlamarBlue cytotoxicity assay. In addition, the mechanism whereby DON and NIV induced cytotoxicity is mainly via apoptosis as we observed phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, procaspase-3 degradation and Bcl-2 degradation. In contrast, type A trichothecenes reduce the mitochondrial activity at approximately 1000-fold lower concentrations than the type B trichothecenes, resulting in necrosis. These data suggest that the mechanisms resulting in cytotoxic effects are different for type A and type B trichothecenes.

  3. CD152 (CTLA-4) regulates effector functions of CD8+ T lymphocytes by repressing Eomesodermin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Johannes K; Knieke, Karin; Kolar, Paula; Reiner, Steven L; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2009-03-01

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes are required for effective host defense against pathogens and also for mediating effector responses against uncontrolled proliferating self-tissues. In this study, we determine that individual CD8(+) T cells are tightly controlled in their effector functions by CD152 (CTLA-4). We demonstrate that signals induced by CD152 reduce the frequency of IFN-gamma and granzyme B expressing CD8(+) T cells independently of the transcription factors T-bet or cKrox by selectively inhibiting accumulation of Eomesodermin mRNA and protein. Ectopic expression of Eomesodermin reversed the CD152-mediated inhibition of effector molecule production. Additionally, enhanced cytotoxicity of individual CD8(+) T cells differentiated in the absence of CD152 signaling was determined in vivo. These novel insights extend our understanding of how immune responses of CD8(+) T cells are selectively modulated.

  4. Escape of leukemia blasts from HLA-specific CTL pressure in a recipient of HLA one locus-mismatched bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomonori; Terakura, Seitaro; Murata, Makoto; Sugimoto, Kyoko; Murase, Miho; Iriyama, Chisako; Tomita, Akihiro; Abe, Akihiro; Suzuki, Momoko; Nishida, Tetsuya; Naoe, Tomoki

    2012-01-01

    A case of leukemia escape from an HLA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in a recipient of bone marrow transplantation is presented. Only the expression of HLA-B51, which was a mismatched HLA locus in the graft-versus-host direction, was down-regulated in post-transplant leukemia blasts compared with that in pre-transplant blasts. All CTL clones, that were isolated from the recipient's blood when acute graft-versus-host disease developed, recognized the mismatched B(∗)51:01 molecule in a peptide-dependent manner. The pre-transplant leukemia blasts were lysed by CTL clones, whereas the post-transplant leukemia blasts were not lysed by any CTL clones. The IFN-γ ELISPOT assay revealed that B(∗)51:01-reactive T lymphocytes accounted for the majority of the total alloreactive T lymphocytes in the blood just before leukemia relapse. These data suggest that immune escape of leukemia blasts from CTL pressure toward a certain HLA molecule can lead to clinical relapse after bone marrow transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects in region of high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-mian; LI Ying-jie; GUAN Xiao; YANG Xiao-yun; GAO Xi-mei; YANG Xiao-jing; WANG Li-shui; ZOU Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Many types of human tumors can suppress the immune system to enhance their survival. Loss or down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I on tumors is considered to be a major mechanism of tumor immune escape. Our previous studies found that HLA class I on peripheral-blood mononuclear cells was significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. The present study made an analysis of HLA class I expression on peripheral-blood T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects of Lijiadian village, a village with high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor. Methods A total of 181 villagers from Lijiadian village and 153 normal controls from the Department of Health Examination Center were enrolled in this study. Using a multi-tumor markers detection system, these villagers were divided into two groups: high-risk group (tumor markers positive group) and low-risk group (tumor markers negative group). The percentage of T lymphocytes and NK cells and levels of HLA class I on their surface were determined in these subjects by flow cytometry.Results Percentages of T lymphocytes and NK cells in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells did not vary with age. The expression level of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells was not affected by age or gender, but was significantly down-regulated in Lijiadian villagers (P<0.05), especially on the surface of NK cells (P<0.01). Compared with the low-risk group, there was a significant reduction of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes (P <0.05) and NK cells (P <0.05) in the high-risk group.Conclusions HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells may be involved in tumorigenesis and development of gastrointestinal tumor, and understanding their changes in expression may provide new insights into the mechanism of tumor immunity.

  6. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate-activated CD56+ {gamma}{delta} T lymphocytes display potent antitumor activity toward human squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Alan A Z; Maniar, Amudhan; Cummings, Jean-Saville; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Schulze, Dan H; Gastman, Brian R; Pauza, C David; Strome, Scott E; Chapoval, Andrei I

    2008-07-01

    The expression of CD56, a natural killer cell-associated molecule, on alphabeta T lymphocytes correlates with their increased antitumor effector function. CD56 is also expressed on a subset of gammadelta T cells. However, antitumor effector functions of CD56(+) gammadelta T cells are poorly characterized. To investigate the potential effector role of CD56(+) gammadelta T cells in tumor killing, we used isopentenyl pyrophosphate and interleukin-2-expanded gammadelta T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors. Thirty to 70% of expanded gammadelta T cells express CD56 on their surface. Interestingly, although both CD56(+) and CD56(-) gammadelta T cells express comparable levels of receptors involved in the regulation of gammadelta T-cell cytotoxicity (e.g., NKG2D and CD94), only CD56(+) gammadelta T lymphocytes are capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma and other solid tumor cell lines. This effect is likely mediated by the enhanced release of cytolytic granules because CD56(+) gammadelta T lymphocytes expressed higher levels of CD107a compared with CD56(-) controls following exposure to tumor cell lines. Lysis of tumor cell lines is blocked by concanamycin A and a combination of anti-gammadelta T-cell receptor + anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibody, suggesting that the lytic activity of CD56(+) gammadelta T cells involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly gammadelta T-cell receptor/NKG2D dependent. Importantly, CD56-expressing gammadelta T lymphocytes are resistant to Fas ligand and chemically induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that CD56(+) gammadelta T cells are potent antitumor effectors capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma and may play an important therapeutic role in patients with head and neck cancer and other malignancies.

  7. Clonal dominance among T-lymphocyte infiltrates in arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, I.; Stegagno, M.; Wright, K.A.; Krane, S.M.; Amento, E.P.; Colvin, R.B.; Duquesnoy, R.J.; Kurnick, J.T.

    1988-02-01

    Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) ..beta..-chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders.

  8. SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN SUPPRESSES T-LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTIONS FOLLOWING BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤君; 黄文华; 黎鳌

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that serum immunosuppressive factors play an important role in the mechanismi of postburn immunosuppression.This study was intended to investigate the effect of haptoglobin,purified from the serum of burned patients by affinity chromatography,on the proliferation and interleukin-2(IL-2)secretion of normal nurine thymocytes induced by conA and the proliferation of IL-2 dependent cell line (CTLL-2) stimulated by recombinant human IL-2,so as to elucidate the role of serum haptoglobin in postburn T-lymphocyte dysfunction.The results showed that purified haptoglobin,at the level equivalent to the concentration found in serum of burned patients,significantly inhibited the prolifration and IL-2 secretion of normal murine thymocytes as well as CTLL-2 proliferation;wheres it exhibited no immunosuppressive effects at the level equivalent to the concentration found in serum of normal vohmteers.According to the results reported here,it is suggested that extraordinary increase in serum haptoglobin level may be an important factor of impaired T-lymphocyte responses following burns.

  9. Effects of microgravity and cosmic radiations on human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pippia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In space living organisms, including cells, are affected by two new environmental conditions: microgravity and cosmic radiations. Several experiments in dedicated space missions and in simulated microgravity have shown that low gravity causes a dramatic depression of the mitogenic in vitro activation of T lymphocytes. The goal of this reserch was to determine in space (on board the International Space Station the ability of adherent monocytes to migrate, as well as to interact with T-cells. A reduced motility of the J-111 cells and changes in the structures of actin, tubulin and vinculin were observed. Moreover, we demonstrated that LFA-I/ICAM-I interactions occur in space and are dependent on activation time but show differences in number, arrangement and fluorescence intensity, depending on time and experimental conditions. In order to evaluate the effects of cosmic radiations on the gene expression in human T lymphocytes we exposed these cells to high quote cosmic radiation during two stratospheric balloon trans-mediterranean flights (BIRBA missions. The gene expression was analized by cDNA microarray hybridization technology. Activated T cells react to the ionizing stress by activating genes involved in cell cycle check-point, oxidative stress response, heat shock proteins production or by repressing denes involved in antigen recognition.

  10. T lymphocytes infiltration promotes blood-brain barrier injury after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Jichao; Zhu, Haitao; Yang, Yang; Wen, Zexian; Chen, Yaxing; Li, Lan; Lin, Jiangkai; Feng, Hua

    2017-09-01

    T lymphocytes migrate into the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and promote cerebral inflammation, thus exacerbating neuronal injury. However, the relationship between of T lymphocytes infiltration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury after ICH has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution of infiltrating T lymphocytes after ICH in C57BL/6 mice by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and the accompanying change rules of BBB permeability were detected by Evans blue dye leakage and tight junction protein expression. Furthermore, T lymphocyte-deficient nude mice and T lymphocyte-decreased C57BL/6 mice treated with fingolimod were used to verify the relationship between T lymphocytes infiltration and BBB leakage after ICH. Here, we reported that brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes in the hemorrhagic hemisphere began to accumulate on the first day and peaked on the fifth day after ICH; BBB leakage also at peaked on the fifth day. Moreover, T lymphocyte-deficient nude mice showed minor BBB leakage after ICH compared with C57BL/6 control mice. Similarly, fingolimod treatment can significantly decrease T lymphocyte infiltration and promote BBB integrity compared with a vehicle control. Overall, our results suggested that suppression of T lymphocyte infiltration may be a novel way to improve BBB integrity after ICH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Granzyme release and caspase activation in activated human T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, J M; Takahashi, R; Salvesen, G S; Reed, J C

    1998-03-20

    Recently it has been reported that caspase-3 activation occurs in stimulated T-lymphocytes without associated apoptosis (Miossec, C., Dutilleul, V., Fassy, F., and Diu-Hercend, A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13459-13462). To explore this phenomenon, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were stimulated with mitogenic lectins or anti-CD3 antibody, and the proteolytic processing of different caspases and caspase substrates was analyzed by immunoblotting. Proteolytic processing of caspases-3 and -7 and the caspase substrates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, GDP dissociation inhibitor, and PKCdelta was observed when PBLs were activated in vitro, and lysates were prepared using RIPA buffer which contains 1% Nonidet P-40, 0.5% deoxycholate, and 0.1% SDS. In contrast, when a lysis buffer containing 2% SDS was used, the caspases remained in their zymogen pro-forms, and no proteolytic processing of caspase substrates was detected. Moreover, in experiments using intact cells and a cell-permeable fluorigenic caspase substrate, no caspase activity was observed in activated T-cells, whereas it was clearly detected when PBLs were treated with the apoptosis-inducing anticancer drug etoposide. Since the granzyme B is a direct activator of caspase-3 and its expression is induced following T-cell activation, we tested the effects of anti-GraB, an engineered serpin that specifically inhibits GraB. When the activated T-lymphocytes were lysed in RIPA buffer containing anti-GraB, no proteolytic processing or activation of caspase-3 was observed, strongly suggesting that release of GraB or similar proteases from their storage sites in cytotoxic granules during the lysis procedure is responsible for caspase activation. These findings demonstrate that T-cells do not process caspases upon activation and caution about the method of cell lysis used when studying granzyme-expressing cells.

  12. Epigenetic repolarization of T lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovsky, Jason A; Powers, John J; Gao, Yang; Mariusso, Luis F; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier A

    2011-09-01

    T cell immune dysfunction has an important role in the profound immune suppression that characterizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Improper polarization of T cells has been proposed as one of the mechanism involved. Mounting data implicates chromatin regulation, namely promoter methylation, in the plasticity of naïve human T cells. Recent in vitro evidence indicates that this plasticity may be phenotypically altered by using methylation inhibitors which are approved for clinical use in certain types of cancer. These results beg the question: can the ineffective polarization of T lymphocytes in the context of CLL be effectively modulated using methylation inhibitors in a sustainable therapeutic fashion? To answer this question our laboratory has studied the effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5A2) in helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes from healthy donors and CLL patients in well characterized molecular and epigenetic signaling pathways involved in effective polarization. Moreover, we sought to investigate the consequences of methylation inhibitor treatment on lymphocyte survival, activation intensity, and naïve cell polarization. Our data indicates that 5A2 treatment can depolarize Th2 cells to effectively secrete interferon gamma, signal via T-bet, and achieve demethylation of critical Th1 specific promoters. Moreover, we demonstrate that 5A2 can force Th1 polarization of naïve T cells despite a strong IL-4 stimuli and a lack of IL-12. In conclusion our data seeks to define a modality in which improper or ineffective T cell polarization can be altered by 5AZA and could be incorporated in future therapeutic interventions.

  13. Changes in T lymphocyte subsets after severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulu Miao; Mingxia Zhang; Yulin Nie; Wan Zhao; Bin Huang; Zhengming Jiang; Shaoxiong Yu; Zhibin Huang; Hongjin Fu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides local changes of cranial parenchymal cells, hemorrhage, etc., severe traumatic brain injuries also cause the changes of total body fluid and various functions, and the changes of lymphocytes and T lymphocyte subsets should be paid more attention to.OBJECTIVE: To reveal the changing laws of T lymphocyte subsets after severe traumatic brain injury, and compare with mild to moderate brain injury.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTINGS: Department of Neurosurgery, Longgang District Buji People's Hospital of Shenzhen City;Central Laboratory of Shenzhen Hospital of Prevention and Cure for Chronic Disease.PARTICIPANTS: All the subjects were selected from the Department of Neurosurgery, Longgang District Buji People's Hospital of Shenzhen City from August 2002 to August 2005. Thirty patients with severe brain injury, whose Glasgow coma score (GCS) was ≤ 8 points, were taken as the experimental group, including 21 males and 9 females, aging 16 - 62 years. Meanwhile, 30 patients with mild traumatic brain injury were taken as the control group (GCS ranged 14 - 15 points), including 18 males and 12 females, aging 15 - 58 years. All the subjects were in admission at 6 hours after injury, without disease of major organs before injury.Informed consents were obtained from all the patients or their relatives.conditions of pulmonaryinfections were observed at 4 days after injury. The differences of measurement data were compared with the t test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes of T lymphocytes subsets at 1 - 14 days after severe and mild or moderate traumatic injury.RESULTS: Finally, 28 and 25 patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury, whereas 25 and 21 patients with severe traumatic brain injury were analyzed at 7 and 14 days respectively, and the missed ones CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 began to decrease, whereas CD8 increased in the experimental group, which were very significantly different from those in the control group (t =2.77 - 3.26, P < 0

  14. Myosin Specific-T Lymphocytes Mediated Myocardial Inflammation in Adoptive Transferred Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zhang; Yuhua Liao; Xiang Cheng; Jing Chen; Peng Chen; Xiang Gao; Zhengjenny Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Myosin specific-T lymphocytes might mediate myocardial inflammation and remodeling after AMI. Myosinactivated or unactivated T lymphocytes in vitro were transferred into naǐve syngeneic rats, respectively. T lymphocyte infiltration and myocyte apoptosis were explored by the H&E and TUNNEL. Proteins and mRNA levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in myocardium were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. T lymphocyte infiltration was evidently observed after one week of activated T cell transfer. The expressions of cytokines were elevated markedly one week later. The myocyte apoptosis occurred after T lymphocyte infiltration in myocardium. Our findings suggest that cardiac myosin activated-T lymphocytes may mediate myocardial inflammation and remodeling.

  15. Regulation of T lymphocyte apoptotic markers is associated to cell activation during the acute phase of dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; de Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria; de Oliveira, Débora Batista; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; de Souza, Luiz José; de Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Dengue fever, a public health problem in Brazil, may present severe clinical manifestations as result of an increased vascular permeability and coagulation disorders. T cell activation is a critical event for an effective immune response against infection, including the production of cytokines. We aim to reveal mechanisms that modulate the virus-cell interaction, with an emphasis on cell death. Apoptosis is involved in lymphocyte homeostasis, contributes to the clearance of virus-infected cells but also may play a role in the pathogenesis. Phosphatidylserine exposure on CD8T lymphocytes from dengue patients support early apoptotic processes and loss of genomic integrity, observed by DNA fragmentation in T lymphocytes and indicating late apoptosis. These T cells express activation and cytotoxic phenotypes as revealed by CD29 and CD107a upregulation. Higher frequencies of CD95 were detected in T lymphocytes mainly in those with the cytotoxic profile (CD107a+) and lower levels of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2, suggesting that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets are more susceptible to apoptosis during acute dengue. The analysis of apoptosis-related protein expression profile showed that not only molecules with pro- but also those with anti-apoptotic functions are overexpressed, indicating that survival mechanisms could be possibly protecting cells against apoptosis caused by viral, immune, oxidative and/or genotoxic stresses. These observations led us to propose that in dengue patients there is an association between T cell susceptibility to apoptosis and the activation state. The mechanisms for understanding the immunopathogenesis during dengue infection are discussed.

  16. T Lymphocyte Autoreactivity in Inflammatory Mechanisms Regulating Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Profumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis has been clearly demonstrated to be a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Both cells of the innate and the acquired immune system, particularly monocytes and T lymphocytes, are implicated in the atherogenic process, producing different cytokines with pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. The majority of pathogenic T cells involved in atherosclerosis are of the Th1 profile, that has been correlated positively with coronary artery disease. Many studies conducted to evaluate the molecular factors responsible for the activation of T cells have demonstrated that the main antigenic targets in atherosclerosis are modified endogenous structures. These self-molecules activate autoimmune reactions mainly characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines, thus sustaining the inflammatory mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction and plaque development. In this paper we will summarize the different T-cell subsets involved in atherosclerosis and the best characterized autoantigens involved in cardiovascular inflammation.

  17. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions...... is an indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  18. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4......+ and CD8+ cells. Two different populations of infants between birth and 1 year of age were examined. Study Group I: infants with a variable duration of breastfeeding. Study Group II: long-term breastfed infants. In both groups a correlation was found between CD8+ cells and the thymic index at 10 months...... to 10 months of age; and a positive correlation between the number of breastfeedings per day at 8 months of age, and an increase in CD4+ cells from 8 to 10 months of age (p Breastfeeding might have both a current and long...

  19. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both B and T lymphocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, W J; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C; Hinze, H C; Sullivan, J L

    1985-01-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of T cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. Approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. Circular viral genomes were found in both B and T lymphocytes. Small amounts of linear viral DNA (0.1 to 0.3 copies per cell) were also detected in both B and T cells. These results indicated that the virus did not replicate in the majority of lymphocytes in vivo. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits could be useful as a model for studying the complex virus-host relationships of lymphotropic herpesviruses and perhaps as an animal model for Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans. Images PMID:2993667

  20. Human malignant melanoma-derived progestagen-associated endometrial protein immunosuppresses T lymphocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Ren

    Full Text Available Progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP is a glycoprotein of the lipocalin family that acts as a negative regulator of T cell receptor-mediated activation. However, the function of tumor-derived PAEP on the human immune system in the tumor microenvironment is unknown. PAEP is highly expressed in intermediate and thick primary melanomas (Breslow's 2.5mm or greater and metastatic melanomas, correlating with its expression in daughter cell lines established in vitro. The current study investigates the role of melanoma cell-secreted PAEP protein in regulating T cell function. Upon the enrichment of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, each subset was then mixed with either melanoma-derived PAEP protein or PAEP-poor supernatant of gene-silenced tumor cells. IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion of CD4+ T cells significantly decreased with the addition of PAEP-rich supernatant. And the addition of PAEP-positive cell supernatant to activated lymphocytes significantly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T cell activity, while increasing lymphocyte apoptosis. Our result suggests that melanoma cell-secreted PAEP protein immunosuppresses the activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes, which might partially explain the mechanism of immune tolerance induced by melanoma cells within the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maalouf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Katia Maalouf1, Elias Baydoun2, Sandra Rizk11Department of Natural Sciences, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer.Purpose: The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes.Methods: Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α, transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA and flow cytometry.Results: The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 µg/µL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF- β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG1 phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was

  2. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Katia; Baydoun, Elias; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-02-14

    Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer. The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA) and flow cytometry. The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 μg/μL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG(1) phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was further confirmed by Cell Death Detection ELISA. However, kefir did not affect the mRNA expression of metalloproteinases needed for the invasion of leukemic cell lines. In conclusion, kefir is effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing

  3. CLINICAL VALUE OF DETECTING T LYMPHOCYTE SUBSET AND NK CELL ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长安; 管增伟; 孙武; 邵玉霞; 李卓; 贾廷珍

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study on the expression and clinical significance of T lymphocyte subset and NK cell activity (NKA) in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods Fifty-seven cancer patients and 33 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. T lymphocyte subset was measured by SAP technique and NKA by LDH release assay based on K562 cells, which served as target cells.

  4. Increased production of interleukin-6 by T lymphocytes from patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña, P; Prieto, A; Garcia-Suarez, J; Reyes, E; San Miguel, J; Jorda, J; Alvarez-Mon, M

    1996-01-01

    Alterations in T lymphocyte functions may affect other cellular components of the immune system. Several lymphokines produced by T cells are involved in the proliferation and differentiation of human B lymphocytes. Alterations in the secretion of these molecules may be implicated in the development of B cell lymphoproliferative diseases. We have investigated the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by T lymphocytes from 14 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and 16 healthy controls. The phenotypical and functional characteristics of these T lymphocytes were also studied. The proliferative response to vegetal lectin phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was decreased in T lymphocytes from MM patients (p 0.05) but not by exogenous IL-6 (p lectin stimulation, the production of IL-2 by T lymphocytes from those patients was normal, while IL-6 secretion was increased.

  5. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  6. Role of cytokines in promoting immune escape of FasL-expressing human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Xu; Bao-Cun Sun; Qiang Li; Xi-Shan Hao

    2005-01-01

    -cultured with the Jurkat T lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity was significantly enhancedby PMA+ionomycin or TNF-α.CONCLUSION: The FasL expressed in human colon cancer cells may be regulated by endogenous factors in the microenvironment of the host and facilitate the escape of tumor cells from the host immune system.

  7. FUNCTIONAL AORTIC STIFFNESS:ROLE OF CD4+ T LYMPHOCYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beenish A. Majeed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is suggested to be essential in vascular remodeling and stiffening. To study the dependence upon lymphocytes in vascular stiffening, we compared an angiotensin II-model of vascular stiffening in normal C57BL/6J mice with lymphocyte-deficient RAG 1-/- mice and additionally characterized the component of vascular stiffness due to vasoconstriction versus vascular remodeling. Chronic angiotensin II increased aortic pulse wave velocity, effective wall stiffness, and effective Young’s modulus in C57BL/6J mice by 3-fold but caused no change in the RAG 1-/- mice. These functional measurements were supported by aortic morphometric analysis. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T helper lymphocytes restored the angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening in the RAG 1-/- mice. In order to account for the hydraulic versus material effects of angiotensin II on pulse wave velocity, subcutaneous osmotic pumps were removed after 21 days of angiotensin II-infusion in the WT mice to achieve normotensive values. The pulse wave velocity decreased from 3- to 2-fold above baseline values up to 7 days following pump removal. This study supports the pivotal role of the CD4+ T-lymphocytes in angiotensin II-mediated vascular stiffening and that angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening is due to the additive effect of active vascular smooth muscle vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling.

  8. Dysregulation of T lymphocyte proliferative responses in autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney K Elizer

    Full Text Available T cells are critically dependent on cellular proliferation in order to carry out their effector functions. Autoimmune strains are commonly thought to have uncontrolled T cell proliferation; however, in the murine model of autoimmune diabetes, hypo-proliferation of T cells leading to defective AICD was previously uncovered. We now determine whether lupus prone murine strains are similarly hyporesponsive. Upon extensive characterization of T lymphocyte activation, we have observed a common feature of CD4 T cell activation shared among three autoimmune strains-NOD, MRL, and NZBxNZW F1s. When stimulated with a polyclonal mitogen, CD4 T cells demonstrate arrested cell division and diminished dose responsiveness as compared to the non-autoimmune strain C57BL/6, a phenotype we further traced to a reliance on B cell mediated costimulation, which underscores the success of B cell directed immune therapies in preventing T cell mediated tissue injury. In turn, the diminished proliferative capacity of these CD4 T cells lead to a decreased, but activation appropriate, susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A similar decrement in stimulation response was observed in the CD8 compartment of NOD mice; NOD CD8 T cells were distinguished from lupus prone strains by a diminished dose-responsiveness to anti-CD3 mediated stimulation. This distinction may explain the differential pathogenetic pathways activated in diabetes and lupus prone murine strains.

  9. T lymphocytes and NK cells in X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Zwonarz, Katarzyna; Błaut-Szlósarczyk, Anita; Szaflarska, Anna; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Siedlar, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Seven boys with diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia on regular substitution of immunoglobulins were included into study. The patients showed episodes of infections but the clinical course was mild with good response to antibiotics. All patients developed, with time, the chronic sinusitis with proliferation of mucous membrane, two patients showed bronchiectases. The number of T lymphocytes, ratio of CD4:CD8 subpopulations, response to stimulation and NK number were assayed with flow cytometry and cell culture. Results showed CD4:CD8 ratio within normal value in majority of patients, reverse ratio in 2 boys, increased number of activated T cells (CD3/HLA-DR) in one of them. The number of NK cells was different from lack of these cells to high number. Response of T cells to stimulation (mitogens and CD3) were normal in majority of assays. There were no associations between clinical course and observed changes in T or NK cell populations. Further studies on number and function of NK cells are needed.

  10. Carbamate Pesticide-Induced Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocytes

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    Qing Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that carbamate pesticides induced significant apoptosis in human natural killer cells. To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T cells were treated in vitro with thiram, maneb, carbaryl or ziram. Apoptosis was determined by FITC-Annexin-V/PI staining. To explore the mechanism of apoptosis, intracellular levels of active caspase 3 and mitochondrial cytochrome-c release were determined by flow cytometry. We found that thiram, ziram, maneb and carbaryl also induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the human T cells. However, the strength of the apoptosis-inducing effect differed among the pesticides, with the: thiram > ziram > maneb > carbaryl. Moreover, thiram significantly increased the intracellular level of active caspase 3 and caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited apoptosis. Thiram also significantly caused mitochondrial cytochrome-c release. These findings indicate that carbamate pesticides can induce apoptosis in human T cells, and the apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspases and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome-c.

  11. Autoimmune pancreatitis characterized by predominant CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Yu Li; Xiang-Yang Huang; Yong-Tao Chen; Yi Liu; Sha Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of pancreatitis characterized by prominent lymphocyte infiltration and pancreatic fibrosis resulting in organ dysfunction.The pathogenesis and pathology of AIP remain unknown. A 64-year-old Chinese man presented with symptoms and signs of bile duct obstruction diffuse enlargement of the head of pancreas, elevated IgG levels, and negative autoimmune antibody responses. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and a pancreatic tumor was suspected. However,periductal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis were found in the head of pancreas and nearby organs instead of tumor cells. Four months after surgery, the patient was readmitted because of reoccurrence of severe jaundice and sustained abdominal distension. Prednisone 30 mg/d was administered orally as an AIP was suspected. One and a half months later, the symptoms of the patient disappeared, and globulin, aminotransferase and bilirubin levels decreased significantly. Over a 9-mo follow-up period, the dose of prednisone was gradually decreased to 10 mg/d and the patient remained in good condition. We further demonstrated dominant CD3+/CD8+ populations, CD20+ cells and a few CD4+ cells in the pancreatic parenchyma, duodenum and gallbladder wall by immunohistochemical assay. This AIP case presented with significant CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration in the pancreas and extra-pancreatic lesions, indicating that this cell population may be more important in mediating AIP pathogenesis than previously known and that AIP might be a poorly defined autoimmune disease with heterogeneous pathogenesis.

  12. Atopic dermatitis: serum immunoglobulins and T-lymphocyte subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Sánchez, A F; Gómez Echevarría, A H; Lastra Alfonso, G

    1991-04-01

    A group of patients with atopic dermatitis who attended the Allergy Outpatient Service of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital from May, 1987 to May, 1988 were studied. The patients were assigned to 2 groups; the first one composed of 38 patients and the second one composed of 12 non-allergic, supposedly healthy subjects. Different tests were carried out for the quantification of total serum immunoglobulins (A, G, M, E) by means of the radial immunodiffusion method and the ELISA ultramicromethod. They were also submitted to quantification of lymphocyte subpopulations by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test with monoclonal antibodies, using Cuban antiserum prepared at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology. In our study IgG and IgA values were within normal limits in patients, contrary to the statistically significant increase in IgM and IgE values. The relative values of total T-lymphocytes (anti-T3) and of the suppressor lymphocyte subpopulations decreased.

  13. Impaired recovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--specific CD8+ T lymphocytes after partially T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at very high risk for progressive EBV reactivation and lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Meij; B. Löwenberg (Bob); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); J.W.J. van Esser (Joost); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); D. van Baarle (Debbie); F. Miedema (Frank); N. Blake; A.B. Rickinson; I. Leiner; E. Pamer

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are considered pivotal to prevent lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. We evaluated the recovery of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells after partially T-cell-depleted

  14. Impaired recovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--specific CD8+ T lymphocytes after partially T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at very high risk for progressive EBV reactivation and lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Pauline; van Esser, Joost W J; Niesters, Hubert G M; van Baarle, Debbie; Miedema, Frank; Blake, Neil; Rickinson, Alan B; Leiner, Ingrid; Pamer, Eric; Lowenberg, Bob; Cornelissen, Jan J; Gratama, Jan W

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are considered pivotal to prevent lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. We evaluated the recovery of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells after partially T-cell-depleted SCT and studied the interacti

  15. Antigen-specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from brucellosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Lafont, Martha Cecilia; López-Santiago, Rubén; Zumarán-Cuéllar, Elena; Paredes-Cervantes, Vladimir; López-Merino, Ahidé; Estrada-Aguilera, Ariel; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

    2002-01-01

    Salt-extractable antigen from Brucella melitensis 16M (RCM-BM) was used to evaluate the immune response from acute and chronic patients suffering from Brucella infections (in Mexico); their responses were compared with those of healthy controls. As a readout we used upregulation of CD69 (a well-established early activation marker for lymphocytes), lymphocyte proliferation by 3[H]thymidine or 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation measured by liquid scintillation or flow cytometry, respectively, and production of gamma interferon (IFN gamma). We compared the antigen-specific response with the response induced by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) as a positive control. There was no difference between acute patients and the healthy controls in the percentages of CD3+, CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes. However, we found that chronic patients had a significant (P brucellosis patients and in CD8+ T lymphocytes in chronic patients, indicating that both populations became activated by this antigen preparation. Moreover, lymphocyte proliferation from both acute and chronic patients in response to RCM-BM was highly significant (P < 0.001) when compared with healthy controls. However, there were no apparent differences between acute and chronic patients. Although the incorporation of BrdU showed similar results it provided additional information, since we demonstrated that both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from acute and chronic patients proliferated equally well in response to RCM-BM. Similar results were observed with intracellular IFN gamma determination. As a whole, our data suggest an important role for both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in Brucella infection in humans. As has been reported in mice, it is feasible that activated CD8+ T cells participate in protection against Brucella in humans through cytotoxicity or/and by the production of factors such as interferon and granulysin. The role of these cells should be carefully analysed to understand better their participation in human

  16. Distinct Overexpression of Fas Ligand on T Lymphocytes in Aplastic Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxin Li; Jinxiang Fu; Fengming Wang; Gehua Yu; Yong Wang; Xueguang Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Increased expression of Fas by hematopoietic progenitors in aplastic anemia (AA) suggests that Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system plays a key role in the formation of severe pancytopenia. To further confirm the above hypothesis, T cells from 8 patients with AA were systematically studied for their FasL's distribution pattern,releasing manner and proapoptotic activity, compared with normal resting T cells and artificially activated Tcell blasts. The results demonstrated that AA T cells abnormally expressed low levels of membrane-bound FasL and contained high levels of intracellular FasL which could be triggered to release by high-dose phytohemagglutinin (PHA) pulse-stimulation. The supernatants from the PHA-stimulated AA T cells had apparent cytotoxicity against FasL-sensitive Jurkat cells, which could be significantly inhibited by monoclonal antibody against FasL in a dose-dependent manner, or nearly completely abrogated by ultracentrifugation. The above phenomena also appeared on artificially activated T cell blasts, but this was not the case on normal resting Tcells. These results indicate that AA T cell is a type of "preactivated" T lymphocyte, characterized by overexpression of FasL, especially intracellular FasL which can be stimulated to release in bioavtive exosomesbound form. Taken together, our data provide further and direct evidence for the hypothesis that T cells might mediate the destruction of hematopietic progenitor in AA through Fas/FasL system.

  17. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones, established by stimulation with the HLA-A2 binding p5365-73 wild type peptide loaded on dendritic cells In vitro, specifically recognize and lyse HLA-A2 tumour cells overexpressing the p53 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Annette Malene; Petersen, T R; Kirkin, A F;

    2000-01-01

    to carry identical T-cell receptors. The CTL clone, 2D9, was shown to specifically lyse the HLA-A*0201+ squamous carcinoma cell line SCC9 and the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468. Our data demonstrate that human peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal healthy individuals comprise T cells capable...... of recognizing p53 derived wild type (self) peptides. Furthermore, the capacity of R9V specific T cell clones to exert HLA restricted cytotoxicity, argues that the R9V peptide is naturally presented on certain cancer cells. This supports the view that p53 derived wild type peptides might serve as candidate...... target antigens for the immunotherapeutic treatment of cancer....

  18. Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Uebelhoer

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV evades cellular immunity to establish persistence in chronically infected individuals are not clear. Mutations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I-restricted epitopes targeted by CD8(+ T cells are associated with persistence, but the extent to which these mutations affect viral fitness is not fully understood. Previous work showed that the HCV quasispecies in a persistently infected chimpanzee accumulated multiple mutations in numerous class I epitopes over a period of 7 years. During the acute phase of infection, one representative epitope in the C-terminal region of the NS3/4A helicase, NS3(1629-1637, displayed multiple serial amino acid substitutions in major histocompatibility complex (MHC anchor and T cell receptor (TCR contact residues. Only one of these amino acid substitutions at position 9 (P9 of the epitope was stable in the quasispecies. We therefore assessed the effect of each mutation observed during in vivo infection on viral fitness and T cell responses using an HCV subgenomic replicon system and a recently developed in vitro infectious virus cell culture model. Mutation of a position 7 (P7 TCR-contact residue, I1635T, expectedly ablated the T cell response without affecting viral RNA replication or virion production. In contrast, two mutations at the P9 MHC-anchor residue abrogated antigen-specific T cell responses, but additionally decreased viral RNA replication and virion production. The first escape mutation, L1637P, detected in vivo only transiently at 3 mo after infection, decreased viral production, and reverted to the parental sequence in vitro. The second P9 variant, L1637S, which was stable in vivo through 7 years of follow-up, evaded the antigen-specific T cell response and did not revert in vitro despite being less optimal in virion production compared to the parental virus. These studies suggest that HCV escape mutants emerging early in infection are not necessarily

  19. The distribution of T lymphocyte subtypes in cases with different chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya İlhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatitis B is an important infectious disease,which can cause severe chronic cirrhosis and hepatocellularcarcinoma in 1-5 % of adult patients. Whereas, HepatitisD is a defective virus infection that develops in people withHBsAg (+. It has been known that Hepatitis D virus has acytopathic effect but the immune mechanisms which play arole in the development of this disease are still under investigation.Therefore, in this study it was aimed to investigatewhether lymphocytes numbers change in a variety of patientswith chronic hepatitis.Methods: In this study, 22 patients (12 females and 10males with chronic liver diseases were examined. Thesepatients were compared to the control group which consistsof 20 healthy individuals (12 females, 8 males. A flowcytometry assay was conducted to examine T lymphocytesubgroups using CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD56, CD161 andVα24 monoclonal antibodies in peripheral blood samples ofboth patient and control groups.Results: The mean age of patient group and control groupwere 45.87±11.18 and 41.45±7.23 year respectively. TheHbsAg was found to be positive in all patients with the exceptionof one patient. 15 patients also exhibited Anti DeltaAntigen positive as well as HbsAg. Six of these patientshave been diagnosed with chronic liver disease, 7 of themhave been diagnosed liver chrosis and two of them havebeen diagnosed with hepathoma. No difference was foundbetween the patients and healthy controls in terms of totalT lymphocyte, CD4+Th cells CD3+CD56+ NKT cells andVα24+CD161+ iNKT cells. However, the levels of CD8+ Tccells, CD16+56+ NK cells and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyteswere found to be lower in patients bloods as compared tothe healthy controls.Conclusions: These results suggest that HbsAg positivitymay cause the decreases of the cells which are responsiblefor cytotoxic response. Nevertheless, further studiesare required to explain the immunological response to thechronic hepatitis.Key words: Chronic hepatitis

  20. Blockade of CTLA-4 promotes the development of effector CD8+ T lymphocytes and the therapeutic effect of vaccination with an attenuated protozoan expressing NY-ESO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Luara Isabela; Galvão-Filho, Bruno; de Faria, Paula Cristina; Junqueira, Caroline; Dutra, Miriam Santos; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Ritter, Gerd; Bannard, Oliver; Fearon, Douglas Thomas; Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes

    2015-03-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapy has long been a challenge. Here, we report that prophylactic vaccination with a highly attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi strain expressing NY-ESO-1 (CL-14-NY-ESO-1) induces both effector memory and effector CD8(+) T lymphocytes that efficiently prevent tumor development. However, the therapeutic effect of such a vaccine is limited. We also demonstrate that blockade of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) during vaccination enhances the frequency of NY-ESO-1-specific effector CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-γ and promotes lymphocyte migration to the tumor infiltrate. As a result, therapy with CL-14-NY-ESO-1 together with anti-CTLA-4 is highly effective in controlling the development of an established melanoma.

  1. A combined stress hormone infusion decreases in vivo protein synthesis in human T lymphocytes in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, A; Essén, P; McNurlan, M A; Ringdén, O; Garlick, P J; Wernerman, J

    2001-11-01

    In vivo protein synthesis decreases in mononuclear cells following a combined stress hormone infusion given to healthy volunteers as a human trauma model. Here, the purpose was to further investigate this finding and to measure in vivo protein synthesis in isolated T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the effects of stress hormones on the lymphocyte subpopulations and mononuclear cells, characterized by flow cytometry and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced and unstimulated proliferative responses in vitro, were elucidated. Healthy volunteers (n = 16) were randomized into 2 groups to receive either a stress hormone or a saline infusion for 6 hours. In vivo protein synthesis was studied before and after the treatment by measuring the incorporation of stable isotopically-labeled phenylalanine into lymphocyte and mononuclear cell proteins. Protein synthesis decreased after stress hormone infusion in both cell populations: in T lymphocytes from 13.0% +/- 0.7%/d (mean +/- SD) to 8.6% +/- 2.1%/d (P <.01) and in mononuclear cells from 13.3% +/- 1.2%/d to 6.3 +/- 2.0%/d (P <.001). No change in proliferative responsiveness in vitro was observed. The stress hormone infusion produced a decrease in the percentage of T helper CD3/CD4 from 41% to 18% (P <.001), T cytotoxic CD3/CD8 from 27% to 15% (P <.001), as well as total T CD3 cells from 69% to 35% (P <.001). There was an increase in the percentage of natural killer (NK) cells CD16/CD56 from 17% to 55% (P <.001). Determination of phenotypes expressed on activated T lymphocytes showed that CD3/HLA-DR was unchanged and CD3/CD25 decreased from 14% to 7% (P <.01) in the stress hormone group. The study showed that the decrease of in vivo protein synthesis was 34% in T lymphocytes as compared with 53% in mononuclear cells, when determined immediately after a 6-hour stress hormone infusion. This change was associated with a pronounced decrease in all lymphocyte subpopulations, except for the NK cells, which increased substantially.

  2. Abnormal lipid rafts related ganglioside expression and signaling in T lymphocytes in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Donglei; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Fu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xiaofan; Xue, Feng; Yang, Renchi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T lymphocytes signaling is considered to play a crucial role in the abnormal immune state of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Lipid raft has been verified to engage in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T lymphocytes signal transduction. Whether lipid raft-associated T cells signal transduction has impact on the pathogenesis of ITP is still unconfirmed. In this study, we aimed to reveal the abnormality in structure and function of lipid rafts (LRs) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with ITP. Our results showed that there was an increased lipid raft aggregation in ITP patients, while this kind of increase would not be influenced by platelet counts or therapeutic regimes. Stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies promoted enhanced lipid raft clustering in T lymphocytes of ITP patients compared with negative controls. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) could block the abnormal lipid raft aggregation and disrupt the TCR-mediated T cells proliferation and cytokines secretion, including both proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The spontaneous activation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients might be due to the elevated co-localization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) CD45 and lipid rafts in patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the autoactivation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients may lead to the abnormality in lipid raft structure and raft-anchored proteins, and the changes conversely promote the TCR-mediated T cells activation of ITP patients.

  3. Sustained Dysfunction of Antiviral CD8+ T Lymphocytes after Infection with Hepatitis C Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, Norbert H.; Lechner, Franziska; Jung, Maria-Christina; Diepolder, Helmut; Gerlach, Tilman; Lauer, Georg; Walker, Bruce; Sullivan, John; Phillips, Rodney; Pape, Gerd R.; Klenerman, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) sets up persistent infection in the majority of those exposed. It is likely that, as with other persistent viral infections, the efficacy of T-lymphocyte responses influences long-term outcome. However, little is known about the functional capacity of HCV-specific T-lymphocyte responses induced after acute infection. We investigated this by using major histocompatibility complex class I-peptide tetrameric complexes (tetramers), which allow direct detection of specific CD8+ T lymphocytes ex vivo, independently of function. Here we show that, early after infection, virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes detected with a panel of four such tetramers are abnormal in terms of their synthesis of antiviral cytokines and lytic activity. Furthermore, this phenotype is commonly maintained long term, since large sustained populations of HCV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were identified, which consistently had very poor antiviral cytokine responses as measured in vitro. Overall, HCV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes show reduced synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) after stimulation with either mitogens or peptides, compared to responses to Epstein-Barr virus and/or cytomegalovirus. This behavior of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes induced after HCV infection may contribute to viral persistence through failure to effectively suppress viral replication. PMID:11356962

  4. Changes in T-Lymphocytes' Viability After Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomatos, Ilias P.; Alevizos, Leonidas; Kalathaki, Olga; Kantsos, Harilaos; Kataki, Agapi; Leandros, Emmanuel; Zografos, George; Konstantoulakis, Manousos

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery results in decreased immune and metabolic stress response compared to open surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the suspension of host immune defense in terms of apoptosis, necrosis, and survival of peripheral T-lymphocytes in patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy. Apoptosis, necrosis and viability of peripheral T-lymphocytes were measured preoperatively and postoperatively by means of flow cytometry in 27 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 25 undergoing open cholecystectomy. White cell count, CRP, and serum glucose levels were also measured. Viable peripheral T-lymphocytes were significantly decreased in open cholecystectomy (P = 0.02), while their late apoptotic as well as the overall necrotic rate were significantly increased (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Open cholecystectomy was also associated with lower levels of surviving circulating T-lymphocytes (P = 0.01) and higher percentage of necrotic T lymphocytes (P = 0.03) 24 hours postoperatively compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Serum CRP was increased 24 hours after open cholecystectomy (P = 0.04). All differences failed to sustain more than 48 hours postoperatively. Increased viability and decreased necrosis of circulating T-lymphocytes were observed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Necrosis (and not apoptosis) seems to be the predominant pathway of T-lymphocyte death in open cholecystectomy, in a process reaching its peak at 24 hours and further attenuating 48 hours postoperatively. PMID:25875553

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  11. DMPD: Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. Summary of workshop findings for porcine T-lymphocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalmuller, A.; Kuebart, G.; Hollemweguer, E.;

    2001-01-01

    blood mononuclear cells, nylon-wool enriched T-lymphocytes, thymocytes, splenocytes, and lymphocytes derived from Peyer's patches. These second round analyses revealed 15 different data sets. Together with 22 pre-selected data sets from the first round analyses with the whole panel of monoclonal......Ab) directed against subsets of CD4(-)CD8(-) T-lymphocytes. These mAb seem to recognise antigens on porcine T-lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta chains. Three clusters (C8, C9, CIO, C13) seem to be artificial. They contain either mAb staining CD4(-)CD8(-) T-lymphocytes and low CD8+ cells (C8, C...

  20. Mechanisms of T-Lymphocyte Accumulation during Experimental Pleural Infection Induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mariana C.; Penido, Carmen; Costa, Maria F. S.; Henriques, Maria Graças

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculous pleurisy is a frequent extrapulmonary manifestation characterized by accumulation of fluid and inflammatory cells in the pleural space. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of T-lymphocyte accumulation in the pleural space by using a murine model of pleurisy induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of BCG (4.5 × 105 bacteria/cavity) induced accumulation of T lymphocytes in the pleural cavities of C57BL/6 mice. We observed the presence of CFU in pleural washes conducted 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 days after pleurisy induction. Pretreatment with fucoidan inhibited T-lymphocyte accumulation at 1 day, but not at 15 days, after BCG-induced pleurisy. Accordingly, adoptive transfer of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled blood mononuclear cells to infected mice showed that T lymphocytes migrated into the pleural cavity 1 day (but not 15 days) after BCG injection. Cell-free pleural wash fluids recovered from mice 1 day after BCG i.t. stimulation (day 1 BCG-PW), but not day 7 or day 15 BCG-PW, induced in vitro T-cell transmigration, which was dependent on L-, P-, and E-selectins. In contrast, day 7 BCG-PW (but not day 1 BCG-PW) induced in vitro T-lymphocyte proliferation via interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Accordingly, in vivo IL-2 or IFN-γ neutralization abolished T-lymphocyte accumulation 7 days after pleurisy induction. Our results demonstrate that pleural infection induced by BCG leads to T-lymphocyte accumulation in two waves. The acute phase depends on selectin-mediated migration, while the second wave of T-lymphocyte accumulation seems to depend on a local proliferation induced by cytokines produced in situ. PMID:18809659

  1. Lung T lymphocyte trafficking and activation during ischemic acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Mihaela L; White, Laura E; Santora, Rachel J; Park, Jong M; Rabb, Hamid; Hassoun, Heitham T

    2012-09-15

    Despite advances in renal replacement therapy, the mortality rate for acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unacceptably high, likely owing to extrarenal organ dysfunction. Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) activates cellular and soluble mediators that facilitate organ crosstalk and induce caspase-dependent lung apoptosis and injury through a TNFR1-dependent pathway. Given that T lymphocytes mediate local IRI in the kidney and are known to drive TNFR1-mediated apoptosis, we hypothesized that T lymphocytes activated during kidney IRI would traffic to the lung and mediate pulmonary apoptosis during AKI. In an established murine model of kidney IRI, we identified trafficking of CD3+ T lymphocytes to the lung during kidney IRI by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. T lymphocytes were primarily of the CD3+CD8+ phenotype; however, both CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed CD69 and CD25 activation markers during ischemic AKI. The activated lung T lymphocytes did not demonstrate an increased expression of intracellular TNF-α or surface TNFR1. Kidney IRI induced pulmonary apoptosis measured by caspase-3 activation in wild-type controls, but not in T cell-deficient (T(nu/nu)) mice. Adoptive transfer of murine wild-type T lymphocytes into T(nu/nu) mice restored the injury phenotype with increased cellular apoptosis and lung microvascular barrier dysfunction, suggesting that ischemic AKI-induced pulmonary apoptosis is T cell dependent. Kidney-lung crosstalk during AKI represents a complex biological process, and although T lymphocytes appear to serve a prominent role in the interorgan effects of AKI, further experiments are necessary to elucidate the specific role of activated T cells in modulating pulmonary apoptosis.

  2. An Efficient Low Cost Method for Gene Transfer to T Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Chicaybam; Andressa Laino Sodre; Bianca Azevedo Curzio; Martin Hernan Bonamino

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. AIMS: We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucle...

  3. Potential receptor mechanism underlying the effect of high mobility group box-1 protein on expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 in regulatory T cells in mice%高迁移率族蛋白B1对小鼠调节性T细胞表达T淋巴细胞毒性相关抗原-4水平的影响及受体机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许长涛; 姚咏明; 李为民; 邹一平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGBI)on the expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in regulatory T cells (Treg)and its potential receptor mechanism in mice.Methods CD4+ CD25+ Tregs isolated from the spleens of C3H/HeN [ Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) wild type ] mice by magnetic beads were seeded on 96-well cell culture plates coated with 1 mg/L anti-CD3 and soluble CD28.By treatment with or without anti-mouse TLR4 antibody,the time-and dose-dependent responses between HMGBI stimulation and CTLA-4 expres-sion on CD4+ CD25+ Tregs were studied.Results Compared to normal controls, the expression of CTLA-4 on CD4+ CD25+ Tregs stimulated by 0.1 mg/L HMGBI was significantly down-regulated at 24,48,and 72 h (47.56±5.49,35.83±4.96, and 31.94±4.65, respectively) (all P<0.01), especially at 48 and 72 h.Meanwhile, markedly decreased expression of CTLA-4 was found CD4+ CD25+ Tregs treated with HMGB1 at various concentrations (0.01,0.1 and 1 mg/L) for 48 h (58.87±6.70,33.34±4.00 and 29.90±4.30, respectively, all P<0.01).After pretreatment with TLR4 antibody, however, the CTLA-4 expression on CD4+ CD25+ Tregs was significantly enhanced by HMGB1 (0.1 Mg/L) stimulation at 24,48 and 72H(90.39±8.80,93.13±4.80 and 80.and 80.29±4.31,respectively,P<0.05 or P,0.01).After treatment with different doses of HMGB1 for 48 h,the CTLA-4 expression on CD4+CD25+Tregs was much higher in 0.1 mg/L HMGB1 group(94.98±6.35)than in mormal controls(P<0.01).Conclusion With HMGB1 stimulation,TLR4 can markedly down-regulate CTLA-a expression levels on CD4+CD25+Tregs,thereby influencing the immunlolgical activity of Tregs.%目的 观察高迁移率族蛋白B1(HMGB1)对小鼠调节性T细胞(Treg)表达细胞毒性T淋巴细胞相关抗原(CTLA)-4水平的影响及其受体机制.方法 免疫磁珠法分离正常C3H/HeN[(TOU样受体4(TLR4)野生型)]小鼠脾脏CD4+ CD25+Treg,接种于细胞培养板,各细胞培

  4. Effect of immunopotentiator of the Chinese herbal medicine on the quantity of T lymphocyte in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qiumei; SHEN Ping; GAO Guisheng; ZHAO Ruili; TANG Shengling

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of immunopotentiator, the quantity of T lymphocyte was observed. Total 240 1-day chikens were divided into 3 groups randomly: one contrast group and two groups being drunk immunopotentiator according to the concentration 10 mL·L-1 and 5 mL·L-1 lasting for 48 d. The number of T lymphocyte in blood was measured by E-rosette when the chikens were at 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-day. The results showed that the percent of T lymphocyte in the trial group was obviously higher than that of the contrast, and the 10 mL·L-1 group was higher than that of the 5 mL·L-1 group; the quantity distribution of T lymphocyte in intestinal mucosa lymphoid tissue of 14-day, 21-day chiken was surveyed in the contrast group and the 10 mL·L-1 group with the method of routine histology-slices and ANAE, the results showed that the quantity of T lymphocyte in the 10 mL·L-1 group was significantly higher than that of the contrast, which indicated that immunopotentiator increased markedly the quantity of T lymphocyte, and the 10 mL·L-1 group was higher than that of the 5 mL·L-1 group.

  5. In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of CD8+ T Lymphocytes Recruiting to Glioblastoma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anning; Wu, Yue; Tang, Feng; Li, Wei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Yao, Zhenwei

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive in vivo tracking of adopted immune cells would help improve immunotherapy on glioblastoma. In this study, the authors tried to track adoptive CD8+ T lymphocytes in an in situ GL261 glioblastoma mouse model with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CD8+ T lymphocytes from spleen of preimmunized GL261 glioblastoma mice were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide, with polylysine as transfection agent. From Prussian blue staining, the labeling efficiency was 0.77% ± 0.06%, without altering cell viability and function. From anti-CD8, and anti-dextran staining, superparamagnetic iron oxide could be seen in the cytoplasm. In vitro imaging of agar gel mixtures with different concentrations of labeled CD8+ T lymphocytes was done with a 3.0T MR T2*WI sequence. Higher cell concentrations showed lower signal values. Twenty-four hours after tail vein injection of labeled and unlabeled CD8+ T lymphocytes, imaging of GL261 mice brain showed black spots at the periphery of the tumor in the labeled group only. Brain tumor pathology further verified infiltration of labeled CD8+ T lymphocytes in the tumor. Thus, preimmunized CD8+ T lymphocytes could be efficiently labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide and tracked both in vitro and in vivo with 3.0T MRI.

  6. An Efficient Low Cost Method for Gene Transfer to T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaybam, Leonardo; Sodre, Andressa Laino; Curzio, Bianca Azevedo; Bonamino, Martin Hernan

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. Aims We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucleofector II device to promote efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes. Results This approach renders high transgene expression levels in primary human T lymphocytes (mean 45%, 41–59%), the hard to transfect murine T cells (mean 38%, 36–42% for C57/BL6 strain) and human Jurkat T cell line. Cell viability levels after electroporation allowed further manipulations such as in vitro expansion and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) mediated gain of function for target cell lysis. Conclusions We describe here an efficient general protocol for electroporation based modification of T lymphocytes. By opening access to this protocol, we expect that efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes, for transient or stable expression, may be achieved by an increased number of laboratories at lower and affordable costs. PMID:23555950

  7. An efficient low cost method for gene transfer to T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Chicaybam

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. AIMS: We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucleofector II device to promote efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes. RESULTS: This approach renders high transgene expression levels in primary human T lymphocytes (mean 45%, 41-59%, the hard to transfect murine T cells (mean 38%, 36-42% for C57/BL6 strain and human Jurkat T cell line. Cell viability levels after electroporation allowed further manipulations such as in vitro expansion and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR mediated gain of function for target cell lysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe here an efficient general protocol for electroporation based modification of T lymphocytes. By opening access to this protocol, we expect that efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes, for transient or stable expression, may be achieved by an increased number of laboratories at lower and affordable costs.

  8. Acute exercise mobilises CD8+ T lymphocytes exhibiting an effector-memory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John P; Riddell, Natalie E; Burns, Victoria E; Turner, Mark; van Zanten, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen; Drayson, Mark T; Bosch, Jos A

    2009-08-01

    An acute bout of exercise evokes mobilisation of lymphocytes into the bloodstream, which can be largely attributed to increases in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8TLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Evidence further suggests that, even within these lymphocyte subsets, there is preferential mobilisation of cells that share certain functional and phenotypic characteristics, such as high cytotoxicity, low proliferative ability, and high tissue-migrating potential. These features are characteristic of effector-memory CD8TL subsets. The current study therefore investigated the effect of exercise on these newly-identified subsets. Thirteen healthy and physically active males (mean+/-SD: age 20.9+/-1.5 yr) attended three sessions: a control session (no exercise); cycling at 35% Watt(max) (low intensity exercise); and 85% Watt(max) (high intensity exercise). Each bout lasted 20 min. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, during the final min of exercise, and +15, and +60 min post-exercise. CD8TLs were classified into naïve, central memory (CM), effector-memory (EM), and CD45RA+ effector-memory (RAEM) using combinations of the cell surface markers CCR7, CD27, CD62L, CD57, and CD45RA. In parallel, the phenotypically distinct CD56(bright) 'regulatory' and CD56(dim) 'cytotoxic' NK subsets were quantified. The results show a strong differential mobilisation of CD8TL subsets (RAEM>EM>CM>naïve); during high intensity exercise the greatest increase was observed for RAEM CD8Tls (+450%) and the smallest for naïve cells (+84%). Similarly, CD56(dim) NK cells (+995%) were mobilised to a greater extent than CD56(bright) (+153%) NK cells. In conclusion, memory CD8TL that exhibit a high effector and tissue-migrating potential are preferentially mobilised during exercise. This finding unifies a range of independent observations regarding exercise-induced phenotypic and functional changes in circulating lymphocytes. The selective mobilisation of cytotoxic tissue-migrating subsets, both

  9. Inability of a Fusion Protein of IL-2 and Diphtheria Toxin (Denileukin Diftitox, DAB389IL-2, ONTAK) to Eliminate Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Patients With Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Peter; Maker, Ajay V.; Haworth, Leah R.; Rogers-Freezer, Linda; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Elimination of regulatory T lymphocytes may provide a way to break self-tolerance and unleash the anti-tumor properties of circulating lymphocytes. The use of fusion proteins, which link cytotoxic molecules to receptor targets, provides one approach to this problem. This study examined the ability of a fusion protein of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and diphtheria toxin (Denileukin Diftitox, DAB389IL-2, ONTAK) to eliminate regulatory T lymphocytes based on their expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors. Thirteen patients (12 with metastatic melanoma, 1 with metastatic renal cell carcinoma) were treated at one of the two Food and Drug Administration–approved doses of Denileukin Diftitox (seven patients at 9 μg/kg, six patients at 18 μg/kg). None of the patients experienced an objective clinical response. Foxp3 expression did not decrease significantly overall, although it did decrease minimally among patients receiving 18 μg/kg (−2.01 ± 0.618 copies of Foxp3/103 copies of β-actin; P = 0.031). Denileukin Diftitox did not decrease the suppressive ability of CD4+CD25+ cells as quantified by an in vitro co-culture suppression assay. Furthermore, the increased numbers of lymphocytes in patients resulting from treatment with IL-2 were not susceptible to Denileukin Diftitox. Administration of Denileukin Diftitox does not appear to eliminate regulatory T lymphocytes or cause regression of metastatic melanoma. PMID:16224276

  10. Comparison of three different methods for radiolabelling human activated T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, C. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Negri, D.R.M. [Experimental Oncology E, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Seregni, E. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Ramakrishna, V. [Experimental Oncology D, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Arienti, F. [Experimental Oncology D, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy)]|[Immunohaematology Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Maffioli, L. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Lombardo, C. [Immunohaematology Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Bogni, A. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Pascali, C. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Crippa, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Massaron, S. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Remonti, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Nerini-Molteni, S. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Canevari, S. [Experimental Oncology E, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy); Bombardieri, E. [Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Milano (Italy)

    1997-05-01

    We compared the efficiency, stability and toxicity of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), indium-111 oxine and fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in radiolabelling activated lymphocytes targeted with biMAb OC/TR. The mean labelling efficiencies of {sup 111}In-oxine and {sup 18}F-FDG using 2.5 x 10{sup 8}lymphocytes (68% and 64%, respectively) were more than twice that of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (31%). Retention of the radionuclide in the cell was highest in the case of {sup 111}In-oxine labelling (less than 25% of the initial cell-bound activity released after 240 min, as compared with 44% of the {sup 99m}Tc label in the same period and 45% of {sup 18}F radionuclide released after 150 min). None of the three radiolabelling reagents induced any significant alteration in cell viability or immunophenotype. However, both {sup 111}In-oxine and {sup 18}F-FDG induced a loss of cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV1, and all three radiolabelling reagents caused a significant reduction in the proliferative ability of labelled lymphocytes compared to controls, with cell death occurring after 8-9 days. Radiolabelling with the more stable {sup 111}In-oxine reagent using a higher number of lymphocytes (1.4 x 10 {sup 9}) but the same total activity (around 55.5 MBq) resulted in improved labelled T cell viability and proliferative ability, although the mean labelling efficiency decreased (35.8%). Together the data suggest that {sup 111}In-oxine at low activity per cell is the most appropriate reagent for radiolabelling activated retargeted T lymphocytes useful for in vivo biodistribution studies. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Identification of HIV-1 specific T lymphocyte responses in highly exposed persistently seronegative Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-wei; SHAO Yi-ming; HONG Kun-xue; MA Jun; YUAN Lin; LIU Sha; CHEN Jian-ping; ZHANG Yuan-zhi; RUAN Yu-hua; XU Jian-qing

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of highly exposed persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals may provide valuable information on mechanisms of protection and on vaccine design. Cellular immune responses play a critical role in containing human immunodeficiency virus. However, the cellular immune responses in HEPS individuals have not been thoroughly assessed at the entire viral genome level.Methods Ten HEPS Chinese with a history of frequent penetrative vaginal intercourse (mean frequency, at least once a week), with some unprotected sexual contact occurring in the weeks or days immediately before enrollment, 25 HIV-1 seropositive individuals, 10 HIV-1-seronegative healthy individuals with low-risk sexual behavior and no history suggestive of exposure to HIV-1 infection were enrolled. HIV-1-specific T cell responses were comprehensively analyzed by an interferon- γ Elispot assay against 770 overlapping peptides spanning all HIV-1 proteins.Results HIV-1-specific T-cell responses of interferon- γ secretion were identified in 3 (30%) out of 10 HEPS individuals; the specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were targeted at Pol (2/10), Env (2/10), and Tat (1/10).HIV-1-specific T-cell responses of interferon- γ secretion were identified in 20 (80%) out of 25 seropositive intravenous drug users (IDUs), revealing that all HIV-1 proteins and protein subunits could serve as targets for HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses with 85% recognizing Gag, 80% recognizing Nef, 75% recognizing Pol,60% recognizing Env, 55% recognizing Vpu, 45% recognizing Vpr, 20% recognizing Vif, 20% recognizing Tat and 15% recognizing Rev in these seropositive individuals. None of the seronegative healthy individuals gave the positive T-cell responses.Conclusions About 30% of HEPS Chinese mounted HIV-1 specific T cell immune responses. Cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 may be developed through non-productive infections.

  12. PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilseyar Akhmetzyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic CD8+ T Lymphocytes (CTL efficiently control acute virus infections but can become exhausted when a chronic infection develops. Signaling of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 is an important mechanism for the development of virus-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction. However, it has recently been shown that during the initial phase of infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells express high levels of PD-1, but are fully competent in producing cytokines and killing virus-infected target cells. To better understand the role of the PD-1 signaling pathway in CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity during acute viral infections we analyzed the expression of the ligand on retrovirus-infected cells targeted by CTLs. We observed increased levels of PD-L1 expression after infection of cells with the murine Friend retrovirus (FV or with HIV. In FV infected mice, virus-specific CTLs efficiently eliminated infected target cells that expressed low levels of PD-L1 or that were deficient for PD-L1 but the population of PD-L1high cells escaped elimination and formed a reservoir for chronic FV replication. Infected cells with high PD-L1 expression mediated a negative feedback on CD8+ T cells and inhibited their expansion and cytotoxic functions. These findings provide evidence for a novel immune escape mechanism during acute retroviral infection based on PD-L1 expression levels on virus infected target cells.

  13. Loss of immune escape mutations during persistent HCV infection in pregnancy enhances replication of vertically transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, Jonathan R; Kim, Seungtaek; Price, Aryn A; Kohout, Jennifer A; McKnight, Kevin L; Prasad, Mona R; Lemon, Stanley M; Grakoui, Arash; Walker, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Globally, about 1% of pregnant women are persistently infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Mother-to-child transmission of HCV occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies and accounts for most new childhood infections. HCV-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the clearance of acute HCV infections, but in the 60-80% of infections that persist, these cells become functionally exhausted or select for mutant viruses that escape T cell recognition. Increased HCV replication during pregnancy suggests that maternofetal immune tolerance mechanisms may further impair HCV-specific CTLs, limiting their selective pressure on persistent viruses. To assess this possibility, we characterized circulating viral quasispecies during and after consecutive pregnancies in two women. This revealed a loss of some escape mutations in HLA class I epitopes during pregnancy that was associated with emergence of more fit viruses. CTL selective pressure was reimposed after childbirth, at which point escape mutations in these epitopes again predominated in the quasispecies and viral load dropped sharply. Importantly, the viruses transmitted perinatally were those with enhanced fitness due to reversion of escape mutations. Our findings indicate that the immunoregulatory changes of pregnancy reduce CTL selective pressure on HCV class I epitopes, thereby facilitating vertical transmission of viruses with optimized replicative fitness.

  14. [Changes of T-cell clonality after induction-cultivation of peripheral T lymphocytes in adoptive immunotherapy for leukemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Gu, Jiang-Ying; Ou, Yuan; Li, Mian-Yang; Wang, He; Jin, Xian; Tao, Xiu-Yan; Liu, Zhao-Li; Ma, Xing-Fan; Wang, Xiu-Li; Ma, Si-Kun; Kang, Rui; Cai, Peng; Tong, Chun-Rong; Zhu, Ping

    2009-06-01

    This study was purposed to analyze the changes of T-cell clonality after induction of peripheral T lymphocytes by autogenous DC and cytokines in the preparation of adoptive immunotherapy for leukemias. The bone marrow and peripheral blood from 21 leukemia patients at remission stage after treatment and subjected to adoptive immunotherapy were collected. Their DCs and T-cells were stimulated with cytokines and then were mixed to activate T-cells. T-cell receptor beta variable region (TCRBV) families were amplified by RT-PCR, and genescan method and sequencing of the PCR products were used to observe the clonality changes of T-cells before and after the induction and cultivation of T-cells. The flow cytometry was used to identify CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD4(+)CD25str(+)FOXP3(+) cells to disclose the ratio change of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), helper T-cells, regulatory T-cells and NK T-cells before and after induction and cultivation of T-cells. The results showed that in the 21 patients, most of the 24 TCRBV families presented as oligoclonal distribution on genescan, several families were not expressed, and only a few families remained polyclonal. TCRBV24 was found to be oligoclonal in all of the 21 patients. DNA sequence analysis of TCRBV24 revealed a common motif of VAG in CDR3 in 3 cases and a common motif of GGG in CDR3 in 2 cases. In patient 5, both TCRBV 24 and TCRBV8 contained the same motif of GGG in CDR3. The identical motif in these patients may suggest that these T-cells recognize the same antigen. The peripheral lymphocytes demonstrated recovery of clonal profile on genescan from oligoclonal profile and absence of several families before the induction and cultivation to typical polyclonal profile in all TCRBV families after the induction by DC and cytokines for 13 days. After the induction and cultivation, the number of lymphocytes increased to 3.38 +/- 1.20 times. CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD4(+)CD25str(+)FOX P3

  15. 人类免疫缺陷病毒感染与T淋巴细胞损伤%The Relationship between HIV Infection and Injury of T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盟

    2011-01-01

    人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV) 是具有包膜的正链RNA病毒,以人体免疫系统中最重要的CD4 +T淋巴细胞为感染和攻击目标,通过损伤细胞膜、干扰细胞自身蛋白合成直接杀伤CD4 +T细胞,诱导感染细胞生成某些细胞因子间接杀伤CD4 +T细胞,gp120与CD4分子交联,诱导CD4 +T细胞凋亡.在HIV感染及多种细胞因子作用下,T淋巴细胞分化为细胞毒性T细胞,特异性识别和清除病毒感染的细胞;分化为调节性T细胞,发挥免疫抑制功能,防止免疫过激;分化为记忆性T细胞,介导再次免疫应答.%HIV is a positive-strand RNA virus, it main infects and attacks CD4+T lymphocytes of the human immune system. HIV can directly kill CD4+ T cells by damaging the cell membrane,interfere with cell's own protein synthesis,and indirectly destroy CD4+T cells by inducing infected cells to produce some cytokines. By gp120 and CD4 molecules cross-linked,HIV can induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. While HIV in fection and the various cytokines act together, T lymphocytes differentiate into cytotoxic T cells, specifically recognize and remove virus-infected cells, some T lymphocytes polarize into regulatory T cells, play the immune suppression, prevent and control excessive immune; and some T lymphocytes differentiate into memory T-cell to mediate immune response again.

  16. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate activated CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes display potent anti-tumor activity towards human squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Alan A.Z.; Maniar, Amudhan; Cummings, Jean-Saville; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Schulze, Dan H.; Gastman, Brian R.; Pauza, C. David; Strome, Scott E.; Chapoval, Andrei I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The expression of CD56, a natural killer (NK) cell-associated molecule, on αβ T lymphocytes correlates with their increased anti-tumor effector function. CD56 is also expressed on a subset of γδ T cells. However, anti-tumor effector functions of CD56+ γδ T cells are poorly characterized. Experimental design To investigate the potential effector role of CD56+ γδ T cells in tumor killing, we employed isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and IL-2 expanded γδ T cells from PBMC of healthy donors. Results Thirty to 70% of IPP+IL-2 expanded γδ T cells express CD56 on their surface. Interestingly, while both CD56+ and CD56− γδ T cells express comparable levels of receptors involved in the regulation of γδ T cell cytotoxicity (e.g. NKG2D and CD94) only CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes are capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and other solid tumor cell lines. This effect is likely mediated by the enhanced release of cytolytic granules, since CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes expressed higher levels of CD107a compared to CD56− controls, following exposure to tumor cell lines. Lysis of tumor cell lines is blocked by concanomycin A and a combination of anti-γδTCR + anti-NKG2D mAb, suggesting that the lytic activity of CD56+ γδ T cells involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly γδTCR/NKGD2 dependent. Importantly, CD56 expressing γδ T lymphocytes are resistant to Fas ligand and chemically induced apoptosis. Conclusions Our data indicate that CD56+ γδ T cells are potent anti-tumor effectors capable of killing SCC and may play an important therapeutic role in patients with head and neck cancer and other malignancies. PMID:18594005

  17. Increased Expression of PI-3K in Asthmatic Rat T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin; ZHOU Shixin; XIONG Shengdao; XU Yongjian; ZHANG Zhenxiang; XIONG Weining

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the expression of PI-3K in T lymphocytes of asthmatic rats and the relationship between PI-3K and activation of T lymphocytes, 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, asthmatic one-week group, asthmatic two-week group and asthmatic four-week group. T cells were purified from blood of each rat and the expression of PI-3K was observed by immunocytochemical fluorescence staining, the semiquantitative fluorescence intensity was measured by HPIAS-2000 analytic software, and the expression of IL-4 in supernatants was detected by ELISA. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity of T lymphocytes in asthmatic groups was significantly higher than that in normal control (P<0.001), indicating that the expression of PI-3K in T lymphocytes of asthmatic rats was significantly higher than that in those of normal controls, and the difference between acute and chronic stage asthmatic groups was significant (P<0.05). The expression levels of IL-4 protein in supernatants of asthmatic T lymphocytes were significantly higher than those in the normal controls (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the expression of PI-3K in T lymphocytes and the IL-4 protein expression in supernatants (r=0.583, P<0.01). It was suggested that PI-3K signal pathway may participate in the processes of activation and other cytological effects of asthmatic T lymphocytes, thus may play an important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma.

  18. NETMHCSTAB - predicting stability of peptide-MHC-I complexes; impacts for cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper W.; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren

    2013-01-01

    demonstrated that pMHC-I complex stability was a better correlate of CTL immunogenicity than peptide-MHC-I affinity. We here extended this study and analysed a total of 5509 distinct peptide stability measurements covering 10 different HLA class I molecules. Artificial neural networks were used to construct...... that anchor positions in the N-terminal of the binding motif (primarily P2 and P3) play a critical role for the formation of stable pMHC-I complexes. A webserver implementing the method is available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCstab....

  19. A new theory of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte memory: implications for HIV treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, D; Page, K M; Arnaout, R A

    2000-01-01

    reinfection is only effective in a restricted set of circumstances, we find that resolution of the primary infection requires persistence of CTL precursors (GTLp), as well as a fast rate of activation of the CTLp. Since these are commonly the defining characteristics of CTL memory, we propose that CTL memory...... may have evolved in order to clear the virus during primary challenge. We show experimental data from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice, supporting our theory on CTL memory. We adapt our models to HIV and find that immune impairment during the primary phase of the infection may...

  20. Protection from Ebola Virus Mediated by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for the Viral Nucleoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    be required for optimal protection from Ebola virus. Ebola viruses are associated with outbreaks of highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and...nonhuman primates. The Ebola Zaire viruses responsible for outbreaks of human dis- ease in 1976 and 1995 had case-fatality rates of greater than 80...encoding the Ebola virus NP protein (12, 13) or with a control replicon encoding Lassa virus N (14). For booster vaccinations, animals 2660 VOL

  1. Induction of Bcl-xL-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helle Kiellberg; Andersen, M H; Wandall, H H

    2014-01-01

    -associated epitopes TAYQSFEQV and AFFSFGGAL derived from mouse Bcl-xL. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination induced CD8(+) T cells capable of producing IFN-γ upon restimulation with these epitopes. Thus, our data may benefit the design of future immunotherapy strategies by providing a preclinical model for cancer......-induced dedifferentiation. Identification of novel tumour-associated antigens that at the same time are essential for continued tumour cell survival is thus critical for the development of active cancer vaccinations. At the same time, identification of novel endogenous murine tumour antigens will help improve preclinical...

  2. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated molecule -4 (CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms in ovarian cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Naeimi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer is a relatively common cancer among postmenopausal women. Nowadays, there is controversy about immunotherapy of ovarian cancer patients with interleukins such as interferon to reach better out come in prognosis of patients under chemotherapy. CTLA-4 is a gene, which has an important role in homeostasis and regulation of immune response. Inhibitory nature of CTLA-4 is proved to be of significance in autoimmune diseases as well as in cancer. In this study we intend to find out the relationship between polymorphisms of this gene at the sites of +49 A/G and -318 C/T and ovarian cancer.Methods: The polymorphisms of the CTLA-4 gene at the sites of +49 A/G exon and -318 C/T promoter were investigated. Blood samples of 73 patients with ovarian cancer and 115 healthy subjects used for DNA extraction. Two groups genotypes and alleles were determined using PCR method and compared by statistical t-student test.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in genotypes and alleles prevalence of +49 A/G and -317 C/T between two groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: Further researches with larger sample size while paying attention to the relation between the gene polymorphism and stage and type of tumor is recommended.

  3. FLT3-regulated antigens as targets for leukemia-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brackertz, B; Conrad, H.; Daniel, J.; Kast, B; Krönig, H; Busch, D.H.; Adamski, J.; C Peschel; Bernhard, H

    2011-01-01

    The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Internal tandem duplications (ITD) of the juxtamembrane domain lead to the constitutive activation of the FLT3 kinase inducing the activation of multiple genes, which may result in the expression of leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs). We analyzed the regulation of LAA in FLT3-wild-type (WT)- and FLT3-ITD+ myeloid cells to identify potential targets for antigen-specific immunotherapy for AML patients. A...

  4. Viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte vaccine regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; Wagner, Bettina; Horohov, David W.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2009-01-01

    Effective DNA-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce CTL against conserved viral proteins. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. Although attenuated live EIAV vaccines have induced protective immune responses, DNA-based vaccines have not. In particular, DNA-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing CTL responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. We hypothesized that priming with a codon-optimized plasmid encoding EIAV Gag p15/p26 with co-administration of a plasmid encoding an equine IL-2/IgG fusion protein as a molecular adjuvant, followed by boosting with a vaccinia vector expressing Gag p15/p26, would induce protective Gag-specific CTL responses. Although the regimen induced Gag-specific CTL in four of seven vaccinated horses, CTL were not detected until after the vaccinia boost, and protective effects were not observed in EIAV challenged vaccinates. Unexpectedly, vaccinates had significantly higher viral loads and more severe clinical disease, associated with the presence of vaccine-induced CTL. It was concluded that 1.) further optimization of the timing and route of DNA immunization was needed for efficient CTL priming in vivo, 2.) co-administration of the IL-2/IgG plasmid did not enhance CTL priming by the Gag p15/p26 plasmid, 3.) vaccinia vectors are useful for lentivirus-specific CTL induction in the horse, 4.) Gag-specific CTL alone are either insufficient or a more robust Gag-specific CTL response is needed to limit EIAV viremia and clinical disease, and 5.) CTL-inducing vaccines lacking envelope immunogens can result in lentiviral disease enhancement. Although the mechanisms for enhancement associated with this vaccine regimen remain to be elucidated, these results have important implications for development of lentivirus T cell vaccines. PMID:19368787

  5. Identification and Characterization of Ovarian Carcinoma Peptide Epitopes Recognized by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    β1 and 2 in ovarian carcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res. 5:2498-2505. 23. Toutirais, O., P. Chartier , D. Dubois, F. Bouet, J. Leveque, V. Catros-Quemener...immune surveillance. Cancer Cell 8:369–380 62. Toutirais O, Chartier P, Dubois D, Bouet F, Leveque J, Catros- Quemener V, Genetet N (2003) Constitutive

  6. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa of patients with atypical allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Qiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The prevalence of chronic rhinitis is increasing rapidly; its pathogenesis is to be further understood; immune inflammation is one of the possible causative factors. Antigen specific CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the induction of chronic inflammation. Aims : This study aimed to investigate the role of antigen specific CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of chronic atypical allergic rhinitis. Material and Methods : Nasal mucosal epithelial surface scratching samples were obtained from patients with chronic obstruction atypical allergic rhinitis. Exosomes were purified from the scratching samples and examined by immune gold electron microscopy. The effect of exosomes on modulating dendritic cell′s properties, the effect of exosome-pulsed dendritic cells on naïve T cell differentiation and the antigen specific CD8+ T cell activation were observed by cell culture models. Results : Exosomes purified from patients with chronic atypical allergic rhinitis carried microbial products, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, and airborne antigen, Derp1. Dendritic cells pulsed by SEB/Derp1-carrying exosomes showed high levels of CD80, CD86 and the major histocompatibility class I (MHCI. Exosome-pulsed dendritic cells could induce the naïve CD3+ T cells to differentiate into CD8+ T cells. Upon the exposure to a specific antigen, the CD8+ T cells released granzyme B and perforin; more than 30% antigen specific CD8+ T cells proliferated. Conclusions : Antigen specific CD8+ T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstruction atypical allergic rhinitis.

  7. Glioma-Associated Antigen HEATR1 Induces Functional Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Patients with Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Bao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A2B5+ glioblastoma (GBM cells have glioma stem-like cell (GSC properties that are crucial to chemotherapy resistance and GBM relapse. T-cell-based antigens derived from A2B5+ GBM cells provide important information for immunotherapy. Here, we show that HEAT repeat containing 1 (HEATR1 expression in GBM tissues was significantly higher than that in control brain tissues. Furthermore, HEATR1 expression in A2B5+ U87 cells was higher than that in A2B5−U87 cells (P=0.016. Six peptides of HEATR1 presented by HLA-A*02 were selected for testing of their ability to induce T-cell responses in patients with GBM. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors (n=6 and patients with glioma (n=33 were stimulated with the peptide mixture, eight patients with malignant gliomas had positive reactivity with a significantly increased number of responding T-cells. The peptides HEATR1682–690, HEATR11126–1134, and HEATR1757–765 had high affinity for binding to HLA-A*02:01 and a strong capacity to induce CTL response. CTLs against HEATR1 peptides were capable of recognizing and lysing GBM cells and GSCs. These data are the first to demonstrate that HEATR1 could induce specific CTL responses targeting both GBM cells and GSCs, implicating that HEATR1 peptide-based immunotherapy could be a novel promising strategy for treating patients with GBM.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Ovarian Carcinoma Peptide Epitopes Recognized by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Cryopreserved tumor digest was obtained from the Tissue Procurement Facility at the University of Virginia. The tissue was obtained in an anonymized fashion...amplified. 36 Table 3 Test peptides from TAG used for in vitro CTL priming Class I MHC Binding Proteina Peptide Sequenceb Residue Numbersc Presence

  9. Natural epitope variants of the hepatitis C virus impair cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuping; Wang; Rico; Buchli; Jennifer; Schiller; Jianen; Gao; Rodney; S; VanGundy; William; H; Hildebrand; David; D; Eckels

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To understand how interactions between hepatitis C virus(HCV) and the host's immune system might lead to viral persistence or effective elimination of HCV.METHODS:Nucleotides 3519-3935 of the non-structural 3(NS3) region were amplified by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(PCR).PCR products of the HCV NS3 regions were integrated into a PCR T7TOPO TA vector and then sequenced in both directions using an automated DNA sequencer.Relative major histocompatibility complex binding levels ...

  10. Prediction and identification of mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in Ebola virus glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shipo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola viruses (EBOVs cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. At present, there are no licensed vaccines or efficient therapies to combat EBOV infection. Previous studies have shown that both humoral and cellular immune responses are crucial for controlling Ebola infection. CD8+ T cells play an important role in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity. The objective of this study was to identify H-2d-specific T cell epitopes in EBOV glycoproteins (GPs. Results Computer-assisted algorithms were used to predict H-2d-specific T cell epitopes in two species of EBOV (Sudan and Zaire GP. The predicted peptides were synthesized and identified in BALB/c mice immunized with replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing the EBOV GP. Enzyme-linked immunospot assays and intracellular cytokine staining showed that the peptides RPHTPQFLF (Sudan EBOV, GPCAGDFAF and LYDRLASTV (Zaire EBOV could stimulate splenoctyes in immunized mice to produce large amounts of interferon-gamma. Conclusion Three peptides within the GPs of two EBOV strains were identified as T cell epitopes. The identification of these epitopes should facilitate the evaluation of vaccines based on the Ebola virus glycoprotein in a BALB/c mouse model.

  11. The Importance of the Nurse Cells and Regulatory Cells in the Control of T Lymphocyte Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Reyes García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes from the immune system are bone marrow-derived cells whose development and activities are carefully supervised by two sets of accessory cells. In the thymus, the immature young T lymphocytes are engulfed by epithelial “nurse cells” and retained in vacuoles, where most of them (95% are negatively selected and removed when they have an incomplete development or express high affinity autoreactive receptors. The mature T lymphocytes that survive to this selection process leave the thymus and are controlled in the periphery by another subpopulation of accessory cells called “regulatory cells,” which reduce any excessive immune response and the risk of collateral injuries to healthy tissues. By different times and procedures, nurse cells and regulatory cells control both the development and the functions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Disorders in the T lymphocytes development and migration have been observed in some parasitic diseases, which disrupt the thymic microenvironment of nurse cells. In other cases, parasites stimulate rather than depress the functions of regulatory T cells decreasing T-mediated host damages. This paper is a short review regarding some features of these accessory cells and their main interactions with T immature and mature lymphocytes. The modulatory role that neurotransmitters and hormones play in these interactions is also revised.

  12. Active phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra) by T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Qi; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Ma, Lei; Yang, Yining; Feng, Dongyun; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Kang, Tao; Chen, Ping; He, Ying; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhi, Jin; Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to co-culture Jurkat T lymphocytes with inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb H37Ra), explore whether T lymphocytes could phagocytose H37Ra cells, and determine the underlying mechanism. Jurkat T lymphocytes were co-cultured with H37Ra cells, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry techniques were used to identify phagocytosis and elucidate its mechanism. After Jurkat T lymphocytes phagocytosed H37Ra cells, the cell body became larger, with abundant cytoplasm, the portion of the nucleus closest to the bacterium deformed, long and short pseudopodia were extended, and the folds of the cell membrane formed depressions that created phagocytic vesicles surrounding the bacterium. The macropinocytosis inhibitor amiloride and the cytoskeletal inhibitor cytochalasin D were found to inhibit phagocytic efficacy; serum complements might enhance phagocytosis through opsonization. Jurkat T lymphocytes could actively phagocytose inactivated Mtb via the macropinocytotic mechanism. Actin remodeling played an important role in the macropinocytotic process. Serum complements may regulate phagocytosis.

  13. T lymphocyte migration: an action movie starring the actin and associated actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc eDupré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a dynamic filament meshwork that builds the architecture of the cell to sustain its fundamental properties. This physical structure is characterized by a continuous remodeling, which allows cells to accomplish complex motility steps such as directed migration, crossing of biological barriers and interaction with other cells. T lymphocytes excel in these motility steps to ensure their immune surveillance duties. In particular, actin cytoskeleton remodeling is key to facilitate the journey of T lymphocytes through distinct tissue environments and to tune their stop and go behavior during the scanning of antigen-presenting cells. The molecular mechanisms controlling actin cytoskeleton remodeling during T lymphocyte motility have been only partially unraveled, since the function of many actin regulators has not yet been assessed in these cells. Our review aims to integrate the current knowledge into a comprehensive picture of how the actin cytoskeleton drives T lymphocyte migration. We will present the molecular actors that control actin cytoskeleton remodeling, as well as their role in the different T lymphocyte motile steps. We will also highlight which challenges remain to be addressed experimentally and which approaches appear promising to tackle them.

  14. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA mediates integrin LFA-1 de-adhesion during T lymphocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nicole A; Oakes, Patrick W; Hyun, Young-Min; Lee, Dooyoung; Chin, Y Eugene; Chin, Eugene Y; King, Michael R; Springer, Timothy A; Shimaoka, Motomu; Tang, Jay X; Reichner, Jonathan S; Kim, Minsoo

    2008-01-21

    Precise spatial and temporal regulation of cell adhesion and de-adhesion is critical for dynamic lymphocyte migration. Although a great deal of information has been learned about integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 adhesion, the mechanism that regulates efficient LFA-1 de-adhesion from intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 during T lymphocyte migration is unknown. Here, we show that nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MyH9) is recruited to LFA-1 at the uropod of migrating T lymphocytes, and inhibition of the association of MyH9 with LFA-1 results in extreme uropod elongation, defective tail detachment, and decreased lymphocyte migration on ICAM-1, without affecting LFA-1 activation by chemokine CXCL-12. This defect was reversed by a small molecule antagonist that inhibits both LFA-1 affinity and avidity regulation, but not by an antagonist that inhibits only affinity regulation. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of the contact zone between migrating T lymphocytes and ICAM-1 substrate revealed that inactive LFA-1 is selectively localized to the posterior of polarized T lymphocytes, whereas active LFA-1 is localized to their anterior. Thus, during T lymphocyte migration, uropodal adhesion depends on LFA-1 avidity, where MyH9 serves as a key mechanical link between LFA-1 and the cytoskeleton that is critical for LFA-1 de-adhesion.

  15. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yong; LI; Ming-chun; FU; Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation. Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n = 10), they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad), normal control animals (Ctr), and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN). Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60 Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively. Before radiation, the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL), whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline. The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen. The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes, which were isolated from the spleen, were determined by Trypan blue staining. Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured. Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes, associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions, and elevated NO production. Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production, and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above. Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  16. Mutant Huntingtin Does Not Affect the Intrinsic Phenotype of Human Huntington's Disease T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R C; Träger, Ulrike; Andre, Ralph; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The peripheral innate immune system is dysregulated in Huntington's disease and may contribute to its pathogenesis. However, it is not clear whether or to what extent the adaptive immune system is also involved. Here, we carry out the first comprehensive investigation of human ex vivo T lymphocytes in Huntington's disease, focusing on the frequency of a range of T lymphocyte subsets, as well as analysis of proliferation, cytokine production and gene transcription. In contrast to the innate immune system, the intrinsic phenotype of T lymphocytes does not appear to be affected by the presence of mutant huntingtin, with Huntington's disease T lymphocytes exhibiting no significant functional differences compared to control cells. The transcriptional profile of T lymphocytes also does not appear to be significantly affected, suggesting that peripheral immune dysfunction in Huntington's disease is likely to be mediated primarily by the innate rather than the adaptive immune system. This study increases our understanding of the effects of Huntington's disease on peripheral tissues, while further demonstrating the differential effects of the mutant protein on different but related cell types. Finally, this study suggests that the potential use of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating the Huntington's disease innate immune system should not be extended to include the adaptive immune system.

  17. Mutant Huntingtin Does Not Affect the Intrinsic Phenotype of Human Huntington's Disease T Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R C Miller

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The peripheral innate immune system is dysregulated in Huntington's disease and may contribute to its pathogenesis. However, it is not clear whether or to what extent the adaptive immune system is also involved. Here, we carry out the first comprehensive investigation of human ex vivo T lymphocytes in Huntington's disease, focusing on the frequency of a range of T lymphocyte subsets, as well as analysis of proliferation, cytokine production and gene transcription. In contrast to the innate immune system, the intrinsic phenotype of T lymphocytes does not appear to be affected by the presence of mutant huntingtin, with Huntington's disease T lymphocytes exhibiting no significant functional differences compared to control cells. The transcriptional profile of T lymphocytes also does not appear to be significantly affected, suggesting that peripheral immune dysfunction in Huntington's disease is likely to be mediated primarily by the innate rather than the adaptive immune system. This study increases our understanding of the effects of Huntington's disease on peripheral tissues, while further demonstrating the differential effects of the mutant protein on different but related cell types. Finally, this study suggests that the potential use of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating the Huntington's disease innate immune system should not be extended to include the adaptive immune system.

  18. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; LI Ming-chun; FU Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation.Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n =10),they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad),normal control animals (Ctr),and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN).Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively.Before radiation,the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL),whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline.The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen.The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes,which were isolated from the spleen,were determined by Trypan blue staining.Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured.Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes,associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions,and elevated NO production.Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production,and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above.Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  19. Emerging roles of L-type voltage gated and other calcium channels in T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah eBadou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In T lymphocytes, calcium ion controls a variety of biological processes including development, survival, proliferation, and effector functions. These distinct and specific roles are regulated by different calcium signals, which are generated by various plasma membrane calcium channels. The repertoire of calcium-conducting proteins in T lymphocytes includes store-operated CRAC channels, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, P2X channels, and L-type voltage-gated calcium (Cav1 channels. In this paper, we will focus mainly on the role of the Cav1 channels found expressed by T lymphocytes, where these channels appear to operate in a TCR stimulation-dependent and voltage-sensor independent manner. We will review their expression profile at various differentiation stages of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Then, we will present crucial genetic evidence in favor of a role of these Cav1 channels and related regulatory proteins in both CD4 and CD8 T cell functions such as proliferation, survival, cytokine production and cytolysis. Finally, we will provide evidence and speculate on how these voltage-gated channels might function in the T lymphocyte, a non-excitable cell.

  20. A mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics derived from single transmembrane protein properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dorothee Schmeitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fate decision processes of T lymphocytes are crucial for health and disease. Whether a T lymphocyte is activated, divides, gets anergic or initiates apoptosis depends on extracellular triggers and intracellular signalling. Free cytosolic calcium dynamics plays an important role in this context. The relative contributions of store-derived calcium entry and calcium entry from extracellular space to T lymphocyte activation are still a matter of debate. Here we develop a quantitative mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics in order to establish a tool which allows to disentangle cause-effect relationships between ion fluxes and observed calcium time courses. The model is based on single transmembrane protein characteristics which have been determined in independent experiments. This reduces the number of unknown parameters in the model to a minimum and ensures the predictive power of the model. Simulation results are subsequently used for an analysis of whole cell calcium dynamics measured under various experimental conditions. The model accounts for a variety of these conditions, which supports the suitability of the modelling approach. The simulation results suggest a model in which calcium dynamics dominantly relies on the opening of channels in calcium stores while calcium entry through calcium-release activated channels (CRAC is more associated with the maintenance of the T lymphocyte calcium levels and prevents the cell from calcium depletion. Our findings indicate that CRAC guarantees a long-term stable calcium level which is required for cell survival and sustained calcium enhancement.

  1. Signal Transduction in Primary Human T Lymphocytes in Altered Gravity During Parabolic Flight and Clinostat Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svantje Tauber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several limiting factors for human health and performance in microgravity have been clearly identified arising from the immune system, and substantial research activities are required in order to provide the basic information for appropriate integrated risk management. The gravity-sensitive nature of cells of the immune system renders them an ideal biological model in search for general gravity-sensitive mechanisms and to understand how the architecture and function of human cells is related to the gravitational force and therefore adapted to life on Earth. Methods: We investigated the influence of altered gravity in parabolic flight and 2D clinostat experiments on key proteins of activation and signaling in primary T lymphocytes. We quantified components of the signaling cascade 1. in non-activated T lymphocytes to assess the “basal status” of the cascade and 2. in the process of activation to assess the signal transduction. Results: We found a rapid decrease of CD3 and IL-2R surface expression and reduced p-LAT after 20 seconds of altered gravity in non-activated primary T lymphocytes during parabolic flight. Furthermore, we observed decreased CD3 surface expression, reduced ZAP-70 abundance and increased histone H3-acetylation in activated T lymphocytes after 5 minutes of clinorotation and a transient downregulation of CD3 and stable downregulation of IL-2R during 60 minutes of clinorotation. Conclusion: CD3 and IL-2R are downregulated in primary T lymphocytes in altered gravity. We assume that a gravity condition around 1g is required for the expression of key surface receptors and appropriate regulation of signal molecules in T lymphocytes.

  2. Signal transduction in primary human T lymphocytes in altered gravity during parabolic flight and clinostat experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Svantje; Hauschild, Swantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Gutewort, Annett; Raig, Christiane; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Pantaleo, Antonella; Cogoli, Augusto; Pippia, Proto; Layer, Liliana E; Thiel, Cora S; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Several limiting factors for human health and performance in microgravity have been clearly identified arising from the immune system, and substantial research activities are required in order to provide the basic information for appropriate integrated risk management. The gravity-sensitive nature of cells of the immune system renders them an ideal biological model in search for general gravity-sensitive mechanisms and to understand how the architecture and function of human cells is related to the gravitational force and therefore adapted to life on Earth. We investigated the influence of altered gravity in parabolic flight and 2D clinostat experiments on key proteins of activation and signaling in primary T lymphocytes. We quantified components of the signaling cascade 1.) in non-activated T lymphocytes to assess the "basal status" of the cascade and 2.) in the process of activation to assess the signal transduction. We found a rapid decrease of CD3 and IL-2R surface expression and reduced p-LAT after 20 seconds of altered gravity in non-activated primary T lymphocytes during parabolic flight. Furthermore, we observed decreased CD3 surface expression, reduced ZAP-70 abundance and increased histone H3-acetylation in activated T lymphocytes after 5 minutes of clinorotation and a transient downregulation of CD3 and stable downregulation of IL-2R during 60 minutes of clinorotation. CD3 and IL-2R are downregulated in primary T lymphocytes in altered gravity. We assume that a gravity condition around 1g is required for the expression of key surface receptors and appropriate regulation of signal molecules in T lymphocytes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Input control Blood CD8-Positive T...-Lymphocytes SRX183914,SRX1142249,SRX183915,SRX1142310,SRX1142246,SRX1142313 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Input control Blood CD8-Positive T...-Lymphocytes SRX183915,SRX183914,SRX1142249,SRX1142310,SRX1142246,SRX1142313 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Input control Blood CD8-Positive T...-Lymphocytes SRX1142249,SRX183914,SRX1142246,SRX183915,SRX1142310,SRX1142313 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Input control Blood CD8-Positive T...-Lymphocytes SRX183915,SRX183914,SRX1142246,SRX1142249,SRX1142310,SRX1142313 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  7. MHC and non-MHC genes regulate elimination of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity mediating T lymphocyte activity in parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1989-01-01

    The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion, indicat......The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion...

  8. Fas and Bcl-2 Expression on T Lymphocyte Subsets in the Peripheral Blood of Relapsing Patients with Condyloma Acuminatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾军; 范清源; 高春芳; 代夫; 郑茂荣

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins on T lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of relapsing patients with condyloma acuminatum(CA) and healthy controls.Methods: Flow cytometry (permeabization and staining procedure with conjugated antibodies) was used.Results: We observed that the expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T lymphocyte subset of CA patients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls( P<0.01 ).Conclusions: Increased expression of Fas proteinon CD4+ T lymphocyte subset may be a cause of de-creased percentage of CD4+ T lymphocyte subset. This induces the increased ratio of CD4+/CD8+.

  9. In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karen; C Mogensen, Søren; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    -chain studies by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that all T lymphocytes had access to the skin compartment. Single-stranded conformational analysis showed clonally expanded T cells numbering between 40 and 60 clones. After approximately 2 months of growth, the mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio...

  10. Catastrophic NAD+ depletion in activated T lymphocytes through Nampt inhibition reduces demyelination and disability in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Fruscione, Floriana; Morando, Sara; Ferrando, Tiziana; Poggi, Alessandro; Garuti, Anna; D'Urso, Agustina; Selmo, Martina; Benvenuto, Federica; Cea, Michele; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Moran, Eva; Soncini, Debora; Ballestrero, Alberto; Sordat, Bernard; Patrone, Franco; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Uccelli, Antonio; Nencioni, Alessio

    2009-11-19

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) inhibitors such as FK866 are potent inhibitors of NAD(+) synthesis that show promise for the treatment of different forms of cancer. Based on Nampt upregulation in activated T lymphocytes and on preliminary reports of lymphopenia in FK866 treated patients, we have investigated FK866 for its capacity to interfere with T lymphocyte function and survival. Intracellular pyridine nucleotides, ATP, mitochondrial function, viability, proliferation, activation markers and cytokine secretion were assessed in resting and in activated human T lymphocytes. In addition, we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of T-cell mediated autoimmune disease to assess FK866 efficacy in vivo. We show that activated, but not resting, T lymphocytes undergo massive NAD(+) depletion upon FK866-mediated Nampt inhibition. As a consequence, impaired proliferation, reduced IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production, and finally autophagic cell demise result. We demonstrate that upregulation of the NAD(+)-degrading enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) by activated T cells enhances their susceptibility to NAD(+) depletion. In addition, we relate defective IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production in response to FK866 to impaired Sirt6 activity. Finally, we show that FK866 strikingly reduces the neurological damage and the clinical manifestations of EAE. In conclusion, Nampt inhibitors (and possibly Sirt6 inhibitors) could be used to modulate T cell-mediated immune responses and thereby be beneficial in immune-mediated disorders.

  11. Microfluidics for T- lymphocyte cell separation and inflammation monitoring in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Alan E; Koria, Piyush; Goverman, Jeremy; Kotz, Kenneth T; Gupta, Amit; Yu, Ming; Fagan, Shawn P; Irimia, Daniel; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2011-02-01

    Severe burns result in T lymphocyte specific immunologic changes. In addition to decreased levels of circulating lymphocytes, changes in cytokine secretion and receptor expression also take place. Our finer understanding of the inflammatory response has led to the development of immune-targeted therapeutics, requiring specialized gene-expression monitoring. The emerging field of bio-micro-electromechanical systems can be used to isolate highly pure T lymphocytes in a clinically relevant and timely manner for downstream genomic analysis. Blood samples from healthy volunteers and burn-injured patients were introduced into microfluidic devices developed in our laboratory. Utilizing cell-affinity chromatography for positive selection of T lymphocytes, the devices served as a platform for RNA extraction and downstream cytokine analysis via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From a 0.5-mL whole blood sample, the microfluidic devices captured highly pure T lymphocytes from healthy volunteers and burn-injured patients. Cell capture was of sufficient quantity, and extracted RNA was of sufficient quality, for evaluating the gene expression of cytokines: interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10. Microfluidics is a useful tool in processing blood from burn-injured patients. Though in its very early stages of development, cell-specific information obtained by this platform/technology will likely be an important component of near-patient molecular diagnostics and personalized medicine.

  12. Expression of CD45RB functionally distinguishes intestinal T lymphocytes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, T. ten; The Olle, F.; Berkhout, M.; Bruggeman, J.P.; Vyth-Dreese, F.A.; Slors, J.F.M.; Deventer, S.J.H. van; Velde, A.A. te

    2004-01-01

    The importance of CD45RB expression on T cells was already shown in mice where CD45RB(high) expression determines pathogenic potential. In this study, we analyzed the expression of CD45RA, CD45RB, and CD45RO on CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa and in the circulation of patients with inf

  13. T Lymphocyte Maturation Is Impaired in Healthy Young Individuals Carrying Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzarotti, Laura; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelletti, Eleonora; Boldrighini, Benedetta; Piacentini, Luca; Duca, Piergiorgio; Beretta, Silvia; Pacei, Michela; Caprio, Cristiana; Vigano, Alessandra; di Natale, Berardo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is…

  14. ALS patients’ regulatory T lymphocytes are dysfunctional, and correlate with disease progression rate and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, David R.; Zhao, Weihua; Wang, Jinghong; Zhang, Xiujun; Wen, Shixiang; Neal, Dan; Thonhoff, Jason R.; Alsuliman, Abdullah S.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Rezvani, Katy

    2017-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of ALS in both transgenic rodent models and patients, and is characterized by proinflammatory T lymphocytes and activated macrophages/microglia. In ALS mouse models, decreased regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) exacerbate the neuroinflammatory process, leading to accelerated motoneuron death and shortened survival; passive transfer of Tregs suppresses the neuroinflammation and prolongs survival. Treg numbers and FOXP3 expression are also decreased in rapidly progressing ALS patients. A key question is whether the marked neuroinflammation in ALS can be attributed to the impaired suppressive function of ALS Tregs in addition to their decreased numbers. To address this question, T lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed. Compared with control Tregs, ALS Tregs were less effective in suppressing responder T lymphocyte proliferation. Although both slowly and rapidly progressing ALS patients had dysfunctional Tregs, the greater the clinically assessed disease burden or the more rapidly progressing the patient, the greater the Treg dysfunction. Epigenetically, the percentage methylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region was greater in ALS Tregs. After in vitro expansion, ALS Tregs regained suppressive abilities to the levels of control Tregs, suggesting that autologous passive transfer of expanded Tregs might offer a novel cellular therapy to slow disease progression. PMID:28289705

  15. Profound peripheral T-lymphocyte depletion and activation in disseminated tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silva Rodrigues

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Three HIV-1-seronegative patients with disseminated tuberculosis presented significant depletion of T-cell counts, in CD4+ and/or CD8+ cells, associated with increased expression of activation marker CD38 on CD8+ T-lymphocytes. This finding raises the question of potential mechanisms involved in the activation or loss of T-cells in disseminated tuberculosis.

  16. Effects of Immunopotentiator of the Traditional Chinese Medicine on T Lymphocytes in Chicken Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qiumei; LI Chunling; GAO Guisheng; SHEN Ping; TANG Shengling

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of action of immunoenhancer, the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine immunopromoter on the quantity and the transformation rates of T lymphocytes in the chicken blood were determined. Total 120 chickens were randomly assigned into three groups. The 1% and the 0.5% of the Chinese medicine immunopromoter were added to the chicken drinking water, respectively. The quantity of T lymphocytes in each group was measured by a-Naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining. The results showed that the percentages of T lymphocytes of the treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05), and the percentage of the 1% group significantly higher than that of the 0.5% group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the transformation rates of T lymphocytes showed that the Chinese medicine immunopromoter had the significant enhancing effect on the transformation rates of T lymphoeytes of the treated chickens. The traditional Chinese medicine immunopromoter had the distinct function to promote the quantity and the transformation rate of T iymphocytes.

  17. Vpr Promotes Macrophage-Dependent HIV-1 Infection of CD4+ T Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Collins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vpr is a conserved primate lentiviral protein that promotes infection of T lymphocytes in vivo by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that Vpr and its cellular co-factor, DCAF1, are necessary for efficient cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 from macrophages to CD4+ T lymphocytes when there is inadequate cell-free virus to support direct T lymphocyte infection. Remarkably, Vpr functioned to counteract a macrophage-specific intrinsic antiviral pathway that targeted Env-containing virions to LAMP1+ lysosomal compartments. This restriction of Env also impaired virological synapses formed through interactions between HIV-1 Env on infected macrophages and CD4 on T lymphocytes. Treatment of infected macrophages with exogenous interferon-alpha induced virion degradation and blocked synapse formation, overcoming the effects of Vpr. These results provide a mechanism that helps explain the in vivo requirement for Vpr and suggests that a macrophage-dependent stage of HIV-1 infection drives the evolutionary conservation of Vpr.

  18. Lamprey buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 inhibits human T lymphocyte proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing SUN, Shuiyan YU, Zhuang XUE, Cenjie LIU, Yu WU, Xin LIU, Qingwei LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamprey is a representative of the agnathans, the most ancient class of vertebrates. Parasitic lampreys secrete anticoagulant from their buccal glands and prevent blood coagulation of host fishes. We identified a buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 from a buccal gland cDNA library of Lampetra japonica. The full-length BGSP-2 gene was cloned and the recombinant BGSP-2 protein was generated. The role of BGSP-2 on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by examining its effects on human T lymphocytes. We found that lamprey BGSP-2 was able to effectively block the proliferation of T cells in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA at a minimum concentration of 0.1μg/ml. Our data suggest that lamprey BGSP-2 is able to block the mitosis of human T lymphocytes at the G1/S point, and has the potential of anti-proliferative effect on PHA-activated T lymphocytes [Current Zoology 56 (2: 252–258, 2010].

  19. N-(4-F-18-Fluorobenzoyl)Interleukin-2 for PET of Human-Activated T Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; De Vries, Erik F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) binds with high affinity to the IL2 receptors overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes in various pathologic conditions. Radiolabeling of IL2 with a positron-emitting isotope could provide a tool for noninvasive PET of activated T cells in immune-mediated diseases. We report the

  20. T Lymphocyte Maturation Is Impaired in Healthy Young Individuals Carrying Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzarotti, Laura; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelletti, Eleonora; Boldrighini, Benedetta; Piacentini, Luca; Duca, Piergiorgio; Beretta, Silvia; Pacei, Michela; Caprio, Cristiana; Vigano, Alessandra; di Natale, Berardo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is…

  1. Catastrophic NAD+ Depletion in Activated T Lymphocytes through Nampt Inhibition Reduces Demyelination and Disability in EAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Tiziana; Poggi, Alessandro; Garuti, Anna; D'Urso, Agustina; Selmo, Martina; Benvenuto, Federica; Cea, Michele; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Moran, Eva; Soncini, Debora; Ballestrero, Alberto; Sordat, Bernard; Patrone, Franco; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Uccelli, Antonio; Nencioni, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) inhibitors such as FK866 are potent inhibitors of NAD+ synthesis that show promise for the treatment of different forms of cancer. Based on Nampt upregulation in activated T lymphocytes and on preliminary reports of lymphopenia in FK866 treated patients, we have investigated FK866 for its capacity to interfere with T lymphocyte function and survival. Intracellular pyridine nucleotides, ATP, mitochondrial function, viability, proliferation, activation markers and cytokine secretion were assessed in resting and in activated human T lymphocytes. In addition, we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of T-cell mediated autoimmune disease to assess FK866 efficacy in vivo. We show that activated, but not resting, T lymphocytes undergo massive NAD+ depletion upon FK866-mediated Nampt inhibition. As a consequence, impaired proliferation, reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, and finally autophagic cell demise result. We demonstrate that upregulation of the NAD+-degrading enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) by activated T cells enhances their susceptibility to NAD+ depletion. In addition, we relate defective IFN-γ and TNF-α production in response to FK866 to impaired Sirt6 activity. Finally, we show that FK866 strikingly reduces the neurological damage and the clinical manifestations of EAE. In conclusion, Nampt inhibitors (and possibly Sirt6 inhibitors) could be used to modulate T cell-mediated immune responses and thereby be beneficial in immune-mediated disorders. PMID:19936064

  2. High-Efficiency Transfection of Primary Human and Mouse T Lymphocytes Using RNA Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yangbing; Zheng, Zhili; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Gattinoni, Luca; Palmer, Douglas C.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of nonviral gene transfer methods in primary lymphocytes has been hampered by low gene transfer efficiency and high transfection-related toxicity. In this report, high gene transfection efficiency with low transfection-related toxicity was achieved by electroporation using in vitro-transcribed mRNA. Using these methods, >90% transgene expression with >80% viable cells was observed in stimulated primary human and murine T lymphocytes transfected with GFP or mCD62L. Electroporation of unstimulated human PBMCs or murine splenocytes with GFP RNA yielded 95 and 56% GFP+ cells, respectively. Electroporation of mRNA for NY-ESO-1, MART-1, and p53 antigen-specific TCRs into human T lymphocytes redirected these lymphocytes to recognize melanoma cell lines in an MHC-restricted manner. The onset of gene expression was rapid (within 30 min) and durable (up to 7 days postelectroporation) using both GFP and TCR-mediated recognition of target cells. There was no adverse effect observed on the T lymphocytes subjected to RNA electroporation evaluated by cell growth rate, annexin-V staining of apoptotic cells, BrdU incorporation, tumor antigen-specific recognition or antigen-specific TCR affinity. The results of this study indicate that mRNA electroporation provides a powerful tool to introduce genes into both human and murine primary T lymphocytes. PMID:16140584

  3. Activation Effects of Polysaccharides of Flammulina velutipes Mycorrhizae on the T Lymphocyte Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Fei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae have increasingly been produced with increasing of F. velutipes production. A mouse model was thus used to examine potential effect of F. velutipes mycorrhizae on the immune function. Fifty female Wistar mice (5-weeks-old weighed 15–20 g were randomly allocated into five groups. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae were treated with mice and mice spleen lymphocytes. The levels of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocyte, interleukin-2 (IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α were determined. The results showed that the proportions of CD3+, and CD4+ T lymphocyte, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+, and the levels of IL-2 and TNF-a were significantly increased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae, while the proportion of CD8+ T lymphocyte was decreased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae-dose dependent manner. Our findings indicated that a long term exposure of polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae could activate the T lymphocyte immune function. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae was expected to develop into the immune health products.

  4. Activation effects of polysaccharides of Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae on the T lymphocyte immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Nai-Xu; Mao, Xin-Xin; Li, Yu; Li, Chang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae have increasingly been produced with increasing of F. velutipes production. A mouse model was thus used to examine potential effect of F. velutipes mycorrhizae on the immune function. Fifty female Wistar mice (5-weeks-old) weighed 15-20 g were randomly allocated into five groups. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae were treated with mice and mice spleen lymphocytes. The levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T lymphocyte, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) were determined. The results showed that the proportions of CD3(+), and CD4(+) T lymphocyte, the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+), and the levels of IL-2 and TNF-a were significantly increased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae, while the proportion of CD8(+) T lymphocyte was decreased in polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae-dose dependent manner. Our findings indicated that a long term exposure of polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae could activate the T lymphocyte immune function. Polysaccharide of F. velutipes mycorrhizae was expected to develop into the immune health products.

  5. Catastrophic NAD+ depletion in activated T lymphocytes through Nampt inhibition reduces demyelination and disability in EAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santina Bruzzone

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt inhibitors such as FK866 are potent inhibitors of NAD(+ synthesis that show promise for the treatment of different forms of cancer. Based on Nampt upregulation in activated T lymphocytes and on preliminary reports of lymphopenia in FK866 treated patients, we have investigated FK866 for its capacity to interfere with T lymphocyte function and survival. Intracellular pyridine nucleotides, ATP, mitochondrial function, viability, proliferation, activation markers and cytokine secretion were assessed in resting and in activated human T lymphocytes. In addition, we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE as a model of T-cell mediated autoimmune disease to assess FK866 efficacy in vivo. We show that activated, but not resting, T lymphocytes undergo massive NAD(+ depletion upon FK866-mediated Nampt inhibition. As a consequence, impaired proliferation, reduced IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production, and finally autophagic cell demise result. We demonstrate that upregulation of the NAD(+-degrading enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP by activated T cells enhances their susceptibility to NAD(+ depletion. In addition, we relate defective IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production in response to FK866 to impaired Sirt6 activity. Finally, we show that FK866 strikingly reduces the neurological damage and the clinical manifestations of EAE. In conclusion, Nampt inhibitors (and possibly Sirt6 inhibitors could be used to modulate T cell-mediated immune responses and thereby be beneficial in immune-mediated disorders.

  6. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Nancy Y; Wasserfall, Clive H; Meacham, Amy M; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-06-11

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2Rα, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens.

  7. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 TFs and others Blood CD4-Positive T...83,SRX015582,SRX385474 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood CD4-Positive ...RX017706 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Histone Blood CD4-Positive T-Lympho...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 All antigens Blood CD4-Positive T-L...SRX832476,SRX832474,SRX832478,SRX832479,SRX832475 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood CD8-Positive ...31872 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 No description Blood CD4-Positive ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Unclassified Blood CD4-Positive T-L...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 RNA polymerase Blood CD4-Positive ...17718,SRX103447,SRX017719,SRX012401,SRX018611,SRX018610,SRX017717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Histone Blood CD8-Positive T-Lympho...,SRX994939,SRX994935 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood CD8-Positive ...31872 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 No description Blood CD4-Positive ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Unclassified Blood CD8-Positive T-L...ymphocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 TFs and others Blood CD8-Positive T...SRX338036,SRX437451,SRX278098,SRX077029,SRX338034 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Unclassified Blood CD8-Positive T-L...ymphocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Input control Blood CD4-Positive T...X331854,SRX1142311,SRX032597,SRX017708,SRX017707 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 All antigens Blood CD4-Positive T-...16 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 No description Blood CD4-Positive ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 DNase-seq Blood CD8-Positive T-Lym...phocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Unclassified Blood CD8-Positive T-L...ymphocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 TFs and others Blood CD8-Positive T...SRX338024,SRX039482,SRX338025,SRX338035,SRX338034 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 DNase-seq Blood CD4-Positive T-Lym...phocytes SRX189402,SRX189431 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Input control Blood CD8-Positive T-...7467,SRX338038,SRX278099,SRX083254,SRX338027,SRX338037,SRX338026 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood CD8-Positive ...31875 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 All antigens Blood CD8-Positive T-L...935,SRX338026,SRX338034 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Histone Blood CD4-Positive T-Lymph...3,SRX017715,SRX017716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood CD4-Positive ...RX017704 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 All antigens Blood CD4-Positive T-...99 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Histone Blood CD4-Positive T-Lymph...6,SRX017715,SRX017712 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Histone Blood CD4-Positive T-Lympho...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.10.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Histone Blood CD8-Positive T-Lympho...,SRX994939,SRX994935 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Histone Blood CD8-Positive T-Lymph...8,SRX005386,SRX005384,SRX005383,SRX005385,SRX005387 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 TFs and others Blood CD8-Positive T...SRX077029,SRX039482,SRX338025,SRX278098,SRX338034 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes mm9 Input control Blood CD8-Positive T-...7466,SRX338038,SRX278099,SRX083254,SRX338027,SRX338037,SRX338026 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood CD8-Positive ...31872 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Input control Blood CD4-Positive T...X1142311,SRX017708,SRX017707,SRX331854,SRX183916 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 DNase-seq Blood CD8-Positive T-Lym...phocytes http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.CD8-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes hg19 Unclassified Blood CD4-Positive T-...,SRX019003,SRX609004,SRX1161717,SRX019005,SRX019001,SRX019004 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.CD4-Positive_T-Lymphocytes.bed ...