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Sample records for cytological techniques

  1. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  2. Impression Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Söker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed.

  3. Comparison of the cytology technique and the frozen section results in intraoperative consultation of the breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Haeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The cytology study is effective and reliable technique in intraoperative consultation. This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the cytology study in intraoperative consultation of the breast lesions. 125 specimens of the breast lesions were examined and studied in Imam Khomeini Hospital during the years 1998-99. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for cytological method were 87.5% , 95%, 90.5% and for the frozen section 92.4%, 100% and 95.4% respectively. The false positive reports were 2% in the cytology technique and the most important source of error and false postivie reports was fibroadenoma in this method. By reviewing the results. It could be concluded that combination of these two techniques is beneficial and more reliable in intraoperative consultation resports of the breast lesions

  4. Cytological techniques to analyze meiosis in Arabidopsis arenosa for investigating adaptation to polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D; Wright, Kevin M; Bomblies, Kirsten; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis arenosa is a close relative of the model plant A. thaliana, and exists in nature as stable diploid and autotetraploid populations. Natural tetraploids have adapted to whole genome duplication and do not commonly show meiotic errors such as multivalent and univalent formation, which can lead to chromosome non-disjunction and reduced fertility. A genome scan for genes strongly differentiated between diploid and autotetraploid A. arenosa identified a subset of meiotic genes that may be responsible for adaptation to polyploid meiosis. To investigate the mechanisms by which A. arenosa adapted to its polyploid state, and the functionality of the identified potentially adaptive polymorphisms, a thorough cytological analysis is required. Therefore, in this chapter we describe methods and techniques to analyze male meiosis in A. arenosa, including optimum plant growth conditions, and immunocytological and cytological approaches developed with the specific purpose of understanding meiotic adaptation in an autotetraploid. In addition we present a meiotic cytological atlas to be used as a reference for particular stages and discuss observations arising from a comparison of meiosis between diploid and autotetraploid A. arenosa.

  5. Cytological techniques to analyze meiosis in Arabidopsis arenosa for investigating adaptation to polyploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D.; Wright, Kevin M.; Bomblies, Kirsten; Franklin, F. Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis arenosa is a close relative of the model plant A. thaliana, and exists in nature as stable diploid and autotetraploid populations. Natural tetraploids have adapted to whole genome duplication and do not commonly show meiotic errors such as multivalent and univalent formation, which can lead to chromosome non-disjunction and reduced fertility. A genome scan for genes strongly differentiated between diploid and autotetraploid A. arenosa identified a subset of meiotic genes that may be responsible for adaptation to polyploid meiosis. To investigate the mechanisms by which A. arenosa adapted to its polyploid state, and the functionality of the identified potentially adaptive polymorphisms, a thorough cytological analysis is required. Therefore, in this chapter we describe methods and techniques to analyze male meiosis in A. arenosa, including optimum plant growth conditions, and immunocytological and cytological approaches developed with the specific purpose of understanding meiotic adaptation in an autotetraploid. In addition we present a meiotic cytological atlas to be used as a reference for particular stages and discuss observations arising from a comparison of meiosis between diploid and autotetraploid A. arenosa. PMID:24427164

  6. Cytological techniques to analyze meiosis in Arabidopsis arenosa for investigating adaptation to polyploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Higgins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis arenosa is a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and exists in nature as stable diploid and autotetraploid populations. Natural tetraploids have adapted to whole genome duplication and do not commonly show meiotic errors such as multivalent and univalent formation, which can lead to chromosome non-disjunction and reduced fertility. A genome scan for genes strongly differentiated between diploid and autotetraploid A. arenosa identified a subset of meiotic genes that may be responsible for adaptation to polyploid meiosis. To investigate the mechanisms by which A. arenosa adapted to its polyploid state, and the functionality of the identified potentially adaptive polymorphisms, a thorough cytological analysis is required. Therefore, in this chapter we describe methods and techniques to analyze male meiosis in A. arenosa, including optimum plant growth conditions, and immunocytological and cytological approaches developed with the specific purpose of understanding meiotic adaptation in an autotetraploid. In addition we present a meiotic cytological atlas to be used as a reference for particular stages and discuss observations arising from a comparison of meiosis between diploid and autotetraploid A. arenosa.

  7. Evaluation of the incidence on insufficient cytology results comparing different ultrasound-guided aspiration techniques for thyroid nodules

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    Kim, Seong Hyng; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Ji Kang [Dept. of Radiology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    We compared the incidence of insufficient thyroid cytology due to blood-stained materials or low cellularity in terms of aspiration technique, especially focusing on the degree of suction pressure and needle size. Three experienced radiologists performed ultrasound-guided aspiration for thyroid nodules in 1174 thyroid nodules consecutively. Three different techniques were used; (A) using a 25 gauge needle with mainly capillary technique in 269 nodules; (B) using a 25 gauge needle with 3 cc syringe and minimal suction pressure in 303 nodules; (C) using a 22-23 gauge needle with 10 cc syringe and aspirator in 602 nodules. The differences of the incidence of the insufficient cytology among the three aspiration techniques and relationships of the incidence and needle size/degree of suction pressure was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test with linear-by-linear association. Overall, the difference in insufficient cytology was significant across the three aspiration technique (p = 0.004), and the incidence tended to increase significantly with increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure (p < 0.001). A pairwise comparison of aspiration techniques found significant differences (p = 0.003) between techniques (A) and (C), and no differences between technique (B) and (C) (p 0.07) and between techniques (A) and (B) (p = 0.10). The incidence of insufficient cytology was significantly low in the capillary technique, and it increased significantly with the increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure.

  8. Evaluation of the incidence on insufficient cytology results comparing different ultrasound-guided aspiration techniques for thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hyng; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Ji Kang

    2013-01-01

    We compared the incidence of insufficient thyroid cytology due to blood-stained materials or low cellularity in terms of aspiration technique, especially focusing on the degree of suction pressure and needle size. Three experienced radiologists performed ultrasound-guided aspiration for thyroid nodules in 1174 thyroid nodules consecutively. Three different techniques were used; (A) using a 25 gauge needle with mainly capillary technique in 269 nodules; (B) using a 25 gauge needle with 3 cc syringe and minimal suction pressure in 303 nodules; (C) using a 22-23 gauge needle with 10 cc syringe and aspirator in 602 nodules. The differences of the incidence of the insufficient cytology among the three aspiration techniques and relationships of the incidence and needle size/degree of suction pressure was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test with linear-by-linear association. Overall, the difference in insufficient cytology was significant across the three aspiration technique (p = 0.004), and the incidence tended to increase significantly with increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure (p < 0.001). A pairwise comparison of aspiration techniques found significant differences (p = 0.003) between techniques (A) and (C), and no differences between technique (B) and (C) (p 0.07) and between techniques (A) and (B) (p = 0.10). The incidence of insufficient cytology was significantly low in the capillary technique, and it increased significantly with the increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure.

  9. Cytologic examination of hemorrhagic fluid by capillary centrifugation: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Padam Kumari

    2009-01-01

    To develop a simplified technique for processing hemorrhagic body fluids, allowing elimination of red blood cells (RBCs) to obtain tumor cell-rich cytosmears for accurate diagnosis of malignancy. Hemorrhagic fluid is collected with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid anticoagulant. The cells are separated by centrifugation in glass capillaries into 3 layers, with the uppermost containing supernatant, middle buffy coat and lowermost dark layer of RBCs. The smears of the buffy coat are prepared by breaking the capillaries at the junction of buffy coat and RBC layer. The procedure is named capillary centrifugation technique. This procedure was developed in the cytology laboratory at King George's Medical College, Lucknow, India in 1974. Cell yield is good and cellular details are well preserved. No cell debris is present on the slides. The background of the smears is absolutely clear. Any number of slides may be prepared for special study for exact typing of tumor cells This is a simple, economical procedure and a good substitute for a cytocentrifuge machine for preparing smears from small amount of fluids. Technicians learn it quickly and are quite comfortable with the procedure.

  10. The Role of Liquid Based Cytology and Ancillary Techniques in the Peritoneal Washing Analysis: Our Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando; Fagotti, Anna; Scambia, Giovanni; Zannoni, Gian Franco

    2017-01-01

    Background The cytological analysis of peritoneal effusions serves as a diagnostic and prognostic aid for either primary or metastatic diseases. Among the different cytological preparations, liquid based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method ensuring also the application of ancillary techniques (i.e immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing). Methods We recorded 10348 LBC peritoneal effusions between January 2000 and December 2014. They were classified as non-diagnostic (ND), negative for malignancy-NM, atypical-suspicious for malignancy-SM and positive for malignancy-PM. Results The cytological diagnosis included 218 ND, 9.035 NM, 213 SM and 882 PM. A total of 8048 (7228 NM, 115SM, 705 PM) cases with histological follow-up were included. Our NM included 21 malignant and 7207 benign histological diagnoses. Our 820 SMs+PMs were diagnosed as 107 unknown malignancies (30SM and 77PM), 691 metastatic lesions (81SM and 610PM), 9 lymphomas (2SM and 7PM), 9 mesotheliomas (1SM and 8SM), 4 sarcomas (1SM and 3PM). Primary gynecological cancers contributed with 64% of the cases. We documented 97.4% sensitivity, 99.9% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 99.7% negative predictive value (NPV) and 99.7% positive predictive value (PPV). Furthermore, the morphological diagnoses were supported by either 173 conclusive ICC results or 50 molecular analyses. Specifically the molecular testing was performed for the EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis based on the previous or contemporary diagnoses of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and colon carcinomas. We identified 10 EGFR in NSCCL and 7 KRAS mutations on LBC stored material. Conclusions Peritoneal cytology is an adjunctive tool in the surgical management of tumors mostly gynecological cancers. LBC maximizes the application of ancillary techniques such as ICC and molecular analysis with feasible diagnostic and predictive yields also in controversial cases. PMID:28099523

  11. The potential of liquid-based cytology in lymph node cytological evaluation: the role of morphology and the aid of ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E D; Martini, M; Straccia, P; Bizzarro, T; Fadda, G; Larocca, L M

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) on lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA may fulfil a challenging role in the evaluation of the majority of primary (benign and malignant) diagnoses as well as metastatic lymph node lesions. Although the morphological features may be quite easily recognized, cytological samples with a scant cellular component may raise some issues. We appraised 263 cytological lymph nodes from different body regions analysed between January and December 2013, including 137 male and 126 female patients, and processed with LBC. The cytological diagnoses included 160 benign and 103 malignant lesions. We reported 35 benign and 73 malignant lesions from 108 with surgical follow-up. The latter malignant series included 68 metastatic lesions, four suspicious for malignancy and one inadequate sample. The cytological diagnoses were supported by 62 conclusive immunocytochemical and 28 molecular analyses. Of the 108 cases, we documented 35 true negatives, 72 true positives, one false negative and no false positives, resulting in 98.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 99% diagnostic accuracy, 97.2% negative predictive value and 100% positive predictive value. FNA represents the first diagnostic tool in lymph node management and a reliable approach in order to avoid an excision biopsy. Furthermore, LBC is a feasible method for ancillary tests for which methanol-fixed samples are suitable, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Critical evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic technique in bone tumors and tumor-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Datta, Alok Sobhan; Hira, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Though open surgical biopsy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of bone tumors, many disadvantages are associated with this approach. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of bony tumors and tumor-like lesions which may be conducted in centers where facilities for surgical biopsies are inadequate. The study population consisted of 51 cases presenting with a skeletal mass. After clinical evaluation, radiological correlation was done to assess the nature and extent of each lesion. Fine needle aspiration was performed aseptically and smears were prepared. Patients subsequently underwent open surgical biopsy and tissue samples were obtained for histopathological examination. Standard statistical methods were applied for analysis of data. Adequate material was not obtained even after repeated aspiration in seven cases, six of which were benign. Among the remaining 44 cases, diagnosis of malignancy was correctly provided in 28 (93.3%) out of 30 cases and categorical diagnosis in 20 (66.67%). Interpretation of cytology was more difficult in cases of benign and tumor-like lesions, with a categorical opinion only possible in seven (50%) cases. Statistical analysis showed FNAC with malignant tumors to have high sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (92.9%) and positive predictive value of 96.6%, whereas the negative predictive value was 86.7%. FNAC should be included in the diagnostic workup of a skeletal tumor because of its simplicity and reliability. However, a definitive pathologic diagnosis heavily depends on compatible clinical and radiologic features which can only be accomplished by teamwork. The cytological technique applied in this study could detect many bone tumors and tumor-like conditions and appears particularly suitable as a diagnostic technique for rural regions of India as other developing countries.

  13. The role of liquid-based cytology and ancillary techniques in pleural and pericardic effusions: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Schmitt, Fernando; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2015-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of serous membrane effusions may fulfil a challenging role in the diagnostic analysis of both primary and metastatic disease. From this perspective, liquid-based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method for empowering the performance of ancillary techniques (ie, immunocytochemistry and molecular testing) with high diagnostic accuracy. In total, 3171 LBC pleural and pericardic effusions were appraised between January 2000 and December 2013. They were classified as negative for malignancy (NM), suspicious for malignancy (SM), or positive for malignancy (PM). The cytologic diagnoses included 2721 NM effusions (2505 pleural and 216 pericardic), 104 SM effusions (93 pleural and 11 pericardic), and 346 PM effusions (321 pleural and 25 pericardic). The malignant pleural series included 76 unknown malignancies (36 SM and 40 PM effusions), 174 metastatic lesions (85 SM and 89 PM effusions), 14 lymphomas (3 SM and 11 PM effusions), 16 mesotheliomas (5 SM and 11 SM effusions), and 3 myelomas (all SM effusions). The malignant pericardic category included 20 unknown malignancies (5 SM and 15 PM effusions), 15 metastatic lesions (1 SM and 14 PM effusions), and 1 lymphoma (1 PM effusion). There were 411 conclusive immunocytochemical analyses and 47 molecular analyses, and the authors documented 88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 98% negative predictive value, and 100% positive predictive value for FNAC. FNAC represents a primary diagnostic tool for effusions and a reliable approach with which to determine the correct follow-up. Furthermore, LBC is useful for ancillary techniques, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis, with feasible diagnostic and predictive utility. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  15. The nightmare of indeterminate follicular proliferations: when liquid-based cytology and ancillary techniques are not a moon landing but a realistic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Fadda, Guido; Schmitt, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common finding in the general population, including both nonneoplastic and neoplastic entities. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the first tool for evaluating thyroid nodules. In spite of its high diagnostic accuracy, 25% of nodules result in the category of follicular neoplasms (FN), with varying risk of malignancy and different management strategies. The use of ancillary techniques is reshaping the practice of FNAC. These tools can significantly empower the morphological diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid nodules, allowing a more accurate prediction of the nature of the lesion. Several studies have underlined the role of single or multiple testing for the category of FN as strong indicators of cancer. Every cytological preparation can be used for the application of ancillary techniques but the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) might facilitate the application. Our experience involving an immunocytochemical panel made up of HBME-1 and galectin-3 pointed to an 81% overall diagnostic accuracy in discriminating between low and high risk of malignancy in FN. The application of these techniques on LBC represents an adjunct to the morphological evaluation of FN. They represent a critical and challenging, but also a feasible, tool in the preoperative diagnoses, allowing specific prognostic and predictive details regardless of the cytological preparation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Sonographically guided fine-needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: the effects of nodule characteristics, sampling technique, and needle size on the adequacy of cytological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degirmenci, B.; Haktanir, A.; Albayrak, R.; Acar, M.; Sahin, D.A.; Sahin, O.; Yucel, A.; Caliskan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules, the diameter of needle used for sampling, and sampling technique on obtaining sufficient cytological material (SCM). Materials and methods: We performed sonography-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) in 232 solid thyroid nodules. Size-, echogenicity, vascularity, and localization of all nodules were evaluated by Doppler sonography before the biopsy. Needles of size 20, 22, and 24 G were used for biopsy. The biopsy specimen was acquired using two different methods after localisation. In first method, the needle tip was advanced into the nodule in various positions using a to-and-fro motion whilst in the nodule, along with concurrent aspiration. In the second method, the needle was advanced vigorously using a to-and-fro motion within the nodule whilst being rotated on its axis (capillary-action technique). Results: The mean nodule size was 2.1 ± 1.3 cm (range 0.4-7.2 cm). SCM was acquired from 154 (66.4%) nodules by sonography-guided FNB. In 78 (33.6%) nodules, SCM could not be collected. There was no significant difference between nodules with different echogenicity and vascularity for SCM. Regarding the needle size, the lowest rate of SCM was obtained using 20 G needles (56.6%) and the highest rate of adequate material was obtained using 24 G needles (82.5%; p = 0.001). The SCM rate was 76.9% with the capillary-action technique versus 49.4% with the aspiration technique (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Selecting finer needles (24-25 G) for sonography-guided FNB of thyroid nodules and using the capillary-action technique decreased the rate of inadequate material in cytological examination

  17. Transrectal ultrasound: Diagnosis of prostate cancer by a new biplane US-guided biopsy technique. Comparison of thin-needle cytology and histology with large-core biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, F.; Littrup, P.; McLeary, R.; Kumasaka, G.; Borlaza, G.; McHugh, T.; Soiderer, M.; Roi, L.

    1986-01-01

    A new transperineal biopsy technique was developed that uses biplane transrectal US guidance for needle placement into anechoic-hypoechoic lesions thought to indicate prostate cancer (n = 83). The results of histologic studies on biopsy material obtained with a 22-gauge needle and of aspiration histologic studies on biopsy material obtained with a 19-gauge needle were compared with results of histologic studies on material obtained with a 14-gauge needle. When sufficient tissue was obtained, the positive biopsy yield was 61% by cytology and 58% by histology; the combined yield was 61%. A limited study ( n = 21) of histologic findings in biopsy material obtained with 19-gauge and 14-gauge needles showed equivalent diagnostic results. Sixty-seven percent of the biopsies were of lesions less than 1.5 cm in diameter, and 57% (13 of 23) of the biopsy-proved cancers in this group were either nonpalpable or only mildly suspicious on digital rectal examination

  18. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

  19. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  20. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Liver Aspiration Cytology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-02

    Nov 2, 1974 ... S.A. MEDICAL. JOURNAL .... be the result of either an anatomical obstruction in the biliary system or of ... contour of these droplets indicates their canalicular origin. ..... terminology for cytological changes in the liver has not.

  3. Imprint cytology: A boon in tissue diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusheela Rajesh Gore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The technique of imprint cytology has provided great impetus to cytodiagnosis due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapid results. It plays a significant role in the rapid diagnosis of the lesions. Objectives: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology and thereby to evaluate its diagnostic utility. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. It included 105 cases. Both benign and malignant lesions from different organ systems were included in the study. Various techniques like touch imprints scrape cytology and squash preparations were used according to the nature of tissue sample. The cytodiagnosis was correlated with histopathological (HP diagnosis to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology. Results: Maximum lesions were of central nervous system (25.7% followed by breast, head, and neck. Imprint cytology diagnosis had sensitivity of 95.5% with 100% specificity for detection of benign and malignant lesions. Overall accuracy of detecting type of lesion was 98.1%. Total discordance with HP diagnosis was found in 1.9% of cases. Conclusion: The use of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis provides a rapid and efficient means of pathological assessment which in experienced hand, is capable of obtaining a high degree of accuracy. Its use is highly recommended routinely.

  4. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In Tumour Diagnosis | Obaseki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of tissue samples but

  5. Preparation of Cytology Samples: Tricks of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell

    2017-01-01

    General principles and techniques for collection, preparation, and staining of cytologic samples in the general practice setting are reviewed. Tips for collection of digital images are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Citologia de impressão da superfície ocular: técnica de exame e de coloração Impression cytology of the ocular surface: examination technique and staining procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeison de Nadai Barros

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentar uma técnica de exame e de coloração de amostras de citologia de impressão da superfície ocular desenvolvida em serviço de referência. Método: Obtiveram-se 28 amostras de citologia de impressão de pacientes com alterações da superfície ocular no Setor de Doenças Externas Oculares no período de julho a novembro de 1999. Coraram-se e avaliaram-se as amostras microscopicamente no Laboratório de Microbiologia Ocular, do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista Medicina. Resultados: Desenvolveu-se um modelo de papel de filtro com ápice, base e abertura lateral, que forneceu seu posicionamento correto no olho no momento da colheita e na lâmina para a fixação e coloração. A técnica de coloração descrita, que usa ácido periódico-Schiff, hematoxilina e Papanicolaou, é um procedimento econômico e fácil, cora as células caliciformes de róseo e as epiteliais de roxo. Conclusões: A técnica de exame mostrou-se ideal na avaliação celular das amostras de citologia de impressão. A citologia de impressão é um método bastante confiável para o estudo da superfície ocular, no acompanhamento da evolução de patologias externas, e provou ser um procedimento realmente simples, mais barato e mais confortável para o paciente que as biópsias invasivas.Purpose: To present an examination technique and to standardize the staining procedure of samples of impression cytology of the ocular surface in a reference service. Methods: 28 samples of impression cytology were obtained from patients with ocular surfaces alterations of the External Eye Diseases Sector in the period of July to November 1999. They were stained and microscopically evaluated in the Ocular Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results: We developed a design of a filter paper with apex, base and lateral opening that promoted its adequate position both in the eye at collection

  7. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both

  8. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κ w ) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κ w = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κ w = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κ w = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κ w = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κ w = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  9. Informatics applied to cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  11. Cytology-based treatment decision in primary lung cancer: is it accurate enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Lama; Roll, Patrice; Payan, Marie-José; Liprandi, Agnès; Dutau, Hervé; Astoul, Philippe; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Loundou, Anderson; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2012-03-01

    Accurate distinction of lung cancer types has become increasingly important as recent trials have shown differential response to chemotherapy among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) subtypes. Cytological procedures are frequently used but their diagnostic accuracy has been previously questioned. However, new endoscopic and cytological techniques might have improved cytological accuracy in comparison with prior findings. The aim of this study was to reassess cytological accuracy for diagnosis of lung cancer subtypes. A retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) for suspicion of lung cancer in 2007-2008, was undertaken. Reports of bronchoscopically derived cytological specimens were compared to those of histological material. Endoscopic findings and specific investigational techniques were taken into account. A total of 467 FOB with both cytological and histological diagnostic techniques were performed in 449 subjects. Patients consisted of 345 men and 104 women (median age, 65 yrs). Cytology proved malignancy in 157 patients. Cytologically diagnosed carcinomas were classified into squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 56, adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 6, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) in 12, non-small cell lung carcinoma not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) in 71, and unclassified carcinoma in 12. Cytology correlated fairly with biopsy specimens, as agreement was observed in 83% of SCLC, 100% of ADC, 74% of SqCC and 8% of NSCLC-NOS. Interestingly, 61% of cytologically identified NSCLC-NOS were classified as ADC by histology. Cytological accuracy improved in case of an endobronchial lesion, mainly for SqCC. These results indicate that cytological accuracy remains fair with regard to diagnosis of squamous and non-squamous lung cancer subtypes. Improvement of cytological accuracy is expected however with novel diagnostic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    -based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...... of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology. Follow-up histology showed no increase of false positive tests, whilst the share of tests which were "unsatisfactory for evaluation" decreased significantly. Overall, the liquid-based technique would seem to have several advantages compared...

  13. The diagnostic significance of endoscopic cytology in evaluating pancreatic and biliary lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer ONAK KANDEMİR; Banu DOĞAN GÜN; Sibel BEKTAŞ; Figen BARUT1; Burak BAHADIR; Gamze YURDAKAN; Şükrü Oğuz ÖZDAMAR; Gamze MOCAN KUZEY

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a widely performed technique in evaluating biliary and pancreatic ductal lesions. The contribution of cytological methods to the diagnosis of the disorders causing biliary stricture, and biopsy diagnoses of the cases were evaluated together with clinical follow-up outcomes and the results presented in this study.From January 2005 to December 2006, in Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 20 biliary endoscopic brush cytology and 2 exfo...

  14. Flow cytometry in diagnostic cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J

    1998-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a useful adjunct to cytologic examination, because the quantitative biochemical information it provides complements the morphologic information gained during visual examination. It aids in the interpretation of bladder washings, and is particularly useful for the assessment of lymphoid lesions, whether they originate from fine-needle aspiration, cerebrospinal fluid, or effusions. Optimal use of FCM frequently requires assessment of more than one parameter; simultaneous use of cell differentiation markers and nuclear DNA quantitation is often significantly more useful than either alone. Despite the utility of FCM, however, the potential for future development appears to be limited. Improvements in image cytometry allow reasonable assessment of ploidy and S-fraction to be made from specimens prepared on glass slides. Multiparameter measurements may also be accomplished with imaging techniques, which allow the further advantage of visual identification of cells with equivocal morphologic changes. The development of artificial intelligence methods for use with imaging technology has also significantly exceeded that of FCM. Finally, image cytometry is often more useful for samples with few cells. Other challenges are posed by immunocytochemical methods which compete with flow cytometry as tools for assessment of proliferation. Given the relatively high cost of FCM instrumentation, survival of FCM as an ancillary technique in cytopathology will require further technical refinements to offset the advantages currently associated with image cytometry and immunocytochemistry.

  15. Cytological indicators: Haematopoetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1986-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper, intended more as a general outline than a comprehensive review, to elucidate the most prominent events in the sequence of radiation induced cytological changes in the hemopoietic system taking its functional organisation and the cytokinetics of blood cell production into consideration. As could be shown, there are about ten different categories of quantitative and qualitative parameters based on methods ranging from stem cell determinations to tests for mature blood cell function that in principle are available for assessment of radiation damage to the bone marrow and that have been applied to men exposed to ionizing radiation. Some of these indicator systems have proven for a long period of time to be of essential value and to be quite feasible in practice under routine conditions. Considerable methodological progress, however, is needed for others before decisions about their practical applicability can be made. (orig.)

  16. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented.

  17. Cytology of treated cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    The vaginal smear specimens of the patients who received operative therapy, irradiation or chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma were examined. Long-term follow-up vaginal cytology following treatment of cervical carcinoma is effective for the detection of local recurrence in an early stage. Serial cytology is also useful in evaluation of the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Radiosensitive and prognostic significance of vaginal smears before and after radiation therapy was discussed. (author)

  18. Role of imprint cytology in intra operative diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, K R; Krishna, G

    2014-07-01

    Intra-operative imprint cytology is an important diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. A correct intra-operative diagnosis helps eliminate the need for second surgery. To study diagnostic accuracy of imprint cytology and to compare the imprint cytology results with that of the corresponding paraffin section diagnosis in thyroidectomy cases. This is a prospective study of 84 patients who have undergone thyroidectomies over a period of one year at the Department of Surgery, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The intraoperative imprint cytology smears were stained by Papanicolaou method. The imprint cytology interpretation was later compared with the paraffin section diagnosis. Of the 84 patients using haematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology sections as the gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity of imprint cytology was 75% and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was 100%. Negative predictive value was 98.74%. Imprint cytology has high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing lesions of the thyroid. The problems faced were in diagnosing follicular carcinomas and differentiating low grade lymphoma from lymphocytic thyroiditis. Imprint cytology is a simple, reliable diagnostic technique. It has high sensitivity and specificity in intra-operative diagnosis of lesions of thyroid. In spite of the advent of newer diagnostic modalities like frozen sections, imprint cytology still holds its unique position in the current perspective.

  19. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Seema N; Panchal, Nirav S

    2015-01-01

    Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques.

  20. Role of cytology in screening, staging and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischnaller, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cytology has become an integral component in the battery of diagnostic tools for a rational diagnosis of tumors. When all materials obtainable with sophisticated methods are utilized, almost every pulmonary lesion can be defined micromorphologically. In urgent cases instant staining techniques will permit a 'stat diagnosis'. The characterization of a tumor cell by cytology with accurate typing and grading offers preliminary information for subsequent staging efforts. Bronchial cancer may be both of the single-cell and of the mixed-cell type with the more aggressive cell elements determining the metastasising potential and prognosis. Sampling for cytology is devoid of risks and does not make any special demands on the patients; it can safely be repeated for follow-up studies; it helps to detect tumor regrowths or secondaries at an early stage during postoperative follow-up programs and to monitor treatment-related cellular changes. (Author)

  1. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  2. Role of biliary tract cytology in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity. PMID:24130407

  3. PARATHYROID CYTOLOGY: A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Kishore Bajaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neck nodules are common in clinical practice which are accessible to Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Thyroid being the commonest organ to present as the nodular lesions. Parathyroid lesions can be incidentally encountered during FNA of a thyroid nodule Fine needle aspiration cytology is a safe economical and leading investigation in the diagnosis of neck nodules. Thyroid and parathyroid nodules are indistinguishable clinically. An attempt is made to familiarise the pathologist about the cytomorphological features of parathyroid nodules and simple approach to differentiate from thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective study conducted over a period of 5 years from 2011-2016. Twelve cases of histologically proven parathyroidal lesions are the subjects of study of which 4 cases were diagnosed as parathyroidal cyst and rest as parathyroid adenoma. All the cases underwent fine needle aspiration cytology under ultrasound guidance, Smears were made, stained by H & E and PAP staining method, the slides were reviewed by two cytopathologists. Biochemical and radiological findings were evaluated before giving definitive cytological diagnosis. RESULTS A total number of 12 cases which were histologically proven as parathyroidal lesion. Out of which 4 were cystic lesions which were excluded from the study. Rest of the 8 cases confirmed as parathyroid adenoma which had FNAC were evaluated. 5 cases had positive cytohistological correlation. Three out of 8 cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid, Toxic nodular goitre and Hurthle cell neoplasm due to varied cytomorphology. CONCLUSION Parathyroidal lesions has got low sensitivity and specificity in cytology. The confident diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasm was made in conjunction with biochemical and advanced radiological imaging. In neck nodules which are asymptomatic and at abnormal locations, FNAC through its cytomorphological features has an edge in

  4. Common Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Applications in Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Spasenija; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2016-12-01

    - Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established method for detection of genomic aberrations in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive marker testing. - To review common applications of FISH in cytology. - The published literature was reviewed. - Cytology is particularly well suited for all kinds of FISH applications, which is highlighted in respiratory tract cytology with an increasing demand for predictive FISH testing in lung cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the gold standard for detection of predictive anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangements, and the same evaluation criteria as in histology apply to cytology. Several other gene rearrangements, including ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), are becoming clinically important and share the same underlining cytogenetic mechanisms with ALK. MET amplification is one of the most common mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and can be targeted by crizotinib. As genomic aberrations are a hallmark of malignant cells, FISH is a valuable objective ancillary diagnostic tool. In urinary tract cytology, atypical urothelial cells equivocal for malignancy are a common diagnostic dilemma and multitarget FISH can help clarify such cells. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma remains one of the most challenging fields in effusion cytology, and ancillary FISH is useful in establishing the diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a morphology-based technique, and the prerequisite for reliable FISH results is a targeted evaluation of the cells in question (eg, cancer or atypical cells). Cytopathologists and cytotechnicians should therefore be involved in molecular testing in order to select the best material and to provide their morphologic expertise.

  5. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF CYTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PLEURAL FLUID IN TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Jamal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem with highest incidence in developing countries like India. It involves a large number of organs including lungs, pleural lymph nodes, genital sytem, gastrointestinal tract, etc. In resource poor countries, cytological examination of pleural fluid serves as a rapid, effective, economical and easy method of diagnosing tubercuolus pleural effusions, which can be correlated with other newer ancillary techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 100 patients coming to Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, over a period of two years from August 2012 to September 2014 with clinical complaints of cough, fever and chest pain with a clinical diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. RESULTS Pleural tapping was done and detailed cytological examination of pleural fluid was done and its findings were correlated with gross, biochemical and microbiological findings. Both wet fixed (Giemsa stained and air-dried slides (Papanicolaou stained were prepared and microscopic examination was done. Special stains like Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN stain for acid-fast bacilli was also performed for confirmation. CONCLUSION Cytological smears revealed predominance of lymphocytes. Mesothelial cells were absent or nearly absent. Eosinophils followed mesothelial cell pattern and were absent in a relatively large number of cases. This technique is safe, reliable, cost-effective and can be used for diagnostic purposes. It is also less traumatic as compared to pleural biopsy. Cytological examination when combined with other newer diagnostic test increases the chances of accurate diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion.

  6. Vulval schwannoma: A cytological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Subhashish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the frequent sites of involvement being the head and neck, the flexor aspect of the limbs, especially near the elbow, wrist, knee, and trunk. Involvement of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We present one such rare case of a solitary vulval schwannoma which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology in a 48 year-old female, and confirmed by histopathological examination.

  7. Cervical cytology biobanking in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervicofacial actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kusuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as a fixed jaw swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, along with a review of the relevant literature. A 60 year-old man presented with a gradually increasing 6 x 5 cm swelling in the left side of his jaw. The swelling was fixed, without any apparent sinus or abscess. Fine needle aspiration was diagnostic as it revealed colonies of actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs and chronic inflammatory cells. The histopathological study of the excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. Fine needle aspiration is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis although its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the fine needle aspiration technique.

  9. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  10. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  11. Awareness on cytology procedure in oral cancer detection among undergraduates: An institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Pathak, Rajeev; Pathak, Sunita; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Anuradha

    2017-11-01

    The screening and the early detection of the premalignant and malignant lesions are the only means for controlling the oral cancer which is known to be one of the leading causes for mortality worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology though not a substitute for biopsy can be a powerful tool for its early detection. Dental Surgeons can play a great role in this direction. The present study was undertaken to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the early detection of oral cancer and exfoliative cytology among the undergraduates of Rama Dental College, Kanpur. A pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study consisting of twenty four questions was conducted among hundred randomly selected students from third year, final year and intern's batch. According to 73% of students biopsy was the special test done in oral cancer detection and only 59% had heard regarding oral cytology technique. Formalin was the fixative known for cytology smears among 61%. Significance of toluidine blue staining was not known by 62%. Seventy seven percent of students were not aware about classes of cytology reporting. Eighty six percent of students felt that the adequacy of training in cytology was lagging. This survey identified an existing gap in the knowledge among the dental students regarding cytology as a diagnostic aid in oral cancer detection. This emphasizes the need to provide training for undergraduates at clinical level on regular basis and also through CDE and oral can-cer detection workshops.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of lymphoma established by fine-needle aspiration cytological biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Suryadi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Based on Globocan data in 2012, it is estimated that about 14,495 Indonesians suffer from lymphoma, both Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Some areas of specialization still doubt the accuracy of cytology diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsy.This study is a diagnostic test with a cross sectional analytic design to see how the cytology diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration aspirate in lymphoma. It was in Department of Anatomical Pathology Faculty of Medicine USU, Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Dr.Pirngadi hospital, or private clinic in Medan. Peripheral cytology technique biopsy of fine needle aspiration on lymph node subsequently stained with Giemsa, when the cytology of lymphoma is obtained and confirmed by histopathologic examination. Cytology and histopathologic examination will be tested by Diagnostic Test and assessed for its sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic of lymphoma cytology provides 93.33% sensitivity and 92.31% specificity when confirmed by histopathological examination. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 96.55% and 85.71% respectively. In conclusion, the cytology of fine needle aspiration biopsy is accurate enough to be used as a diagnostic tool, so it is advisable to establish a lymphoma diagnosis to perform a needle aspiration biopsy examination.

  13. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  14. Progress and problems in the cytology of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedo, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years of cytological work with Ceratitis capitata has expanded rapidly in concert with increased interest in the application of genetics and molecular biology in the control of this species. Previous studies using mitotic chromosomes produced essential basic karyotypic data but resulted in a confused situation in which several chromosome nomenclature systems were in use. The need for better cytological methods and a standardization of nomenclature was recognised by the IAEA which recommended a system based on that used for Drosophila melanogaster. Polytene chromosome analysis was soon available with the development of techniques for preparing chromosome squashes from male pupal orbital trichogen cells and larval salivary glands. The application of chromosome banding techniques quickly provided detailed morphological information on mitotic chromosomes, particularly the sex chromosomes, and mapping of chromosome rearrangement break-points on newly prepared polytene chromosome maps commenced. This report describes recent unpublished results and offers comments on the still unresolved nomenclature problems in C. capitata

  15. Thyroid Cytology in India: Contemporary Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shipra; Jain, Deepali

    2017-11-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a screening test for triaging thyroid nodules, aiding in subsequent clinical management. However, the advantages have been overshadowed by the multiplicity of reporting systems and a wide range of nomenclature used. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was formulated in 2007, to give the world a uniform thyroid cytology reporting system, facilitating easy interpretation by the clinicians. Here, we review the status of thyroid FNAC in India in terms of various reporting systems used including a meta-analysis of the previously published data. An extensive literature search was performed using internet search engines. The reports with detailed classification system used in thyroid cytology were included. The meta-analysis of published data was compared with the implied risk of malignancy by TBSRTC. More than 50 studies were retrieved and evaluated. TBSRTC is currently the most widely used reporting system with different studies showing good efficacy and interobserver concordance. Ancillary techniques have, as of now, limited applicability and acceptability in thyroid cytology in India. Twenty-eight published articles met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. When compared with TBSRTC recommendations, the meta-analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for categories I and III. Thyroid FNAC is practiced all over India. TBSRTC has found widespread acceptance, with most institutions using this system for routine thyroid cytology reporting. However, reasons for a high malignancy risk for categories I and III need to be looked into. Various possible contributing factors are discussed in the review.

  16. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  17. Voided urine versus bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: which is better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2017-08-01

    Cytology is recommended as part of the follow-up of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, currently there are no solid guideline recommendations regarding the use of voided urine versus bladder washing for cytology as part of the diagnosis or follow-up of NMIBC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytological outcome was equal regarding the two techniques. The authors reviewed all outpatient flexible cystoscopies carried out in their department in 2013. Patient records in the registry of pathology were examined and those with simultaneous urine and bladder washing cytology were included. Previous urothelial disease and positive histology within 3 months after the cystoscopy were registered. A total of 1458 patients had both voided urine and bladder washing cytology and were included in the study, of whom 643 (44%) had a history of urothelial disease. An equal outcome of urine and bladder washing cytology was found in 1447 patients (99.2%). For the remaining 11 patients, only four patients underwent further examinations based on cytology findings in addition to what had already been planned after cystoscopy. Of the included patients, 100 (6.9%) had a positive histological outcome within 3 months. In most patients, no relevant difference between voided urine and bladder washing cytology was observed. Therefore, if cytology is indicated, it is recommended to use the test that is most readily available locally. The additional gain in using both urine and bladder wash is minimal, and can therefore be discarded.

  18. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National......" the cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...

  19. Review of available scientific and technical evidence regarding liquid-based cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Frutos Pérez-Surio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment of patients with abnormal results, thus decreasing their incidence and mortality. In contrast to conventional techniques (Papanicolau, diagnostic techniques have been developed based on the preservation of the sample in a stabilizing solution (liquid-based cytology. The different methods of liquid-based cytology used in the screening of cervical cancer against the Papanicolau technique are evaluated. Material and methods. A systematic review of the literature has been performed (2010-2015. The search was developed by including MeSH terms as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and papilloma virus infection in the MedLine, Embase, Cochrane Library, CRD, LILACS and IBECS databases. Inclusion criteria were adult women screened for cervical cancer using liquid-based cytology techniques, compared with conventional methods. Results. 464 references were found related to the reliability-precision of the test, of which 13 were included in the report. A health technology assessment report was conducted in 2013 by the Agency for Health Technology Assessment of Andalusia (AETSA. The quality of the studies was moderate and moderate-low. AETSA found studies that included more than 700,000 women between 14 and 90 years old, who were screened by liquid-based cytology, compared to the conventional one. Studies have shown that liquid-based cytology techniques reduce the percentage of unsatisfactory samples compared to conventional ones. The analysis of detection of cellular abnormalities and diagnostic validity indexes showed significant differences when comparing both methods. Conclusions. The studies analyzed presented methodological limitations. Hence, the results should be interpreted with caution. Liquid-based cytology did not present greater diagnostic capacity than conventional methods, but it reduced, with statistically significant results, the number of samples unsatisfactory

  20. Comparative study of aspiration and non-aspiration cytology of palpable breast lumps and correlation with histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Koirala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast lump is one of the most common presentations in surgical outpatient departments with anxiety regarding a possible malignancy. Hence a quick diagnosis of a lump in the breast is essential. Fine needle aspiration cytology is an ideal initial diagnostic modality in breast lumps. There is an alternative method of performing needle aspiration, known as fine needle capillary cytology where the specimen is obtained using just a needle without aspiration.Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross sectional analytical study was carried out in Department of Pathology in National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital for one year. The objective of this study was to compare aspiration and non-aspiration cytology of palpable breast lumps and correlation with histopathology.Results: The five criteria scored for each technique were background blood, amount of cellular material, cellular degeneration, cellular trauma and architectural preservation. Compared to fine needle aspiration cytology, fine needle capillary cytology yields less bloody smears with minimal degenerative changes and offers more diagnostically superior specimens. Fine needle aspiration cytology, on the other hand, gives a good yield of diagnostic material.Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology and fine needle capillary cytology are quick, easy, safe and cost-effective techniques. . A high sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in this study proves that it is comparable to final histology report in its diagnostic efficiency. Thus, fine needle aspiration cytology is a very important preliminary diagnostic test in palpable breast lumps and the results show a high degree of correlation with the final histopathology report.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11501 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 639-643

  1. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  3. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  4. Investigating uterine disease in the bitch: uterine cannulation for cytology, microbiology and hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J R; Wright, P J

    1995-05-01

    A technique for transcervical cannulation of the uterus of the bitch for the collection of samples for cytology and microbiology was developed. This technique involved passing a cannula into the uterus with the aid of an endoscope. The uterus was cannulated successfully in mature bitches (over 10 kg) 110 times in 144 attempts. Success of cannulation was influenced by the experience of the operator and ease of cannulation by the stage of the reproductive cycle, the size of the bitch and the type of cannula. Complications associated with the procedure were endometritis, vaginitis and vaginal tears. Uterine cannulation was generally possible in all bitches studied at all stages of the reproductive cycle. Techniques for the collection of samples from the uterus for cytology and microbiology and for the processing of samples for uterine cytology are outlined. Hysteroscopy was performed on seven occasions in post partum bitches and was found to be possible at least until day 17 after whelping.

  5. Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W.F. van Wyk, D Dent, E Anne Hacking, Genevieve Learmonth, R.E. Kottler, C Anne Gudgeon, A Tiltman ...

  6. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Rateesh; Pandey, C L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1) To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage, bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2) To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3) To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4) Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%), followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45%) and bronchial brushings (8.19%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25%) followed by brushings (77.78%) and BAL (72.69%). CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%), followed by brushings (86.67%) and BAL (83.67%). Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5%) and highest in BAL (27.3%). Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations PMID:27890992

  7. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  8. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  9. Diagnostic p53 immunostaining of endobiliary brush cytology: preoperative cytology compared with the surgical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tascilar, M.; Sturm, P. D.; Caspers, E.; Smit, M.; Polak, M. M.; Huibregtse, K.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Endobiliary brush cytology is important in the distinction of malignant and benign causes of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. The additional diagnostic value of p53 immunostaining on these cytology specimens was assessed. All patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction who underwent

  10. Unsatisfactory exfoliative anal cytology samples, 15-year experience with histologic, cytologic, and molecular follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ruba; McMeekin, Emily; Taege, Alan J; Hekman, James M; Brainard, Jennifer A; Underwood, Dawn; Procop, Gary W; Sturgis, Charles D

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of anal carcinoma has risen in recent decades. Exfoliative cytology screening of selected high risk patients is performed in many centers. Unsatisfactory cytology results are frustrating to patients, clinicians, and laboratorians. The aim of this study is to ascertain outcomes of patients with non-diagnostic anal cytology. A retrospective review of anal cytology testing performed at the Cleveland Clinic between 01/01/2001 and 12/31/2015 was performed. All cases were received as liquid-based samples and processed as ThinPreps (Hologic, Marlborough, MA). Co-testing for HR-HPV DNA was performed using Hybrid Capture 2® (Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in the majority of patients. Of 1,276 ThinPrep anal cytology samples, 130 (10%) were deemed unsatisfactory. 77% of patients were HIV positive. 85% were males. Of the unsatisfactory cases, 116 (89%) were co-tested for HR-HPV DNA. Of those, 40 patients (34%) had a simultaneous positive HR-HPV DNA. Adequate follow up cytology within a one year and a two year period revealed that 18/130 (14%) and 26/130 (20%) of patients had ASC or SIL respectively. Histologic follow-up within one and two years showed 3 patients (2%) and 8 patients (6%) with HSIL or worse. High risk patients with unsatisfactory anal cytology are not "negative". At least one-third proved to be concomitantly HR-HPV DNA positive with one-fifth showing subsequent cytologic squamous abnormalities and with more than 5% being diagnosed with a high grade intraepithelial lesion within two years. Prompt repeat cytology and/or HR-HPV DNA is recommended for high risk patients with non-diagnostic cytology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCDx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboiras-López, M D; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity is a simple and noninvasive technique that permits the study of epithelial cells. Liquid-based cytology is an auxiliary diagnostic tool for improving the specificity and sensitivity of conventional cytology. The objective of our study was to compare the quality of normal oral mucosa cytology samples obtained using three different instruments, Cytobrush®, dermatological curette and Oral CDx® for liquid-based cytology. One hundred four cytological samples of oral cavity were analyzed. Samples were obtained from healthy volunteer subjects using all three instruments. The clinical and demographic variables were age, sex and smoking habits. We analyzed cellularity, quality of the preparation and types of cells in the samples. All preparations showed appropriate preparation quality. In all smears analyzed, cells were distributed uniformly and showed no mucus, bleeding, inflammatory exudate or artifacts. We found no correlation between the average number of cells and the type of instrument. The samples generally consisted of two types of cells: superficial and intermediate. No differences were found among the cytological preparations of these three instruments. We did not observe basal cells in any of the samples analyzed.

  12. Aplicabilidade da técnica de cell block na avaliação citológica do conteúdo de lesões de aspecto cístico dos maxilares Applicability of cell block technique for cytological evaluation of biological material collected from maxillary cystic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasieli de Oliveira Ramos

    2012-04-01

    , inasmuch as it consists of cytopathological analysis of materials, liquids and effusions, collected from aspirated lesions such as maxillary cysts and cystic maxillary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the applicability of cell block technique for cytological assessment of biological material collected from cystic maxillary lesions. RESULTS: The cytological evaluation revealed that five out of 20 lesions, whose content had been processed by this technique, were odontogenic keratocystic tumors (TOCs, predominantly with keratin and always with parakeratin areas. In the other cases (five dentigerous, five radicular and five residual cysts there were erythrocytes, inflammatory cells, and cholesterol clefts. CONCLUSION: The cytological assessment through cell block technique was useful as to establishing the differential diagnosis between TOC and other lesions, radicular, residual and dentigerous cysts.

  13. Evaluation of brushing cytology in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ahmad Mostaghni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP is the cause of the most common infection in the world. It has been recognized as the major cause of peptic ulcer and an important risk factor for gastric malignancy. A variety of reliable methods are available for detecting HP during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Rapid urease test (RUT is the cheapest method and histology is the most expensive brush cytology is faster and cheaper than histology. Methods: The brushing cytology materials were obtained from the antrum of the stomach in 109 patients who suffered from dyspepsia and were candidates for endoscopy. The RUT and histology with hematoxylin-eosin staining were also performed on each patient separately. The infection status for each patient was established by a concordance of two test results. Results: Seventy-eight of 100 patients (78% were diagnosed as positive for Helicobacter pylori organisms using brushing cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of brushing cytology were 96% and 72% respectively. Sensitivity of brush cytology (96% was higher than RUT (77.4%, and RUT was more specific than histology (100% vs 90%. Conclusion: Gastric brushing cytology provides an accurate, inexpensive and easy technique in the rapid detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. When additional information about the severity of mucosal damage or the presence of cell atypias is not necessary, histologic examination can be omitted, and a cost effective strategy for assessing HP status might consist of taking antral biopsies, the former for RUT and performing brush cytology slide, which should be stained and examined only when the RUT result is negative.

  14. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  15. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hyun-Jae

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.

  16. Prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities in women with positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, Edenilson E; Giaccio, Claudia Maria Serafim; Nadal, Sidney R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cytological abnormalities of the anal mucosa in women with positive cervical cytology, but without macroscopic anal lesion. Ultimately we postulated if the anal mucosa may be a reservoir of HPV, which would allow the reinfection of cervix. Forty-nine patients with abnormal cervical cytology were selected for this work. In a period not exceeding one week of collecting cervix cytology, two swab specimens of the anal canal were also collected. Women diagnosed with cervical HSIL by Pap smear were referred for colposcopy with biopsy of the lesions, to confirm the cytologic diagnosis and ablation of the lesion. We demonstrated a high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (29 of the total of 49 patients = 59.2%). Of the 20 cases of cervical LSIL, 11 (55%) had abnormal anal cytology. Of the 26 cases with cervical HSIL, 16 (61.5%) had abnormal anal cytology. So, there was a discrete higher prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in cases of high-grade cervical squamous lesions (cervical HSIL). These results help to support the hypothesis that the anal mucosa is a reservoir of HPV, which can be a source of re-infection for the cervix. However, there was no significant association between the practice of anal sex and the prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities. These facts are epidemiologically important for future programs for population eradication of cervical lesions related to HPV. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2011;39:323-327. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  18. Cytological Punctures in the Diagnosis of Renal Tumours: A Study on Accuracy and Reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümmerlin, Intan P E D; Smedts, Frank; ten Kate, Fiebo J W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is under consideration as an auxiliary preoperative diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of renal masses. However, reports for FNA are contradictory with regard to diagnostic accuracy and applicability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic...... accuracy and reproducibility of FNA from renal masses. DESIGN: FNAs performed in-bench (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E] stains) from 66 consecutive renal tumours (58 malignant and 8 benign tumours) were presented twice with a 6-mo interval to five pathologists with little experience in renal cytology...... benignity. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of experience in renal cytology, all pathologists showed a high diagnostic yield and good overall accuracy in distinguishing between malignant and benign tumours. Concordance in subtyping varied widely among pathologists and was reliable only for clear cell renal cell...

  19. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears...

  20. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and 20...

  1. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.

  2. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of hTERT in urothelial lesions: a potential adjunct to urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalbuss Walid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urine cytology has a critical role in evaluation for bladder carcinoma. Due to the low sensitivity of this technique, ancillary modalities such as the detection of markers of malignancy by immunochemistry are desirable. Promising factors in this context are components of the human telomerase enzyme complex. Telomerase repairs and extend telomeres, which when eroded beyond a critical limit trigger a senescence checkpoint. Accordingly, while absent in normal somatic cells, telomerase activity has been detected in the great majority of malignant tumor specimens tested, and so has potential value for the recognition of malignant cells in clinical specimens. Methods In this study, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical detection of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT can aid cytology in the diagnosis of bladder lesions. Findings from the retrospective evaluation of over 100 cell blocks, including urine sediments from confirmed malignant and benign conditions, were compared with routine urine cytology data. Results The presence of hTERT protein was indicative of the transformation of urothelia to a malignant phenotype. Nucleolar hTERT was expressed in 27 (93% of 29 samples obtained from patients with confirmed primary bladder cancer. Conversely, hTERT was detectable in only 3 (0.8% of 39 samples from benign conditions. The hTERT assay showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (84.8% than published urine cytology data (~65% for confirmed bladder carcinoma, however, the hTERT assay was less specific than cytology (65.2% vs. ~95% respectively. Conclusion As a highly sensitive marker, immunohistochemical hTERT detection in urine sediments represents a reliable adjunct to cytology in the accurate diagnosis of urothelial neoplasms.

  4. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. p16/ki-67 dual-stain cytology in the triage of ASCUS and LSIL papanicolaou cytology: results from the European equivocal or mildly abnormal Papanicolaou cytology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Dietmar; Bergeron, Christine; Denton, Karin J; Ridder, Ruediger

    2011-06-25

    The objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of a newly established immunocytochemical dual-stain protocol, which simultaneously detects p16(INK4a) and Ki-67 expression in cervical cytology samples, for identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women with Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology results categorized as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Residual liquid-based cytology material from 776 retrospectively collected ASCUS/LSIL cases that were available from a recent study evaluating p16 cytology and HPV testing were subjected to p16/Ki-67 dual staining. The presence of 1 or more double-immunoreactive cell(s) was regarded as a positive test outcome, irrespective of morphology. Test results were correlated to histology follow-up. Sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology for biopsy-confirmed CIN2+ was 92.2% (ASCUS) and 94.2% (LSIL), while specificity rates were 80.6% (ASCUS) and 68.0% (LSIL), respectively. Similar sensitivity/specificity profiles were found for both age groups of women aged aged ≥30 years. Dual-stain cytology showed comparable sensitivity, but significantly higher specificity, when compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. The results of this study show that p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology provided a high sensitivity for the detection of underlying CIN2+ in women with ASCUS or LSIL Pap cytology results, comparable to the rates previously reported for HPV testing and p16 single-stain cytology. However, the specificity of this morphology-independent interpretation of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology testing was further improved compared with the earlier p16 single-stain cytology approach, which required morphology interpretation, and it is significantly higher when compared with HPV testing. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  6. Sputum cytology of a metastatic postradiation sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Murakami, Itsuko; Awai, Seiji; Ogura, Yasuko; Morishita, Yumiko

    1981-01-01

    A female patient who died of apparent postradiation sarcoma in the inguinal region after irradiating a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the same site was reported. For approximately 20 months, the patient had received a total of 6,600 and 9,600 Roentgen to the right para-aortic and inguinal areas, respectively. About 10 years later, she developed a sarcoma, namely a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Sputum cytology demonstrated numerous giant cells with bizarre nuclei; subsequent chest films also presented apparent metastatic tumor shadows. The cellular characteristics and also rather low incidence of detection of nonepithelial malignant tumor by sputum cytology were briefly discussed, and ways of enhancing cytodiagnostic accuracy were proposed. (author)

  7. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological......-choice treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 767 women had FNAC performed from a total of 783 lesions at the Mammography Clinic, University Hospital Odense. All FNACs were compared with the final histology diagnosis. Nine statistical parameters were calculated according to the European guidelines. RESULTS: A total...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  8. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  9. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  10. Impact of Internet on Cytology Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luić, Ljerka; Molnar, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies and services impose global information standards in the sphere of healthcare as a whole, which are then implied and applied in the domain of cytology laboratories. Web-based operations form a significant operating segment of any contemporary cytology laboratory as they enable operations by the use of technology, which is usually free of the restrictions imposed by the traditional way of business (geographic area and narrow localisation of activities). In their operations, almost all healthcare organisations currently create and use electronic data anddocuments, which can originate both inside and outside the organisation. An enormous amount of information thus used and exchanged may be processed timely and in a high-quality way only by integrated information systems, given three basic safety requirements: data confidentiality, integrity and availability. In the Republic of Croatia, integration of private and public healthcare information systems has been ongoing for several years but the private healthcare does not yet operate as an integrated system. Instead, each office operates using its own separate information system, i.e. This paper elaborates the argument that the sample private cytology laboratory possesses an IT system that meets current market and stakeholder needs of the healthcare sector in Croatia, given that private doctors' offices/polyclinics use IT technologies in their operations but make only partial use of Internet capacities in the segment of communication with their business associates and patients, implying the need to continue the research on a statistically relevant sample of EU countries.

  11. Cervical histology after routine ThinPrep or SurePath liquid-based cytology and computer-assisted reading in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Rask, Johanne; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers, technological phases were identified by slide preparation, reading technique, and triage of borderline cytology. Trends in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were an indicator of the technology's relative sensitivity, and trends in false-positive tests......BACKGROUND: We compared the sensitivity and specificity of liquid-based cytology (LBC) and computer-assisted reading for SurePath/FocalPoint and ThinPrep with those of manually read conventional cytology in routine cervical screening in four Danish laboratories. METHODS: Using data from five...

  12. [Why is cytology a profession (branch), not a method? Ten rules for success of the cytology profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardum-Skelin, Ika

    2011-09-01

    Clinical cytology is an interdisciplinary medical diagnostic profession that integrates clinical, laboratory and analytical fields along with final cytologist's expert opinion. Cytology involves nonaggressive, minimally invasive and simple for use procedures that are fully acceptable for the patient. Cytology offers rapid orientation, while in combination with additional technologies on cytologic smear analysis (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry for cell marker analysis, computer image analysis) or sophisticated methods on cytologic samples (flow cytometry, molecular and cytogenetic analysis) it plays a major role in the diagnosis, subtyping and prognosis of malignant tumors. Ten rules for successful performance in cytology are as follows: 1) due knowledge of overall cytology (general cytologist); 2) inclusion in all stages of cytologic sample manipulation from sampling through reporting; 3) due knowledge of additional technologies to provide appropriate interpretation and/or rational advice in dubious cases; 4) to preserve dignity of the profession because every profession has its advantages, shortcomings and limitations; 5) to insist on quality control of the performance, individual cytologists and cytology team; 6) knowledge transfer to young professionals; 7) assisting fellow professionals in dubious cases irrespective of the time needed and fee because it implies helping the patient and the profession itself; 8) experience exchange with other related professionals to upgrade mutual understanding; 9) to prefer the interest of the profession over one's own interest; and 10) to love cytology.

  13. Bibliometric analysis of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal. Journal of Cytology (JOC) is the official publication of Indian Academy of Cytologists. This study aimed to audit the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC from 2007 to 2015 over a 9-year period. Bibliometric analysis of issues of JOC from 2007 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral and maxillofacial cytology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Of the total 93 published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology, original articles (43) and case reports (33) contribute the major share. The highest number of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles was published in 2014 with 17 articles and the least published year was 2010 with three articles. Among the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC, diseases of salivary gland (26) followed by oral exfoliated cells (17), soft tissue tumors (7), round cell tumors (6) and spindle cell neoplasms (5) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology were received from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (5), and Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in India.

  14. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  15. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  16. Cytological Results of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules: Emphasis on Correlation with Sonographic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Hong, Soon Won; Chung, Woung Youn; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Min Jung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. Materials and Methods Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had a conclusive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was based on pathology from surgery, repeated FNA cytology or follow-up of more than one year. Cytological results were divided into five groups: benign, indeterminate (follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm), suspicious for malignancy, malignant, and inadequate. US findings were categorized as benign or suspicious. Cytological results and US categories were analyzed. Results Final diagnosis was concluded upon in 819 nodules based on pathology (n=311), repeated FNA cytology (n=204) and follow-up (n=304), of which 634 were benign and 185 were malignant. There were 560 benign nodules, 141 malignant nodules, 49 nodules with inadequate results, 21 with indeterminate results, and 48 that were suspicious for malignancy. The positive and negative predictive values of the US categories were 59.1% and 97.0%, and those of the cytological results were 93.7% and 98.9%. The US categories were significantly correlated with final diagnosis in the benign (p=0.014) and suspicious for malignancy (pcytological result groups, but not in the inadequate and indeterminate cytological results groups. The false positive and negative rates of cytological results were 1.9% and 3.2%. Conclusion Sonographic findings can be useful when used alongside cytological results, especially in nodules with cytological results that are benign or suspicious for malignancy. PMID:21786450

  17. Modified Core Wash Cytology: A reliable same day biopsy result for breast clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulte, J P; Wauters, C A P; Duijm, L E M; de Wilt, J H W; Strobbe, L J A

    2016-12-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB), Core Needle biopsy (CNB) and hybrid techniques including Core Wash Cytology (CWC) are available for same-day diagnosis in breast lesions. In CWC a washing of the biopsy core is processed for a provisional cytological diagnosis, after which the core is processed like a regular CNB. This study focuses on the reliability of CWC in daily practice. All consecutive CWC procedures performed in a referral breast centre between May 2009 and May 2012 were reviewed, correlating CWC results with the CNB result, definitive diagnosis after surgical resection and/or follow-up. Symptomatic as well as screen-detected lesions, undergoing CNB were included. 1253 CWC procedures were performed. Definitive histology showed 849 (68%) malignant and 404 (32%) benign lesions. 80% of CWC procedures yielded a conclusive diagnosis: this percentage was higher amongst malignant lesions and lower for benign lesions: 89% and 62% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of a conclusive CWC result were respectively 98.3% and 90.4%. The eventual incidence of malignancy in the cytological 'atypical' group (5%) was similar to the cytological 'benign' group (6%). CWC can be used to make a reliable provisional diagnosis of breast lesions within the hour. The high probability of conclusive results in malignant lesions makes CWC well suited for high risk populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. Concordance between otic cytology and culture in diagnosis of external otitis canine by Malassezia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pulido-Villamarín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the correlation between microbiological culture and otic cytology for diagnoses of external otitis by Malassezia in dogs. Materials and methods. 158 ear swabs of dogs with clinical diagnosis of external otitis were analyzed by cytology, mycological culture and metabolic tests. Results. Were obtained a positive results by cytology of 62% and 75.3% by culture. The 31.1% of isolates were identified as M. pachydermatis, 12.6% as M. furfur and 56.3% were classified as Malassezia spp., because was not possible to define the species. We found a positive concordance between cytology and culture for Malassezia spp., of 0.76 with a kappa index of 0.448 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.60 which represents a moderate strength of concordance between the two techniques, without regard the identified species. Conclusions. The use of a diagnostic test is not enough to establish the participation of Malassezia spp., as a causal disease agent.

  19. Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, E; Bofin, A; Gudmundsdóttir, I; Skogvoll, E

    2008-10-01

    Cytology may become the diagnostic method of choice with the advent of new non-invasive treatments for non-melanoma skin cancer, as the sampling technique for cytology entails little tissue disfiguration. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the diagnostic performance of scrape cytology using two different cytological staining techniques, and to evaluate additional touch imprint cytology, with that of histopathology of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK). We investigated 50 BCC and 28 AK histologically verified lesions, from 41 and 25 patients, respectively. Two separate skin scrape samples and one touch imprint sample were taken from each lesion. The smears were stained with Papanicolaou (Pap) or May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stains. All cytological specimens were examined in random order by pathologists without knowledge of the histology. Cytodiagnostic results were compared with the histopathological report. Scrape cytodiagnosis agreed with histopathology in 48 (Pap) and 47 (MGG) of the 50 BCC cases, and in 26 of 28 (Pap) and 21 of 26 (MGG) AK cases, yielding sensitivities of 96%, 94%, 93% and 81%, respectively. No significant difference in sensitivity between the two staining methods was found but a trend towards higher Pap sensitivity for AK was noted (P = 0.10). Touch imprint cytology confirmed histopathology in 38 of the 77 cases of BCC and AK. Cytological diagnosis with either Pap or MGG stain for BCC and AK is reliable, and differentiates well between BCC and AK. Imprint cytology proved to be non-diagnostic in half of the examined cases.

  20. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  1. Determination of morphological and cytological differences between diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail ŞİMŞEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the seedless watermelon breeding programme, firstly, tetraploid parents must be developed by the breeders. When diploid watermelon lines treated with colchicine and oryzaline in vivo and vitro conditions, tetraploid plants could be obtained. The diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants should be selected within the population. For this reason, some markers (morphological, isozyme, cytological and molecular techniques are needed to separate from diploid and tetraploid plants. Chromosome counts and DNA content of diploid and tetraploid plants as a result of measurement of flow cytometry distinction can be made definitively. However, the laboratory infrastructure required to implement each method, is not economical. The purpose of this study is to select the tetraploid watermelon plants at M1 stage from populations applied colchicine and oryzaline with morphological anda cytological investigations in in vivo conditions. In this study, tetraploid plants belong to the four watermelon lines and diploid plants compared with the morphological and cytological dates. Morphological dates; width of the leaf-length (cm, male flower diameter (mm, diameter-length of the ovary (mm, the female flower petal width and length (mm were measured. Cytological assessment of the stoma diameter (μm, stomatal length (μm, stomatal density and chloroplast number were measured. In the present study has shown that the tetraploid plants grow vigorously as compared to diploid plants. Tetraploid plants are the number of chloroplasts increased, but decreased stomatal density were determined. As a result, tetraploid plants could be selected practically and economically by using morphological and cytological data for watermelon plants.

  2. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  3. Role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in ulcerated skin neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Babu, Ravindra; Pai, Dinker; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Imprint cytology is a method of studying cells by taking an imprint from the cut surface of a wedge biopsy specimen or from the resected margins of a surgical specimen. It is rapid, simple and fairly accurate. Exfoliative cytology is an offshoot from the imprint cytology where in cells obtained from the surface of ulcers, either by scrape or brush, are analyzed for the presence of malignant cells. We undertook this study to see the role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of ulcerated skin neoplasm and to check the adequacy of resected margins intra-operatively. This was a prospective investigative study conducted from September 2003 to July 2005. All patients presenting to surgical clinic with ulcerated skin and soft tissue tumours were included in the study. A wedge biopsy obtained from the ulcer and imprint smears were taken from the cut surface. Exfoliative cytology was analyzed from the surface smears. Wedge biopsy specimen was sent for histopathological (HPE) examination. The cytology and HPE were analyzed by a separate pathologist. Imprint cytology was also used to check the adequacy of resected margins in case of wide excision. This was compared with final HPE. Total of 107 patients was included in the present study and 474 imprint smears were done, with an average of 4.43 slides per lesion. Out of 59 wide excision samples, 132 imprint smears were prepared for assessing resected margins accounting for an average of 2.24 slides per each excised lesion. On combining imprint cytology with exfoliative cytology the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 90.38 %, 100 % and 90.38 % respectively. Only one out of 59 cases had a positive resected margin which was not picked by imprint cytology. Imprint cytology can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various skin malignancies. It can also be used to check the adequacy of the resected margin intraoperatively.

  4. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  5. Cytological techniques to study human female meiotic prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Ignasi; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Most of the human aneuploidies have a maternal origin. This feature makes the study of human female meiosis a fundamental topic to understand the reasons leading to this important social problem. Unfortunately, due to sample collection difficulties, not many studies have been performed on human female meiotic prophase. In this chapter we present a comprehensive collection of protocols that allows the study of human female meiotic prophase through different technical approaches using both spread and structurally preserved oocytes.

  6. Cytologic studies on irradiated gestric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, S; Takeda, T; Amakasu, H; Asakawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    The smears of the biopsy and resected specimens obtained from 74 cases of irradiated gastric cancer were cytologically analyzed for effects of irradiation. Irradiation increased the amount of both necrotic materials and neutrophils in the smears. Cancer cells were decreased in number almost in inverse proportion to irradiation dose. Clusters of cancer cells shrank in size and cells were less stratified after irradiation. Irradiated cytoplasms were swollen, vacuolated and stained abnormally. Irradiation with less than 3,000 rads gave rise to swelling of cytoplasms in almost all cases. Nuclei became enlarged, multiple, pyknotic and/or stained pale after irradiation. Nuclear swelling was more remarkable in cancer cells of differentiated adenocarcinomas.

  7. Exfoliative liver cytology in Oreochromis mossambicus as a bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of exfoliative cytology as a bio-assessment tool was evaluated to (1) identify and describe different cell types of normal liver cytology of Oreochromis mossambicus, (2) identify and describe changes in the cell types after exposure to cadmium and zinc, and (3) determine if non-imaging-guided fine-needle aspiration ...

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshaa Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  9. Cytologic features of microcystic adnexal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasis Sirikanjanapong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC is an uncommon skin neoplasm with a predilection location around the lips. It is characterized by cords and nests of neoplastic cells forming ductular or glandular structures that are embedded in dense collagenous stroma. An eighty-seven year old Caucasian female patient presented with a painless, slowly enlarging mass measuring 3.3 x 2.7 x 1.0 cm on the lower lip for approximately 6 months. The patient underwent 2 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAs. Smears made from both FNAs demonstrated similar features including low cellular smears, three dimensional cell clusters forming a glandular structure, round to oval cells with high N:C ratio, occasional cytoplasmic lumens, without distinct hyperchromasia, focal inconspicuous nucleoli, smooth regular nuclear membranes, abundant naked nuclei, occasional squamoid cells and focal acellular stromal fragments in the background. The cytologic differential diagnosis included skin adnexal carcinoma and low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the minor salivary gland. The mass was subsequently excised. The diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma was made. We report cytologic features of MAC and also suggest that MAC can possibly be diagnosed by FNA with the appropriate clinical vignette and immunohistochemical profile..

  10. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

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    Mondal Palash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33, schwannoma (3, neurofibroma (11, paraganglioma (5, angiofibroma (1 and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1. Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation.

  12. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    of samples with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (≥ASCUS) by age and technology phase. We included 391 140 samples. The proportion of ≥ASCUS increased steadily from 3.8% in phase 1 to 6.0% in phase 5. This pattern varied considerably across age groups. In women aged 23-34 years......Unlike for human papillomavirus screening, little is known about the possible age-dependent variation in the outcomes of cervical cytology screening. The aim of our study was to describe age-related outcomes of five cytological technologies in a population-based screening program targeting women...... aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...

  13. Preparation of DNA from cytological material: effects of fixation, staining, and mounting medium on DNA yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmek, Annika; Zendehrokh, Nooreldin; Tomaszewska, Malgorzata; Edsjö, Anders

    2013-07-01

    Personalized oncology requires molecular analysis of tumor cells. Several studies have demonstrated that cytological material is suitable for DNA analysis, but to the authors' knowledge there are no systematic studies comparing how the yield and quality of extracted DNA is affected by the various techniques used for the preparation of cytological material. DNA yield and quality were compared using cultured human lung cancer cells subjected to different preparation techniques used in routine cytology, including fixation, mounting medium, and staining. The results were compared with the outcome of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotyping of 66 clinical cytological samples using the same DNA preparation protocol. All tested protocol combinations resulted in fragment lengths of at least 388 base pairs. The mounting agent EcoMount resulted in higher yields than traditional xylene-based medium. Spray and ethanol fixation resulted in both a higher yield and better DNA quality than air drying. In liquid-based cytology (LBC) methods, CytoLyt solution resulted in a 5-fold higher yield than CytoRich Red. Papanicolaou staining provided twice the yield of hematoxylin and eosin staining in both liquid-based preparations. Genotyping outcome and quality control values from the clinical EGFR genotyping demonstrated a sufficient amount and amplifiability of DNA in both spray-fixed and air-dried cytological samples. Reliable clinical genotyping can be performed using all tested methods. However, in the cell line experiments, spray- or ethanol-fixed, Papanicolaou-stained slides provided the best results in terms of yield and fragment length. In LBC, the DNA recovery efficiency of the preserving medium may differ considerably, which should be taken into consideration when introducing LBC. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013;121:344-353. © 2013 American Cancer Society. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  14. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Comparative analysis between the cytobrush and low-volume uterine flush techniques for endometrial cytology in clinically normal postpartum crossbred dairy cowsComparação das técnicas de citologia endometrial escova citológica e lavado uterino de baixo volume no pós-parto de vacas leiteiras mestiças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Elsen Saut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared two frequently employed techniques for the collection of endometrial and inflammatory cells and characterized postpartum endometrial cytology (EC of clinically normal postpartum crossbred dairy cows in dairy farming system in Southwestern Brazil. Thirty-four crossbred, clinically healthy dairy cows with normal delivery and puerperium, complete uterine involution and without any treatment were monitored until 42 days in milk (DIM. All cows were evaluated by complete clinical and gynecological examinations at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 DIM. The gynecological examinations were done by transrectal palpation, ultrasonography, vaginoscopy, evaluation of the vaginal mucus and EC by using the cytobrush (CB and low-volume uterine flush (LVF techniques. The agreement (Kappa statistic between the two technicians was good for CB (86% and LVF (80.3% for the counting of the percentage of neutrophils. The average number of neutrophils was significantly higher throughout the experiment for LVF, but a reduced percentage of neutrophils were observed during the postpartum period for both techniques. The amount of macrophages, lymphocytes, and eosinophils were not affected during postpartum and there was no significant difference relative to these cells when the two techniques were compared. There were significant differences in the percentage of cows with subclinical endometritis only at d28 by CB (22.2% and LVF (59.3%. Objetivou-se comparar duas técnicas frequentemente usadas na colheita de células endometriais e inflamatórias e caracterizar a citologia endometrial (CE de vacas leiteiras mestiças no pós-parto fisiológico, criadas em sistemas de fazendas leiteiras do sudoeste do Brasil. Foram utilizadas 34 vacas clinicamente sadias com parto e puerpério fisiológico, completa involução uterina e sem qualquer tratamento até os 42 dias pós-parto (dpp. Realizou-se o exame clínico e ginecológico no parto e aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 42 dpp

  16. Exfoliative cytology of oral epithelial cells from patients with type 2 diabetes: cytomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Núñez-de-Mendoza, Camila

    2013-01-01

    This research objective is to identify cytomorphometrical changes using exfoliative cytology (EC) and later Papanicolaou (Pap) staining, for oral epithelial cells of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 30), while being compared to patients without the disease (n = 30). Additionally, we investigated an association between cellular changes and salivary flow levels; relationship that until now has not been reported. Results show that the cell diameter and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was significantly higher compared to those patients without the disease (p ≤ 0.001 Student and Welch test). Decreased salivary flow was significantly associated with increased cell diameter and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (p ≤ 0.001 ANOVA with Tukey test). Evidence and clinical observations show that DM2 and decreased salivary flow are related to detectable cytomorphometrical changes in exfoliated cells, which may extend the horizon of this cytological technique.

  17. Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Rafael; Sandrin, Rodrigo; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells of the oral mucosa infected by Candida albicans using exfoliative cytology. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 patients with oral candidiasis and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for morphologic and cytomorphometric technique. Morphologically, candida-infected epithelial cells exhibited nuclear enlargement, perinuclear rings, discrete orangeophilia, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic area (CA) of the epithelial cells was diminished in patients undergoing candidiasis as compared to the non-infected controls. In addition, there was an augmentation in nuclear area (NA) and NA/CA area ratio. This study revealed that oral mucosa of patients undergoing candidal infection exhibited significant changes in the size and shape of the oral epithelial cells. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability.

  19. Stereotaxic cytology of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, S.; Rosselli del Turco, M.; Bravetti, P.; Catarzi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on 791 consecutive cases undergoing stereotaxic cytology for non palpable lesions detected at mammography. Histologic diagnosis (malignant = 179, benign = 107) or mammographic folow-up after at least one year (benign = 275) was available in 561 cases. The overall inadequacy rate of stereotaxic cytology was 0.21, and dependent on lesion type (benign = 0.25, malignant = 0.13 p<0.001) and on sampling operator experience (range 0.17-0.31, p<0.001). Sensitivity (dubious+positive, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.83 and dependent on histologic type (infiltrating = 0.87, intraductal = 0.68). Specificity (negative/benign, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.96. Stereotaxic cytology helped in reducing the number of unnecessary beningn biopsies and the biopsy ratio was 0.6 benign to 1 malignant biopsy. In cases with moderate suspicion at mammography the radiologist felt reassured by negative cytology and advised mammographic control rather than surgical biopsy. Cytology was determinant in advising surgical biopsy in 9 cancer cases whereas the absence of cytologic positivity contributed to diagnostic delay in 2 cancer cases. Overall, stereotaxic cytology allowed a relevant reduction of unnecessary benign biopsies and should be routinely employed in the diagnostic work-up of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

  20. Preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis by clinical cytology

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    Matsuda K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Katsuya Matsuda,1 Hisayoshi Nakajima,2 Khaleque N Khan,1 Terumi Tanigawa,1 Daisuke Hamaguchi,1 Michio Kitajima,1 Koichi Hiraki,1 Shingo Moriyama,3 Hideaki Masuzaki11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Health Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Shimabara Maternity Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Methods: This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD cytology.Results: The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture.Conclusion: The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Keywords: actinomycosis, cytology, pathology, intrauterine contraceptive device, pelvic inflammatory disease

  1. The validity of immunocytochemical expression of cyclin D1 in fine needle aspiration cytology of breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, N.; Hafez, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to study the validity of cyclin D1 expression, a cell Fenac; cycle regulatory protein, on (fine needle aspiration cytology) FNAC samples in patients with breast Breast carcinoma; carcinoma using immunostaining technique. Cyclin D1 Patient and methods: This is a study done on 70 patients with primary breast carcinoma, presented to Cytology Unit, Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. They underwent preoperative FNAC and diagnosed as breast carcinoma. The cytologic and tissue section slides were subjected to cyclin D1 immunocytochemical staining. Only the nuclear immunoreactivity for cyclin D1 was considered specific. The rate of concordance, and discordance, and kappa value were calculated. Relation between cytologic expression of cyclin D1 and different clinico pathologic parameters was evaluated. Results: Cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression was observed in 53/70 cases (75.7%) in cytologic smears. In histologic sections of the corresponding cases, cyclin D1 was detected in 48/70 cases (68.6%). The concordance rate of cyclin D1 expression in the FNA and histologic sections was 87.1% while the discordance rate was 12.9%. Kappa showed a value of 0.65. A statistically significant relation was found between cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression and hormonal status as well as nuclear grade. Conclusion: Cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression can be performed successfully on cytologic samples with a high concordance rate and agreement with histologic results. This can help in determining tumor biology, and plan for patients treatment. The marker showed a significant relation with hormone receptor status and nuclear grade

  2. Probability of malignancy in non-palpable thyroid nodules. Predictive value of color Doppler ultrasound and cytological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Espinosa Sebastian; Pineda Ordonez, Diego; Garcia, Sandra; Costilla, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and Doppler criteria in the differentiation of malignant nodules, using cytological diagnosis as standard reference. Material and Method: Prospective observational study in 200 patients, between March-September 2008, assessed for known thyroid nodular disease using FNA. The probability of malignancy was categorized as low (0-3), intermediate (4-7) or high (greater than 7). The procedures were performed using Medison Sonoline ultrasound equipment, with a linear transducer (7.5 MHz), and the aspiration was performed with a 25 G needle and sent to cytology immediately. A single sample was needed in 88% of cases. Results: Approximately 96% of the nodules that went to cytology were categorized as low-grade, 3% as intermediate and 1% as high, without significant differences (p>0.5) when compared with the ultrasound score. Sonographic features indicating a high probability of malignancy were found in 2% (n=5) of cases, and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytology in 2 cases. Malignancy criteria such as size (>1 cm), irregular contours, solid echo structure, calcifications, and intranodal Doppler showed variable sensitivity and specificity (S: 32-44% and E: 28-55%) with overlapping confidence intervals within lesions of intermediate and low probability. Low probability lesions showed isoechogenicity, regular contours, lack of calcifications and intralesional Doppler, for a negative predictive value of 62-77%. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overlapping sonographic features between benign and malignant nodules requires final cytological diagnosis in most cases, given the safety of the cytological technique and the short waiting time.

  3. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of pancreas. Cytological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coufal, L.; Heger, L.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits are presented of cytological examination of bioptical material from the pancreas using computerized tomography (CT) or ultrasound. The case is presented of one patient who had repeatedly undergone endoscopy with no results. Only cytological examination of material sampled using fine needle aspiration under CT control helped to immediately diagnose the process. The cytological finding correlated with the histological examination of material later taken during surgery. The problems are discussed of the differential diagnosis of tumors of the pancreas. (author). 5 figs., 9 refs

  4. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  5. [Frequency of cervical epithelial lesions reported in the Regional Laboratory of Exfoliative Cytology in Jalisco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Sergio; Martínez-Silva, María G; Hernández-Hernández, Dulce M; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The Official Mexican Norm for the prevention, treatment and control of Cervical Cancer (CC) indicates that the Papanicolau (Pap) is the procedure for the detection of this neoplasia; therefore, it is of interest to know the prevalence of suspected cases by this technique in Mexican population. In this study, we show the diagnosed cases in the State of Jalisco, México. A retrospective study was made to the samples that arrived for their analysis to the Laboratorio Regional de Citología Exfoliativa (LARCE), of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Guadalajara, Jalisco. We considered all cases from January 2010 to December 2012. We analyzed 188 095 cases, from which 5.3 % had a diagnosis of low dysplasia, 0.18 % of moderated dysplasia and 0.05 % of high dysplasia. Microinvasive and invasive cancer showed a low frequency (0.03 %). The frequency of abnormal findings identified by vaginal cervical cytology is relatively low. The number of inadequate and limited samples for cytological assessment is high; there is a high proportion of women attending for the first time in life to cytology evaluation in older age groups.

  6. Intraoperative squash smear cytology in CNS lesions: A study of 150 pediatric cases

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    Arpita Jindal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumors of the central nervous system in the pediatric age group occur relatively frequently during the early years of life. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies of childhood and only second to acute childhood leukemia. Squash cytology is an indispensable diagnostic aid to central nervous system (CNS lesions. The definitive diagnosis of brain lesions is confirmed by histological examination. Aim: To study the cytology of CNS lesions in pediatric population and correlate it with histopathology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty cases of CNS lesions in pediatric patients were studied over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative squash smears were prepared, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined. Remaining sample was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Medulloblastoma (24.0% was the most frequently encountered tumor followed by pilocyctic astrocytoma (21.33% and ependymoma (13.33%. Diagnostic accuracy of squash smear technique was 94.67% when compared with histological diagnosis. Conclusion: Smear cytology is a fairly accurate tool for intraoperative CNS consultations.

  7. Improved removal of blood contamination from ThinPrep cervical cytology samples for Raman spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Damien; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Martin, Cara M; O'Leary, John J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2018-05-01

    There is an unmet need for methods to help in the early detection of cervical precancer. Optical spectroscopy-based techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, have shown great potential for diagnosis of different cancers, including cervical cancer. However, relatively few studies have been carried out on liquid-based cytology (LBC) pap test specimens and confounding factors, such as blood contamination, have been identified. Previous work reported a method to remove blood contamination before Raman spectroscopy by pretreatment of the slides with hydrogen peroxide. The aim of the present study was to extend this work to excessively bloody samples to see if these could be rendered suitable for Raman spectroscopy. LBC ThinPrep specimens were treated by adding hydrogen peroxide directly to the vial before slide preparation. Good quality Raman spectra were recorded from negative and high grade (HG) cytology samples with no blood contamination and with heavy blood contamination. Good classification between negative and HG cytology could be achieved for samples with no blood contamination (sensitivity 92%, specificity 93%) and heavy blood contamination (sensitivity 89%, specificity 88%) with poorer classification when samples were combined (sensitivity 82%, specificity 87%). This study demonstrates for the first time the improved potential of Raman spectroscopy for analysis of ThinPrep specimens regardless of blood contamination. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  8. Management of thyroid cytological material, pre-analytical procedures and bio-banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Cochand-Priollet, Beatrix; Straccia, Patrizia; Fadda, Guido; Bongiovanni, Massimo

    2018-06-09

    Thyroid nodules are common and increasingly detected due to recent advances in imaging techniques. However, clinically relevant thyroid cancer is rare and the mortality from aggressive thyroid cancer remains constant. FNAC (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) is a standard method for diagnosing thyroid malignancy and the discrimination of malignant nodules from goiter. As the examined nodules on thyroid FNAC are often small incidental findings, it is important to maintain a low rate of undetermined diagnoses requiring further clinical work up or surgery. The most important factors determining the accuracy of the cytological diagnosis and suitability for biobanking of thyroid FNACs are the quality of the sample and availability of adequate tissue for auxiliary studies. This article analyses technical aspects (pre-analytics) of performing thyroid FNACs, including image guidance and rapid on slide evaluation (ROSE), sample collection methods (conventional slides, liquid based methods (LBC), cell blocks) and storage (bio-banking). The spectrum of the special studies (immunocytochemistry on direct slides or LBC, immunohistochemistry on cell blocks and molecular methods) required for improving the precision of the cytological diagnosis of the thyroid nodules is discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Nevoid melanoma of the vagina: report of one case diagnosed on thin layer cytological preparations

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    Ascierto Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare neoplasm with approximately 250 reported cases in the world literature 1234. In its amelanotic variant this lesion may raise several differential diagnostic problems in cytological specimens 5. In this setting, the usage of thin layer cytopathological techniques (Liquid Based Preparations = LBP may enhance the diagnostic sensitivity by permitting immunocytochemical study without having to repeat the sampling procedure. The aim of this paper is to describe the cytomorphological presentation of primary vaginal melanoma on LBP since it has not previously been reported up to now, to our knowledge. Case presentation a 79-y-o female complaining of vulvar itching and yellowish vaginal discharge underwent a complete gynaecological evaluation during which a LBP cytological sample was taken from a suspicious whitish mass protruding into the vaginal lumen. A cytopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was rendered. The mass was radically excised and the patient was treated with α-Interferon. Conclusion amelanotic melanoma may be successfully diagnosed on LBP cytological preparations. Thin layer preparations may enhance the diagnostic cytomorphological clues to its diagnosis and may permit an adequate immunocytochemical characterization of the neoplasm.

  10. Nevoid melanoma of the vagina: report of one case diagnosed on thin layer cytological preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulciniti, Franco; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Simeone, Ester; Bove, Patrizia; Losito, Simona; Russo, Serena; Gallo, Maria Stella; Greggi, Stefano

    2007-07-03

    Primary melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare neoplasm with approximately 250 reported cases in the world literature 1234. In its amelanotic variant this lesion may raise several differential diagnostic problems in cytological specimens 5. In this setting, the usage of thin layer cytopathological techniques (Liquid Based Preparations = LBP) may enhance the diagnostic sensitivity by permitting immunocytochemical study without having to repeat the sampling procedure. The aim of this paper is to describe the cytomorphological presentation of primary vaginal melanoma on LBP since it has not previously been reported up to now, to our knowledge. a 79-y-o female complaining of vulvar itching and yellowish vaginal discharge underwent a complete gynaecological evaluation during which a LBP cytological sample was taken from a suspicious whitish mass protruding into the vaginal lumen. A cytopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was rendered. The mass was radically excised and the patient was treated with alpha-Interferon. amelanotic melanoma may be successfully diagnosed on LBP cytological preparations. Thin layer preparations may enhance the diagnostic cytomorphological clues to its diagnosis and may permit an adequate immunocytochemical characterization of the neoplasm.

  11. STUDY OF INTRAOPERATIVE SQUASH CYTOLOGY OF INTRACRANIAL AND SPINAL CORD LESIONS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND IHC STUDY

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    Naval Kishore Bajaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The causes of discordant diagnoses achieved at squash cytology of intracranial and spinal cord tumours were ascertained. Lesions having the advantage of diagnostic accuracy by squash cytology of intracranial and spinal cord lesions was also determined. METHODS Squash preparations of 72 patients suspected to have neoplasia were made and stained with rapid haematoxylin and eosin stain and toluidine blue stain. The smears were classified according to the cytomorphological criteria and the squash cytodiagnoses were compared. RESULTS Total 72 cases were studied, 93.9% were neoplastic and 6.1% non-neoplastic on histopathology. Amongst neoplasms, Astrocytic tumours constituted 26.3% of cases followed by Meningiomas comprising 20.8%. Amongst the benign lesions, Tuberculoma was seen most frequently (6.95%. Overall diagnostic accuracy of squash was 98.65%. On statistical analysis, Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive value (PPV and Negative Predictive Value (NPV of squash cytology were 98.6%, 100%, 100% and 80% respectively. CONCLUSION Intraoperative Squash is reliable, accurate, cost effective diagnostic modality when combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques.

  12. What sampling device is the most appropriate for vaginal vault cytology in gynaecological cancer follow up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, Del Pup; Vincenzo, Canzonieri; Diego, Serraino; Elio, Campagnutta

    2012-01-01

    In women with cancer-related hysterectomy, the vaginal vault cytology has a low efficacy - when performed by conventional methods – for the early detection of vaginal recurrence. The amount of exfoliated cells collected is generally low because of atrophy, and the vaginal vault corners can be so narrow that the commonly used Ayres spatula cannot often penetrate deeply into them. This prospective study aimed at identifying the advantages obtained in specimens collection using the cytobrush, as compared to the Ayres’s spatula. 141 gynaecologic cancer patients were studied to compare samplings collected with Ayre’s spatula or with cytobrush. In a pilot setting of 15 patients, vaginal cytology samples obtained by both Ayre’s spatula and cytobrush were placed at the opposite sites of a single slide for quali-quantitative evaluation. Thereafter, the remaining 126 consecutive women were assigned to either group A (spatula) or B (cytobrush) according to the order of entry. The same gynaecologist performed all the procedures. In all 15 pilot cases, the cytobrush seemed to collect a higher quantity of material. The comparative analysis of the two complete groups indicated that the cytobrush technique was more effective than the spatula one. The odds ratio (OR) for an optimal cytology using the cytobrush was 2.8 (95% confidence interval -C.I. 1.3–6.2; chi-square test, p=0.008). Vaginal vault cytology with cytobrush turned out to better perform than the traditional Ayre’s spatula to obtain an adequate sampling in gynecological cancer patients

  13. A reporting system for endometrial cytology: Cytomorphologic criteria-Implied risk of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Niki; Pouliakis, Abraham; Anoinos, Dionysios; Terzakis, Emmanouil; Koureas, Nikolaos; Chrelias, Charalampos; Marios Makris, George; Pappas, Assimakis; Bilirakis, Evripidis; Goudeli, Christina; Damaskou, Vasileia; Papantoniou, Nicolaos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Karakitsos, Petros

    2016-11-01

    There have been various attempts to assess endometrial lesions on cytological material obtained via direct endometrial sampling. The majority of efforts focus on the description of cytological criteria that lead to classification systems resembling histological reporting formats. These systems have low reproducibility, especially in cases of atypical hyperplasia and well differentiated carcinomas. Moreover, they are not linked to the implied risk of malignancy. The material was collected from women examined at the outpatient department of four participating hospitals. We analyzed 866 consecutive, histologically confirmed cases. The sample collection was performed using the EndoGyn device, and processed via Liquid Based Cytology, namely ThinPrep technique. The diagnostic categories and criteria were established by two cytopathologists experienced in endometrial cytology; performance of the proposed reporting format was assessed on the basis of histological outcome; moreover, the implied risk of malignancy was calculated. The proposed six diagnostic categories are as follows: (i) nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory; (ii) without evidence of hyperplasia or malignancy; (iii) atypical cells of endometrium of undetermined significance; (iv) atypical cells of endometrium of low probability for malignancy; (v) atypical cells of endometrium of high probability for malignancy; and (vi) malignant. The risk of malignancy was 1.42% ± 0.98%, 44.44% ± 32.46% (nine cases), 4.30% ± 4.12%, 89.80% ± 8.47%, and 97.81% ± 2.45%, respectively. We propose a clinically oriented classification scheme consisting of diagnostic categories with well determined criteria. Each diagnostic category is linked with an implied risk of malignancy; thus, clinicians may decide on patient management and eventually reduce unnecessary interventional diagnostic procedures. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:888-901. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer in the munici......OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ...-based technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  15. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

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    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  16. Endometrial cytology in the female cat (Felis catus) during diestrus

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Riquelme, Alfonso; Arias Ruiz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and quantify cytological findings in the cat’s endometrium (Felis catus). Twenty genital tracts were obtained by ovariohysterectomy. To establish the status of the estrous cycle, vaginal cytology was evaluated and ovarian structures were recorded, resulting that all females were in the luteal phase. According to the presence of corpora lutea and follicles, a classification of the luteal phase was proposed: early diestrus: corpora lutea and follicles of...

  17. Age estimation using exfoliative cytology and radiovisiography: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamala, Shilpa; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Taneeru, Sravya

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of an individual. Among various methods, exfoliative cytology (EC) is a unique, noninvasive technique, involving simple, and pain-free collection of intact cells from the oral cavity for microscopic examination. The study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the age of an individual from the average cell size of their buccal smears calculated using image analysis morphometric software and the pulp-tooth area ratio in mandibular canine of the same individual using radiovisiography (RVG). Buccal smears were collected from 100 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using Papanicolaou stain. The average cell size was measured using image analysis software (Image-Pro Insight 8.0). The RVG images of mandibular canines were obtained, pulp and tooth areas were traced using AutoCAD 2010 software, and area ratio was calculated. The estimated age was then calculated using regression analysis. The paired t -test between chronological age and estimated age by cell size and pulp-tooth area ratio was statistically nonsignificant ( P > 0.05). In the present study, age estimated by pulp-tooth area ratio and EC yielded good results.

  18. The British Society for Clinical Cytology Certificate of Competence in Cytology Screening: a report of the first 3 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoogan, E; Chapman, P A

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 the Department of Health (DOH) recognized the cytology screener grade of laboratory staff. Cytology screeners have a 2 year training period after which they must sit a 'competence examination'. The British Society for Clinical Cytology offers an examination to meet the DOH specification. It consists of a written paper, a practical screening test, a spot test and a short viva voce. The screening test is paramount and candidates who miss a dyskaryotic smear cannot be successful. In the first 3 years there have been 22 examinations, 294 candidates and a pass rate of 76%. The majority of candidates were Cytology Screeners of 2-3 years experience but significant numbers of Medical Laboratory Scientific Officers (MLSOs) and senior MLSOs also chose to sit the examination.

  19. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

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    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  20. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasta, Julian A; Chaitra, V; Simi, Cm; Correa, Marjorie

    2009-04-01

    Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81%) of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  1. Raman exfoliative cytology for oral precancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Gera, Poonam; Pai, Venkatesh; Dubey, Abhishek; Tyagi, Gunjan; Waghmare, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Mahimkar, Manoj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2017-11-01

    Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis, often precede oral cancer. Screening and management of these premalignant conditions can improve prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has previously demonstrated potential in the diagnosis of oral premalignant conditions (in vivo), detected viral infection, and identified cancer in both oral and cervical exfoliated cells (ex vivo). The potential of Raman exfoliative cytology (REC) in identifying premalignant conditions was investigated. Oral exfoliated samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), healthy volunteers with tobacco habits (n=20), and oral premalignant conditions (n=27, OPL) using Cytobrush. Spectra were acquired using Raman microprobe. Spectral acquisition parameters were: λex: 785 nm, laser power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s, and average: 3. Postspectral acquisition, cell pellet was subjected to Pap staining. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal component analysis and principal component-linear discriminant analysis using both spectra- and patient-wise approaches in three- and two-group models. OPLs could be identified with ˜77% (spectra-wise) and ˜70% (patient-wise) sensitivity in the three-group model while with 86% (spectra-wise) and 83% (patient-wise) in the two-group model. Use of histopathologically confirmed premalignant cases and better sampling devices may help in development of improved standard models and also enhance the sensitivity of the method. Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions.

  2. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

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    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  4. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center

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    A. B. Zarami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.R.; Marziona, F.; Oyafuso, M.; Carvalho, M.I. de

    1989-01-01

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  6. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive cytology exists and may be missed by primary HPV screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:795-805. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Urethroscopy and urethral cytology in men with external genital condyloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, R A; Malek, R S; Goellner, J R; Hyland, K M

    1994-03-01

    To develop guidelines as to which asymptomatic male patients with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection need further evaluation of the urethra, we studied two screening methods: urethroscopy and voided urethral cytology. In a four-year period, 135 asymptomatic men underwent complete screening for HPV infection. They were evaluated because of HPV-related genital disease in their female sex partners or visible genital lesions, or both. Of the 135 patients, 21 (16%) had no clinical, subclinical, cytologic, or urethroscopic evidence of disease, and 114 (84%) had biopsy-proven HPV infection. Of these 114 patients, only 14 (12.3%) had intraurethral condyloma. All of these 14 patients had current or historical evidence of meatal or perimeatal "sentinel" lesions. They constituted 29.8 percent of 47 such patients with sentinel lesions. In 5 patients (4%), results of voided urine cytology were positive for condyloma cells, but only 1 of these had visible intraurethral disease. Of the 14 patients with urethral disease, only 1 (7%) had positive results of urine cytology. These observations suggest that any asymptomatic male patient undergoing screening for condyloma acuminatum who has a history of or demonstrable subclinical or grossly visible perimeatal or meatal HPV infection should undergo urethroscopy and that voided urine cytology is not a reliable or cost-effective test for the detection of visible intraurethral disease.

  8. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour: Cytological and immunocytochemical features

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    Filho Adhemar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA. Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.

  9. Role of scrape cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis of tumor

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    Kolte Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rapid diagnosis of surgically removed specimens has created many controversies and a single completely reliable method has not yet been developed. Histopathology of a paraffin section remains the ultimate gold standard in tissue diagnosis. Frozen section is routinely used by the surgical pathology laboratories for intraoperative diagnosis. The use of either frozen section or cytological examination alone has an acceptable rate (93-97% of correct diagnosis, with regard to interpretation of benign versus malignant. Aim : To evaluate the utility of scrape cytology for the rapid diagnosis of surgically removed tumors and its utilisation for learning cytopathology. Materials and Methods : 75 surgically removed specimens from various organs and systems were studied. Scrapings were taken from each specimen before formalin fixation and stained by modified rapid Papanicolaou staining. Results : Of the 75 cases studied, 73 could be correctly differentiated into benign and malignant tumors, with an accuracy rate of 97.3%. Conclusions : Intraoperative scrape cytology is useful for intraoperative diagnosis of tumor, where facilities for frozen section are not available. The skill and expertise developed by routinely practicing intraoperative cytology can be applied to the interpretation of fine needle aspirate smears. Thus, apart from its diagnostic role, intraoperative cytology can become a very useful learning tool in the field of cytopathology.

  10. Liquid-based cytology and cell block immunocytochemistry in veterinary medicine: comparison with standard cytology for the evaluation of canine lymphoid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, N C C A; Guerra, J M; Réssio, R A; Wasques, D G; Etlinger-Colonelli, D; Lorente, S; Nogueira, E; Dagli, M L Z

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-based Cytology (LBC) consists of immediate wet cell fixation with automated slide preparation. We applied LBC, cell block (CB) and immunocytochemistry to diagnose canine lymphoma and compare results with conventional cytology. Samples from enlarged lymph nodes of 18 dogs were collected and fixed in preservative solution for automated slide preparation (LBC), CB inclusion and immunophenotyping. Two CB techniques were tested: fixed sediment method (FSM) and agar method (AM). Anti-CD79a, anti-Pax5, anti-CD3 and anti-Ki67 were used in immunocytochemistry. LBC smears showed better nuclear and nucleolar definition, without cell superposition, but presented smaller cell size and worse cytoplasmic definition. FSM showed consistent cellular groups and were employed for immunocytochemistry, while AM CBs presented sparse groups of lymphocytes, with compromised analysis. Anti-Pax-5 allowed B-cell identification, both in reactive and neoplastic lymph nodes. Our preliminary report suggests that LBC and FSM together may be promising tools to improve lymphoma diagnosis through fine-needle aspiration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of RNA Extraction Methods for Molecular Analysis of Oral Cytology

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    Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: The aim of this study was to compare three methods of RNA extraction for molecular analysis of oral cytology to establish the best technique, considering its concentration and purity for molecular tests of oral lesions such as real-time reverse transcriptase reaction. Material and methods: The sample included exfoliative cytology from the oral cavity mucosa of patients with no visible clinical changes, using Orcellex Rovers Brush®. The extraction of total RNA was performed using the following three techniques: 30 samples were extracted by Trizol® technique, 30 by the DirectzolTM RNA Miniprep system and 30 by the RNeasy mini Kit. The absorbance was measured by spectrophotometer to estimate the purity. The estimated RNA concentration was obtained by multiplying the value of A260 (ng/mL by 40. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.03 software with Student t, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests, considering p ≤0.05. Results: Trizol® group revealed higher average concentration, followed by Direct-zolTM and Rneasy group. It was observed that the RNA Direct-zolTM group had the highest purity, followed by RNeasy and Trizol® groups, allowing for the two ratios. Conclusion: Considering all aspects, concentration, purity and time spent in the procedures, the Direct-zolTM group showed the best results.

  12. Comparison of liquid-based preparation and conventional smear of fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Liquid-based cytology (LBC is a relatively simple technique, which exhibits good nuclear and cytoplasmic details with the absence of obscuring background material. Even the number of slides and area per slide to be screened were less than the conventional preparation but caution must be applied to interpret the slides and secure a diagnosis, especially if LBC is the first and only method applied for diagnosis.

  13. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of neck mass except thyroid mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Cheong Soo; Lee, Gwang Gil

    1988-01-01

    Results of ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of extrathyroidal neck masses of 73 patients were reviewed. Included cases were 23 malignant lesions; 16 metastatic tumors, 4 lymphomas, 3 salivary gland tumors and 50 benign lesions: 24 tuberculous lymphadenites, 15 abscess, 3 benign lymph node hyperplasias, etc. There were one case of false negative and none of false positive result for malignancy. In two cases of malignancy, insufficient cellular material was obtained. In one case of lymphoma, and a benign lymph node hyperplasia, it was difficult to distinguish between benignancy and malignancy on cytologic smear. For the malignant lesions, sensitivity was 83%, specificity was 98%, and overall accuracy was 93%. There were none who had suffered adverse effect from the procedure. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology seems to be simple, accurate and safe diagnostic modality for neck masses especially in condition that malignancy can not be excluded

  14. Incisional endometriosis: diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda, P; Srinivasaiah, M

    2010-07-01

    Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  15. Fine-needle cytology of breast lesions seen on mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Ridlen, M.S.; Dowlatshahi, K.; Jokich, P.M.; Bibbo, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stereotactic fine-needle aspiration of nonpalpable breast lesions is operator dependent. The authors have analyzed 250 biopsies at our institution (comparing aspiration cytology with surgical biopsy) for sensitivity, false-negative, and insufficient-sample rates of three different interpreters. Needle aspiration as an alternative to biopsy or a follow-up for lesions of low mammographic suspicion would have resulted in detection of most, but not all, cancers. Over 40 additional biopsies would have been needed to detect each missed cancer. Eighty percent of surgical biopsies would have been needed to detect each missed cancer. Eighty percent of surgical biopsies for low-suspicion lesions could be avoided. Aspiration cytologic series should report separately insufficient samples and LCIS, and should use a consistent threshold for interpreting cytologic results

  16. Sonography and cytology in the evaluation of salivary gland masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, G.; Bazzochi, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Bassini, A.; Bellis, G.B.; Di Bonito, L.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of the combined use of US and cytology is evaluated in the diagnosis of masses in yhe salivary glands and adjacent structures. US had 87.2% sensitivity in locating the mass; its accuracy in defining both phisical structure and benign/malignant nature of the lesion was 91% and 74% respectively. Thus US, after demonstrating a lesion, does not always allow the exact definition of its characteristic. In many of these cases, other imaging modalities do not help either. In our series of cases, cytology allowed an unquestionable diagnosis to be made in 87.2% of cases, and the combined use of US and cytology rose the figure to 97%. The only limitation is the evaluation of the deep extent of large masses: in such cases CT or, if available, MR imaging are recommended

  17. Pilomatrixoma of the Arm: A Rare Case with Cytologic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, a benign skin appendageal tumor, is seen commonly in head and neck. Occurrence of pilomatrixoma in the upper extremities is not common and has been reported infrequently in the available literature. Only a few cases with preoperative aspiration cytology have been reported in the literature. A five-year-old girl underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA of a firm subcutaneous nodule on the lateral aspect of left arm. FNA smears showed scattered and few fragments of round to oval cells along with multinucleated giant cells. Few shadow cells were seen. A cytologic impression of pilomatrixoma was rendered, which was confirmed on histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, a common skin appendageal tumor in head and neck region, should be considered in the cytologic differential diagnoses of subcutaneous masses even in unusual locations like arm. The varied cytomorphology should be remembered to avoid misdiagnosis.

  18. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, Janet C.

    2002-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. Litherland, J.C. (2002)

  19. Comparative study on the usefulness of 99Tcm-MIBI scintigraphy, mammography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yuekui; Cao Wenlan; Zhang Baoning; Liu Lin; Chen Shengzu; Tang Jin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential role of scintimammography (SMM) in conjunction with mammography (MG) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in detecting breast cancer. Methods: A total of 57 women with breast mass underwent SMM, 54 of them had MG and FNA cytology in addition to SMM. The result diagnoses were verified with histological examination. Results: Of the 3 patients who had lumpectomy, SMM showed normal. Of the 54 patients who had SMM, MG and FNAC, the number of suspected cancer in SMM, MG and FNAC was 31, 28 and 37, respectively. The sensitivity of SMM, MG and FNA cytology was 79.5%, 71.8% and 94.9%, respectively, and the accuracy was 78.9%, 72.2% and 96.3% respectively. In 57 patients, positive result was set at least by one of these techniques. Conclusions: SMM in conjunction with MG and FNA cytology is the best combination for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. In women with suspected MG or abnormal FNA cytology and further investigations were required, SMM may be helpful as an additional noninvasive procedure

  20. Utility of Modified Ultrafast Papanicolaou Stain in Cytological Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkar, Prachi; Arakeri, Surekha Ulhas

    2017-03-01

    Need for minimal turnaround time for assessing Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) has encouraged innovations in staining techniques that require lesser staining time with unequivocal cell morphology. The standard protocol for conventional Papanicolaou (PAP) stain requires about 40 minutes. To overcome this, Ultrafast Papanicolaou (UFP) stain was introduced which reduces staining time to 90 seconds and also enhances the quality. However, reagents required for this were not easily available hence, Modified Ultrafast Papanicolaou (MUFP) stain was introduced subsequently. To assess the efficacy of MUFP staining by comparing the quality of MUFP stain with conventional PAP stain. FNAC procedure was performed by using 10 ml disposable syringe and 22-23 G needle. Total 131 FNAC cases were studied which were lymph node (30), thyroid (38), breast (22), skin and soft tissue (24), salivary gland (11) and visceral organs (6). Two smears were prepared and stained by MUFP and conventional PAP stain. Scores were given on four parameters: background of smears, overall staining pattern, cell morphology and nuclear staining. Quality Index (QI) was calculated from ratio of total score achieved to maximum score possible. Statistical analysis using chi square test was applied to each of the four parameters before obtaining the QI in both stains. Students t-test was applied to evaluate the efficacy of MUFP in comparison with conventional PAP stain. The QI of MUFP for thyroid, breast, lymph node, skin and soft tissue, salivary gland and visceral organs was 0.89, 0.85, 0.89, 0.83, 0.92, and 0.78 respectively. Compared to conventional PAP stain QI of MUFP smears was better in all except visceral organ cases and was statistically significant. MUFP showed clear red blood cell background, transparent cytoplasm and crisp nuclear features. MUFP is fast, reliable and can be done with locally available reagents with unequivocal morphology which is the need of the hour for a cytopathology set-up.

  1. Contributions of cytology examination and methods in lung cancer diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerse, M.; Tercelj, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer (LC) is still the leading cause of cancer death according to published data worldwide and confirmed also by the data obtained from the central Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Early detection of LC has an important impact on the long-term survival rate of the patients. In spite of a great advance in imaging technology for a better visualization and early detection of the neoplasms and a variety of screening tests, only cytopathology examination finally define the neoplastic lesion. Methods. To evaluate the contribution of cytology examination in the diagnosis of LC we studied the cytology diagnoses, comparing them with histology reports in patients, who underwent the diagnostic procedure under suspicion of the LC during last 2 years. Results. Of a total 772 patients, in 241 patients cancer was microscopically confirmed. The most frequent diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (36.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (26.6%), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) (12.9%). There were 22% of neoplasms classified as non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). From the clinician point of view considering the therapy it is very important to distinguish NSCLC from SCLC. And in our study the cytology-histology correlation between these two major types of carcinoma was almost 100%. Based only on cytology, 68 (28.2%) patients received microscopic diagnosis of malignoma, and the specimens for this group of patients were obtained mostly from transbronchial or transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies. Conclusions. Cytology is of great diagnostic value, a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Cytology specimens should be taken in cases where it is not possible to obtain samples for histology. (author)

  2. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  3. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Mei; Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1997-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  4. Clinical and cytological definition of endometrial cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titova, V.A.; Titova, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    The state of primary tumor in 45 patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, stage 1-3, during concomitant radical radio-and hormonotherapy according to the data of hysterocervicography, hysterometry and cytohistology have been studied. Contact irradiation was performed in single fractions of 9.5-10.0 Gy per week. The time course of primary uterine tumor regression was observed with regard to various radiation dose levels in accordance with cytological data. The cytological method is regarded as an important quantitative criterion in the evaluation of radio- and hormonotherapeutic efficacy of inoperable endometrial cancer [ru

  5. Diagnostic efficacy of smear cytology and Robinson’s cytological grading of canine mammary tumors with respect to histopathology, cytomorphometry, metastases and overall survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Gruk-Jurka, Anna; Wojtkowska, Agata; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Jurka, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Cytology is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method used for pre-operative diagnosis of canine mammary tumors (CMTs) in veterinary practice. Studies related to human breast cancer showed the Robinson’s grading system—established for invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC, NOS) and used on cytological material—to not only closely correspond to the histopathological grading but also be helpful in assessing prognosis and selecting most suitable treatments before surgery. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the accuracy of cytological diagnosis and cytological Robinson’s grading system compared to the histopathological examination of CMTs; to compare of cytological features and cytomorphometric parameters with tumor behavior, as well as cytological and histological grading; and to determine an association of the Robinson’s grading system and cytological background details with metastases, and patients’ survival. We report substantial diagnostic accuracy in detecting simple types and high grade tumors. Cytological diagnosis of tumor behavior showed relatively low sensitivity and specificity compared to human studies, and this might be caused by the heterogeneous morphology of CMTs. The presence of mucosecretory material and extracellular matrix was not significantly associated with tumor behavior. We report a positive correlation between both grading systems and cytological features (included in Robinson’s grading), the presence of necrotic debris, inflammation, and red blood cells. A negative correlation was determined only for the presence of extracellular matrix. The univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed a significantly higher risk of developing metastasis and shorter overall survival for dogs with tumors of grade 2 or 3 on cytology. In addition, these tumors were the most common cause of CMT-related deaths in dogs. Taken together, our findings suggest that the Robinson’s method of cytological grading applied for

  6. The implementation of liquid-based cytology for lung and pleural-based diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Claire W; Bedrossian, Carlos C W M

    2014-01-01

    First introduced for the processing of cervico-vaginal samples, liquid-based cytology (LBC) soon found application in nongynecological specimens, including bronchoscopic brushings, washings and transcutaneous and transbronchial aspiration biopsy of the lung as well as pleural effusions. This article reviews the existing literature related to these specimens along with the authors' own experience. A literature review was conducted through Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed search engines using several key words. Most of the literature is based on data collected through the use of split samples. The data confirms that the use of LBC is an acceptable, and sometimes superior, alternative to the conventional preparations (CP). LBC offers several advantages, including the ability to transport in a stable collecting media, elimination of obscuring elements, ease of screening, excellent preservation, random representative sample, and application of ancillary techniques on additional preparations. Some diagnostic pitfalls related to the introduced artifacts were reported. The utilization of LBC offers many advantages over CP and has a diagnostic accuracy that is equal to or surpasses that of CP. LBC affords a bridge to the future application of molecular and other ancillary techniques to cytology. Knowledge of the morphological artifacts is useful at the early stages of implementation.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  8. Diagnostic performance of dual-staining cytology for cervical cancer screening: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A A

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening saves lives. Secondary prevention in cervical cancer screening relies on the results of primary cytology and/or HPV testing. However, primary screening with cytology has a low sensitivity, and HPV screening has a low specificity. This means that either cancers are missed, or women are over-treated. To improve performance outcomes, the concept of dual-stain cytology (CINtec ® PLUS Cytology test) has been introduced. In this approach, additional staining with p16/Ki-67 is performed in cases where cytology results are abnormal (LSIL or ASCUS) and/or HPV-positive. Another way to describe this approach might be "diagnostic" cytology. In order to assess the value of this "diagnostic cytology", a systematic literature review was conducted of dual-stain cytology performance across multiple studies until May 2016. In a Belgian screening population (women age 25-65 years), dual-stain cytology was significantly more sensitive (66%) and slightly less specific (-1.0%) than cytology. In the population referred to colposcopy or with abnormal cytology (ASCUS, LSIL), dual-staining showed a significantly higher increase in specificity, and a slightly lower sensitivity than HPV testing. Specificity gains resulted in fewer false positives and an increase in the number of correct referrals to colposcopy. Dual-staining with p16/Ki-67 cytology is an attractive biomarker approach for triage in cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  10. Exfoliative Cytology in the Oral Mucosa of Patients with Fanconi Anaemia: A Morphometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Naval Machado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Fanconi anaemia (FA are prone to develop squamous cell carcinomas at an early age. Exfoliative cytology can be used to detect changes to the health of the oral mucosa. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate morphometrical and morphological changes using exfoliative cytology and to analyse and quantify the proliferative activity using silver nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR in epithelial cells of the tongue in FA patients,after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Methods: Oral smears were collected from the tongues of 20 FA children and adolescents after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (FA and 20 healthy children (C using exfoliative cytology. The smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique and silver impregnation. The cells were morphologically analysed and the nuclear area (NA, the cytoplasmic area (CA, and the nucleusto-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA were calculated. Results: Mean values for the FA and C groups were: NA (71.85 and 55.21μm.; p< 0.01; CA (2127.48 and 1441.61μm.; p< 0.01; NA/CA (0.03 and 0.04; p< 0.01, respectively. A significant increase in the NA and CA for the FA group (p< 0.01 was seen, and an alteration in the NA/CA ratio. No morphological differences were found between the groups. Class I smears were predominant in both groups. No differences were found between the groups for the mean values of AgNORs per nucleus. Conclusion: This study suggests that morphological changes occurred in the oral epithelium cells of children and adolescents with Fanconi anaemia when subjected to HSCT.

  11. Correlation between abnormal cytological findings and human papillomavirus infection of the uterine cervix in Bulgarian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Miladinov Kovachev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between cases of human papillomavirus (HPV+/− infection of the uterine cervix revealed through HPV typing and cytological results from Papanicolaou (Pap-stained cervical smears. Cervical smears of 421 Bulgarian women attending routine gynaecological examinations during the three-year study period were stained by the Pap technique and classified by the Bethesda system. GenoFlow HPV Array Test Kit was used to analyse the HPV status in the collected cervical samples. The results showed that, of the 421 women, 177 (42% were HPV(+ and 244 (58% were HPV(−; 334 (79.3% Pap smears were with normal morphology and 87 (20.7% had high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL/HSIL changes. Of the 87 women with LSIL/HSIL changes, 54% (47/87 were HPV(− and 46% (40/87 were HPV(+. There was no statistically significant correlation between the HPV(+ status and the cytological LSIL/HSIL findings (P > 0.05. Koilocytes were found in 30.4% (128/421 of the samples. Of the 128 women with koilocytosis, 59.4% (76/128 were HPV(− and 40.6% (52/128 were HPV(+. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 between the presence of koilocytes in cervical smears and HPV infection. Our results suggest that HPV infection is frequent even in women with negative Pap-smear results, and polymerase chain reaction seems to be the only reliable test to diagnose this infection. However, the results from this study cannot be considered to fully support the replacement of cytology and colposcopy examination in cervical cancer screening with HPV genotyping tests only.

  12. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value, area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture, and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules.

  13. Preoperative axillary lymph node staging by ultrasound-guided cytology using a four-level sonographic score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, Caroline; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Boutemy, Rachel; Simon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The staging of axillary lymph nodes is critical to the management and prognosis of breast cancer, the most frequent cancer in females. Neoadjuvant therapy and lymph node dissection are recommended when malignant cells invade the lymph nodes. Therefore the pre-operative examination of these lymph nodes is crucial to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of cytology through ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USG-FNA) and ultrasound (US) imaging using an established classification system in correctly identifying lymph node status compared to the final histological results after surgery. Cytology by USG-FNA and US classification were found to be promising methods of axillary lymph node staging. US and CB offer minimally invasive techniques to pre-operatively examine these lymph nodes in patients with primary breast cancer

  14. Comparison of liquid based cytology and histology for the evaluation of HER-2 status using immunostaining and CISH in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelet, H; Lagonotte, E; Lorenzato, M; Duval, I; Lechki, C; Rigaud, C; Cucherousset, J; Durlach, A; Graesslin, O; Abboud, P; Doco-Fenzy, M; Quereux, C; Costa, B; Polette, M; Munck, J-N; Birembaut, P

    2005-08-01

    HER-2 amplification is an important prognostic biomarker and treatment determinant in breast carcinoma. To correlate immunocytochemical (ICC) expression of HER-2 and gene amplification determined by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) using liquid based cytology (LBC) with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and CISH using histological samples of the same breast carcinomas. Frozen sections and cytobrushings of 103 breast carcinomas were analysed. Four techniques were performed on each tumour: two on LBC samples (ICC, and CISH, both graded as positive, indeterminate, or negative) and two on histological samples (IHC and CISH). Two cell lines (MCF-7, negative; BT 474, positive) were used as controls for cytological analysis. A complementary fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique was carried out in histological samples with low amplification (4-10 dots/nucleus). Interobserver agreement for the four techniques calculated by the kappa coefficient indicated a substantial agreement. Nine cases failed in cytology because of poor cellularity. Among 94 cases, 19 were amplified; 73, 12, and 9 tumours were scored 0 or 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively by IHC and 75, 13, and 6, respectively, by ICC. CISH found no amplification in 72 tumours. Correlations between the IHC and CISH results in the histological and cytological samples were always significant. Her-2 status could be determined in LBC samples and correlated well with reference histological methods using in situ hybridisation. ICC was less reliable because of the presence of the cytoplasmic membrane. However, these results should be confirmed by a large multicentre study.

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Malukani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed.

  16. Cytological Determination Of The Estrus Cycle In Guinea Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...

  17. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses - Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Early pathological classification of retroperitoneal masses is important for pin-point diagnosis and timely management. Aims : This study was done to evaluate the usefulness and drawbacks of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of retroperitoneal masses covering a period of two years with an intention to distinguish between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and to correlate with histologic findings. Materials and Methods : FNAC was done under radiological guidance in all cases using long needle fitted with disposable syringe. Appropriate staining was done and cytology was correlated with histology which was taken as the gold standard for comparison. Results : Fifty-one patients who presented with retroperitoneal masses were studied. Forty-four lesions were malignant cytologically and 7 were inflammatory (tuberculous. According to radiological and cytologic findings, we classified our cases into four groups: renal tumors, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, germ cell tumors, soft tissue tumors. Except for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and metastatic lesions, we had sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In NHL the sensitivity and specificity were both 50%. In cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusions : Ignoring the pitfalls, guided FNAC is still an inexpensive and reliable method of early diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions.

  18. Value of urine cytology in screening patients with prostatitis syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Hubregtse, M. R.; Wiersma, A. M.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed the results of urine cytology examination of 206 patients with a diagnosis of prostatitis syndromes in the period 1985-1991. The urine samples showed an incidence of 20.4% for slight to moderate atypia and 6.3% for severe atypia. In these patients, cystoscopy, bladder biopsies and

  19. Cost effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology for breast masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total cost for FNAC and histopathology as well as cost saving between FNAC and histopathology for the 110 patients were calculated. Result: The total cost for FNAC procedure and cytological evaluation of each smear was one thousand, seven hundred naira (N1,700.00 = US$11). The total cost for open surgical ...

  20. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in detecting malignancy for thyroid disease using histopathology ... thyroid carcinoma being the most predominant type and colloid goiter was the most predominant benign thyroid disease. The sensitivity ..... tic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid.

  2. Prostate cancer detection: Fusion of cytological and textural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-assisted system for histological prostate cancer diagnosis can assist pathologists in two stages: (i to locate cancer regions in a large digitized tissue biopsy, and (ii to assign Gleason grades to the regions detected in stage 1. Most previous studies on this topic have primarily addressed the second stage by classifying the preselected tissue regions. In this paper, we address the first stage by presenting a cancer detection approach for the whole slide tissue image. We propose a novel method to extract a cytological feature, namely the presence of cancer nuclei (nuclei with prominent nucleoli in the tissue, and apply this feature to detect the cancer regions. Additionally, conventional image texture features which have been widely used in the literature are also considered. The performance comparison among the proposed cytological textural feature combination method, the texture-based method and the cytological feature-based method demonstrates the robustness of the extracted cytological feature. At a false positive rate of 6%, the proposed method is able to achieve a sensitivity of 78% on a dataset including six training images (each of which has approximately 4,000x7,000 pixels and 1 1 whole-slide test images (each of which has approximately 5,000x23,000 pixels. All images are at 20X magnification.

  3. Prostate cancer detection: Fusion of cytological and textural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien; Jain, Anil K; Sabata, Bikash

    2011-01-01

    A computer-assisted system for histological prostate cancer diagnosis can assist pathologists in two stages: (i) to locate cancer regions in a large digitized tissue biopsy, and (ii) to assign Gleason grades to the regions detected in stage 1. Most previous studies on this topic have primarily addressed the second stage by classifying the preselected tissue regions. In this paper, we address the first stage by presenting a cancer detection approach for the whole slide tissue image. We propose a novel method to extract a cytological feature, namely the presence of cancer nuclei (nuclei with prominent nucleoli) in the tissue, and apply this feature to detect the cancer regions. Additionally, conventional image texture features which have been widely used in the literature are also considered. The performance comparison among the proposed cytological textural feature combination method, the texture-based method and the cytological feature-based method demonstrates the robustness of the extracted cytological feature. At a false positive rate of 6%, the proposed method is able to achieve a sensitivity of 78% on a dataset including six training images (each of which has approximately 4,000×7,000 pixels) and 1 1 whole-slide test images (each of which has approximately 5,000×23,000 pixels). All images are at 20X magnification.

  4. Addressing the challenges of practicing breast cytology in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-08

    Jan 8, 2011 ... Breast cancer accounted for 23.3% of all cancers in women in Kenya during the ... for an early and rapid diagnosis (2). Facilities for doing .... yse the cause/s which could have led to diagnostic error. (pitfall) in cytology with ...

  5. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  6. A Cross Section Study to Correlate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Background: Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is cheap, simple, quick, minimally invasive procedure that is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of Parotid tumours. Methods: Twenty five patients were prospectively studied over a two-year period at four major hospitals in Zambia. FNAC was done using a 10cc syringe ...

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast lumps with histopathologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosis of palpable breast lesions, in recent years two types of minimally invasive .... negative predictive value of FNAC as a diagnostic pro- cedure for the entire ... The earliest large scale use of Fine Needle aspiration. Cytology FNAC as a ...

  8. Biochemical and cytological analysis of five cultivars of Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... variability and relatedness, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative to ... Indian Institute of Pulse Research, Kanpur (U.P.) India. During the present study, five accessions were used for biochemical and cytological analysis. The details of five ... using pestle and mortar. 500 ml of protein ...

  9. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli

    Full Text Available Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  10. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Giarnieri, Enrico; Carico, Elisabetta; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist) has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  11. Cytological diagnostic of lymphadenitis tuberculosis by eosinophilic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    AFB sputum and chest X-ray are used to identify patients with pulmonary TB. For extrapulmonary TB, fine needle aspiration cytology is needed, even though occasionally found not atypical feature in the form of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles, suspected as TB. This research was to show that eosinophilic material with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria for the cytological diagnosis of TB. By performing fine needle aspiration biopsy stained with Giemsa, if an eosinophilic material with dark brown particles was encountered, we continued with Ziehl-Neelsen AFB stain and confirmed with PCR. To assess accuracy, we used a diagnostic test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles by using AFB and PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in tuberculosis of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles were 93.65% and 70.99%, respectively if confirmed with AFB. On the other hand, if confirmed with PCR using Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.95% and 96.79%, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic masses with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria of TB diagnostic cytology with high sensitivity and specificity confirmed with AFB and PCR test.

  12. Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Histopathologic Diagnosis. Wondwossen Ergete, Daniel Abebe. Abstract. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is a low cost procedure, which can give an accurate diagnosis promptly. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic ...

  13. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  14. Uterine involution in colombian fine pace mares, measured by ultrasonography and endometrial cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ramírez

    2006-06-01

    minutes and stained with Giemsa for 20 minutes. Anatomic uterine involution (means decreased size of pregravid horn was completed on day 24 (range 12-30 days. Intrauterine fluid was seen by ultrasonography between day 6 and 18 post partum. Neutrophils and endometrial cells necrotic or not, constituted 80 % of the cell population. Neutrophils and cellular necrosis had a linear decrease beginning on day 9 post partum, in opposition, on this day the endometrial cell type pattern had a linear increase. The percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils remained low and constant during the period of the study. A positive and significant correlation (r=0.83, P<0,01 was found between the accumulated uterine fluid observed by ultra sonograph and neutrophil cells analyzed in endometrial cytology. Based on this finding, it is suggested that the cellular component of the fluid encountered alters the echo pattern on uterine examination. Mares that did not show much intrauterine fluid accumulation and had low percentage of neutrophil counts (4 % or less during first postpartum heat, had a better conception rate than mares with high neitrophils percentage. Foal heat was observed on day 7 ± 2.8 (S.D., second post partum heat was detected on day 24 ± 2.8 (S.D. Conception rate was 30 % and 50% respectively, on first and second post partum heat. It is concluded that endometrial cytology and ultra sonograph are helpful diagnostic methods to study uterine involution in post partum mares. These techniques help the reproductive technician to establish a valid criterion regarding when to mate a mare that has a calf.

  15. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  16. Cytological features of myxomatous fibroadenoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rin; Tanaka, Maki; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Nonaka, Yasuhide; Mizushima, Yasuko; Kawahara, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Ito, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Miki; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2012-04-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is a benign tumor that must be differentiated from carcinomas. FAs often exhibit myxedematous changes (myxomatous FA, M-FA). We previously reported on the clinical significance of M-FA. M-FA and (mucinous) carcinoma share clinical findings, rapid growth and a relatively large size, a high-depth/width (D/W) ratio, a relatively round shape, and posterior echo enhancement with internal hyperechogenicity on ultrasonography (US). Next, a biopsy is required for differential diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic significance of the cytological findings of M-FA with US findings. Among 13 FAs that were diagnosed by cytology, we compared (i) a group of six mucinous carcinomas with acellular mucin and a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (a suspicious factor for malignancy) with a group with a D/W ratio of <0.7, and (ii) the frequency of metachromasia on Giemsa stain between M-FAs and non-M-FAs among eight FA cases confirmed by histology. (i) FA lesions (7 of 13) showed metachromasia with Giemsa staining significantly more frequently than did mucinous carcinoma (0/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.044). FA lesions with a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (6/7) showed metachromasia significantly more frequently than did FA with a D/W ratio <0.7 (1/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.029). Among eight FA cases confirmed by histology, M-FA cases (6/6) demonstrated metachromasia significantly more frequently than non-M-FA cases (0/2) (P < 0.036). M-FA cytologically exhibits marked metachromasia on Giemsa staining. Combining cytological examination and understanding the clinical features of M-FA may allow us to choose cytological examination as a first-line diagnostic method for tumor-forming lesions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. UroVysion compared with cytology and quantitative cytology in the surveillance of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.M.J.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Peelen, P.; Karthaus, H.F.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization probe set Vysis UroVysion, consisting of probes for chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and for the 9p21 band, was studied to evaluate its value in the follow-up of patients with bladder cancer. The results were compared with conventional cytology

  18. Cervical cancer incidence after normal cytological sample in routine screening using SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Naber, Steffie K; Penning, Corine

    2017-01-01

    of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands (PALGA), January 2000 to March 2013.Population Women with 5 924 474 normal screening samples (23 833 123 person years).Exposure Use of SurePath or ThinPrep versus conventional cytology as screening test.Main outcome measure 72 month cumulative incidence...

  19. Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Kala

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same.

  20. Uncommon EGFR mutations in cytological specimens of 1,874 newly diagnosed Indonesian lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahruddin, Elisna; Wulandari, Laksmi; Sri Muktiati, Nunuk; Rima, Ana; Soeroso, Noni; Ermayanti, Sabrina; Levi, Michael; Hidajat, Heriawaty; Widjajahakim, Grace; Utomo, Ahmad Rusdan Handoyo

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the distribution of individual epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation subtypes found in routine cytological specimens. Patients and methods A retrospective audit was performed on EGFR testing results of 1,874 consecutive cytological samples of newly diagnosed or treatment-naïve Indonesian lung cancer patients (years 2015–2016). Testing was performed by ISO15189 accredited central laboratory. Results Overall test failure rate was 5.1%, with the highest failure (7.1%) observed in pleural effusion and lowest (1.6%) in needle aspiration samples. EGFR mutation frequency was 44.4%. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitive common EGFR mutations (ins/dels exon 19, L858R) and uncommon mutations (G719X, T790M, L861Q) contributed 57.1% and 29%, respectively. Approximately 13.9% of mutation-positive patients carried a mixture of common and uncommon mutations. Women had higher EGFR mutation rate (52.9%) vs men (39.1%; pcytological techniques yielded similar success rate to detect EGFR mutations. Uncommon EGFR mutations were frequent events in Indonesian lung cancer patients. PMID:29615847

  1. Differential Diagnosis of Nodular Goiter by Aspiration Cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Suk Man; Lee, Houn Young; Han, Bong Heon; Kim, Sam Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1982-01-01

    113 patients with nodular goiter were studied cytologically by needle aspiration for differential diagnosis at the department of internal medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital since October 1980 till July 1981, and the final diagnosis taken from biopsies were compared with the cytologic method on the 44 cases who received operation. The results were obtained as follows: 1. Among the 113 cases of total patients, male were 15 cases (13.3%) and female were 98 cases (86.7%) and the sex ratio (M : F) was 1 : 6.5. The peak age incidence was in the third decade followed by forth and second decades. 2. The findings of cytological diagnosis in 113 cases showed benign adenoma in 69 cases (61.1%), subacute and chronic thyroiditis in 22 cases (19.5%), papillary carcinoma in 15 cases (13.3%) and follicular carcinoma in 7 cases (6.2%), respectively, and 48 cases (69.6%) of the adenomas and 2 cases (9.1%) of papillary carcinomas showed combined cystic degeneration of the nodules. 3. The diameter of the nodules by palpation revealed within 2-5 cm in 88 cases (77.9%) out of 113 cases, below 2 cm in 17 cases and over 5 cm in 8 cases and there were no significant relationship between the size of the nodule and disease entity. 4. The findings of thyroid scintigram using 131 I in 113 cases of nodular goiter showed 'cold nodule' in 111 cases (98.2%) and normal scan (radioactivity) in 2 cases (1.8%) which showed adenoma in cytology and there was no cases with h ot nodule'. 5. The thyroid functions of the 113 cases revealed as euthyroidism in 108 cases (95.6%), hypothyroidism in 2 cases (2.7%) in adenomas but there was no evidence that the nodules of the above 3 cases were the reason of hyperthyroidism. 6. In 44 operated cases, the histological diagnosis revealed 23 cases of adenoma out of 27 cases (85.2%) who were diagnosed as adenoma by cytology and 15 cases of malignancy out of 17 cases (88.2%), and the overall diagnostic accuracy of aspiration cytology was 86.4%.

  2. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated quantitative cytological analysis using portable microfluidic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Murthy, Rashmi Sreeramachandra; Srinivasan, Rajesh; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a portable microfluidic microscopy based approach for automated cytological investigations is presented. Inexpensive optical and electronic components have been used to construct a simple microfluidic microscopy system. In contrast to the conventional slide-based methods, the presented method employs microfluidics to enable automated sample handling and image acquisition. The approach involves the use of simple in-suspension staining and automated image acquisition to enable quantitative cytological analysis of samples. The applicability of the presented approach to research in cellular biology is shown by performing an automated cell viability assessment on a given population of yeast cells. Further, the relevance of the presented approach to clinical diagnosis and prognosis has been demonstrated by performing detection and differential assessment of malaria infection in a given sample. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cytological investigations in populations of D. melanogaster exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study described was carried out to investigate structural changes in the chromosomes of irradiated populations of D.melanogaster that can be analysed on the basis of cytological methods. It mainly dealt with two particular aspects of this subject: I. Different types of chromosomes (polytene chromosomes, mitotic and meiotic chromosomes) were used to examine whether and to which extent chromosomal variability would alter or remain unchanged under the influence of mutation. II. The prophase of the first division of female cells was analysed with respect to the role of resistance factor rar-2. In this connection, it was of interest whether the prophase of meiosis would show visible cytological changes in the interchromosomal structure that are caused by factor rar-2. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Practice in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the current status of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in Korea. Thyroid aspiration biopsy was first introduced in Korea in 1977. Currently, radiologists aspirate the thyroid nodule under the guidance of ultrasonography, and cytologic interpretation is only legally approved when a cytopathologist makes the diagnosis. In 2008, eight thyroid-related societies came together to form the Korean Thyroid Association. The Korean Society for Cytopathology and the endocrine pathology study group of the Korean Society for Pathologists have been updating the cytologic diagnostic guidelines. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology was first introduced in 2009, and has been used by up to 94% of institutions by 2016. The average diagnosis rates are as follows for each category: I (12.4%, II (57.9%, III (10.4%, IV (2.9%, V (3.7%, and VI (12.7%. The malignancy rates in surgical cases are as follows for each category: I (28.7%, II (27.8%, III (50.6%, IV (52.3%, V (90.7%, and VI (100.0%. Liquid-based cytology has been used since 2010, and it was utilized by 68% of institutions in 2016. The categorization of thyroid lesions into “atypia of undetermined significance” or “follicular lesion of undetermined significance” is necessary to draw consensus in our society. Immunocytochemistry for galectin-3 and BRAF is used. Additionally, a molecular test for BRAF in thyroid FNACs is actively used. Core biopsies were performed in only 44% of institutions. Even the institutions that perform core biopsies only perform them for less than 3% of all FNACs. However, only 5% of institutions performed core biopsies up to three times more than FNAC.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in hepatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, R.T.; Sharif, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Amin, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in liver masses to isolate malignant from benign tumours and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumours. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, from June 2004 to June 2005. Methodology: All the patients with liver masses confirmed by ultrasonography, irrespective of age and gender, were included. Patients with inflammatory lesions were excluded from the study. Selected patients underwent fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance followed by needle biopsy. The cytological slides were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, while Papanicolaou's stain was employed in selective cases. Needle biopsy fragments were fixed in formalin followed by paraffin embedding and staining with H and E stain. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in the diagnosis of liver masses was determined using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Results: There were one hundred subjects. The mean age at presentation was 55 +- 12 years with male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Cytological diagnosis in 19 cases was benign/non-neoplastic and 81 was malignant. Out of the latter, 49 (60.49%) were HCC and 32 (39.51%) were metastatic tumours on cytology. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of malignant lesions was 95.2%, 100% and 96% respectively using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Sensitivity of FNAC to differentiate HCC from metastatic tumours in liver was 96% while specificity was 100% having a diagnostic accuracy of 97.5%. The discrepancy in cyto-histological comparison was mainly seen in well differentiated and poorly-differentiated HCCs. Conclusion: FNAC of the liver masses is a simple, safe, accurate, economical screening test without significant morbidity that can be used to identify the vast majority of

  7. US Diagnosis for Thyroid Nodules with an Indeterminate Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Geun; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Woo [Saegyaero Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to assess the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) for evaluating thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Among 1865 nodules in 1278 patients who received a prospective US diagnosis of their thyroid nodule(s) and who subsequently underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration, 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology were enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'probably benign', 'indeterminate', 'suspicious for malignancy' and 'malignant.' The solid nodules were classified using all 5 categories and the partially cystic nodules classified using 4 categories ('indeterminate' was omitted). We calculated the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid US by comparing the US diagnoses with the pathology results. Of 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology (130/1865, 7.0%), 62 nodules were surgically removed. Nineteen nodules were assigned to the indeterminate category on US. The malignantly rate of the US-indeterminate category was 56.5% (35/62). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 81.0%, 81.8%, 81.0%, 81.8% and 81.4%, respectively, when US-indeterminate nodules were excluded. There was no significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as malignant, but there was a significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as benign. Our US classification may be a feasible method for managing thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

  8. Role of FNA cytology in the management of carcinoma breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, G.R.; Haleem, A.; Zaidi, A.H.; Afzal, M.; Abbasi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility and role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in essential surgical management of carcinoma breast. Patients and Methods: The study included one hundred cases of carcinoma of breast-97 females and 3 males, confirmed on histopathological examination and surgically treated at PNS Shifa, CMH Pano Aqil and PNS Rahat. FNA cytology was the primary tool of investigation in all. The benefit of the procedure was evaluated considering the ease of the procedure, cost, safety, reliability as screening procedure and its effect on sparing the patients from excision or incision biopsy and thus additional anesthesia. Results: Sensitivity of the procedure was 78%, specificity 100%, predictive value 100% and overall diagnostic accuracy 72%. Out of 78 cases, diagnosed as positive for malignancy on FNAC and later confirmed by histopathological examination, 58 underwent frozen section examination followed by definitive surgery (modified radical mastectomy). Remaining 20 cases underwent additional core biopsy. Out of these, 12 cases underwent definitive surgery without frozen section and 8 patients underwent frozen section examination followed by definitive surgery. A single case required general anesthesia (GA) while the patients undergoing core biopsy required a local anesthesia (LA) as well. Cases remaining undiagnosed by FNA-cytology (22 cases) required either an excision biopsy (17 cases) or incision biopsy (5 cases) under GA followed by definitive surgery, thus requiring general anesthesia twice during the management. Conclusion: FNA-cytology can positively affect the surgical management of carcinoma breast. It can be utilized to select the patients for frozen selection examination and can thus spare the patients from additional procedure of excision or incision biopsy under separate anesthesia. It may be adopted as a routine procedure in surgical outpatient. (author)

  9. Tru-cut needle pleural biopsy and cytology as the initial procedure in the evaluation of pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana Rial, Maribel; Briones Gómez, Andrés; Ferrando Gabarda, José Ramón; Cifuentes Ruiz, José Fernando; Guarín Corredor, María Juliana; Manchego Frach, Nuria; Cases Viedma, Enrique

    2014-08-01

    The evaluation of pleural effusion (PE) includes various techniques, including pleural biopsy (PB). Our aim was to study the diagnostic yield of Tru-Cut needle PB (TCPB) and to define clinical/radiological situations in which TCPB might be indicated as an initial procedure. Retrospective study of TCPB in a hospital centre (2010-2012). Cases of pleural lesions without effusion were excluded. Clinical and radiological variables, diagnostic yield, TCPB complications and factors associated with the diagnostic yield of the combination of TCPB and thoracocentesis as initial procedure were analysed. One hundred and twenty-seven (127) TCPB were reviewed: 29.1% were cases of malignant PE and in 18.9% the cause of the PE could not be determined. The diagnostic yield of TCPB for tuberculosis was 76.5% (13/17) and 54% (20/37) for malignant PE. Complications occurred in 4.7% of the cases. In 72 patients with a final definitive diagnosis, TCPB was performed at the same time as the initial thoracocentesis. Diagnostic yield for the combination of TCPB/cytology as an initial technique was 43% (31/72) compared to 12.5% (9/72) for cytology only (p=0.01). The only predictive variable for the indication of TCBP as an initial technique was a PE volume>2/3 (P=.04). TCPB is safe and provides an acceptable diagnostic yield, particularly when combined with simultaneous cytology in the evaluation of PE of various aetiologies. Radiological criteria may help guide the selection of patients who could benefit from this technique as an initial procedure combined with thoracocentesis. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  11. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  12. Cytological observation of solanum pimpinellifolium l. microspore development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H.; Rylosona, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops worldwide, and has also been adapted as a model plant in a wide range of research disciplines. However, stamen development in tomato is less known than other model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa L. (rice). In order to understand tomato flower development in more detail, the key goal of this study was to establish a precise correlation between visual morphological features and cytological events. To this end, we characterized a wild tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium (accession LA1585), to define stamen developmental stages using semi-thin sectioning. Based on distinct stages of flower development, S. pimpinellifolium anther/stamen development was divided into ten stages, and characteristic morphological and cytological features in stamens at each developmental stage were identified. In this way, flower characteristics and microspore development were correlated. In addition, specific cytological key events in S. pimpinellifolium were compared with those in A. thaliana and rice at corresponding stages, as well as with those in domesticated tomato (S. lycopersicum L.), and the differences are discussed. (author)

  13. Update on Molecular Testing for Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Michiya; Nikiforova, Marina

    2018-04-01

    - Approximately 15% to 30% of thyroid nodules that undergo fine-needle aspiration are classified as cytologically indeterminate, presenting management challenges for patients and clinicians alike. During the past several years, several molecular tests have been developed to reduce the diagnostic uncertainty of indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspirations. - To review the methodology, clinical validation, and recent peer-reviewed literature for 4 molecular tests that are currently marketed for cytologically indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens: Afirma, ThyroSeq, ThyGenX/ThyraMIR, and RosettaGX Reveal. - Peer-reviewed literature retrieved from PubMed search, data provided by company websites and representatives, and authors' personal experiences. - The 4 commercially available molecular tests for thyroid cytology offer unique approaches to improve the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. Familiarity with data from the validation studies as well as the emerging literature about test performance in the postvalidation setting can help users to select and interpret these tests in a clinically meaningful way.

  14. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  15. [Sequential monitoring of renal transplant with aspiration cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfro, R C; Gonçalves, L F; de Moura, L A

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of kidney aspiration cytology in the sequential monitorization of acute rejection in renal transplant patients. Thirty patients were submitted to 376 aspirations. The clinical diagnoses were independently established. The representativity of the samples reached 82.7%. The total corrected increment index and the number of immunoactivated cells were higher during acute rejection as compared to normal allograft function, acute tubular necrosis, and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. The parameters to the diagnosis of acute rejection were sensitivity: 71.8%, specificity: 87.3%, positive predictive value: 50.9%, negative predictive value: 94.9% and accuracy 84.9%. The false positive results were mainly related to cytomegalovirus infection or to the administration of OKT3. In 10 out of 11 false negative results incipient immunoactivation was present alerting to the possibility of acute rejection. Kidney aspiration cytology is a useful tool for the sequential monitorization of acute rejection in renal transplant patients. The best results are reached when the results of aspiration cytology are analyzed with the clinical data.

  16. The relative value of cytometry and cytology in the management of bladder cancer: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalament, R A; Fair, W R; Whitmore, W F; Melamed, M R

    1988-02-01

    The flow cytometric studies presented herein are based almost entirely on DNA measurements and represent an early application of this diagnostic test. Nevertheless, the MSKCC experience with FCM has demonstrated that it is technically feasible and clinically useful. The sensitivity of FCM is in the range of 80% to 85% overall, and is superior to that of conventional voided or bladder wash cytology. In the absence of inflammation secondary to infection, calculi, or intravesical agents such as BCG, the specificity is greater than 90%. In the presence of inflammation, FCM appears to be less specific than conventional cytology. A potential advantage of FCM over cytology is the quantitative nature of the examination permitting comparisons of sequential examinations. Also, there are refinements in technique that hold promise of increasing the accuracy or clinical usefulness of FCM, eg, the joint measurements of DNA and differentiation antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies. Yet, despite the current and potential advantages of FCM, voided urinary cytology continues to be the procedure of choice for detection and monitoring urothelial carcinoma, not only because of our long experience and better understanding of this test, but because of its proven high specificity, because it is noninvasive, widely available, and may help to detect upper tract or urethral tumors.

  17. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs

  18. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hye Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of vulvar actinomycosis masquerading clinically as malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Parasram Wanjari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Vulvar actinomycosis presenting as a fixed swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of vulvar actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA. A 60-year-old postmenopausal female presented with a gradually increasing 15 cm × 10 cm vulvar swelling involving the right mons and right labia majora. The swelling was nodular, fixed, and nonulcerated, with multiple healed and few active discharging sinus tracts draining serosanguineous fluid and yellowish sulfur granules. FNA was diagnostic, as it revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. Histopathology of excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. FNA is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis, although, its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the FNA technique.

  20. Assessment of the Utility of Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anna S; Giorgadze, Tamara; Tam, Wayne; Chadburn, Amy

    2018-01-01

    We sought to assess the utility and limitations of both flow cytometry (FC) and cytology for the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a practical clinical setting. A total of 393 consecutive CSF samples from 171 patients submitted for both cytomorphologic and FC assessments were analyzed. Both FC and cytology findings were negative for malignancy in 315/393 samples (80%), and either positive (POS) or suspicious/atypical (SUSP/AT) in 7% of samples. This resulted in high agreement between FC and cytology (87%). Minor discrepancies were present in 4% of the cases. In 28 samples, an abnormal population was detected by FC but not by cytology. FC and cytology are important complementary methods for analyzing CSF samples. In cases where cytology is SUSP/AT and FC is inconclusive or negative, additional specimens should be submitted for immunostaining, cytogenetics, and/or molecular studies. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M

    2014-01-01

    in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age......Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends...... and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6...

  2. Acurácia do exame citológico no diagnóstico de processos inflamatórios e proliferativos dos animais domésticos Accuracy of cytological exam for diagnosis of inflammatory and proliferative process in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.C. Guedes

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance and accuracy of cytology as a diagnostic method for proliferative and inflammatory processes in domestic animals. The cytology samples were collected by biopsy or during necropsy, using fine needle aspiration or imprint techniques in 80 dogs, 4 cats, 3 goats, 2 cows and 1 horse. Histopathology of formalin fixed tissues processed by the routine embedding paraffin technique was used as a confirmatory diagnostic test. Cytology results agreed with histopathological findings in 75 (83.3% cases. They held higher accord in round cell tumor cases. Therefore, this study shows that cytology is a valuable diagnostic method for diagnosis of proliferative process in domestic animals, especially for round cells tumors.

  3. Indication and Usefulness of Bile Juice Cytology for Diagnosis of Gallbladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Itsuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We examined the effectiveness of bile juice cytology for distinguishing between benign and malignant gallbladder lesions of the protruding type with various sampling points, sampling methods, and macroscopic forms in order to discuss the effectiveness of the endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage (ETGD cytology. Methods. We studied 162 cases of patients with a lesion localized within the gallbladder. At first, we examined the effectiveness for diagnosis of ETBD cytology using ERC and then that of the first ETGD cytology after placing the ETGD. Next, we examined the diagnostic effectiveness of the washed ETGD cytology by using the ETGD. Finally, we examined complications. Results. In the final diagnoses, we identified 33 cases of adenocarcinoma, 10 cases of adenoma, 63 cases of ADM, 35 cases of nonneoplastic polyp, and 21 cases of chronic cholecystitis. It was found that the sensitivity of ETBD cytology was 3.6% and that of ETGD cytology was 59.1%. In the comparison of diagnostic effectiveness of cytologic diagnosis using samples of bile juice from the gallbladder collected by different methods, the sensitivities were 38.9% and 73.3% for the first and washed ETGD cytologies, respectively. In the comparison of the diagnostic effectiveness of gallbladder bile juice cytology using samples collected for different forms of lesion and by different methods, the sensitivities were 38.9% and 73.3%, respectively, for the first and washed ETGD cytologies for flat gallbladder wall thickening, while it was impossible to diagnose for lesions of GB polyp. Conclusion. For diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, we consider that the ETGD cytology should be taken into consideration for lesions of flat gallbladder wall thickening, for which it is difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions.

  4. The combined application of radiology, nuclear medicine and fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.L.; Ruis, I.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of diagnostic cytology and diagnostic radiology, including intervention radiology, is a logical one. Radiology can visualize lesions which cannot be found otherwise and under its guidance cytology can obtain a direct and usually diagnostic proof of the true nature of the process with minimal inconvenience and risk for the patient. A survey of the combination of cytology and radiological procedures in the diagnosis work-up is outlined. (Auth.)

  5. Informed cytology for triaging HPV-positive women: substudy nested in the NTCC randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients' HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status-informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status-informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  7. Keratosis reduces sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Adam C; Santoso, Joseph T; Xie, Huiwen Bill

    2012-02-01

    To identify factors that may contribute to poor sensitivity of anal cytology in contrast to the sensitivity of anoscopy in heterosexual women. We analyzed 324 patients with biopsy confirmed diagnosis of genital intraepithelial neoplasia (either vulva, vaginal, or cervical) from 2006 to 2011 who underwent both anal cytology and anoscopy. Cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy results were recorded. Biopsy specimens underwent independent analysis for quality of specimen. Also, biopsy specimens were analyzed for characteristics that may contribute to correlation, or lack thereof, between anal cytology and anoscopic directed biopsy. 133 (41%) patients had abnormal anoscopy and underwent directed biopsy. 120 patients with normal anal cytology had anoscopy directed biopsies, resulting in 58 cases of AIN (sensitivity 9.4%; 0.039-0.199). This cohort was noted to have extensive keratosis covering the entire dysplastic anal lesion. 18 patients yielded abnormal anal cytology. Of these patients, 13 had anoscopic directed biopsies revealing 6 with AIN and absent keratosis (specificity 88.6%; 0.78-0.95). The κ statistic for anal cytology and anoscopy was -0.0213 (95% CI=-0.128-0.086). Keratosis reduces the sensitivity of anal cytology. Furthermore, anal cytology poorly correlates with anoscopy in the detection of AIN (κ statistic=-0.0213). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Cervical Lymphadenopathy: Comparative Study of the Cytological Adequacy Using of 21- and 23- Gauge Needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beak, Jin Wook; KIm, Dong Wook; Kim, Bo Mi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the difference in the cytological adequacy of ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) for cervical lymphadenopathy using 21 and 23 gauge needles. US-FNACs were separately performed on two cervical lymph nodes and in each patient using 21 gauge (group A) and 23 gauge (group B) needles, respectively. We used 4 grade classifications for the cytological analysis of each slide and compared the cytological adequacy of US-FNAC for cervical lymphadenopathy in the two groups. We performed US-FNACs on 58 cervical lymph nodes from 29 patients, with a cytological adequacy of 69.0%. The number of adequate cytological results was 19 (65.5%) in group A and 21 (72.4%) in group B, and the diagnostic adequacy did not differ significantly between the two groups (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.574). There was no statistically significant difference in the cytological adequacy of US-FNAC for cervical lymphadenopathy according using of 21 and 23 gauge needles.

  9. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannelly, Grainne

    2010-02-01

    The management of women with abnormal cytology in pregnancy represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for colposcopists. The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer). Following an initial assessment, careful follow-up is essential. This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.

  11. Role of cytology in early diagnosis of cerebrotendinous xanthomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreosee Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by widespread tissue deposition of two neutral sterols, cholestenol and cholesterol, resulting in tendinous xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, progressive neurological defects, and premature death from arteriosclerosis. Because it is a treatable cause of cerebellar ataxia and dementia, its early diagnosis is desirable. Here, we have reported the case of an 11-year-old boy with this disorder who was diagnosed based on the cytological findings of fine needle aspiration and clinical features.

  12. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Tirumalasetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%, reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%, suppurative (n=16, 12.4% lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%, and Hodgkin′s lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%. Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of

  13. Respiratory mechanics and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in healthy adult alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ana P; Bedenice, Daniela; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory mechanical function and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytologic results in healthy alpacas. 16 client-owned adult alpacas. Measurements of pulmonary function were performed, including functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory system resistance via forced oscillatory technique (FOT), and assessment of breathing pattern by use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in standing and sternally recumbent alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed orotracheally during short-term anesthesia. Mean ± SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in standing alpacas for FRC (3.19 ± 0.53 L), tidal volume (0.8 ± 0.13 L), and respiratory system resistance at 1 Hz (2.70 ± 0.88 cm H(2)O/L/s), 2 Hz (2.98 ± 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s), 3 Hz (3.14 ± 0.77 cm H(2)O/L/s), 5 Hz (3.45 ± 0.91 cm H(2)O/L/s), and 7 Hz (3.84 ± 0.93 cm H(2)O/L/s). Mean phase angle, as a measurement of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, was 19.59 ± 10.06°, and mean difference between nasal and plethysmographic flow measurements was 0.18 ± 0.07 L/s. Tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow were significantly higher in sternally recumbent alpacas than in standing alpacas. Cytologic examination of BAL fluid revealed 58.52 ± 12.36% alveolar macrophages, 30.53 ± 13.78% lymphocytes, 10.95 ± 9.29% neutrophils, 0% mast cells, and several ciliated epithelial cells. Pulmonary function testing was tolerated well in nonsedated untrained alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage in alpacas yielded samples with adequate cellularity that had a greater abundance of neutrophils than has been reported in horses.

  14. Utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Leslie R

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine needle aspiration (FNA is widely utilized for evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules. However, approximately 30% are indeterminate for malignancy. Recently, a mutation in the BRAF gene has been reported to be the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection for refining indeterminate preoperative cytologic diagnoses in patients with PTC. Methods Archival indeterminate thyroid FNAs and corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE surgical samples with PTC were identified in our patient files. DNA extracted from slide scape lysates and 5 μm FFPE sections were evaluated for the BRAF V600E mutation using LightCycler PCR and fluorescent melting curve analysis (LCPCR. Amplification products that showed deviation from the wild-type genomic DNA melting peak, discordant FNA and FFPE matched pairs, and all benign control samples, underwent direct DNA sequencing. Results A total of 19 indeterminate thyroid FNAs demonstrating PTC on FFPE surgical samples were included in the study. Using BRAF mutation analysis, the preoperative diagnosis of PTC was confirmed in 3/19 (15.8% FNA samples that could not be conclusively diagnosed on cytology alone. However, 9/19 (47.4% FFPE tissue samples were positive for the V600E mutation. Of the discordant pairs, 5/6 FNAs contained less than 50% tumor cells. Conclusion When used with indeterminate FNA samples, BRAF mutation analysis may be a useful adjunct technique for confirming the diagnosis of malignancy in an otherwise equivocal case. However, overall tumor cell content of some archival FNA smear slides is a limiting factor for mutation detection.

  15. A method for quantitative analysis of clump thickness in cervical cytology slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yilun; Bradley, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and thickness of cytology specimens is critical to the development of digital slide acquisition techniques that minimise both scan times and image file size. In this paper, we evaluate a novel method to achieve this goal utilising an exhaustive high-resolution scan, an over-complete wavelet transform across multi-focal planes and a clump segmentation of all cellular materials on the slide. The method is demonstrated with a quantitative analysis of ten normal, but difficult to scan Pap stained, Thin-prep, cervical cytology slides. We show that with this method the top and bottom of the specimen can be estimated to an accuracy of 1 μm in 88% and 97% of the fields of view respectively. Overall, cellular material can be over 30 μm thick and the distribution of cells is skewed towards the cover-slip (top of the slide). However, the median clump thickness is 10 μm and only 31% of clumps contain more than three nuclei. Therefore, by finding a focal map of the specimen the number of 1 μm spaced focal planes that are required to be scanned to acquire 95% of the in-focus material can be reduced from 25.4 to 21.4 on average. In addition, we show that by considering the thickness of the specimen, an improved focal map can be produced which further reduces the required number of 1 μm spaced focal planes to 18.6. This has the potential to reduce scan times and raw image data by over 25%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Guidelines for cytopathologic diagnosis of epithelioid and mixed type malignant mesothelioma. Complementary statement from the International Mesothelioma Interest Group, also endorsed by the International Academy of Cytology and the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Anders; Ascoli, Valeria; Bedrossian, Carlos; Boon, Mathilde; Creaney, Jenette; Davidson, Ben; Dejmek, Annika; Dobra, Katalin; Fassina, Ambrogio; Field, Andrew; Firat, Pinar; Kamei, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Tadao; Michael, Claire W.; Önder, Sevgen; Segal, Amanda; Vielh, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    To provide practical guidelines for the cytopathologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Cytopathologists involved in the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (IMIG) and the International Academy of Cytology (IAC), who have an interest in the field contributed to this update. Reference material includes peer-reviewed publications and textbooks. This article is the result of discussions during and after the IMIG 2012 conference in Boston, followed by thorough discussions during the 2013 IAC meeting in Paris. Additional contributions have been obtained from cytopathologists and scientists, who could not attend these meetings, with final discussions and input during the IMIG 2014 conference in cape town. During the previous IMIG biennial meetings, thorough discussions have resulted in published guidelines for the pathologic diagnosis of MM. However, previous recommendations have stated that the diagnosis of MM should be based on histological material only.[12] Accumulating evidence now indicates that the cytological diagnosis of MM supported by ancillary techniques is as reliable as that based on histopathology, although the sensitivity with cytology may be somewhat lower.[345] Recognizing that noninvasive diagnostic modalities benefit both the patient and the health system, future recommendations should include cytology as an accepted method for the diagnosis of this malignancy.[67] The article describes the consensus of opinions of the authors on how cytology together with ancillary testing can be used to establish a reliable diagnosis of MM. PMID:26681974

  17. Cytologic follow-up of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muram, D.; Curry, R.H.; Drouin, P.

    1982-01-01

    In an 11-year study done at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, cytologic assessment of 323 patients treated by radiotherapy for invasive cervical carcinoma was reviewed. The value and limitations of gynecologic cytology in the follow-up of these patients are discussed

  18. Urine cytology in the evaluation of urological malignancy revisited: is it still necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falebita, Opeyemi Adegboyega

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. METHODS: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000-2005) were retrieved from our institution\\'s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for age, sex, flexible cystoscopy and radiological imaging results. The cost of urine cytology was retrieved from the pathology department. RESULTS: There were a total of 2,568 urine cytological examinations. Of these, 25 were positive for malignant cells. There were 19 male (76%) and 6 female (24%) patients with a mean age of 72 years (range: 49-97). In 21 patients with positive cytology, a bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy and\\/or imaging studies. For a positive cytology yield of 1%, EUR 210,000 was spent. CONCLUSIONS: Routine urine cytology was not cost effective and did not add to the diagnostic yield beyond cystoscopy and diagnostic imaging. It may be omitted in the initial evaluation of urological malignancy.

  19. New diagnostic reporting format for endometrial cytology based on cytoarchitectural criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoh, K; Norimatsu, Y; Hirai, Y; Takeshima, N; Kamimori, A; Nakamura, Y; Shimizu, K; Kobayashi, T K; Murata, T; Shiraishi, T

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a new reporting format for endometrial cytology that would standardize the diagnostic criteria and the terminology used for reporting. Methods: In previous studies, cytoarchitectural criteria were found to be useful for the cytological assessment of endometrial lesions. To apply these criteria, an appropriate cytological specimen is imperative. In this article, the requirements of an adequate endometrial cytological specimen for the new diagnostic criteria are first discussed. Then, the diagnostic criteria, standardized on a combination of conventional and cytoarchitectural criteria, are presented. Third, terminology that could be used, not only for reporting the histopathological diagnosis, but also for providing better guidance for the gynaecologist to determine further clinical action, is introduced. The proposed reporting format was investigated using endometrial cytology of 58 cases that were cytologically underestimated or overestimated compared to the histopathological diagnosis made on the subsequent endometrial biopsy or surgical specimens. Results: Of the 58 cases, 12 were reassessed as being unsatisfactory for evaluation. Among the remaining 46 cases, 25 of the 27 cases, which had been underestimated and subsequently diagnosed as having endometrial carcinoma or a precursor stage on histopathological examination,were reassessed as recommended for endometrial biopsy. On the other hand, 19 cases overestimated by cytology were all reassessed as not requiring biopsy. Conclusions: The reporting format for endometrial cytology proposed in this article may improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the number of patients managed inappropriately. PMID:18657157

  20. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, F.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Ruitenberg, H. M.

    1995-01-01

    FNA cytology of 112 patients with thyroid nodules seen in a 5-year period in a general hospital setting, and the histology obtained from the 53 operated patients, were retrospectively analysed. The inadequacy rate of FNA cytology was 11%, sensitivity was 84% (16/19), specificity was 52% (15/29),

  1. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  2. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko [Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  3. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. © 2013 Ghent University. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Histopathological and cytological correlation of tumors of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Yalavarthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :0 With the advent of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, the approach to diagnosis and management of breast lesions has been revolutionized. Its accuracy in many situations can approach that of histopathology in providing an unequivocal diagnosis. Aim :0 The aim of this study is to examine the cytological details in aspirated smears from lumps in the breast and to evaluate the role of FNAC in improving the quality of diagnosis by comparing with histopathological features. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 2 years, 334 aspirations, including 16 bilateral were performed. Suppurative and inflammatory lesions and gynecomastia were excluded from the total aspirates. A total of 56 cases were followed-up by histopathologic examination. Results: Cytohistologic correlation was 73.68%, 42.85%, 94.44% for fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and duct cell carcinoma respectively. False positives were observed in proliferative lesions. No false negative cases observed. The sensitivity of the fine needle aspiration (FNA procedure was 100%, specificity, 88.5% and the predictive value of a positive result was 84%. Conclusion: Proliferative lesions may be misinterpreted as malignancy in FNA without complete clinical and mammographic details.

  5. Computational model for squamous cells characterization during cervical smear cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Eduardo Martínez Abaunza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the work done by the Biomedical Engineering Research Group (GIIB, and the Structural, Functional and Clinical Pathology Research Group of the Industrial University of Santander (UIS, with Autonomous University of Bucaramanga (UNAB, was to construct a computational model allowing squamous cells characterization of cervical smear cytology to classify them as being either normal or abnormal cells. Slides containing the cell samples were colleted by the pathologist and the images were digitalized by a video-camera coupled to a microscope and connected to a frame acquisition device. Three thresholding algorithms were used, in image segmentation, allowing cell nuclei detection; manual thresholding was used when these algorithms failed to detect cytoplasm. Cell texture was described by the distribution of histogram in each color level, and the borders using Fourier descriptors. The results of the first phase are presented, implementing them in classifying and identifying normal cells. Later stages will involve characterizing each cells stage initially classified as presenting some reactive change or due to infection, to distinguish the reactive cells of intraepithelial lesion cells. Key words: image processing, mathematical morphology, cervical smear cytology, dysplasia, cancer of cervix.

  6. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  7. [Quality assurance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the organized mammography screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Mihály; Konyár, Eva; Schneider, Ferenc; Bidlek, Mária; Szabó, Eva; Nyári, Tibor; Godény, Mária; Kásler, Miklós

    2010-08-08

    The National Public Health Program has established the organized mammography screening in Hungary. The aim of our study was to determine the quality assurance of breast aspiration cytology. Cytology results were rated to 5 categories (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5). All cytology reports were compared with the final histology diagnosis. 1361 women had aspiration cytology diagnosis performed from a total of 47718 mammography non-negative lesions. There were 805 (59.1%) benign and 187 (13.7%) malignant alterations. Sensitivity was 91%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 96.6% and negative predictive value turned to be 71% (pauditing values of fine needle aspiration cytology in our laboratory meet, or in certain aspects exceed the proposed minimum threshold values.

  8. Image-guided fine needle cytology with aspiration versus non-aspiration in retroperitoneal masses: is aspiration necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajiv Kumar; Mitra, Shaila; Jain, Rishav Kumar; Vahikar, Shilpa; Bundela, Archana; Misra, Purak

    2015-03-01

    Although using fine needle cytology with aspiration (FNC-A) for establishing diagnoses in the retroperitoneal region has shown promise, there is scant literature supporting a role of non-aspiration cytology (FNC-NA) for this region. We assessed the accuracy and reliability of FNC-A and FNC-NA as tools for preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses and compared the results of both techniques with each other and with histopathology. Fifty-seven patients with retroperitoneal masses were subjected to FNC-A and FNC-NA. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin and eosin stain. An individual slide was objectively analysed using a point scoring system to enable comparison between FNC-A and FNC-NA. By FNC-A, 91.7% accuracy was obtained in cases of retroperitoneal lymph node lesions followed by renal masses (83.3%). The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-A varied from 75.0%-81.9%. By FNC-NA, 93.4% diagnostically accurate results were obtained in the kidney, followed by 75.0% in adrenal masses. The diagnostic accuracy of other sites by FNC-NA varied from 66.7%-72.8%. Although both techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages, FNC-NA may be a more efficient adjuvant method of sampling in retroperitoneal lesions.

  9. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Accuracy of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of oral amelanotic melanomas in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeździecki, Rafał; Czopowicz, Michał; Sapierzyński, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    Amelanotic melanomas are one of the most common oral malignancies. The cytologic and histopathologic differentiation between amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma is often difficult or even impossible. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanoma. Cytologic preparations from undifferentiated canine oral tumors were stained with Giemsa and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies. The final cytologic diagnosis (including ICC) was compared to the final diagnosis based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, and sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination were determined. Final cytologic diagnoses of 38 cases agreed well with the histopathologic/immunohistochemical diagnoses, thus both specificity and sensitivity of combined routine cytology and ICC were 100% (95% confidence interval 90.8-100%). Of 32 oral tumors, diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma was made using routine cytology and ICC. In 4 of 6 aspirates taken from lymph nodes, a preliminary diagnosis of metastatic amelanotic melanoma corresponded with the final diagnosis. Both sensitivity and specificity of routine cytology in diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas were considered moderate (66.7% and 85.7%, respectively). In conclusion, routine cytology is a reliable diagnostic method for canine oral amelanotic melanoma and metastatic amelanotic melanoma, and ICC, using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies, is an excellent supporting method for presurgical diagnosis of poorly differentiated oral malignancies in dogs. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. FTA Cards for Preservation of Nucleic Acids for Molecular Assays: A Review on the Use of Cytologic/Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda

    2018-03-01

    - Traditional methods for storing histologic and cytologic specimens for future use in molecular assays have consisted of either snap-freezing with cryopreservation or formalin-fixing, paraffin-embedding the samples. Although snap-freezing with cryopreservation is recommended for better preservation of nucleic acids, the infrastructure and space required for archiving impose challenges for high-volume pathology laboratories. Cost-effective, long-term storage at room temperature; relatively easy shipment; and standardized handling can be achieved with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, but formalin fixation induces fragmentation and chemical modification of nucleic acids. Advances in next-generation sequencing platforms, coupled with an increase in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers have created a demand for high-quality nucleic acids. To address issues of the quality of nucleic acid and logistics in sample acquisition, alternatives for specimen preservation and long-term storage have been described and include novel universal tissue fixatives, stabilizers, and technologies. - To collect, retrieve, and review information from studies describing the use of nucleic acids recovered from cytologic/tissue specimens stored on Flinders Technology Associates (FTA, GE Whatman, Maidstone, Kent, United Kingdom) cards for downstream molecular applications. - An electronic literature search in the PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, Maryland) database allowed the selection of manuscripts addressing the use of FTA cards for storage of cytologic samples for molecular analysis. Only articles published in English were retrieved. - The use of FTA cards is a versatile method for fostering multicenter, international collaborations and clinical trials that require centralized testing, long-distance shipment, and high-quality nucleic acids for molecular techniques. Studies with controlled temperature are required to test the

  12. Correlation of MRI and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma spinal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.K.; Ditchfield, M.R.; Waters, K.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Medulloblastoma frequently spreads to involve the spinal cord, which significantly reduces patient survival and determines whether chemotherapy is utilised and the dose of irradiation to the neuraxis. Staging is usually achieved by MRI of the spine and/or cytology of CSF, both methods having their limitations. Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between CSF cytology and the demonstration of spinal metastases by MRI and whether CSF cytology is useful when spinal MRI is equivocal. Materials and methods. All cases of medulloblastoma diagnosed at our hospital between 1992 and 1997 were identified. Of 26 cases, 11 presentations (age range 4 months to 12 years) had both CSF cytology (either from the cisterna magna or lumbar puncture) and spinal MRI. The MR studies were reviewed for the presence of metastases and the CSF cytology for the presence of tumour cells. Results. We found 100 % correlation between MRI and CSF cytology for samples taken by lumbar puncture (four negative and three positive on both investigations). No correlation was demonstrated when CSF samples were taken from the cisterna magna. Conclusions. Our data suggest that lumbar CSF cytology may be useful when the MRI is equivocal for the presence of metastatic involvement of the spine by medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  13. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  14. [Correlation of hybrid II capture cytologic exam in diagnosis of cervical lesions related to HPV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceição Ribeiro Dantas; Diniz, Veruska Cassandra; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; de Souza, Eroisa Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Paiva, Magnus Sérgio Martins; de Brito, Maria Helena Marques Fonseca; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was confront the results of the cytological examination with hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of induced cervical intraepithelial lesion-HPV, correlating the cytological findings with biomoleculares. The research was carried through in a group of 160 sexually active women who had espontaneamente looked its gynecologists for consultation of routine, having been submitted to the collection of cervicovaginal material for cytology and for examination of hybrid capture II in the Centro de Patologia Clínica and the Hospital e Maternidade Promater, in the city of the Natal-RN. The results had shown to relatively high numbers of positive cases for HPV using hybrid capture II (41.87%) and the cytology (23.75%). The agreement between the two studied methods relatively was raised (59.38%). It was evident also that the viruses with high oncogênico potential had presented found in the compatible cytology with Lesion of low risk (11.88%), followed of Lesion of high risk (NIC II and III); already the viruses with low oncogênico potential were more associates the Lesion of low risk (6.25%), followed of Lesion of high risk. The cytology, exactly with its limitations, is an important method in the detention of attributable patologias to the HPV, emphasizing that the molecular method comes to complement it and to consolidate the cytological findings.

  15. Efficacy of oral exfoliative cytology in diabetes mellitus patients: a light microscopic and confocal microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Deepika; Malathi, N; Reddy, B Thirupathi

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global problem. By monitoring the health status of these individuals, diabetic complications can be prevented. We aimed to analyze alterations in the morphology and cytomorphometry of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients using oral exfoliative cytology technique and determine its importance in public health screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The study was carried out in 100 type 2 DM patients and 30 healthy individuals. Smears were taken from the right buccal mucosa and stained by the Papanicolaou technique. Staining with Acridine orange was carried out to view qualitative changes with confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM-510 Meta). The cytomorphometry was evaluated using IMAGE PRO PLUS 5.5 software with Evolution LC camera. All findings were statistically analyzed. The results showed that with increase in fasting plasma glucose levels, there is significant increase in nuclear area, decrease in cytoplasmic area, and increase in nuclear cytoplasmic ratio (p inclusion, candida and keratinization. In the present study, we found significant alterations in the cytomorphometry and cytomorphology of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients. This study supports and extends the view that these cellular changes can alert the clinician to the possibility of diabetes and aid in monitoring of diabetes throughout the lifetime of the patient.

  16. Cytological effects of some new mutagens on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2002-01-01

    Air-dried seeds of five rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite (RS) for space mutation and were irradiated by synchronous irradiation (soft X-rays), protons and nitrogen ions. The cytological effects were compared with that of γ-irradiation. The results indicated that all the mutagens were able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The space environment had a stimulating mitotic effect on root tip cells. Other mutagens had inhibiting mitotic actions. The rates of micronuclei induced by synchronous irradiation and other mutagens were higher than that by γ-rays; and the rates of chromosomal bridge were lower. Furthermore, the radiosensitivity of five varieties varied with different mutagens

  17. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  18. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  19. Cytological assay of micronucleus induction by radiation in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattathiri, V.N.; Bindu, L.; Remani, P.; Chandralekha, B.; Davis, C.A.; Krishnan Nair, M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the dose-response relationship of micronucleus (MN) induction by radiation in eighty-three patients with oral cancers. Serial scrape smears were taken before treatment and after delivery of various fractions of a course of radical radiotherapy. The smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) evaluated. Before treatment 70.5% of tumours showed MNC, the mean value being 4.18 MNC/1000 cells. The frequency of MNC, increased with increasing dose of radiation. As regards relation to treatment duration, there was initially a slight increase, followed by rapid increase and then a plateauing. Radiosensitive and resistant tumours showed differing pattern of change. The MN test by serial cytological assay has potential as a tool to understand the dynamics of radiation induced cell death and predict radiosensitivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. Does imprint cytology improve the accuracy of transrectal prostate needle biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Hamide; Bulut, Burak Besir; Bahar, Abdulkadir Yasir; Bahar, Mustafa Remzi; Seringec, Nurten; Resim, Sefa; Çıralık, Harun

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of imprint cytology of core needle biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Between December 24, 2011 and May 9, 2013, patients with an abnormal DRE and/or serum PSA level of >2.5 ng/mL underwent transrectal prostate needle biopsy. Samples with positive imprint cytology but negative initial histologic exam underwent repeat sectioning and histological examination. 1,262 transrectal prostate needle biopsy specimens were evaluated from 100 patients. Malignant imprint cytology was found in 236 specimens (18.7%), 197 (15.6%) of which were confirmed by histologic examination, giving an initial 3.1% (n = 39) rate of discrepant results by imprint cytology. Upon repeat sectioning and histologic examination of these 39 biopsy samples, 14 (1.1% of the original specimens) were then diagnosed as malignant, 3 (0.2%) as atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP), and 5 (0.4%) as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). Overall, 964 (76.4%) specimens were negative for malignancy by imprint cytology. Seven (0.6%) specimens were benign by cytology but malignant cells were found on histological evaluation. On imprint cytology examination, nonmalignant but abnormal findings were seen in 62 specimens (4.9%). These were all due to benign processes. After reexamination, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rate, false-negative rate of imprint preparations were 98.1, 96.9, 98.4, 92.8, 99.3, 1.6, 3.1%, respectively. Imprint cytology is valuable tool for evaluating TRUS-guided core needle biopsy specimens from the prostate. Use of imprint cytology in combination with histopathology increases diagnostic accuracy when compared with histopathologic assessment alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Current Cytology Practices in Korea: A Nationwide Survey by the Korean Society for Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. Results Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%. The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%. Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7% and 2,094,426 (25.3% cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%, category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%, and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%. The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. Conclusions This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.

  2. Cytologic diagnosis: expression of probability by clinical pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M; Hotz, Christine S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical pathologists use descriptive terms or modifiers to express the probability or likelihood of a cytologic diagnosis. Words are imprecise in meaning, however, and may be used and interpreted differently by pathologists and clinicians. The goals of this study were to 1) assess the frequency of use of 18 modifiers, 2) determine the probability of a positive diagnosis implied by the modifiers, 3) identify preferred modifiers for different levels of probability, 4) ascertain the importance of factors that affect expression of diagnostic certainty, and 5) evaluate differences based on gender, employment, and experience. We surveyed 202 clinical pathologists who were board-certified by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (Clinical Pathology). Surveys were distributed in October 2001 and returned by e-mail, fax, or surface mail over a 2-month period. Results were analyzed by parametric and nonparametric tests. Survey response rate was 47.5% (n = 96) and primarily included clinical pathologists at veterinary schools (n = 58) and diagnostic laboratories (n = 31). Eleven of 18 terms were used "often" or "sometimes" by >/= 50% of respondents. Broad variability was found in the probability assigned to each term, especially those with median values of 75 to 90%. Preferred modifiers for 7 numerical probabilities ranging from 0 to 100% included 68 unique terms; however, a set of 10 terms was used by >/= 50% of respondents. Cellularity and quality of the sample, experience of the pathologist, and implications of the diagnosis were the most important factors affecting the expression of probability. Because of wide discrepancy in the implied likelihood of a diagnosis using words, defined terminology and controlled vocabulary may be useful in improving communication and the quality of data in cytology reporting.

  3. Interobserver reproducibility of the Paris system for reporting urinary cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology represents a significant improvement in classification of urinary specimens. The system acknowledges the difficulty in cytologically diagnosing low-grade urothelial carcinomas and has developed categories to deal with this issue. The system uses six categories: unsatisfactory, negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC, atypical urothelial cells, suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma, high-grade urothelial carcinoma, other malignancies and a seventh subcategory (low-grade urothelial neoplasm. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-seven urine specimens were independently reviewed by four cytopathologists unaware of the previous diagnoses. Each cytopathologist rendered a diagnosis according to the Paris System categories. Agreement was assessed using absolute agreement and weighted chance-corrected agreement (kappa. Disagreements were classified as low impact and high impact based on the potential impact of a misclassification on clinical management. Results: The average absolute agreement was 65% with an average expected agreement of 44%. The average chance-corrected agreement (kappa was 0.32. Nine hundred and ninety-nine of 1902 comparisons between rater pairs were in agreement, but 12% of comparisons differed by two or more categories for the category NHGUC. Approximately 15% of the disagreements were classified as high clinical impact. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the scheme recommended by the Paris System shows adequate precision for the category NHGUC, but the other categories demonstrated unacceptable interobserver variability. This low level of diagnostic precision may negatively impact the applicability of the Paris System for widespread clinical application.

  4. Cytological and histological correlation of granular cell tumor in a series of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soutrik Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor (GCT is an uncommon soft tissue tumor characterized by proliferation of cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. We came across three such tumors, one in the tongue, one in the chest wall, and one in the right deltoid region, which were referred for fine-needle aspiration cytology. On cytological examination, the first two cases were diagnosed as GCT, and the mass in deltoid region was suggestive of proliferative myositis. The cytological details of these cases are discussed. The excision biopsies of the first two cases and Tru-cut biopsy of the deltoid mass confirmed the diagnosis of GCT.

  5. Galactography paper in the handling of patient with secretion for the nipple: Comparison with cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez C, Aurelio; Ortiz U, Jaime Eduardo; Patino P, Jairo Hernando; Diaz G, Constanza

    1993-01-01

    It was done galactography and cytology in 30 patients with spontaneous secretion through the nipple. The haematic secretion was the most frequent (43.3%). the fibrocystic changes were the most common case of diagnosed telorrea by the two methods (60% by galactography and 56.7% by cytology), which coincide in the papilloma diagnose in 50% of the cases and in the 70,6% in the non-tumoral benign pathology diagnose. The galactography continues being the elected method to evaluate the patients with haematic secretion, keeping the cytology as a complementary exam

  6. Subtyping of nonsmall cell lung cancer on cytology specimens: Reproducibility of cytopathologic diagnoses on sparse material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukali, O. S.; Henrik, H.; Olsen, Karen Ege

    2014-01-01

    Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspiration (material is increasingly used in diagnosing lung cancer. High interobserver agreement in distinguishing small-cell lung cancer from nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on cytologic material has been demonstrated. Because of new treatment......, cytoscrape (CS) can convert cytologic material into tissue fragments useful for IHC. The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of pulmonary malignant diagnoses, in particular distinction between subgroups of NSCLC, based on smeared material and IHC on CS. A consecutive series of May...

  7. Significance of chest CT for localization of lung cancer detected by sputum cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Naoto; Shibuya, Hiroko

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of localization of cancer detected by sputum cytology. Of the malignancies detected by sputum cytology, about 40% consisted of cancers in upper respiratory tract and lung cancers located peripherally beyond the range of optimal bronchoscopic visibility. Thus, in cases with positive sputum cytology, the otorhinolaryngeal examination and chest CT are necessary. And, it is often difficult to localize cancers by bronchofiberscopy and these examinations, so careful follow-up is necessary in cases, in which localization is not confirmed. (author)

  8. Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle in squash cytology smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Radhakrishnan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT is a recently recognized and extremely rare glioneuronal tumor occurring in the fourth ventricle. It is crucial for the cytopathologist to be aware of this entity as it can be easily mistaken for more common neoplasms occurring at this site. We present here the cytology of such a rare case of RGNT that was misdiagnosed as ependymoma. The varying cytological features of this entity, as well as the common diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology, are highlighted in this report.

  9. The accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of parotid gland masses: a clinicopathological study of 114 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kristjan GUDMUNDSSON

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a valuable method for preoperative assessment of head and neck tumors. However, its accuracy in detection of salivary gland masses is controversial compared with other methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses. Material and Methods Over a 10-year period, 126 parotid gland masses were resected. Retrospective chart reviews of 114 patients were performed. The results of FNAC and final histological diagnosis were compared and the accuracy of FNAC was determined. Results Final histological evaluation revealed 11 malignant tumors and 103 benign lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (63%, followed by Warthin’s tumor (17.5%. The sensitivity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumors was 73% and the specificity was 97%. Positive predictive value (PPV was 73% and negative predictive value (NPV was 97%. The overall accuracy of FNAC in detecting parotid masses was 95%. False-negative diagnosis was found in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma whereas there was false-positive diagnosis in cases of pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable minimally invasive diagnostic method with a high sensitivity in diagnosis of lesions in parotid glands. The sensitivity of detection of malignant tumors in parotid glands was low due to the biopsy technique used, and depended on tumor location. Postoperative complications decreased after superficial parotidectomy.

  10. The value of fine needle aspiration and cytologic examination of impalpable complicated breast cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tez, Selda; Dener, Cenap; Köktener, Aslý; Caydere, Muzaffer; Tez, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration--FNA and cytologic analysis of impalpable complicated breast cysts. We rewieved the imaging findings, aspiration, cytology and biopsy results and followup imaging findings of 246 complicated cysts in 166 women retrospectively. FNA was performed in 169 out of the 246 complicated cysts. Thirtyone lesions were followed-up with US. Surgical biopsy was performed from five lesions. No malignant cells (137 cysts), insufficient cellular material (17 cysts), atypical cells (4 cysts) were seen in cytological examination of the aspirates. None of these lesions were found to represent malignancy at the time of surgical excision and during follow-up. Impalpable complicated breast cysts may be classified as probably benign and can be managed with follow-up imaging studies instead of intervention. Routine cytologic examination is unnecessary if the fluid is not bloody (Tab. 2, Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  11. Exfoliative cytology in study of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yoshiharu; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tomita, Kazuhiko; Kotani, Toshio; Nakayama, Akiko

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of cytological judgment of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer by comparison between pre- and post-irradiation smears given 1,000 rads by telecobalt external test irradiation. The estimation of radiation effects on nuclei and the cytological presumption of histological typing in pre-irradiation smears have brought about satisfactory results; agreement between histological and cytological judgements of radiosensitivity was about 96.8%. Cytological criteria of good sensitivity are as follows; Disparity in size of chromatin particles and irregular distribution. Irregularity of nuclear membrane with nuclear wrinkling with diminution of thickness of nuclear membrane. Mature squamous cell carcinoma without pearl formation. Those of poor sensitivity are as follows; Existence of many unchanged viable cells and less disturbances of chromatines. Existence of cells exibiting adenocarcinoma and carcinoma of intermediate type. Clusters of cyanophilic cells having lacy, indistinct cell borders. (auth.)

  12. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.

    2010-01-01

    smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared....... Immunohistochemistry was performed as required on the AM sections. Surgical specimens served as the gold standard. Results In 53% of conventional cytologic smears, the cellular yield was sufficient to render a correct diagnosis. In 12% the diagnosis was incorrect, in 21% only a differential diagnosis could be fin......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain too few...

  13. Endobiliary brush biopsy: Intra- and interobserver variation in cytological evaluation of brushings from bile duct strictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, S; Olsen, M; Jendresen, MB

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study...... was designed to assess the reproducibility of the cytological examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from 55 consecutive patients with biliary duct strictures that eventually turned out to be caused by malignant disease in 41 patients (73%). The cytology specimens were evaluated twice...... in different random order with an interval of at least 4 months by two pathologists blinded to the final diagnoses. Suitability for diagnosis (suitable, suboptimal or unsuitable) and cytologic diagnosis (benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy and malignant cells) were registered. Kappa analysis...

  14. Significance of cytology in the evaluation of radiation therapy for cancer of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Junzo; Nakayama, Akiko; Fukamatsu, Yoshito; Shiozawa, Isao; Tomita, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Fukuta, Toru.

    1986-01-01

    Cytologic and histologic diagnoses were made on 184 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix treated with radiation therapy. In 125 patients examined at the 8th day after completion of external irradiation, 73 and 52 patients were cytologically positive and negative, respectively, for persistent cancer. Histologically, 74 and 51 patients were positive and negative, respectively. Fifty-eight and 36 patients showed an agreement between the two procedures for positive and negative findings, respectively. In 159 patients examined at the 8th day after both external and intracavitary irradiation, 17 were cytologically diagnosed as positive and 142 as negative: histologically, 53 were positive and 106 were negative. Thirteen and 102 patients showed an agreement between the procedures for positive and negative findings, respectively. Using histological findings as the standard, false negative cases of cytology increased after doing intracavitary irradiation than after external irradiation (25 % vs 13 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Radiological and cytological detection of renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeivaensalo, M.; Merikanto, J.; Myllylae, V.; Hellstroem, P.; Kallionen, M.; Jalovaara, P.; Oulu Univ.; Oulu Univ.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated US, CT, intraveneous urography, arteriography, retrograde pyelography and urine cytology results in a series of 23 patients with renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinomas, 14 of whom underwent US, 17 i.v. urography, 8 CT, 15 arteriography, 9 retrograde pyelography, and 17 patients urine cytology. A tumour was identified in 5 patients (36%) at US, in 11 patients (61%) at urography, in 7 (88%) at CT, in 10 patients (67%) at arteriography, and in 8 (89%) at retrograde pyelography. Urine cytology was assessed as showing changes consistent with Papanicolaou class III-V in 15 (88%) of 17 patients. When renal pelvic cancer is suspected, intravenous urography should be performed as the initial radiological examination and followed by CT, which may also identify tumour spread. Arteriography and retrograde pyelography are sometimes complementary investigations. Repeated urinary cytology is mandatory. Our results show that US alone is unreliable in detecting renal pelvic cancer. (orig.) [de

  16. Comparison of human papillomavirus DNA tests, liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for the early detection of cervix uteri cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girianelli, Vania R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio S; Szklo, Moyses; Donato, Alexandre; Zardo, Lucilia M G; Lozana, José A; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Matos, Jorge H; Figueiredo, Valeska

    2006-12-01

    To compare the performance of human papillomavirus DNA tests (samples collected by a healthcare professional and self-collected) and liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology in the detection of cervix uteri cancer and its precursor lesions. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1777 women living in poor communities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Eligibility criteria included ages 25-59 years and not having had a Papanicolau test within at least 3 years prior to the study. Cytology (conventional or liquid-based) and human papillomavirus DNA (collected by a healthcare professional or self-collected) tests were performed using samples collected in a single visit. Women with abnormalities in at least one test and a systematic sample of 70 women with negative test results were referred to a colposcopic examination. Test readings were double-masked, and the outcome of interest was high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse. The pathology report was used as the gold standard. The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse was 2.0%. Human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a health professional alone or combined with conventional cytology had the highest sensitivity (91.4 and 97.1%, respectively). The highest specificity was found for conventional cytology (91.6%) and for a human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a healthcare professional (90.2%). On the basis of only test performance, the use of human papillomavirus DNA tests, alone or combined with cytology, would seem to be recommended. Its population-wide implementation, however, is conditional on a cost-effectiveness analysis.

  17. [Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and distinction from basal cell adenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y P; Zhang, Y; Tian, C; Xing, L; Liu, H G

    2018-04-08

    Objective: To describe the cytologic features of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADCC) of salivary glands, and to identify distinguishing cytologic features of ADCC and basal cell adenoma (BCA). Methods: A retrospective review of cytology smears of 30 cases of ADCC and 12 cases of BCA of salivary glands were performed. All cases were collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2010 to January 2017. Except for 2 aspirate smears of ADCC, all were touch imprint smears. All cases had further histological confirmation. Results: Neoplastic ductal cells of ADCC were arranged in three-dimensional clusters, sheets and singles. Hyaline globules were found in most cases (20/30, 66.7%). The nuclei were round to oval, showing varying degrees of nuclear atypia. These included (1) the nuclei were hyperchromatic, demonstrating coarse or slightly coarse, irregularly distributed chromatin; (2) the nuclei were slightly large and vary in size; (3) appearance of the nuclei had a different degree of irregularity (often mild). Nucleoli were common seen (21/30, 70.0%), and were prominent in some cases. Mitosis and necrosis were rare. Cytologically, BCA showed cell arrangements and nuclear features overlapped with those of ADCC. The cytologic difference between these two tumors included: (1) the tumor cells presented rarely in singles; (2) hyaline globules were very uncommon (1/12) in BCA; (3) nuclei of BCA were hypochromatic or slightly hyperchromatic, homogeneous and uniform in appearance and size, overall without nuclear atypia and they were smaller and slender then those of ADCC and (4) individual cells of BCA showed relatively abundant cytoplasm. Conclusions: The cytologic features of ADCC and BCA both overlap and different from each other. Most cases can be diagnosed by cytologic examination. The presence of hyaline globules is an important diagnostic clue of ADCC, although not pathognomonic. Nuclear atypia of neoplastic ductal cells is an essential

  18. Integration of tablet technologies in the e-laboratory of cytology: a health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Pochini, Marco; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-10-01

    Although tablet systems are becoming a powerful technology, particularly useful in every application of medical imaging, to date no one has investigated the acceptance and performance of this technology in digital cytology. The specific aims of the work were (1) to design a health technology assessment (HTA) tool to assess, in terms of performance and acceptance, the introduction of tablet technologies (wearable, portable, and non portable) in the e-laboratories of cytology and (2) to test the tool in a first significant application of digital cytology. An HTA tool was proposed operating on a domain of five dimensions of investigation comprising the basic information of the product of digital cytology, the perceived subjective quality of images, the assessment of the virtual navigation on the e-slide, the assessment of the information and communication technologies features, and the diagnostic power. Six e-slides regarding studies of cervicovaginal cytology digitalized by means of an Aperio ( www.aperio.com ) scanner and uploaded onto the www.digitalslide.it Web site were used for testing the methodology on three different network connections. Three experts of cytology successfully tested the methodology on seven tablets found suitable for the study in their own standard configuration. Specific indexes furnished by the tool indicated both a high degree of performance and subjective acceptance of the investigated technology. The HTA tool thus could be useful to investigate new tablet technologies in digital cytology and furnish stakeholders with useful information that may help them make decisions involving the healthcare system. From a global point of view the study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tablet technology in digital cytology.

  19. Yield of Cytology Surveillance After High-Grade Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Lindsay M; Frolova, Antonina I; Wu, Ningying; Liu, Jingxia; Powell, Matthew; Thaker, Premal H; Massad, L Stewart

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of high-grade cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/VAIN 2+) and cancer among women treated surgically for high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (HGVIN) and vulvar cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent surgery for HGVIN/vulvar cancer between 2006 and 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using stepwise selection were used to identify correlates of abnormal cytology after treatment for VIN and vulvar cancer. Among 191 women under surveillance for a median of 3.7 years who underwent treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer, primary vulvar lesions included VIN 2 (10, 5%), VIN 3 (102, 53%), and carcinoma (79, 41%). During follow-up, 71 (37%) had abnormal cytology, including 47 (25%) low grade, 23 (12%) high grade, and 1 (0.5%) carcinoma. Subsequent risk for VAIN 2+ was 11% (6/57) after previous hysterectomy and 8% for CIN 2+ (10/124) with intact cervix. Overall risk for CIN 3+ was 5%. Correlates of high-grade cytology after treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer included nonwhite race (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.50-7.36), immunodeficiency (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.76-9.94), and previous abnormal cytology (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.29-5.78). Stepwise multivariate analysis revealed immunosuppression as the only significant correlate of high-grade cytology after vulvar treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.26-10.83). Women with HGVIN/cancer should have cervical/vaginal cytology before vulvar surgery. Those with a negative cervical or vaginal cytology result should undergo cytology testing at 1- to 3-year intervals, based on the threshold for CIN 3+ set forth by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.

  20. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  1. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups. © 2013 UICC.

  2. Bacteriological, cytological and histopathological evaluation of the reproductive tract of slaughtered cows

    OpenAIRE

    Casarin, Julia B.S.; Martini, Ana P.; Trentin, Janislene M.; Fiorenza, Mariani F.; Pessoa, Gilson A.; Barros, Severo S.; Rubin, Mara I.B.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Reproductive diseases, mainly endometritis, are important hurdles in cattle raising, In the current study we evaluated gross, bacteriological, cytological, and histological findings from selected sites of the genital from 23 slaughtered cows and tested whether there is an association between these findings and the probability of reaching a reliable diagnosis. The results from the examinations of macroscopic aspects of uterine secretions, the cytological, bacteriological, and histopa...

  3. Imprint cytology on microcalcifications excised by Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A rapid preliminary diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drouveli Theodora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate imprint cytology in the context of specimens with microcalcifications derived from Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB. Patients and methods A total of 93 women with microcalcifications BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB and imprint samples were examined. VABB was performed on Fischer's table using 11-gauge Mammotome vacuum probes. A mammogram of the cores after the procedure confirmed the excision of microcalcifications. For the application of imprint cytology, the cores with microcalcifications confirmed by mammogram were gently rolled against glass microscope slides and thus imprint smears were made. For rapid preliminary diagnosis Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May Grunwald Giemsa were used. Afterwards, the core was dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine histological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated. Results According to the pathological examination, 73 lesions were benign, 15 lesions were carcinomas (12 ductal carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 5 lesions were precursor: 3 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH and 2 cases of lobular neoplasia (LN. The observed sensitivity and specificity of the cytological imprints for cancer were 100% (one-sided, 97.5% CI: 78.2%–100%. Only one case of ADH could be detected by imprint cytology. Neither of the two LN cases was detected by the imprints. The imprints were uninformative in 11 out of 93 cases (11.8%. There was no uninformative case among women with malignancy. Conclusion Imprint cytology provides a rapid, accurate preliminary diagnosis in a few minutes. This method might contribute to the diagnosis of early breast cancer and possibly attenuates

  4. Cytological changes in oral epithelium due to Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Awdah M. Al-hazimi; Shima Bushra Bakhet; Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the cytological changes in oral epithelium that might be induced by Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages. Material and methods: Oral Exfoliative Cytology (OEFC) was applied to a case control study to assess the presence and severity of oral epithelial atypia (ET) in 300 subjects (150 alcohol abuse individuals (cases); 150 non-alcohol abuse individuals (controls)). All cases were using homemade alcoholic drinks, locally known as,...

  5. Automated Cervical Screening and Triage, Based on HPV Testing and Computer-Interpreted Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Hyun, Noorie; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Zhang, Han; Stamps, Robin E; Poitras, Nancy E; Wheeler, William; Befano, Brian; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-11

    State-of-the-art cervical cancer prevention includes human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents and screening/treatment of cervical precancer (CIN3/AIS and, less strictly, CIN2) among adults. HPV testing provides sensitive detection of precancer but, to reduce overtreatment, secondary "triage" is needed to predict women at highest risk. Those with the highest-risk HPV types or abnormal cytology are commonly referred to colposcopy; however, expert cytology services are critically lacking in many regions. To permit completely automatable cervical screening/triage, we designed and validated a novel triage method, a cytologic risk score algorithm based on computer-scanned liquid-based slide features (FocalPoint, BD, Burlington, NC). We compared it with abnormal cytology in predicting precancer among 1839 women testing HPV positive (HC2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in 2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Precancer outcomes were ascertained by record linkage. As additional validation, we compared the algorithm prospectively with cytology results among 243 807 women screened at KPNC (2016-2017). All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, the algorithm matched the triage performance of abnormal cytology. Combined with HPV16/18/45 typing (Onclarity, BD, Sparks, MD), the automatable strategy referred 91.7% of HPV-positive CIN3/AIS cases to immediate colposcopy while deferring 38.4% of all HPV-positive women to one-year retesting (compared with 89.1% and 37.4%, respectively, for typing and cytology triage). In the 2016-2017 validation, the predicted risk scores strongly correlated with cytology (P < .001). High-quality cervical screening and triage performance is achievable using this completely automated approach. Automated technology could permit extension of high-quality cervical screening/triage coverage to currently underserved regions.

  6. Service quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology in a tertiary care hospital of lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Z.; Usmani, R.A.; Zahra, T.; Rasool, H.; Rizvi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Quality of any service is the most important aspect for the manufacturer as well as the consumer. The primary objective of any nation's health system is to provide supreme quality health care services to its patients. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology service in a tertiary care hospital. As Patient's perspectives provide valuable information on quality of process, therefore, patient's perception in terms of satisfaction with the service was measured. Methods: In this cross sectional analytical study, 291 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration cytology in Mayo Hospital were selected by systematic sampling technique. Information regarding satisfaction of patients with four dimensions of service quality process, namely procedure, sterilization, conduct and competency of doctor was collected through interview on questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed on SERVQUAL model, a measurement tool, for quality assessment of services provided to patients. All items were assessed on 2- point likert scale (0=dissatisfied, 1=satisfied). Frequencies and percentages of satisfied and dissatisfied patients were recorded for each item and all items in each dimension were scored. If the percentage of sum of all item scores of a dimension was =60, the dimension was 'good quality'. Whereas <60% was 'poor quality' dimension. Data was analysed using epi-info-3.5.1. Fisher test was applied to check statistical significance. (p-value <0.05) Results: Out of the 4 dimensions of service quality process, Procedure (48.8%), Sterilization (51.5%) and practitioner conduct (50.9%) were perceived as 'poor' by the patients. Only practitioner competency (67.4%) was perceived as 'good'. Comparison of dimensions of service quality scoring with overall level of patient satisfaction revealed that all 4 dimensions were significantly related to patient dissatisfaction (p<.05) Conclusion: The study suggests that service quality of

  7. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  8. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  9. Malignant peritoneal cytology in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma: the effect of progesterone therapy (a preliminary report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, M S; Lele, S B; Gamarra, M

    1988-01-01

    From February 1982-June 1986, 25 consecutive patients with surgical stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma (no evidence of metastasis at surgery or occult cervical or adnexal involvement on histopathologic review) and malignant peritoneal cytologic washings were treated with progesterone therapy. Twenty-two patients have undergone a second look laparoscopy and repeat cytologic washings, one of those also underwent a third look laparoscopy. Two patients refused second look laparoscopy, and in a third patient laparoscopy was medically contraindicated; all three have no evidence of disease (NED) at 15, 46, and 64 months respectively and are off therapy. Of the 22 patients who underwent second look laparoscopy, 21 (95%) had no macroscopic evidence of recurrent endometrial carcinoma and repeat negative peritoneal cytology; 1 patient (5%) had persistent malignant peritoneal cytology but was NED at third look laparoscopy one year later. All 25 patients are off progesterone therapy and remain clinically NED from 12-64 months. Although progesterone therapy for malignant peritoneal cytology resulted in a 100% reversal of malignant peritoneal cytology to normal in the 22 patients who underwent second or third look laparoscopy and all 25 patients remain clinically NED, the true value of progesterone therapy can only be ascertained by a randomized trial of progesterone versus no therapy.

  10. European Thyroid Association Guidelines regarding Thyroid Nodule Molecular Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Ralf; Cantara, Silvia; Crescenzi, Anna; Jarzab, Barbara; Musholt, Thomas J; Sobrinho Simoes, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Molecular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnostics has the potential to address the inherent limitation of FNA cytology which is an indeterminate (atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance follicular neoplasm) cytology. Because of the emerging role of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics, the European Thyroid Association convened a panel of international experts to review methodological aspects, indications, results, and limitations of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics. The panel reviewed the evidence for the diagnostic value of mutation panel assessment (including at least BRAF , NRAS , HRAS , KRAS , PAX8/PPARG , RET/PTC ) of targeted next generation sequencing and of a microarray gene expression classifier (GEC) test in the diagnostic assessment of an indeterminate cytology thyroid nodule. Moreover, possible surgical consequences of molecular FNA diagnostic results of thyroid nodules and the evidence that analysis of a molecular FNA diagnostic panel of somatic mutations or a microarray GEC test can alter the follow-up were reviewed. Molecular tests may help clinicians to drive patient care and the surgical decision if the analysis is performed in specialized laboratories. These molecular tests require standardization of performance characteristics and appropriate calibration as well as analytic validation before clinical interpretation.

  11. Optimization of fecal cytology in the dog: comparison of three sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezoulis, Petros S; Angelidou, Elisavet; Diakou, Anastasia; Rallis, Timoleon S; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2017-09-01

    Dry-mount fecal cytology (FC) is a component of the diagnostic evaluation of gastrointestinal diseases. There is limited information on the possible effect of the sampling method on the cytologic findings of healthy dogs or dogs admitted with diarrhea. We aimed to: (1) establish sampling method-specific expected values of selected cytologic parameters (isolated or clustered epithelial cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, spore-forming rods) in clinically healthy dogs; (2) investigate if the detection of cytologic abnormalities differs among methods in dogs admitted with diarrhea; and (3) investigate if there is any association between FC abnormalities and the anatomic origin (small- or large-bowel diarrhea) or the chronicity of diarrhea. Sampling with digital examination (DE), rectal scraping (RS), and rectal lavage (RL) was prospectively assessed in 37 healthy and 34 diarrheic dogs. The median numbers of isolated ( p = 0.000) or clustered ( p = 0.002) epithelial cells, and of lymphocytes ( p = 0.000), differed among the 3 methods in healthy dogs. In the diarrheic dogs, the RL method was the least sensitive in detecting neutrophils, and isolated or clustered epithelial cells. Cytologic abnormalities were not associated with the origin or the chronicity of diarrhea. Sampling methods differed in their sensitivity to detect abnormalities in FC; DE or RS may be of higher sensitivity compared to RL. Anatomic origin or chronicity of diarrhea do not seem to affect the detection of cytologic abnormalities.

  12. Prevalence of intraepithelial lesion in cervical screening cytology in a First-level Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, José Gabriel; Briones-Torres, Tomás Iván

    2018-01-01

    Cervical cancer represents the second leading cause of malignant neoplasm mortality in women globally. Cervical cytology is the most important screening study. It is therefore of interest to know the prevalence of cytological alterations in the Mexican population. In this study the objective was to calculate the prevalence of intraepithelial lesion in cervical screening cytology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed; the sample was 379 patients from 21 to 64 years of age; we included patients who underwent cervical screening cytology registered in the Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervicouterino (DOC-CACU) program database. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed. A prevalence of intraepithelial lesion of 4.49% was found. The 3.17% corresponded to LIEBG and 1.32% to LIEAG. No reports of invasive carcinoma were found. Of these patients, 64.71% corresponded to the age group from 41 to 60 years. 52.94% had had their last cytology in the previous 3 years or more and 35.29% were in postmenopause. A prevalence consistent with what was described in the literature was found. More than half of the affected patients had their last cytology in the previous 3 or more years and corresponded to the age group from 41 to 60 years. A high proportion of patients were in postmenopause.

  13. A simple, rapid method to isolate salt glands for three-dimensional visualization, fluorescence imaging and cytological studies

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    Lim Tit-Meng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some plants inhabiting saline environment remove salts via the salt glands embedded in the epidermal tissues. Cytological studies of salt glands will provide valuable information to our understanding of the secretory process. Previous studies on salt gland histology relied mainly on two-dimensional microscopic observations of microtome sections. Optical sectioning properties of confocal laser scanning microscope offer alternative approach for obtaining three-dimensional structural information of salt glands. Difficulty in light penetration through intact leaves and interference from neighbouring leaf cells, however, impede the acquiring of good optical salt gland sections and limit its applications in salt gland imaging. Freeing the glands from adjacent leaf tissues will allow better manipulations for three-dimensional imaging through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results Here, we present a simple and fast method for the isolation of individual salt glands released from the interference of neighbouring cells. About 100-200 salt glands could be isolated from just one cm2 of Avicennia officinalis leaf within hours and microscopic visualization of isolated salt glands was made possible within a day. Using these isolated glands, confocal laser scanning microscopic techniques could be applied and better resolution salt gland images could be achieved. By making use of their intrinsic fluorescent properties, optical sections of the gland cells could be acquired without the use of fluorescent probes and the corresponding three-dimensional images constructed. Useful cytological information of the salt gland cells could also be obtained through the applications of fluorescent dyes (e.g., LysoTracker® Red, FM®4-64, Texas Red®. Conclusions The study of salt glands directly at the glandular level are made possible with the successful isolation of these specialized structures. Preparation of materials for subsequent microscopic

  14. Cytological and reproductive aspects in the Caespitosa group of Paspalum

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    Marisa Toniolo Pozzobon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosome numbers are reported for thirty four germplasm accessions of Paspalum, Caespitosa group, representing five different species. All five species have shown x=10 as the basic chromosome number. The diploid 2n=20 chromosome number was confirmed for P. chacoense and P. indecorum, as well as sexuality for the latter. This is the first report of the chromosome number and cytological behavior for P. ligulare (2n=20 and 40, P. pleostachyum (2n=20, 30 and 40 and P. redondense (2n=20 and 40. The present results document regular meiosis in diploid accessions, with primarily bivalent pairing at diakinesis and metaphase I. Polyploids of these species had irregular meiosis, with univalent, trivalent, and quadrivalent chromosome associations. Diploid accessions of P. pleostachyum and P. ligulare have shown a single meiotic embryo-sac, indicating sexual reproduction, while the triploid and one of the tetraploid accessions of P. pleostachyum have shown aposporic embryo-sacs of nucelar origin, and a few meiotic sacs, suggesting facultative apomixis. Identification of the new diploid accessions may prove useful for phylogenetic studies of Paspalum, as well as for breeding programs focusing on the forage potential of species of the Caespitosa group.

  15. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  16. Role of cytological grading in the management of breast lump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Ahmed, M.; Jamal, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears of the breast lumps using the cytological evaluation system (C1 to C5) as practiced in the National Breast Screening Programme in the UK. Results: A total of 75 patients of lump breast were included in the project. The age range was 13-75 years with a peak incidence in the 3rd decade. There were 70 (93.3%) females and 5 (6.6%) male cases. Of the total 75 cases, 7 were designated C1, 45 C2, 5 C3, 7 C4 and 11 C5. In surgical biopsies, all the 45 cases designated as C2 proved to be benign with fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change as predominant lesions. All 11 designated C5 proved to be malignant; whereas, of the 5 cases labeled as C3, 4 were benign and one was malignant and out of seven C4 cases, 5 came out as malignant and 2 proved benign. Conclusion: the fine needle aspiration of lump breast has a sensitivity of 94.1%, specificity of 96.0% and accuracy of 95.5%. The C1-C5 grading system is practical, flexible, and gives room for expression of opinion by cytopathologist and easily interpreted by clincians. (author)

  17. Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denice Smith G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology: sensitivity and specificity in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M.A.; Khan, F.A.; Malik, S.; Khambaty, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thyroid enlargement is one of the common problems in patients presenting at outpatients department of ENT particularly in females. Thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most common way for it to present is as a solitary thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid diseases. Method: This prospective analytic study was conducted at ENT Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital during year 2004-8. One hundred and five cases were enrolled who underwent thyroid surgery after complete evaluation by history, clinical examination, Thyroid profile, Thyroid Scintigraphy, Ultrasound neck and FNAC. In cases which were revealed malignant by FNAC, CT scan were done to see the extent of disease and neck node status. Surgery was done in all cases and specimens sent for histopathology. Results: Male to female ratio of the patients was 1:8.5. Most common lesion was benign nodule (96). Malignant lesions were 9 in FNAC. In histopathology, the benign nodules were 92, and malignant cases were 13. Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%. Conclusion: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  19. Acute human parvovirus b19 infection: cytologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik

    2014-09-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR.

  20. Application of liquid-based cytology preparation in micronucleus assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, P

    2017-01-01

    Asphalts are bitumens that consist of complex of hydrocarbon mixtures and it is used mainly in road construction and maintenance. This study was undertaken to evaluate the micronucleus (MN) assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers using liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation. Three different stains (May-Grunwald Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin, and Papanicolaou) were used to evaluate the frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial of 100 participants (fifty road construction workers and fifty administrative staff) using LBC preparation. Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t-test, and Proad construction exhibit a higher frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and they are under the significant risk of cytogenetic damage. LBC preparation has potential application for the evaluation of frequency of MN. This technique may be advocated in those who are occupationally exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents in view of improvement in the smear quality and visualization of cell morphology.

  1. Diagnostic performance of cytology for assessment of hepatic lipid content in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, M M; Yao, B; Ríos, C; Wong, C; Mann, S; McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Viesselmann, L; Geick, A; Goldin, K; Jordan, A; Behling-Kelly, E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the diagnostic performance of cytology for assessing hepatic lipid content (HLC) in dairy cows by comparing microscopic evaluation of lipid vacuolation in touch imprint slide preparations of liver biopsies with quantitative measurement of triglyceride concentration ([TG]; mg/mg of wet weight) in paired biopsy samples. Our study also sought to compare the diagnostic performance of liver cytology, plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration ([NEFA]), and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration ([BHB]) derived from a measurement performed on whole blood, for assessing HLC. Chemical extraction of TG from liver tissue remains the gold standard for quantifying HLC, largely because available blood tests, although useful for detecting some types of pathology, such as increased lipid mobilization, ketosis, or hepatocellular injury, are nonspecific as to etiology. Veterinary practitioners can sample bovine liver for cytological evaluation in a fast, minimally invasive, and inexpensive manner. Thus, if highly predictive of HLC, cytology would be a practical diagnostic tool for dairy veterinarians. In our study, liver biopsy samples from Holstein cows (219 samples from 105 cows: 52 from cows 2 to 20 d prepartum, 105 from cows 0 to 10 d in milk, 62 from cows 18 to 25 d in milk) were used to prepare cytology slides and to quantify [TG] using the Folch extraction method followed by the Hantzch condensation reaction and spectrophotometric measurement. An ordinal scale (0-4) based on amount of hepatocellular cytoplasm occupied by discrete clear vacuoles was used by 3 blinded, independent observers to rank HLC in Wright-Giemsa-stained slides. Interobserver agreement in cytology scoring was good. Corresponding plasma [NEFA] and [BHB] measurements were available for 187 and 195 of the 219 samples, respectively. Liver [TG] correlated more strongly with cytology score than with NEFA or BHB, and receiver operating characteristic curve

  2. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey among uranium miners and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, P.; Feldstein, M.; Saccomanno, G.; Watson, L.; King, G.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the effect of cigarette smoking and of exposure to radon daughters, a prospective survey consisting of periodic sputum cytology evaluation was initiated among 249 underground uranium miners and 123 male controls. Sputum cytology specimens showing moderate atypia, marked atypia, or cancer cells were classified as abnormal. As compared to control smokers, miners who smoke had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal cytology (P = 0.025). For miner smokers, the observed frequencies of abnormal cytology were linearly related to cumulative exposure to radon daughters and to the number of years of uranium mining. A statistical model relating the probability of abnormal cytology to the risk factors was investigated using a binary logistic regression. The estimated frequency of abnormal cytology was significantly dependent, for controls, on the duration of cigarette smoking, and for miners, on the duration of cigarette smoking and of uranium mining

  3. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  4. Patterns of repeated anal cytology results among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary A. Robbins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at increased risk for anal cancer. In cervical cancer screening, patterns of repeated cytology results are used to identify low- and high-risk women, but little is known about these patterns for anal cytology among MSM. Methods: We analyzed Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS data for MSM who were offered anal cytology testing annually (HIV-positive or every 2 years (HIV-negative for 4 years. Results: Following an initial negative (normal cytology, the frequency of a second negative cytology was lower among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 ≥ 500 (74% or CD4 < 500 (68% than HIV-negative MSM (83% (p < 0.001. After an initial abnormal cytology, the frequency of a second abnormal cytology was highest among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 < 500 (70% compared to CD4 ≥ 500 (53% or HIV-negative MSM (46% (p = 0.003. Among HIV-positive MSM with at least three results, 37% had 3 consecutive negative results; 3 consecutive abnormal results were more frequent among CD4 < 500 (22% than CD4 ≥ 500 (10% (p = 0.008. Conclusions: More than one-third of HIV-positive MSM have consistently negative anal cytology over three years. Following abnormal anal cytology, a repeated cytology is commonly negative in HIV-negative or immunocompetent HIV-positive men, while persistent cytological abnormality is more likely among HIV-positive men with CD4 < 500. Keywords: Anal cancer, Anal cytology, HIV, MSM, Anal cancer screening

  5. Evaluation of Cytology for Diagnosing Avian Pox in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydock, Kira; Brown, Holly; Nemeth, Nicole; Poulson, Rebecca; Casalena, Mary Jo; Johnson, Joshua B; Brown, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Avian pox virus is a common cause of proliferative skin disease in wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo); however, other etiologies may produce grossly indistinguishable lesions. Common methods for diagnosing avian pox include histopathology, virus isolation, and PCR. While these methods are sufficient in most cases, each has their limitations. Cytology is a cost-effective and rapid approach that may be useful when traditional diagnostics are not feasible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of cytology relative to histopathology and PCR for avian pox diagnosis in wild turkeys. Fifty wild turkeys were submitted for necropsy due to nodular skin lesions on unfeathered skin of the head. Of these, five had similar skin lesions on the unfeathered legs and 26 had plaques on the mucosa of the oropharynx or esophagus. Representative skin, oropharyngeal, and esophageal lesions from all birds were examined with cytology and histopathology. Skin lesions on the head of each bird were also tested for avian pox virus via PCR. Histopathology and PCR were equally sensitive in diagnosing avian pox from skin lesions on the head. There were no significant differences between cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis of avian pox from skin lesions on the head (sensitivity = 97.4%, specificity = 100.0%), legs (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 100.0%), or from lesions in the oropharynx and esophagus (sensitivity of 62.5%). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PCR and cytology for diagnosis of pox viral skin lesions of the head. Relative to PCR detection of avian pox virus, cytology had a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 90.0%. These results suggest that cytology is a useful tool for diagnosis of avian pox in wild turkeys.

  6. The importance of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung lancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.K.; Younus, M.; Rehman, A.U.; Zafar, S.F.; Bukhari, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death. The incidence of lung cancer is increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Mortality is more than 90 % in diagnosed cases and it is directly related to the stage of disease so it is important to diagnose at an early stage. Sputum cytology is a definite way to diagnose lung cancer. It is cost effective, non-invasive, does not need any instrumentation and free of investigating complications. Objective: To study the role of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Study Setting: This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Study Design: Cross sectional evidence based study. Materials and Methods: Ninety seven patients (80 males, 17 females) with radiological suspicion of malignancy were included in the study. Three Consecutive morning sputum samples were collected after deep coughing. Two smears were made of each specimen and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and papanicolaou. All the specimens were examined by a consultant cytohistopathologist. Results: A total of 97 patients (80 males and 17 females) with clinical and radiological suspicion of lung cancer were included in the study. The patient's ages ranged between 50 - 83 years with mean age of 66.5 +- 14.5 years. Sputum cytology was positive in 46 (45.3%) patients. Amongst males 41 (51.25%) have positive cytology, while in females 5 (29.41%) have positive sputum cytology. Out of 46 patients with positive cytology 37 (80.43%) patients (33 males and 04 females) have non small cell carcinomas while 09 (19.56%) patients (08 males and 01 female) have small cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Sputum cytology is a definite way of lung cancer detection. It is cost effective, non invasive and free of investigating complications. (author)

  7. Relative Performance of HPV and Cytology Components of Cotesting in Cervical Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Kinney, Walter K; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Befano, Brian; Schussler, John; Katki, Hormuzd A; Castle, Philip E

    2018-05-01

    The main goal of cervical screening programs is to detect and treat precancer before cancer develops. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting precancer. However, reports of rare HPV-negative, cytology-positive cancers are motivating continued use of both tests (cotesting) despite increased testing costs. We quantified the detection of cervical precancer and cancer by cotesting compared with HPV testing alone at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), where 1 208 710 women age 30 years and older have undergone triennial cervical cotesting since 2003. Screening histories preceding cervical cancers (n = 623) and precancers (n = 5369) were examined to assess the relative contribution of the cytology and HPV test components in identifying cases. The performances of HPV testing and cytology were compared using contingency table methods, general estimating equation models, and nonparametric statistics; all statistical tests were two-sided. HPV testing identified more women subsequently diagnosed with cancer (P < .001) and precancer (P < .001) than cytology. HPV testing was statistically significantly more likely to be positive for cancer at any time point (P < .001), except within 12 months (P = .10). HPV-negative/cytology-positive results preceded only small fractions of cases of precancer (3.5%) and cancer (5.9%); these cancers were more likely to be regional or distant stage with squamous histopathology than other cases. Given the rarity of cancers among screened women, the contribution of cytology to screening translated to earlier detection of at most five cases per million women per year. Two-thirds (67.9%) of women found to have cancer during 10 years of follow-up at KPNC were detected by the first cotest performed. The added sensitivity of cotesting vs HPV alone for detection of treatable cancer affected extremely few women.

  8. Comprehensive cytological characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum genome based on the development of a set of chromosome cytological markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the world's most important natural fiber crop. It is also a model system for studying polyploidization, genomic organization, and genome-size variation. Integrating the cytological characterization of cotton with its genetic map will be essential for understanding its genome structure and evolution, as well as for performing further genetic-map based mapping and cloning. In this study, we isolated a complete set of bacterial artificial chromosome clones anchored to each of the 52 chromosome arms of the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Combining these with telomere and centromere markers, we constructed a standard karyotype for the G. hirsutum inbred line TM-1. We dissected the chromosome arm localizations of the 45S and 5S rDNA and suggest a centromere repositioning event in the homoeologous chromosomes AT09 and DT09. By integrating a systematic karyotype analysis with the genetic linkage map, we observed different genome sizes and chromosomal structures between the subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton and those of its diploid ancestors. Using evidence of conserved coding sequences, we suggest that the different evolutionary paths of non-coding retrotransposons account for most of the variation in size between the subgenomes of tetraploid cotton and its diploid ancestors. These results provide insights into the cotton genome and will facilitate further genome studies in G. hirsutum.

  9. Comprehensive cytological characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum genome based on the development of a set of chromosome cytological markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo; Shan; Yanqin; Jiang; Jinlei; Han; Kai; Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural fiber crop. It is also a model system for studying polyploidization, genomic organization, and genome-size variation. Integrating the cytological characterization of cotton with its genetic map will be essential for understanding its genome structure and evolution, as well as for performing further genetic-map based mapping and cloning. In this study, we isolated a complete set of bacterial artificial chromosome clones anchored to each of the 52 chromosome arms of the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Combining these with telomere and centromere markers, we constructed a standard karyotype for the G. hirsutum inbred line TM-1. We dissected the chromosome arm localizations of the 45 S and 5S r DNA and suggest a centromere repositioning event in the homoeologous chromosomes AT09 and DT09. By integrating a systematic karyotype analysis with the genetic linkage map, we observed different genome sizes and chromosomal structures between the subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton and those of its diploid ancestors. Using evidence of conserved coding sequences, we suggest that the different evolutionary paths of non-coding retrotransposons account for most of the variation in size between the subgenomes of tetraploid cotton and its diploid ancestors. These results provide insights into the cotton genome and will facilitate further genome studies in G. hirsutum.

  10. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  11. Cytologic diagnosis of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma during intraoperative consultation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Szeto, Oliver J; Tabbara, Sana O

    2010-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma (HCMS) is a rare cystic tumor characterized by a layer of mucinous cuboidal to columnar epithelium situated on top of a basement membrane resting on an ovarian-like stroma. Cytologic features of this entity have not been extensively studied. We present a case of HCMS with emphasis on cytologic material obtained at the time of intraoperative consultation (IOC). A 51-year-old woman had partial resection of a liver cyst. Seven months later she sought further medical attention and presented for surgical reevaluation and reexcision of the same lesion. Initial computed tomography revealed a multiloculated liver cyst. Five months after reexcision the lesion recurred and was again excised. During IOC, scrape cytology revealed both biliary epithelial and mesenchymal stromal cells in a cystic background. Permanent sections showed histologic features of HCMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cytologic description of such a neoplasm to include both epithelial and mesenchymal stromal elements. The use of scrape cytology during IOC can be a fast and effective way of identifying both the epithelium and mesenchymal stroma when HCMS is in the differential diagnosis of a cystic liver lesion.

  12. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the preoperative investigation of branchial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jacqueline; Serpell, Jonathan W; Woodruff, Stacey; Grodski, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Successful preoperative diagnosis of a branchial cyst requires a systematic approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods of investigation of a lateral neck swelling suspicious for a branchial cyst, and to highlight cases where a less benign cause for the swelling should be suspected and therefore management altered appropriately. A retrospective case study of 24 patients with presumed branchial cysts managed operatively was undertaken. Demographic, clinical, imaging, cytology and histopathological data were analysed to formulate an approach to the work-up of a lateral neck swelling suspected to be a branchial cyst. All 24 patients presented with a lateral neck mass thought to be a branchial cyst preoperatively underwent preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology. The overall accuracy of cytology in predicting a benign branchial cyst histopathologically was 83.3% (20 out of 24). Successful preoperative diagnosis of a branchial cyst requires a combination of imaging and cytology. If there is concern that a lateral neck swelling is not a branchial cyst on clinical, imaging or cytological features, then a full preoperative work-up, including computed tomography scan of the neck and upper aero-digestive tract endoscopy should be performed, prior to an excisional biopsy. © 2011 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Evaluation of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Immunohistochemical Markers in the Differential Diagnosis of Effusion Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Mohammed Yahya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Calretinin and Carcinoembryonic antigen as immunocytochemical markers in distinguishing mesothelial cells from metastatic adenocarcinoma cells in effusion cytology.Methods: This study included 50 patients who presented with effusions (26 pleural and 24 peritoneal, at Al-Kadhimya Teaching Hospital who were selected according to their preliminary diagnosis from 1st December 2010 to 30th June 2011. Effusion fluids were aspirated and processed for both conventional cytological methods using Papanicolaou-stain and immunocytochemical staining with anti Calretinin and Carcinoembryonic antigen.Results: The sensitivity of cytology for detection of malignant cells was 77%, with 100% specificity and 86% accuracy. Calretinin was observed to be a specific (100% and sensitive (90% marker for mesothelial cells (of benign etiology. Carcinoembryonic antigen exhibited 70% sensitivity and 100% specificity for adenocarcinoma cells. When the results of both cytology and immunocytochemistry were considered in conjunction, the sensitivity for the detection of malignancy increased to 97%, with 100% specificity and 98% accuracy.Conclusion: Calretinin and Carcinoembryonic antigen were found to be useful markers for differentiating reactive mesothelial cells from metastatic adenocarcinoma cells in smears prepared from body fluids. Also, the combination of both cytology and immunocytochemical studies using the two markers can greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in malignant effusions.

  14. Histological outcomes in conventional cervical cytology for invasive carcinoma: not always cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto Pereira, Flávia Regina; Soares, Leila Cristina; de Oliveira, Marco Aurélio Pinho

    2017-11-01

    The value of cytology for the detection of invasive cancer remains unknown. We performed a retrospective cohort study with 884 patients diagnosed of premalignant lesions and invasive carcinoma in cytology. 382 (43.2%) of them had cytological results of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 244 (27.6%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 120 (13.6%) patients had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 67 (7.6%) patients with atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 38 (4.3%) had invasive carcinoma and 33 (3.7%) patients presented with atypical glandular cells (ACG). From 38 patients with cytological results of invasive carcinoma, 24 had confirmatory histological results (63.2%). The other 14 had 4 benign lesions and 10 HSIL. The predictive positive value (PPV) was 63.2%. Cytology results of carcinoma do not confer a definitive diagnosis of invasive lesion, but it is strongly an indication of, at least, a precancerous lesion.

  15. Cytological Findings of 140 Bile Samples from Dogs and Cats and Associated Clinical Pathological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, L M; Glanemann, B; Garden, O A; Szladovits, B

    2016-01-01

    Cholecystocentesis can be part of the diagnostic workup of hepatobiliary disease in small animals, but literature on cytological evaluation of bile is scant. To determine the diagnostic utility of cytological assessment of bile aspirates. Fifty-six and 78 client-owned dogs and cats, respectively, with bile collected by cholecystocentesis and submitted to our diagnostic laboratory between 1999 and 2014. Retrospective study describing cytological findings of bile, concurrent bacterial culture results, hematological and serum biochemical data, gallbladder biopsy results, as well as final diagnosis and complications after cholecystocentesis. Infectious agents were found in 30% of canine and 22% of feline bile aspirates, and inflammation in 5% and 19% respectively. Presence of microorganisms was more often detected on cytological examination (24%) than by culture (21%). The most common bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., isolated from 14.8% and 6.7% of cultured samples respectively. Only increased canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration (cPLI) was significantly associated with the presence of microorganisms, inflammatory cells, or both in bile. Clinically relevant complications of cholecystocentesis occurred in 2 dogs. The majority of the animals undergoing cholecystocentesis suffered from hepatic, pancreatic, gastrointestinal disease, or a combination thereof. Cytological examination of bile is inexpensive and straightforward, and yields diagnostically relevant information that precedes and complements bacterial culture. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Liquid-Based Cytology of the Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Case of Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoon Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4–11 μm and thick capsules. Occasional asymmetrical, narrow-based budding but no true hyphae or pseudohyphae were observed. Gomori methenamine silver staining was positive. Cryptococcosis was confirmed in blood and CSF through the cryptococcal antigen test and culture. Liquid-based cytology allows for a clean background and additional slides for ancillary testing, facilitating the detection of microorganisms in CSF specimens, particularly when the number of organisms is small.

  17. Liquid-Based Cytology of the Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Case of Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiwoon; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4-11 μm and thick capsules. Occasional asymmetrical, narrow-based budding but no true hyphae or pseudohyphae were observed. Gomori methenamine silver staining was positive. Cryptococcosis was confirmed in blood and CSF through the cryptococcal antigen test and culture. Liquid-based cytology allows for a clean background and additional slides for ancillary testing, facilitating the detection of microorganisms in CSF specimens, particularly when the number of organisms is small.

  18. Service Quality Of Diagnostic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In A Tertiary Care Hospital Of Lahore (Process Measure As Patient's Perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Zainab; Usmani, Rabia Arshed; Rizvi, Amna; Wazir, Salim; Zahra, Taskeen; Rasool, Hafza

    2017-01-01

    Quality of any service is the most important aspect for the manufacturer as well as the consumer. The primary objective of any nation's health system is to provide supreme quality health care services to its patients. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology service in a tertiary care hospital. As Patient's perspectives provide valuable information on quality of process, therefore, patient's perception in terms of satisfaction with the service was measured. In this cross sectional analytical study, 291 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration cytology in Mayo Hospital were selected by systematic sampling technique. Information regarding satisfaction of patients with four dimensions of service quality process, namely "procedure, sterilization, conduct and competency of doctor" was collected through interview on questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed on SERVQUAL model, a measurement tool, for quality assessment of services provided to patients. All items were assessed on 2- point likert scale (0=dissatisfied, 1=satisfied). Frequencies and percentages of satisfied and dissatisfied patients were recorded for each item and all items in each dimension were scored. If the percentage of sum of all item scores of a dimension was ≥60, the dimension was 'good quality'. Whereas quality' dimension. Data was analysed using epi-info-3.5.1. Fisher test was applied to check statistical significance. (p-value service quality process, Procedure (48.8%), Sterilization (51.5%) and practitioner conduct (50.9%) were perceived as 'poor' by the patients. Only practitioner competency (67.4%) was perceived as 'good'. Comparison of dimensions of service quality scoring with overall level of patient satisfaction revealed that all 4 dimensions were significantly related to patient dissatisfaction (pservice quality of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in public hospitals should be routinely monitored from the patients

  19. Distinction of neurons, glia and endothelial cells in the cerebral cortex: an algorithm based on cytological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic, and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope. We describe systematically and in detail the cytological features of neurons and glial cell types in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey and the human using semithin and thick sections stained for Nissl. We used this classical staining technique because it labels all cells in the brain in distinct ways. In addition, we corroborate key distinguishing characteristics of different cell types in sections immunolabeled for specific markers counterstained for Nissl and in ultrathin sections processed for electron microscopy. Finally, we summarize the core features that distinguish each cell type in easy-to-use tables and sketches, and structure these key features in an algorithm that can be used to systematically distinguish cellular types in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we report high inter-observer algorithm reliability, which is a crucial test for obtaining consistent and reproducible cell counts in unbiased stereological studies. This protocol establishes a consistent framework that can be used to reliably identify and quantify cells in the cerebral cortex of primates as well as other mammalian species in health and disease.

  20. Distinction of Neurons, Glia and Endothelial Cells in the Cerebral Cortex: An Algorithm Based on Cytological Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabezas, Miguel Á.; John, Yohan J.; Barbas, Helen; Zikopoulos, Basilis

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following an extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope. We describe systematically and in detail the cytological features of neurons and glial cell types in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey and the human using semithin and thick sections stained for Nissl. We used this classical staining technique because it labels all cells in the brain in distinct ways. In addition, we corroborate key distinguishing characteristics of different cell types in sections immunolabeled for specific markers counterstained for Nissl and in ultrathin sections processed for electron microscopy. Finally, we summarize the core features that distinguish each cell type in easy-to-use tables and sketches, and structure these key features in an algorithm that can be used to systematically distinguish cellular types in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we report high inter-observer algorithm reliability, which is a crucial test for obtaining consistent and reproducible cell counts in unbiased stereological studies. This protocol establishes a consistent framework that can be used to reliably identify and quantify cells in the cerebral cortex of primates as well as other mammalian species in health and disease. PMID:27847469

  1. Diagnostic value of ductogalactography and cytology in the proliferative changes of the mammary ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Cerroni, L.; Bertolotti, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three hundred and thiyrty-six patients with nipple discharge and neither physical signs at breast examination nor pathological findings at mammography, were observed from 1984 to 1988 and studied by means of ductogalactography and cytology of discharge. Of this group, 76 patients (22%) underwent surgery and histology. In 65/76 cases proliferative pathologic conditions were demonstrated: 51 single/ multiple papillomas and 14 carcinomas. Ductogalactography suggested proliferative pathologic conditions in 59 cases and cytology of discharge showed blood in 44 patients, papillary clusters in 23, and atypical cells in 15 (both as single occurrences and in association). In cancer patients discharge appeared to be mostly spontaneous, monoductal and blood-stained. In papillomas, induced discharge was almost as frequent as spontaneous discharge, and milky discharge was also present. Ductogalactography confirmed its value in the diagnosis of proliferative pathologic conditions of the mammary ducts, being especially useful to detect carcinomas without palpable tumors. Cytology of discharge had poorer diagnostic significance

  2. Digital cytology: current state of the art and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, David C

    2011-01-01

    The growth of digital methods in pathology is accelerating. Digital images can be used for a variety of applications in cytology, including rapid interpretations, primary diagnosis and second opinions, continuing education and proficiency testing. All of these functions can be performed using small static digital images, real-time dynamic digital microscopy, or whole-slide images. This review will discuss the general principles of digital pathology, its methods and applications to cytologic specimens. As cytologic specimens have unique features compared to histopathology specimens, the key differences will be discussed. Technical and administrative issues in digital pathology applications and the outlook for the future of the field will be presented. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC, giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC.

  4. Cytological diagnosis of erythema nodosum leprosum in clinically unsuspected cases: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Semwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The manifestations of this disease varies across the spectrum of tuberculoid (TT to lepromatous (LL leprosy.The course of this indolent disease is interrupted by acute exacerbations in the form of leprare actions. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, a type 2 lepra reaction, occurs in lepromatous or borderline lepromatous cases, usually in response to multidrug therapy. Early detection and timely management of these patients is important to reduce the associated morbidity. We report two clinically unusual cases of ENL on fine-needle aspiration cytology. In one case, antileprosy treatment was completed 10 years back, whereas in the other case, ENL was the presenting feature of the disease. Cytological examination of swelling in both the cases showed neutrophils, lymphoid cells, clusters of foamy macrophages, histiocytes, and giant cells. Fite stain was positive, which confirmed the cytological diagnosis of ENL.

  5. Role of intraoperative imprint cytology in diagnosis of suspected ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumit; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, P A; Mishra, Sanjay; Sharma, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess whether cytology can help in rapid diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms and thus facilitate individualised treatment. A prospective investigation was performed on 30 cases of suspected ovarian neoplasms. Imprint smears were made intraperatively from fresh samples from various representative areas, and stained with Leishman Giemsa for air-dried smears, and with hematoxylin and eosin and Papanicolaou for alcohol-fixed smears. A rapid opinion regarding the benign or malignant nature of the lesion and the type of tumour was given. The overall sensitivity was 96.2%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 96.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 83.3%. Characteristic cytological patterns were noted in various epithelial and germ cell tumours. Imprint cytology can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for rapid and early diagnosis in the operation theatre, thus helping better management of patients.

  6. Fine-needle aspirate cytology suggesting hepatic lipidosis in four cats with infiltrative hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, M D; Weeks, B R; Johnson, M

    1999-12-01

    Four cats are reported in which cytology smears obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver were interpreted as indicative of hepatic lipidosis. However, histopathology of hepatic tissue samples obtained with Tru-Cut-like needles or wedge biopsy revealed that the cats had inflammatory or neoplastic hepatic disease causing their clinical signs. Fine needle aspiration and cytology may not detect infiltrative lesions, particularly those that are nodular, multifocal, or localised around the portal regions. Fine needle aspirate cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure with many advantages, but care must be taken to avoid diagnosing hepatic lipidosis as the cause of illness when an infiltrative lesion is responsible. Copyright 1999 European Society of Feline Medicine.

  7. A multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves for exfoliative cytology in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Bu, Jiyoon; Moon, Jung Eun; Kim, Young Jun; Kang, Yoon-Tae; Cho, Young-Ho; Kim, In Sik

    2017-07-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a highly established technique for the diagnosis of tumors. Various microfluidic devices have been developed to minimize the sample numbers by conjugating multiple antibodies in a single sample. However, the previous multi-staining devices require complex control lines and valves operated by external power sources, to deliver multiple antibodies separately for a single sample. In addition, most of these devices are composed of hydrophobic materials, causing unreliable results due to the non-specific binding of antibodies. Here, we present a multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves, which is formed by the partial treatment of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Our chip consists of a circular chamber, divided into six equal fan-shaped regions. Switchable injection ports are located at the center of the chamber and at the middle of the arc of each fan-shaped zone. Thus, our device is beneficial for minimizing the control lines, since pre-treatment solutions flow from the center to outer ports, while six different antibodies are introduced oppositely from the outer ports. Furthermore, hydrophobic narrow channels, connecting the central region and each of the six fan-shaped zones, are closed by capillary effect, thus preventing the fluidic mixing without external power sources. Meanwhile, HEMA treatment on the exterior region results in hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition and prevents the non-specific binding of antibodies. For the application, we measured the expression of six different antibodies in a single sample using our device. The expression levels of each antibody highly matched the conventional immunocytochemistry results. Our device enables cancer screening with a small number of antibodies for a single sample.

  8. A multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves for exfoliative cytology in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Bu, Jiyoon; Kim, Young Jun; Kang, Yoon-Tae; Cho, Young-Ho; Moon, Jung Eun; Kim, In Sik

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a highly established technique for the diagnosis of tumors. Various microfluidic devices have been developed to minimize the sample numbers by conjugating multiple antibodies in a single sample. However, the previous multi-staining devices require complex control lines and valves operated by external power sources, to deliver multiple antibodies separately for a single sample. In addition, most of these devices are composed of hydrophobic materials, causing unreliable results due to the non-specific binding of antibodies. Here, we present a multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves, which is formed by the partial treatment of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Our chip consists of a circular chamber, divided into six equal fan-shaped regions. Switchable injection ports are located at the center of the chamber and at the middle of the arc of each fan-shaped zone. Thus, our device is beneficial for minimizing the control lines, since pre-treatment solutions flow from the center to outer ports, while six different antibodies are introduced oppositely from the outer ports. Furthermore, hydrophobic narrow channels, connecting the central region and each of the six fan-shaped zones, are closed by capillary effect, thus preventing the fluidic mixing without external power sources. Meanwhile, HEMA treatment on the exterior region results in hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition and prevents the non-specific binding of antibodies. For the application, we measured the expression of six different antibodies in a single sample using our device. The expression levels of each antibody highly matched the conventional immunocytochemistry results. Our device enables cancer screening with a small number of antibodies for a single sample. (paper)

  9. Prognostic impact of cytological fluid tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Lee, Jae Seok; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-03-01

    The serum tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are useful in diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytologic tumor markers obtained during needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of lung lesions are useful for NSCLC diagnosis. This study investigated the incremental prognostic value of cytologic tumor markers compared to serum tumor markers. This prospective study included 253 patients diagnosed with NSCLC by NAB with cytologic tumor marker analysis. Levels of cytologic CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCCA, and their serum counterparts were followed up for survival analysis. Optimal cutoff values for each tumor marker were obtained for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. All patients were followed up for a median of 22.8 months. Using cutoff values of 0.44 ng/ml for C-SCCA, 2.0 ng/ml for S-SCCA, and 3.3 ng/ml for S-CYFRA, a multivariate analysis revealed that high S-SCCA (hazard ratio, HR, 1.84) and high C-SCCA (HR, 1.63) were independent predictive factors of OS. The 3-year overall survival rate was 55 vs. 80 % for high and low C-SCCA, respectively. Cytologic tumor marker level detection is easily obtainable and provides prognostic information for NSCLC. Cytologic tumor markers provide comparable prognostic information relative to serum tumor markers, with C-SCCA acting as a strong prognostic factor of overall survival and PFS.

  10. [Comparison of four different staining methods for ear cytology of dogs with otitis externa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassiba, C; Osthold, W; Mueller, R S

    2013-01-01

    Cytological examination is crucial for the diagnosis and classification of canine otitis externa. Staining should reveal micro-organisms as perpetuating factors of otitis externa. The aim of the study was to compare four different staining methods (Diff-Quik®, Diff-Quik® after dipping in acetone, Gram Quick stain® and a commercial rapid stain for otitis externa) for ear cytology of dogs with otitis externa and to investigate the agreement of cytology and culture. In a study evaluating dogs with otitis externa, five ear swabs (one for culture and four for cytology) were taken from the horizontal part of the external auditory canal of 224 affected ears and compared semi-quantitatively. Diff-Quik® with and without prior dipping in acetone as well as the Gram Quick stain® displayed a high degree of agreement in the detection of micro-organisms (cocci p = 0.2366; rods p = 0.4832; yeasts p = 0.1574), while the commercial otitis rapid stain revealed significantly less micro-organisms (p stains corresponded to the culture results by >  70%; the agreement was lower with the commercial otitis rapid stain. The quickest and easiest method was staining with Diff-Quik®. Diff-Quik® with or without prior dipping in acetone and the Gram Quick stain® had a high agreement in the detection of microorganisms and can thus be considered nearly equivalent for the diagnosis of otitis externa infectiosa. The commercial otitis rapid stain is less reliable. Based on this study Diff-Quik® can be recommended for the routine cytology of ear swabs. Additionally, a culture may be indicated and must be interpreted in the context of the cytology.

  11. [Abnormal vaginal secretion: sensitivity, specificity and concordance between clinical and cytological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Kélvia Cristina; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Baylão, Luciano Augusto; Ribeiro, Andrea Alves; Araujo, Nadja Lindany Alves de Souza; Tavares, Suelene Brito do Nascimento; dos Santos, Sílvia Helena Rabelo

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis and trichomoniasis and compare the findings of physical examination of the vaginal secretion with the microbiological diagnosis obtained by cytology study of a vaginal smear using the Papanicolaou method. A cross-sectional study of 302 women aged 20 to 87 years, interviewed and submitted to a gynecology test for the evaluation of vaginal secretion and collection of a cytology smear, from June 2012 to May 2013. Sensitivity analyses were carried out and specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) with their respective 95%CI were determined to assess the accuracy of the characteristics of vaginal secretion in relation to the microbiological diagnosis of the cytology smear . The kappa index (k) was used to assess the degree of agreement between the clinical features of vaginal secretion and the microbiological findings obtained by cytology. RESULTS The prevalence of BV, candidiasis and trichomoniasis was 25.5, 9.3 and 2.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the clinical characteristics of vaginal secretion for the cytological diagnosis of BV were 74, 78.6, 54.3 and 89.9%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and the NPV of the clinical characteristics of vaginal secretion for the cytological diagnosis of candidiasis were 46.4, 86.2, 25.5 and 94%, respectively. The correlation between the clinical evaluation of vaginal secretion and the microbiological diagnosis of BV, candidiasis and trichomoniasis, assessed by the kappa index, was 0.47, 0.23 and 0.28, respectively. CONCLUSION The most common cause of abnormal vaginal secretion was BV. The clinical evaluation of vaginal secretion presented amoderate to weak agreement with the microbiological diagnosis, indicating the need for complementary investigation of the clinical findings of abnormal vaginal secretion.

  12. Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis. Results: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53 and 9.4% (5/53 of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49 at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, =8% at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.

  13. Clinic-cytologic study of conjunctivochalasis and its relation to thyroid autoimmune diseases: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sandra Flavia Fiorentini; de Sousa, Luciene B; Vieira, Luis A; Chiamollera, Maria I; Barros, Jeison de N

    2006-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of conjunctivochalasis in patients with immune thyroid diseases, to determine whether there is any association between the 2 diseases, and to determine cytologic study of conjunctivochalasis through the cytology impression test. A clinical prospective cohort study carried out by the External Diseases Department in the Ophthalmology Sector and the Thyroid Department in the Endocrinology Sector at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP). The patients included were divided into 2 groups following these inclusion criteria: a control group of 25 patients without thyroid diseases, confirmed after clinical and laboratory examinations (thyroid hormones), or any other ocular diseases. The study group consisted of 31 patients with thyroid diseases, the diagnosis of which was confirmed by the Endocrinology Sector. The thyroidopathies included were autoimmune diseases but excluded nonautoimmune diseases. A protocol endorsed by the UNIFESP was followed, using clinical and ophthalmological history, biomicroscopy, and impression cytology. Fifty-two percent of patients without thyroid diseases and 88% of patients with thyroid diseases presented with conjunctivochalasis. The risk ratio was 1.705 (Pr > chi(2) = 0.0038), indicating that there is an association between them. For the impression cytology in inferior bulbar conjunctiva, there was an association between the result of the impression cytology and conjunctivochalasis (Pearson chi(2) = 10.1190 Pr = 0.006). The prevalence of conjunctivochalasis in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases was 88%. Patients with autoimmune thyroidopathy presented higher percentages of conjunctivochalasis than the control group, confirming the association between them. The cytologic study showed the highest prevalence of abnormal surface features in eyes with conjunctivochalasis.

  14. Effectiveness of combined use of imprint cytological and histological examination in CT-guided tissue-core biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu [Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan); Kakizawa, Hideaki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Naka-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Toyoda, Naoyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); National Hospital Organisation Kure Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combination of imprint cytology and histology in tissue-core percutaneous biopsy under real-time computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Between October 2009 and June 2013, 156 percutaneous needle biopsies were performed in our institution. Those obtained by tissue-core biopsy underwent both imprint cytological and histological examinations routinely after touch imprint cytology was performed on site to evaluate the samples' sufficiency for cytological and pathological examination. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Rates of adequate specimens and precise diagnosis, by combined cytological and histological examination were 100 % (156/156) and 96.2 % (150/156), by cytology 94.4 % (152/156) and 83.3 % (130/156) and by histology 99.3 % (155/156) and 92.3 % (144/156). Precise diagnosis was achieved by combined examinations in 94.7 % (89/94) of thoracic lesions, 97.6 % (40/41) of musculoskeletal lesions, and 100 % (21/21) of abdominal, pelvic and retroperitoneal lesions. In all 104 lesions diagnosed as malignant by CT-guided biopsy and in 30 of 52 diagnosed as benign, specific cell types could be proved by combined examinations. Combined imprint cytology and histology performed after on-site touch imprint cytological evaluation improved the diagnostic ability of CT fluoroscopically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  15. Effectiveness of combined use of imprint cytological and histological examination in CT-guided tissue-core biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyoda, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combination of imprint cytology and histology in tissue-core percutaneous biopsy under real-time computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Between October 2009 and June 2013, 156 percutaneous needle biopsies were performed in our institution. Those obtained by tissue-core biopsy underwent both imprint cytological and histological examinations routinely after touch imprint cytology was performed on site to evaluate the samples' sufficiency for cytological and pathological examination. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Rates of adequate specimens and precise diagnosis, by combined cytological and histological examination were 100 % (156/156) and 96.2 % (150/156), by cytology 94.4 % (152/156) and 83.3 % (130/156) and by histology 99.3 % (155/156) and 92.3 % (144/156). Precise diagnosis was achieved by combined examinations in 94.7 % (89/94) of thoracic lesions, 97.6 % (40/41) of musculoskeletal lesions, and 100 % (21/21) of abdominal, pelvic and retroperitoneal lesions. In all 104 lesions diagnosed as malignant by CT-guided biopsy and in 30 of 52 diagnosed as benign, specific cell types could be proved by combined examinations. Combined imprint cytology and histology performed after on-site touch imprint cytological evaluation improved the diagnostic ability of CT fluoroscopically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  16. Polymerase chain reaction and conventional DNA tests in detection of HPV DNA in cytologically normal and abnormal cervical scrapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, A.; Jalava, T.; Nieminen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test......Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test...

  17. Indications for ureteropyeloscopy based on radiographic findings and urine cytology in detection of upper urinary tract carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Akira; Saika, Takashi; Uehara, Shinya; Monden, Koichi; Abarzua, F.; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the indication of diagnostic ureteropyeloscopy based on clinical features for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer with over 100 patients and over a 10-year series. From January 1997 to December 2008, consecutive 129 units in 124 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopy to obtain a definitive diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out a malignancy. Patients were divided into four subgroups based on voided urine cytology and preoperative radiographic findings: group A (n=8), positive urine cytology and positive radiographic findings; group B (n=4), positive cytology and negative radiographic findings; group C (n=55), negative cytology and positive radiographic findings and group D (n=62), gross hematuria originating from the upper urinary tract with negative cytology and negative radiographic findings. Ureteropyeloscopic findings were compared with radiographic and cytological results. Adverse effects were also investigated. In group A, all patients had confirmed cancer. In group B, one revealed small cancer and the remaining three confirmed carcinoma in situ by biopsy with ureteropyeloscopy. In groups C and D, 33 patients (60%) and four (6.5%) revealed cancer. Seventy-eight patients out of 80 (97.5%) in groups C and D were confirmed to have benign disease. No patient was found with malignancy during follow up after negative finding of ureteropyeloscopy. Ureteropyeloscopy can help in detecting upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out malignancy for patients with negative voiding cytology. However, ureteropyeloscopy is redundant for patients with positive radiographic findings and positive voiding cytology. (author)

  18. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from...... the margins of the lesions. The cellular interaction between the organism and the inflammatory response of the host was studied. All lesions showed clinical evidence of regression. The cytological findings suggested progressive degradation of the Leishman donovan (LD) bodies within the parasitophorous...

  19. Urinary cytology before, during and after irradiation of carcinomas of the female genital organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, E.; Schicke, B.; Banaschak, A.

    1988-01-01

    74 cytologic examinations of the urinary sediment were conducted in 57 women with malignant neoplasms of the genital organs in order to evaluate the clinical suspicion of tumor infiltration of the bladder wall. It turned out to be a sensitive indicator of the infiltration of the bladder wall. Earlier radiotherapy however led to changes which could be falsly interpreted as indicators of malignant infiltration. In order to enhance the accuracy of cytologic evaluation of the urinary sediment in this clinical setting it is essential that the cytologist must be informed about radiation therapy performed. (author)

  20. Lymphography with percutaneous fine needle cytology for the detection of malignant lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fencl, P.; Mylbachr, L.; Neradov, M.; Starek, J.; Doleckova, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present their experience of lymphograpy and percutaneous fine needle cytological biopsy of 60 patients with malignancies. Cytological specimens were taken from 98 lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer (36), vulvar cancer (2), uterine sarcoma (2), vesical cancer (2), prostate gland cancer (3), Hodgkin's lymphoma (4), non Hodgkin's lymphoma (6), seminoma (4), lung cancer (1). Malignant cells were found in 31 persons in 41 nodes. Half of the dubious lymphography nodes had malignant cells in the biopsy material. Curiously enough, the contrast medium causes granulomatous inflammation of time-dependent intensity. 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the anterior mediastinum: A case report with cytological features of imprint and liquid-based cytology specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Yoshimi; Hirato, Junko; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-04-01

    We herein report the cytological features of a very rare case of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the anterior mediastinum on imprint and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens. A 58-year-old man had an approximately 10-cm tumor in the anterior mediastinum as shown on computed tomography. Thymectomy with complete resection of the left lung was performed. The fresh cut surface of the tumor was used to prepare imprint and LBC specimens. The imprint specimens showed four types of tumor cells dispersed on a background of hemorrhage, necrosis, and mucus. On the other hand, only two types of tumor cells (spindle-shaped and spiderweb cells) were scattered or present in clusters in the LBC specimens. Immunocytologically, both of these cell types were positive for desmin and myoglobin, negative for pan-keratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Cytological and immunocytological features are useful for the correct diagnosis of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, and LBC specimens show clearer results than do imprint specimens. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:333-338. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cytological Evaluation and REBA HPV-ID HPV Testing of Newly Developed Liquid-Based Cytology, EASYPREP: Comparison with SurePath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Soo; Gong, Gyungyub; Sohn, Jin Hee; Ryu, Ki Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Khang, Shin Kwang; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Yong-Man; Kang, Chang Suk

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a newly-developed EASYPREP liquid-based cytology method in cervicovaginal specimens and compare it with SurePath. Cervicovaginal specimens were prospectively collected from 1,000 patients with EASYPREP and SurePath. The specimens were first collected by brushing for SurePath and second for EASYPREP. The specimens of both methods were diagnosed according to the Bethesda System. Additionally, we performed to REBA HPV-ID genotyping and sequencing analysis for human papillomavirus (HPV) on 249 specimens. EASYPREP and SurePath showed even distribution of cells and were equal in cellularity and staining quality. The diagnostic agreement between the two methods was 96.5%. Based on the standard of SurePath, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EASYPREP were 90.7%, 99.2%, 94.8%, and 98.5%, respectively. The positivity of REBA HPV-ID was 49.4% and 95.1% in normal and abnormal cytological samples, respectively. The result of REBA HPV-ID had high concordance with sequencing analysis. EASYPREP provided comparable results to SurePath in the diagnosis and staining quality of cytology examinations and in HPV testing with REBA HPV-ID. EASYPREP could be another LBC method choice for the cervicovaginal specimens. Additionally, REBA HPV-ID may be a useful method for HPV genotyping.

  3. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

  4. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. Heymann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22 and KRAS (17/17 mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology.

  5. The added value of using mutational profiling in addition to cytology in diagnosing aggressive pancreaticobiliary disease: review of clinical cases at a single center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to better understand the supporting role that mutational profiling (MP) of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and supernatant specimens may play in the diagnosis of malignancy in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and biliary brushing specimens from patients with pancreaticobiliary masses. Methods Cytology results were examined in a total of 30 patients with associated surgical (10) or clinical (20) outcomes. MP of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and from discarded supernatant fluid was analyzed in 26 patients with atypical, negative or indeterminate cytology. Results Cytology correctly diagnosed aggressive disease in 4 patients. Cytological diagnoses for the remaining 26 were as follows: 16 negative (9 false negative), 9 atypical, 1 indeterminate. MP correctly determined aggressive disease in 1 false negative cytology case and confirmed a negative cytology diagnosis in 7 of 7 cases of non-aggressive disease. Of the 9 atypical cytology cases, MP correctly diagnosed 7 as positive and 1 as negative for aggressive disease. One specimen that was indeterminate by cytology was correctly diagnosed as non-aggressive by MP. When first line malignant (positive) cytology results were combined with positive second line MP results, 12/21 cases of aggressive disease were identified, compared to 4/21 cases identified by positive cytology alone. Conclusions When first line cytology results were uncertain (atypical), questionable (negative), or not possible (non-diagnostic/indeterminate), MP provided additional information regarding the presence of aggressive disease. When used in conjunction with first line cytology, MP increased detection of aggressive disease without compromising specificity in patients that were difficult to diagnose by cytology alone. PMID:25084836

  6. Cytological observations in relation to the taxonomy of the Orchids of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliphuis, E.

    1963-01-01

    1. The Orchids in the Netherlands have been subjected to a cytological investigation. 2. The division of the genera Orchis (L.) Klinge into two new genera: Orchis (L.) Vermln. and Dactylorchis (Kl.) Vermln. (Vermeulen, 1947), could be confirmed. 3. In Listera ovata (L.) R. Br. the diploid chromosome

  7. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokeshwar, V.B.; Habuchi, T.; Grossman, H.B.; Murphy, W.M.; Hautmann, S.H.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Bono, A.V.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Goebell, P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marberger, M.; Messing, E.; Droller, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify

  8. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Nobre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64. Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5% had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR = 2.46; p = 0.03. In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR = 2.81; p = 0.02. This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer.

  9. Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, L.

    1987-01-01

    From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue

  10. Notes on Chameleons I. Comparative cytology: aid and new complications in Chameleon-taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenius, D.

    1963-01-01

    1. Comparison is made between the subdivision of the genus Chamaeleo in groups of species based on cytological considerations (MATTHEY & VAN BRINK) and the subdivision of this genus in groups based on taxonomical considerations (HILLENIUS). Both subdivisions were developed independently from each

  11. Detection of the HTLV-I gene on cytologic smear slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Kenji; Nagahama, Junji; Sato, Keiji; Tanamachi, Hiroyuki; Gamachi, Ayako; Daa, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Iwao; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    To apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of the HTLV-I gene from cytologic smear slides. Samples were from seven cases of serum anti-ATL antibody (ATLA)-positive T-cell lymphoma and three from ATLA-negative T-cell lymphoma. Six of the seven ATLA-positive cases were confirmed to be ATLL by Southern blotting. From the seventh case a fresh sample for blotting could not obtained. DNA was extracted from the cytologic smear slides of all 10 cases; they had been stained with Papanicolaou or May-Giemsa stain, digested with proteinase K and precipitated with phenol and ethanol. The target sequence in the pX region of the HTLV-I gene was amplified by PCR. All seven ATLA-positive cases, including one that had not yet been confirmed by Southern blotting, showed a single band, as predicted, while the three ATLA-negative cases showed no band. If cytologic smear slides are available but a fresh sample is not, the PCR method should provide evidence that the virus is present since in our study sufficient DNA templates were successfully extracted from the stained cytologic smear slides for detection of the virus.

  12. Clinical Usefulness of Ultrasonography-Guided Aspiration Cytology for Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Choi, Yong Baik; Gong, Gyung Yub

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of the ultrasonography (US)-guided aspiration cytology for nonpalpable breast lesions. US-guided aspiration cytology was performed in 50 lesions in 37 patients who underwent US of the breasts and axillary area. Adequacy for the pathologic diagnosis was correlated with the size, volume, depth of the lesions and type of needles. The causes of inadequacy and complications were assessed. Available mammographic findings were correlated with US findings. Final diagnoses on surgical biopsy were correlated with the diagnoses on aspiration cytology. Thirty four of the 50 lesions were adequate for pathologic diagnosis (68%). The size and volume of the lesions were not significantly related with adequacy.Shallow depth was significantly better. Cutting needles were better than plain needles. Causes of inadequacy were low cell number and bleeding. Complications were small amount of bleeding and pain. Mammographic findings were nonspecific in 61% of the cases. Pathologic diagnoses were ductal hyperplasia and fibrocystic changes in 62%.Surgical biopsy was done in 5 cases. None of the lesions showed malignancy. US-guidance is necessary and effective for the cytologic diagnoses of the nonpalpable lesions. However, invasive procedure could be deferred for several months for these nonpalpable small lesions which are mostly benign

  13. Value of brush cytology for dominant strictures in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, C. Y.; Vrouenraets, S. M.; van Milligen de Wit, A. W.; Sturm, P.; Tascilar, M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Prins, M.; Huibregtse, K.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1999-01-01

    Around 10% of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) develop cholangiocarcinoma, which is cholangiographically often indistinguishable from a benign dominant stricture. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of brush cytology in discriminating between benign and malignant

  14. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  15. Clinical Usefulness of Ultrasonography-Guided Aspiration Cytology for Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Choi, Yong Baik; Gong, Gyung Yub [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate the clinical utility of the ultrasonography (US)-guided aspiration cytology for nonpalpable breast lesions. US-guided aspiration cytology was performed in 50 lesions in 37 patients who underwent US of the breasts and axillary area. Adequacy for the pathologic diagnosis was correlated with the size, volume, depth of the lesions and type of needles. The causes of inadequacy and complications were assessed. Available mammographic findings were correlated with US findings. Final diagnoses on surgical biopsy were correlated with the diagnoses on aspiration cytology. Thirty four of the 50 lesions were adequate for pathologic diagnosis (68%). The size and volume of the lesions were not significantly related with adequacy.Shallow depth was significantly better. Cutting needles were better than plain needles. Causes of inadequacy were low cell number and bleeding. Complications were small amount of bleeding and pain. Mammographic findings were nonspecific in 61% of the cases. Pathologic diagnoses were ductal hyperplasia and fibrocystic changes in 62%.Surgical biopsy was done in 5 cases. None of the lesions showed malignancy. US-guidance is necessary and effective for the cytologic diagnoses of the nonpalpable lesions. However, invasive procedure could be deferred for several months for these nonpalpable small lesions which are mostly benign

  16. Case of pulmonary pneumocytoma: A probable cytological diagnosis with histopathological confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocytoma is a rare benign tumor of the lung that usually presents as a solitary pulmonary nodule. It is believed to arise from the primitive undifferentiated respiratory epithelium. We report a case of pulmonary pneumocytoma that was suspected on needle aspiration smears and confirmed histologically. This case describes the cytological features of pneumocytoma that are rarely described in textbooks.

  17. Comparative analysis of cytological findings and diagnostic categories of independent сytopathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Semkina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relevance of the application of the Bethesda classification system of interpretation of FNA in practice. In this study was investigated 104 cytological specimens of the thyroid gland from patients with var ious diseases of the thyroid gland. Revision of the cytological results was carried out by four highly qualified cytopathologists, working on the basis of three leading medical centers in the Russian Federation. Also, the respons es of each cytopathologist by diagnostic categories Bethesda Classification were compared. Statistical analysis showed that by the revision of the biopsy specimens there were no statistically significant differences between the ini tial cytologic findings and the results of independent cytopathologists. In analyzing the data, it was found that the fundamental error of cytological diagnosis were papillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, as well as “follicular neoplasm”. Comparing the results of histological examination with the responses of the cytopathologists was found that the major fault was the definition of papillary carcinoma and “follicular neoplasm”. The results suggest that Bethesda Classification allows to achieve the best results in the interpretation of the results of FNA, which leads to a more elaborate tactics of treatment of the patient.

  18. The value of touch imprint cytology of prostate core needle biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of touch imprint cytology of prostate core needle biopsy specimens ... prostate cancer as indicated by a high prostate serum antigen (PSA) level or ... revealed benign features in 7 and prostatitis in 17, while high-grade prostatic ...

  19. Reliability and Utility of Impression Cytology in the Diagnosis of Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that can result in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. There are numerous tests to evaluate the ocular status in dry eye disease. Among the different tests for diagnosing dry eyes, Impression Cytology is considered a practical and ...

  20. Making cytological diagnoses on digital images using the iPath network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalquen, Peter; Savic Prince, Spasenija; Spieler, Peter; Kunze, Dietmar; Neumann, Heinrich; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Adams, Heiner; Glatz, Katharina; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    The iPath telemedicine platform Basel is mainly used for histological and cytological consultations, but also serves as a valuable learning tool. To study the level of accuracy in making diagnoses based on still images achieved by experienced cytopathologists, to identify limiting factors, and to provide a cytological image series as a learning set. Images from 167 consecutive cytological specimens of different origin were uploaded on the iPath platform and evaluated by four cytopathologists. Only wet-fixed and well-stained specimens were used. The consultants made specific diagnoses and categorized each as benign, suspicious or malignant. For all consultants, specificity and sensitivity regarding categorized diagnoses were 83-92 and 85-93%, respectively; the overall accuracy was 88-90%. The interobserver agreement was substantial (κ = 0.791). The lowest rate of concordance was achieved in urine and bladder washings and in the identification of benign lesions. Using a digital image set for diagnostic purposes implies that even under optimal conditions the accuracy rate will not exceed to 80-90%, mainly because of lacking supportive immunocytochemical or molecular tests. This limitation does not disqualify digital images for teleconsulting or as a learning aid. The series of images used for the study are open to the public at http://pathorama.wordpress.com/extragenital-cytology-2013/. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Chansri, Kullakanya; Kijkuokul, Pisamai; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2006-10-11

    To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

  2. Screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Andersen, M-B; Bernstein, I

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate if Urine Cytology (UC) is an appropriate screening procedure for detecting urinary tract neoplasia at an early stage in persons at risk in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer families. METHOD: In the National Danish HNPCC-register persons at risk ...

  3. Medicolegal affairs. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, W J; Austin, R M; Greening, S E; Collins, R J; Hillman, R L; Kobler, T P; Koss, L G; Mitchell, H; Perey, R; Rosenthal, D L; Sidoti, M S; Somrak, T M

    1998-01-01

    Increasing litigation over alleged false negative cervical cytologic (CC) smears threatens the viability of this test for cervical cancer detection. The problem appears to be largely American but is beginning to appear in some other countries. In the vast majority of cases there is either a settlement or jury verdict for the plaintiff based largely on the testimony of expert witnesses. Cases are judged on an individual basis without significant consideration of the general performance of the CC smear in laboratories operating in compliance with a wide array of laboratory regulations and with documented and comprehensive quality control practices in place. It is acknowledged that there are problem laboratories and cytology practitioners. There is an emerging issue of automated preparation and screening devices and issues of informed patient consent. Cytology professionals have done an extraordinary and commendable job of educating the public about the benefits of the CC smear. We have been less successful and conscientious about explaining and defining the limitations of the CC test. There is a need for public and professional education as to the benefits and limitations of the CC smear for cervical cancer detection. The process suggested is to work with women's groups, public health agencies, government agencies, and state and national legislatures and to coordinate professional committees working on liability issues. Contextual information could be included with the CC smear report to indicate that a negative report confers a low probability of developing cervical cancer. It is suggested that appropriate language and a menu of statements be developed. Increased efforts should be directed to physician education with respect to informed consent concerning the benefits and limitations of CC smear testing and the application of new technology to improve smear accuracy. The process should include development of appropriate statements on the use of alternative

  4. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decaprariis Donato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling. In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season, the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively, with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8% out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to

  5. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  6. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Weigl, Stefania; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Stanneck, Dorothee; Decaprariis, Donato; Capelli, Gioia; Baneth, Gad

    2011-04-13

    Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation. This study has also demonstrated

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy and Pitfalls of Preoperative Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Salivary Gland Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAHOUN, N.; EZZAT, N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in salivary gland lesions. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 82 patients presented at NCI, Cairo University with salivary gland lesion who underwent preoperative FNAC diagnosis with subsequent excision and histopathologic assessment. Cytology results were classified as negative, positive, suspicious for cancer and inadequate. The definitive histopathologic report according to WHO Histological typing was the gold standard diagnosis against which FNAC was compared. Results: Our study included 82 patients who underwent preoperative FNAC of major salivary glands with subsequent surgical excision. Male to female ratio was 1.4: 1. The median age was 42 years. Parotid gland was involved in (68.3%), submandibular in (28%) and sub mental gland in (3.7%). Forty cases (48.8%) were cytologically diagnosed as benign lesions, 26 (31.7%) were malignant and 10 (12.2%) were suspicious. Cytological findings were non diagnostic in 6 (7.3%). The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma; 16 out of 40 cases (40%), while the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma; 22 out of 26 cases (84.6%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones and were true-negative in 37 (92.5%), true-positive in 33 (91.6%), false-negative in 3 (8.3%) and false-positive in 3 (7.5%) cases regarding detection of malignant tumors. The cytologic diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 91.7%; a specificity of 92.5%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 92.5% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. The rates of agreement of histopathologic type for benign and malignant tumors were 89.2% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC were 91.7%, 92.5% and 92%, respectively. Attention to subtle morphologic changes, pitfalls and limitations are important to increase diagnostic accuracy. Multidirectional aspiration is preferred to avoid selective

  8. Determination of optimal diagnostic criteria for purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Dubuc, J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this observational study were to identify the optimal diagnostic criteria for purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) and cytological endometritis (ENDO) using vaginal discharge, endometrial cytology, and leukocyte esterase (LE) tests, and to quantify their effect on subsequent reproductive performance. Data generated from 1,099 untreated Holstein cows (28 herds) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used in this study. Cows were examined at 35 (± 7) d in milk for PVD using vaginal discharge scoring and for ENDO using endometrial cytology and LE testing. Optimal combinations of diagnostic criteria were determined based on the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) to predict pregnancy status at first service. Once identified, these criteria were used to quantify the effect of PVD and ENDO on pregnancy risk at first service and on pregnancy hazard until 200 d in milk (survival analysis). Predicting ability of these diagnostic criteria was determined using area under the curve (AUC) values. The prevalence of PVD and ENDO was calculated as well as the agreement between endometrial cytology and LE. The optimal diagnostic criteria (lowest AIC) identified in this study were purulent vaginal discharge or worse (≥ 4), ≥ 6% polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) by endometrial cytology, and small amounts of leukocytes or worse (≥ 1) by LE testing. When using the combination of vaginal discharge and PMNL percentage as diagnostic tools (n = 1,099), the prevalences of PVD and ENDO were 17.1 and 36.2%, respectively. When using the combination of vaginal discharge and LE (n = 915), the prevalences of PVD and ENDO were 17.1 and 48.4%. The optimal strategies for predicting pregnancy status at first service were the use of LE only (AUC = 0.578) and PMNL percentage only (AUC = 0.575). Cows affected by PVD and ENDO had 0.36 and 0.32 times the odds, respectively, of being pregnant at first service when using PMNL percentage compared with that of unaffected

  9. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Radmehr; Javanbakht, Javad; Atyabi, Nahid; Bahrami, Alimohammad; Kheradmand, Danial; Safaei, Reyhaneh; Khadivar, Farshid; Hosseini, Ehsan

    2013-08-13

    regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n = 2) and adenocarcinoma (n = 1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295.

  10. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert G G Donders

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV an inducing factor for the development of (pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix? DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. SAMPLE: 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. METHODS: Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6. In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05, mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  11. Conjunctival impression cytology evaluation of patients with dry eye disease using scleral contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sarah La Porta; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Mihaylov; Nasaré, Alex; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira; Hofling-Lima, Ana Luisa

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate conjunctival impression cytology and HLADR expression changes after wearing scleral contact lenses (ScCLs) for moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED). Prospective interventional case series. Forty-one eyes from 25 patients with moderate to severe DED were evaluated for Esclera ScCL treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and slit-lamp findings were assessed. Impression cytology specimens were obtained from DED patients at the baseline and after wearing ScCLs for 12 months. The impression cytology specimens were analyzed using morphological results score, and HLA-DR positive cells were detected and quantified. The values were compared to assess the IC changes after wearing ScCLs. Forty-one eyes from 25 patients were fitted with ScCLs to manage DED. The underlying diseases were Stevens-Johnson syndrome (22 eyes), Sjogren's syndrome (11 eyes), graft-versus-host disease (2 eyes), dry eye after keratomileusis (2 eyes) and undifferentiated ocular surface disease (4 eyes). The HE-PAS impression cytology score did not differ significantly before and after wearing ScCLs for 12 months in DED patients (p>0.05). The percentage of eyes expressing the HLA-DR antigen in the temporal conjunctiva after wearing ScCL for 12 months significantly increased in patients with Sjogren's syndrome (11.11% to 66.66%; p=0.0498). In groups with Stevens Johnson syndrome and other ocular surface disorders, we did not observe statistically significant differences (p>0.05). The ScCLs did not change the parameters used to evaluate inflammatory processes, which were measured using conjunctival impression cytology and HLA-DR expression, except in Sjogren syndrome, in which there was an unexpected increase in HLA expression. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Galectin-3 Immunostaining in Cytological and Histopathological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIAD, H.A.; KANDIL, M.; ASAAD, N.Y.; EL-GODAY, Sh.F.; EL-KASED, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Ga lectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples. Material and Methods: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multi nodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC). Galectin-3 immunostaining was applied on histological sections from all the cases (retrospective analysis) as well as for the available preoperative FNAC (28 cases) (prospective analysis). Results: Retrospective analysis: The positivity percentage of galectin-3 was 10.5%, 92.3%, 93% for non-malignant, FTC and PTC respectively. According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1±2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5±88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150±83.9) (p>0.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p='0.51). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for galectin-3 staining were 93%, 89.5%, 90.5% and 92% respectively. Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases. Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology. Combination of standard cytological evaluation with galectin-3 immunostaining markedly improved sen¬sitivity (71% versus 85%), specificity (75% versus 94%), positive predictive value (83% versus 92%) negative predictive value (60% versus 87.5%) and diagnostic accuracy (72% versus 90%). Conclusion: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign

  13. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: Characteristics of preoperative ultrasonography and cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the ultrasonography (US) and cytopathological features that are used in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to characterize the role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis in the diagnosis of FVPTC. From May 2012 to February 2014, 40 thyroid nodules from 40 patients (mean age, 56.2 years; range, 26 to 81 years) diagnosed with FVPTC were included in this study. The US features of the nodules were analyzed and the nodules were classified as probably benign or suspicious for malignancy. Twenty-three thyroid nodules (57.5%) underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis. Clinical information and histopathologic results were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients. Thirty nodules (75.0%) were classified as suspicious for malignancy, while 10 (25.0%) were classified as probably benign. Seven of the eight nodules (87.5%) with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) cytology showed suspicious US features, while one of the two nodules (50.0%) with follicular neoplasm cytology presented suspicious US features. Five of the 23 nodules (21.7%) that underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis had positive results, all of which were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy or malignant based on cytology. None of the nodules with benign, AUS/FLUS, or follicular neoplasm cytology were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation. US features allow nodules to be classified as suspicious for malignancy, and the presence of suspicious US features in nodules with ambiguous cytology may aid in the diagnosis of FVPTC. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is of limited value in the diagnosis of FVPTC

  14. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: Characteristics of preoperative ultrasonography and cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to validate the ultrasonography (US) and cytopathological features that are used in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to characterize the role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis in the diagnosis of FVPTC. From May 2012 to February 2014, 40 thyroid nodules from 40 patients (mean age, 56.2 years; range, 26 to 81 years) diagnosed with FVPTC were included in this study. The US features of the nodules were analyzed and the nodules were classified as probably benign or suspicious for malignancy. Twenty-three thyroid nodules (57.5%) underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis. Clinical information and histopathologic results were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients. Thirty nodules (75.0%) were classified as suspicious for malignancy, while 10 (25.0%) were classified as probably benign. Seven of the eight nodules (87.5%) with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) cytology showed suspicious US features, while one of the two nodules (50.0%) with follicular neoplasm cytology presented suspicious US features. Five of the 23 nodules (21.7%) that underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis had positive results, all of which were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy or malignant based on cytology. None of the nodules with benign, AUS/FLUS, or follicular neoplasm cytology were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation. US features allow nodules to be classified as suspicious for malignancy, and the presence of suspicious US features in nodules with ambiguous cytology may aid in the diagnosis of FVPTC. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is of limited value in the diagnosis of FVPTC.

  15. CYTOLOGY PULMONARY IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS MAINTAINED THE FIELD OR STABLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fortes Júnior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial secretion was collected by endoscopy (Welch-AllynÒ, 200cm long and 9mm diameter, from equines with different ages, races and sex, for posterior cytological analysis. Thirty-six equines were divided into two groups (Group I = stabled, n = 18; Group II = field regimen, n = 18. Animals of Group I (age = 3.5 years were lodged in the Tarumã´s Jockey Club in Curitiba, Parana State. The equines of Group II always were maintained at field condition (never were stabled, in the farm located in Jacarezinho, Paraná State. Following endoscopic exams, tracheobronchial secretion smears were stained by Pappenhein´s method and submitted to cytological analysis. Group I had higher frequency of tracheal discharge than Group II. The cytological analysis showed more presence of macrophages (58.8%, foamy cells (2.3%, body giant cells (0.2%, neutrophils (4.57%, eosinophils (0.7% and Curshmann´s spirals (0.04% on 3 of the 18 animals. The cytological analysis of Group II showed higher frequency of ciliated epithelial cells than Group I, and no Curshmann´s spirals were observed. In conclusion, data showed that horses stabled had more cytological alterations than the animals maintained at field, therefore more tracheobronchial complications. Thus, the care of place where horse are stabled have influence on development of respiratory diseases, may predispose to affections as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage, as well athletic horses may be never reach their full respiratory potential.

  16. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Depuydt, Christophe E; Bogers, John-Paul; Vereecken, Annie J

    2013-01-01

    Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) an inducing factor for the development of (pre-)cancerous lesions of the cervix? Cross sectional study. Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6). In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05), mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  17. Diagnostic assessment of intraoperative cytology for papillary thyroid carcinoma: using a decision tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, J-S; Sohn, J H; Kang, G

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cytological characteristics and the diagnostic usefulness of intraoperative cytology (IOC) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In addition, using decision tree analysis, effective features for accurate cytological diagnosis were sought. We investigated cellularity, cytological features and diagnosis based on the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in IOC of 240 conventional PTCs. The cytological features were evaluated in terms of nuclear score with nuclear features, and additional figures such as presence of swirling sheets, psammoma bodies, and multinucleated giant cells. The nuclear score (range 0-7) was made via seven nuclear features, including (1) enlarged, (2) oval or irregularly shaped nuclei, (3) longitudinal nuclear grooves, (4) intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusion, (5) pale nuclei with powdery chromatin, (6) nuclear membrane thickening, and (7) marginally placed micronucleoli. Nuclear scores in PTC, suspicious for malignancy, and atypia of undetermined significance cases were 6.18 ± 0.80, 4.48 ± 0.82, and 3.15 ± 0.67, respectively. Additional figures more frequent in PTC than in other diagnostic categories were identified. Cellularity of IOC significantly correlated with tumor size, nuclear score, and presence of additional figures. Also, IOCs with higher nuclear scores (4-7) significantly correlated with larger tumor size and presence of additional figures. In decision tree analysis, IOCs with nuclear score >5 and swirling sheets could be considered diagnostic for PTCs. Our study suggests that IOCs using nuclear features and additional figures could be useful with decreasing the likelihood of inconclusive results.

  18. Cytomorphologic spectrum of lymphocytic thyroiditis and correlation between cytological grading and biochemical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, KR; Nayak, Nileena; Jayasree, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis [Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT)] is a common thyroid lesion diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Apart from FNAC, various other parameters, such as clinical features, ultrasonographic findings, antithyroid antibody levels, hormone profiles, and radionuclide thyroid scan, are also taken into consideration in making a diagnosis of HT. Aims: To grade lymphocytic thyroiditis based on the cytomorphology and to correlate the cytological grades with the levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO), antithyroglobulin antibody (ATG), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Materials and Methods: During a period of one and half years, 1,667 cases underwent FNAC of thyroid at our tertiary care center. Of these, 128 cases had cytological evidence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Out of these, in 60 cases the levels of ATPO, ATG, and TSH were known. The cytological grades of lymphocytic thyroiditis in these cases were correlated with these parameters. Results: Out of the 60 cases, 55 were females. Age ranged from 5 years to 70 years, with majority of patients in third decade. Diffuse enlargement of thyroid was the commonest presentation. However, 14 cases presented with nodular disease. Majority of the patients had grade 1 thyroiditis (27 cases), followed by grade 2 thyroiditis (22 cases). Cytomorphology was diagnostic of thyroiditis in all 60 cases. ATPO was elevated in 57 cases and ATG was elevated in 40 cases. Elevated level of TSH was seen in only 18 cases. In 39 cases, TSH value was normal. There was no correlation between the cytological grades of thyroiditis and the levels of antithyroid antibodies and TSH. Conclusion: Lymphocytic infiltration of thyroid follicles is pathognomonic of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Positivity for antithyroid antibodies is strongly associated with HT but no correlation was observed between the grades of thyroiditis and the levels of ATPO, ATG, and TSH. PMID:27756987

  19. Cytologic separation of branchial cleft cyst from metastatic cystic squamous cell carcinoma: A multivariate analysis of nineteen cytomorphologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, Lester J; Esebua, Magda; Schmidt, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    The separation of branchial cleft cysts from metastatic cystic squamous cell carcinomas in adults can be clinically and cytologically challenging. Diagnostic accuracy for separation is reported to be as low as 75% prompting some authors to recommend frozen section evaluation of suspected branchial cleft cysts before resection. We evaluated 19 cytologic features to determine which were useful in this distinction. Thirty-three cases (21 squamous carcinoma and 12 branchial cysts) of histologically confirmed cystic lesions of the lateral neck were graded for the presence or absence of 19 cytologic features by two cytopathologists. The cytologic features were analyzed for agreement between observers and underwent multivariate analysis for correlation with the diagnosis of carcinoma. Interobserver agreement was greatest for increased nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, pyknotic nuclei, and irregular nuclear membranes. Recursive partitioning analysis showed increased N/C ratio, small clusters of cells, and irregular nuclear membranes were the best discriminators. The distinction of branchial cleft cysts from cystic squamous cell carcinoma is cytologically difficult. Both digital image analysis and p16 testing have been suggested as aids in this separation, but analysis of cytologic features remains the main method for diagnosis. In an analysis of 19 cytologic features, we found that high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, irregular nuclear membranes, and small cell clusters were most helpful in their distinction. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:561-567. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prognostic value of CEA and CA 19-9 tumor markers combined with cytology from peritoneal fluid in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu; Kim, Do Hyoung; Gorden, D Lee; Lee, Yoon Suk; Sung, Na Young; Park, Gyeoung-Sin; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kang, Won Kyung; Park, Jong Kyung; Ahn, Chang Hyeok; Kim, Jun-Gi; Jeon, Hae Myung; Oh, Seong Taek

    2009-04-01

    Early diagnosis and management of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer patients are difficult clinical challenges. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical significance of tumor markers and cytology in peritoneal effusions (PE) and peritoneal irrigation fluid (PI) and to determine their value as prognostic indicators in this disease. Two hundred thirty-four consecutive patients who underwent abdominal surgery for colorectal cancer from January 2006 to December 2007 were included, and tumor markers and cytology in PE and PI were analyzed prospectively. The incidence of free cancer cells retrieved from peritoneal samples was 7.9%. Cytology was positive in 40.0% by Papanicolaou and Giemsa staining, 73.3% by hematoxylin and eosin staining of cell blocks, and 66.7% by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calretinin immunohistochemistry. Multivariate analysis revealed that peritoneal CEA and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 in PI were correlated with peritoneal metastasis and cytology. Level of peritoneal fluid CEA was statistically significantly correlated with recurrence and peritoneal metastatic recurrence in patients with negative peritoneal cytology. Cytology, peritoneal CEA, and peritoneal CA 19-9 showed correlations with cancer-free survival and overall survival. These correlations demonstrate the importance of continuous follow-up of peritoneal metastasis if there is positive cytology or an increase in CEA and CA 19-9 in peritoneal fluid.

  1. Imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsies: accurate and immediate diagnosis in a one-stop breast clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Lott, M.F.; Calder, C.J.; Kutt, E.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsy specimens was adequate for the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) guidelines. METHODS: We prospectively audited imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsy specimens. The performance indicators for imprint cytology specimens from 111 consecutive ultrasound-guided core biopsy were compared with standards set by the NHSBSP for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). RESULTS: Imprint cytology fulfilled the 'preferred' targets for absolute and complete sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, false-positive and false-negative rates, inadequate rate and inadequate rate from cancers. It also satisfied the minimum target for suspicious rate. The complete sensitivity was 97%, full specificity 78%, with 100% positive predictive value for C5 cytology and an inadequate rate from cancers of 1.5%. CONCLUSION: Imprint cytology from ultrasound-guided core biopsy allows same-day diagnosis and the collection of data regarding the grade of the carcinoma for treatment decisions from a single needle test

  2. Cytologic features of nipple aspirate fluid using an automated non-invasive collection device: a prospective observational study

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    Rowe Leslie R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of cytologic atypia in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF has been shown to be a predictor of risk for development of breast carcinoma. Manual collection of NAF for cytologic evaluation varies widely in terms of efficacy, ease of use, and patient acceptance. We investigated a new automated device for the non-invasive collection of NAF in the office setting. Methods A multi-center prospective observational clinical trial involving asymptomatic women designed to assess fluid production, adequacy, safety and patient acceptance of the HALO NAF Collection System (NeoMatrix, Irvine, CA. Cytologic evaluation of all NAF samples was performed using previously described classification categories. Results 500 healthy women were successfully enrolled. Thirty-eight percent (190/500 produced fluid and 187 were available for cytologic analysis. Cytologic classification of fluid producers showed 50% (93/187 Category 0 (insufficient cellular material, 38% (71/187 Category I (benign non-hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells, 10% (18/187 Category II (benign hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells, 3% (5/187 Category III (atypical ductal epithelial cells and none were Category IV (unequivocal malignancy. Overall, 19% of the subjects produced NAF with adequate cellularity and 1% were found to have cytologic atypia. Conclusion The HALO system is a simple, safe, rapid, automated method for standardized collection of NAF which is acceptable to patients. Cytologic assessment of HALO-collected NAF showed the ability to detect benign and pre-neoplastic ductal epithelial cells from asymptomatic volunteers.

  3. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mucous retention cyst of the tongue: distinction from other cystic lesions of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Casas, L E; Bardales, R H

    2000-05-01

    Mucous retention cyst (MRC) is a common submucosal lesion of the oral cavity that, when deeply seated, simulates a neoplasm. This report describes the fine-needle aspiration cytology findings of a lingual MRC of complex architecture and with metaplastic epithelium. In addition, we emphasize its cytologic differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant cystic lesions of the tongue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of aspiration cytology of a complex MRC of the tongue. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Significance of atypia in conventional Papanicolaou smears and liquid-based cytology: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schledermann, D; Ejersbo, D; Hoelund, B

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of atypical squamous epithelial cells, borderline nuclear changes, is associated with some controversy, as it encompasses benign, reactive, as well as possible neoplastic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow-up diagnoses of cytological atypia in conventional...... cytological samples was reduced by 41.3% (P Cytological and histological follow-up data showed the presence of neoplastic lesions in 34.7% of patients screened by TP versus 22.3% of patients screened by CP, corresponding to a 55.6% increase in TP (P

  5. Citologia de impressão no diagnóstico de infecção corneana por Acanthamoeba: relato de caso Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba corneal infection by impression cytology: case report

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    Jeison de Nadai Barros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos três casos de infecção corneana por Acanthamoeba sp em que foi possível detectar cistos do microorganismo com a técnica de citologia de impressão. Três pacientes encaminhados ao Laboratório de Doenças Externas Oculares em 2004 com alterações superficiais da córnea foram submetidos ao exame de citologia de impressão para investigação da presença de cistos de Acanthamoeba sp. Duas amostras foram obtidas da córnea de cada paciente e coradas com PAS, hematoxilina e Papanicolaou. Investigação microbiológica de rotina e cultura também foram realizadas após raspado da córnea. O cultivo das amostras e a citologia de impressão foram positivas para Acanthamoeba sp em todos os pacientes, ao passo que os raspados corados com Giemsa foram positivos em dois casos. A citologia de impressão revelou cistos de Acanthamoeba sp entre feixe de células epiteliais corneanas e como células isoladas. Foram observados cistos no epitélio de um dos pacientes com a citologia de impressão após três meses de tratamento, enquanto o raspado foi negativo. No exame anatomopatológico observaram-se cistos no epitélio e estroma de uma córnea receptora de um dos pacientes após transplante. Neste estudo, a citologia de impressão detectou com sucesso cistos de Acanthamoeba sp em pacientes com acometimento epitelial. Por tratar-se de método não invasivo, a técnica pode ser usada para facilitar o diagnóstico mais precoce da infecção por Acanthamoeba, sendo útil também no acompanhamento do tratamento da doença.To describe three cases of corneal infection due to Acanthamoeba sp in which was possible to detect Acanthamoeba sp cysts by the corneal impression cytology technique. Three patients referred to the External Eye Disease Laboratory in 2004 with superficial corneal alterations were submitted to corneal specimen collection by impression cytology filter paper to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba sp cysts. Two impression

  6. A cohort study of cervical screening using partial HPV typing and cytology triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Hyun, Noorie; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Katki, Hormuzd; Fetterman, Barbara; Gage, Julia C; Cheung, Li C; Befano, Brian; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening. However, to incorporate HPV tests into screening, risk-stratification ("triage") of HPV-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment. We prospectively evaluated combinations of partial HPV typing (Onclarity, BD) and cytology triage, and explored whether management could be simplified, based on grouping combinations yielding similar 3-year or 18-month CIN3+ risks. We typed ∼9,000 archived specimens, taken at enrollment (2007-2011) into the NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort. Stratified sampling, with reweighting in the statistical analysis, permitted risk estimation of HPV/cytology combinations for the 700,000+-woman KPNC screening population. Based on 3-year CIN3+ risks, Onclarity results could be combined into five groups (HPV16, else HPV18/45, else HPV31/33/58/52, else HPV51/35/39/68/56/66/68, else HPV negative); cytology results fell into three risk groups ("high-grade," ASC-US/LSIL, NILM). For the resultant 15 HPV group-cytology combinations, 3-year CIN3+ risks ranged 1,000-fold from 60.6% to 0.06%. To guide management, we compared the risks to established "benchmark" risk/management thresholds in this same population (e.g., LSIL predicted 3-year CIN3+ risk of 5.8% in the screening population, providing the benchmark for colposcopic referral). By benchmarking to 3-year risk thresholds (supplemented by 18-month estimates), the widely varying risk strata could be condensed into four action bands (very high risk of CIN3+ mandating consideration of cone biopsy if colposcopy did not find precancer; moderate risk justifying colposcopy; low risk managed by intensified follow-up to permit HPV "clearance"; and very low risk permitting routine screening.) Overall, the results support primary HPV testing, with management of HPV-positive women using partial HPV typing and cytology. © 2016 UICC.

  7. [THE VIRTUAL CYTOLOGIC SLIDES FOR EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CYTOLOGIC ANALYSES IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORIES: POSSIBILITIES AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djangirova, T V; Shabalova, I P; Pronichev, A N; Polyakov, E V

    2015-08-01

    The article considers application of technology of analysis of cytological slides in external quality control of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The advantages of virtual slides are demonstrated against other applied technologies of external evaluation of quality i.e. slide plate and digital micro-photography. The conditions of formation of virtual slides for external evaluation of quality of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The technology of their application is described. The success of practical application of considered technology in the Federal system of external evaluation of quality is emphasized.

  8. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  9. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  10. Método citológico e histopatológico no diagnóstico das lesões da conjuntiva: estudo comparativo Cytologic and histologic methods in the diagnosis of conjunctival lesions: comparative study

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    Carlos Gustavo de Melo G. Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia e a confiabilidade do método citológico nas lesões da conjuntiva, comparando-o com o exame histopatológico. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo prospectivo em 31 lesões conjuntivais. O material para estudo foi coletado raspando-se as lesões com a ajuda da espátula de Kimura. Posteriormente, procedeu-se à exérese das mesmas que foram encaminhadas para o exame histopatológico. As lâminas do exame citológico foram coradas pela técnica de Papanicolaou. RESULTADOS: O método citológico mostrou alta especificidade (100% e sensibilidade (92,9%. O valor preditivo positivo foi de 100% e o valor preditivo negativo foi de 94,4%. CONCLUSÕES: O simples método citológico é efetivo e seguro no diagnóstico de lesões tumorais da conjuntiva.PURPOSE: To evaluate both the efficacy and reliability of the cytologic method in the diagnosis of conjunctival lesions and compare it with the histologic examination. METHODS: A prospective study on 31 conjunctival lesions was performed. Samples were obtained with a Kimura spatula. The lesions were, then, surgically removed and sent for histologic examination. The Papanicolaou technique was used for the cytologic examination. RESULTS: The cytologic method showed high specificity (100% and sensitivity (92.9%. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative was 94.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The simple cytologic method is effective and reliable for the diagnosis of tumoral lesions of the conjunctiva.

  11. Case of minute hepatocellular carcinoma found by CT scan and diagnosed cytology under the ultrasonic aspiration transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Waichi; Moriai, Norihiko; Komatsu, Kanji [Yuri Kumiai Sogo Hospital, Akita (Japan)

    1983-11-01

    CT scan detected a suspected minute hepatocellular carcinoma in a case of liver cirrhosis followed up for more than 10 years. A definite diagnosis was established by ultrasonic guided aspiration cytology. The cancer was resected using ultrasonic examination during operation.

  12. Cytological diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma and cytohistological agreement at General Hospital of Mexico “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.U. Zamora Guerra

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Cervicovaginal cytology is a useful tool for the detection of glandular lesions, however, it is difficult to discriminate on origin only through morphology, since many other entities overlap.

  13. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of spontaneous respiratory tract disease in dogs: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, E.C.; DeNicola, D.B.; Plier, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Results of cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were compared with clinical diagnoses in dogs that presented with signs of respiratory disease to referral hospitals. Of 68 dogs in which a clinical diagnosis was possible, BAL cytological findings were considered definitive for the diagnosis in 17 cases (25%), supportive of the diagnosis in 34 cases (50%), and not helpful in 17 cases (25%). Findings were most often considered supportive of or definitive for the clinical diagnosis in dogs with alveolar or bronchial radiographic patterns, or the presence of pulmonary masses. BAL results among lung lobes differed in 23 of 63 dogs (37%) with diffuse radiographic patterns. Tracheal wash cytology differed from BAL fluid cytology in 45 of 66 dogs (68%). Bronchoalveolar lavage was a clinically useful procedure for the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with signs of respiratory disease

  14. Efficacy of voided urinary cytology and ultrasonography compared to cystoscopy in the detection of urinary bladder cancer

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    N. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Voided urinary cytology can be omitted as a screening test. Ultrasonography can be recommended as the initial imaging investigation for detection of bladder carcinoma in patients presenting with hematuria and for follow up of bladder carcinoma patients.

  15. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin; Chung, Kyung Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Nam, Ji Eun; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hee Yeong; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Joo-Hang

    2012-01-01

    Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years) with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6%) had NSCLC and 55 (28.4%) had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p < 0.001, CEA: 92.1% versus 83.5%, p = 0.002, SCC: 91.4% versus 83.5%, p = 0.003). Accuracy improved significantly for NAB combined with cytological CYFRA 21–1 compared with NAB alone (95.9% versus 88.1%, p < 0.001). The area under curve (AUC) of NAB with cytological CYFRA 21–1 was significantly larger than for NAB alone (0.966 versus 0.917, p = 0.009). Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC

  16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization as adjunct to cytology improves the diagnosis and directs estimation of prognosis of malignant pleural effusions

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    Han Jingquan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of malignant cells in effusions by conventional cytology is hampered by its limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH as adjuncts to conventional cytologic examination in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 93 inpatients with pleural effusions (72 malignant pleural effusions metastatic from 11 different organs and 21 benign over 23 months. All the patients came from Chinese northeast areas. Aspirated pleural fluid underwent cytologic examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for aneuploidy. We used FISH in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations (chromosomes 7, 11, and 17 in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield and identified the efficiency by diagnostic biopsy. Predominant cytogenetic anomalies and patterns of intratumor cytogenetic heterogeneity were brought in relation to overall survival rate. Results Cytology alone confirmed malignant pleural effusions in 45 of 72 patients (sensitivity 63%, whereas FISH alone positively identified 48 of 72 patients (sensitivity 67%. Both tests had high specificity in predicting benign effusions. If cytology and FISH were considered together, they exhibited 88% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in discriminating benign and malignant effusions. Combined, the two assays were more sensitive than either test alone. Although the positive predictive value of each test was 94.5%, the negative predictive value of cytology and FISH combined was 78%, better than 47% and 44% for FISH and cytology alone, respectively. There was a significantly prolonged survival rate for patients with aneuploidy for chromosome 17. Conclusions FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting

  17. The usefulness of adding p53 immunocytochemistry to bile drainage cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Min-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Byung Seok; Choi, Song-Yi

    2017-07-01

    Obstructive jaundice is frequently caused by bile duct strictures. Determination of malignant strictures is crucial for the initiation of appropriate treatment. Cytologic examination of bile drainage fluid is an easy and reproducible method of detecting malignant cells. This method, however, frequently yields indeterminate results, such as atypia or suspicious of malignancy, due to difficulties in differentiating malignancy from benign atypia. Immunocytochemical assessment of p53 expression by cells in bile drainage fluid may enhance the ability to detect malignancy. A total of 139 samples of bile drainage fluid were obtained from 80 patients. Following cytologic examination, the samples were incubated with antibody to p53. The performance of cytology with and without p53 immunocytochemistry was evaluated, with reference to surgical or clinical findings of benign and malignant biliary strictures. Bile drainage cytology alone had a sensitivity of 31.6% and a specificity of 98.4% in the identification of malignant strictures, whereas the combination of p53 immunocytochemistry and bile drainage cytology had a sensitivity of 80.3% and a specificity of 92.1%. P53 immunocytochemistry alone had a sensitivity of 64.5% and a specificity of 92.7% for the identification of malignant strictures in bile drainage samples with atypical cytology, and a sensitivity of 85.0% and a specificity of 100.0% in samples with suspicious of malignancy. The addition of p53 immunocytochemistry to bile drainage cytology can be useful in identifying malignant strictures in samples showing indeterminate results on bile drainage cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:592-597. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. BEHAVIOR AND CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride AFTER PASSAGE IN Chrysomya albiceps

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    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride are entomopathogenic fungi with proved action against several species of insects. In this work, the behavior and cytology of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (PL43 and M. flavoviride var. flavoviride (CG291 were evaluated after the passage in eggs, larvae and adults Chrysomya albiceps, an important causer of secondary myiais. The experiment was carried out under an acclimatized environment's humidity and temperature of 60 ± 10% and 28 ± 1oC. The most expressive results of the biological parameters studied (percentage of germination, quantity of conidia, quantity and diameter of colonies were reached from re-isolated fungi of larvae. No significant differences were observed in the cytological aspects of the life cycle of the fungi post-passage in eggs, larvae and adults. These results suggest the possibility of the use of the fungi in the control of C. albiceps fly.

  19. Primary chondrosarcoma of breast - cytology with histopathological correlation: A rare case report with review of literature

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    Sankappa P. Sinhasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesenchymal tumors of the breast other than angiosarcoma are extremely rare and comprise <0.5% of breast tumors. Primary chondrosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare entity and only 10 cases are reported as single case reports in literature until date. A diagnosis of primary mammary sarcoma can be established only after excluding metaplastic carcinomas and malignant phyllodes by extensive sampling for evidence of in situ or invasive carcinoma. Here, we report a primary chondrosarcoma of breast in a 55-year-old lady diagnosed precisely on fine-needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopatholigcal examination after total mastectomy. We emphasize on diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology smears and discuss differential diagnoses.

  20. Fine needle aspiration cytology versus frozen section in branchial cleft cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begbie, F; Visvanathan, V; Clark, L J

    2015-02-01

    Branchial cleft cysts occur because of a failure of involution of the second branchial cleft. However, as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma can mimic branchial cleft cysts, there is a lack of consensus on the appropriate management of cystic neck lumps. To report our experience of fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section examination in the management of cystic neck lumps. Retrospective case note review of patients managed in the Southern General Hospital, Scotland, UK. The sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section for detecting branchial cleft cysts was 75 per cent and 100 per cent respectively. Two patients who did not undergo intra-operative frozen section examination were either over- or under-treated, which is discussed. Adult patients subjected to surgical excision of a suspected branchial cyst should undergo intra-operative frozen section analysis regardless of clinical suspicion for malignancy. This part of management is critical to ensure patients are offered appropriate treatment.

  1. The virtual slide in the promotion of cytologic and hystologic quality in oncologic screenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo Bondi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A regional experience environment in virtual microscopy and digital pathology comprehending the digital cytology is presented. The project has been conducted in Emilia-Romagna and it has been planned for the promotion and the quality assessment in screening cytology and histology for the prevention of the tumors of uterine cervix, breast and colon-rectum cancers. During the project it has been envisaged the design of a dedicated picture archive and communication system (PACS for cooperative diagnosis, didactics and training, teleconsulting, documentation of rare cases and pilot experiences; furthermore selected cases are catalogued in the PACS with the aim of the check of the diagnostic concordance in the oncologic screening.

  2. Efficient examination to detect the location of cancer in cases with positive sputum cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Yaginuma, Koji; Shibuya, Hiroko

    1993-01-01

    In order to localize cancers in 55 cases with positive sputum cytology, we examined chest CT and otolaryngeal findings, in addition to performing bronchoscopic examinations. Consequently, 30 cases had lung cancer, 5 had laryngopharyngeal cancer and 3 had cancer of the oral cavity. Otolaryngeal observation was useful for detection of these cancers of the upper respiratory tract. In 30 lung cancers, 23 were roentgenographically occult cancers. But, among these 23, 12 had positive findings on chest CT. CT was useful for the cases of roentgenographically occult lung cancer. Especially, CT was very effective for detection of small cancer lesions in the peripheral lung, which were undetectable bronchofiberscopically. Three of 20 cases, in which no cancers were detected after the initial examination, had cancer lesions 1-2 years later. These results suggest that CT, otolaryngeal observation and intensive follow-up of undetectable cases are useful for localizing cancer in cases with positive sputum cytology. (author)

  3. Early lung cancer detection in uranium miners with abnormal sputum cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1992-08-01

    This work supported by the United States of Energy, continues to add data on the health affects of cigarette smoking and radon exposure on uranium miners. Since the last Technical Progress Report in July or 1991, 537 sputum cytology samples have been collected on the 300 uranium workers in the surveillance study. To date there are 436 lung cancer cases in the Uranium Miner Tumor Registry with diagnostic slides from surgery and/or autopsy; an additional 40 cases have been diagnosed with sputum cytology only. In March of 1991 the Geno Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive was established at St. Mary's Hospital and Medical Center as a depository for biological specimens and epidemiological data from the 17,700 uranium miners who have been a part or the study

  4. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  5. Cytologic studies in relation to the effect of treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Minoru; Horai, Takeshi

    1982-01-01

    We investigated whether certain cytologic characteristics of small cell carcinoma could be correlated with response to chemotherapy. The cancer cells in the good response group more frequently showed finely granula chromatin evenly distributed through the nuclei. The cancer cells in the noresponse group predominantly showed deeply stained nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin distributed evenly or pale nuclei with unevenly distributed chromatin. These findings may be an indicator to predict the degree of response to chemotherapy. Cytologic grading of irradiatic changes reported by Shibata et al. may be useful for judging the effect of treatment of lung cancer. We introduce three cases of lung cancer in this paper and reported the correlation of morphologic changes of cancer cells and the effect of treatment of those cases. (J.P.N.)

  6. Acquired myospherulosis secondary to gluteal augmentation on fine needle aspiration cytology: A diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperstein, Susan; Dilcher, Thomas; Viswanathan, Kartik; Rao, Rema A; Siddiqui, Momin T; Giorgadze, Tamara

    2018-05-01

    A 30-year-old female presented with a three-month history of a multilocular cystic lesion over the lumbosacral spine. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) of the lesion was performed at an outside institution, and a cytologic diagnosis, suspicious for chordoma, was rendered. The patient presented for surgical consultation at our institution. Repeat FNA demonstrated an unusual fat-like material. Upon further inquiry, the patient provided a recent history of gluteal contour improvement with fibroadipose tissue implants. A diagnosis of myospherulosis was made with a concurrent surgical pathology correlation. No evidence of chordoma was identified. To date, this is the first reported case of acquired myospherulosis in the context of gluteal contour enhancement and represents an important diagnostic pitfall to consider on cytology preparations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of human papillomavirus testing and cytology in follow-up after conization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Huusom, Lene D; Deltour, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) after conization. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: 667 women attending for conization. METHODS: Cervical specimens were collected during 2002-2006 at first visit after conization for cytological examination and Hybrid Capture 2......OBJECTIVE: Adequate follow-up of women who have undergone conization for high-grade cervical lesions is crucial in cervical cancer screening programs. We evaluated the performance of testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, cytology alone, and combined testing in predicting cervical...... detection of high-risk HPV. The women were passively followed until 2 years after first follow-up visit by linkage to the nationwide Pathology Data Bank. RESULTS: At first visit after conization (median time, 3.4 months), 20.4% were HPV-positive and 17.2% had atypical squamous intraepithelial lesions...

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology in feline skeletal muscle as a diagnostic tool for extramedullary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extramedullary noncutaneous plasmacytoma (ENP is a myeloproliferative disorder of plasma cells that rarely affects cats. This paper describes an ENP case revealed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the mass in the skeletal muscle of an 8-month-old, male, mixed breed cat, which had a nodule in the left hind limb. The rapid immunoassay test confirmed the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV. The animal necropsy macroscopically showed the nodule came from the semimembranosus muscle. Histopathological examination ratified the cytological findings. Thus, this paper alerts to the existence of plasmacytoma located in the skeletal muscle of feline species. FNAC is a quick and efficient method for diagnosis of ENP.

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of unilesional mycosis fungoides d′emblee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Amita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder accounting for 2% of all lymphomas. Mycosis fungoides (MF is a rare, albeit commonest form of primary cutaneous T cell lymphoma. MF d′emblee is an uncommon variant which is easily mistaken clinically for epithelial malignancy. Diagnosis at cytology is challenging due to low degree of suspicion, rare occurrence and diverse morphology. We report a case of 51-year-old male presenting with a solitary nodulo-ulcerative lesion over right thigh. Smear showed atypical lymphocytes with hyper-convoluted cerebriform nuclei along with few mature lymphocytes consistent with MF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of unilesional MF d′emblee diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Our case emphasizes that FNAC is an accurate method for early diagnosis and clinical staging of patients with MF.

  10. Unsuspected multiples myeloma presenting as bilateral pleural effusion – a cytological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhingra Kajal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Myeloma presenting as a pleural effusion is extremely rare. It is usually a late complication and is associated with a poor prognosis. Case Presentation A 40-year-old male presented with dyspnea and fever of six months duration. Clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was considered. X-ray chest showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural cytology revealed numerous plasma cells, some of which were binucleated and atypical. Cytological differential diagnosis included: Myelomatous effusion and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma deposit (Immunoblastic type. Bone marrow biopsy, serum protein electrophoresis and bone scan confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (Plasmablastic type. Conclusion Myelomatous pleural effusion as an initial presentation although extremely rare, should always be considered in presence of atypical plasma cells irrespective of age.

  11. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  12. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Jin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6% had NSCLC and 55 (28.4% had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.

  13. Is an alcoholic fixative fluid used for manual liquid-based cytology accurate to perform HPV tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbar C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Garbar1, Corinne Mascaux1, Philippe De Graeve2, Philippe Delvenne31Department of Biopathology, Institute Jean Godinot, Reims Cedex, France; 2Centre de Pathologie des Coteaux, Toulouse, France; 3Department of Pathology, University of Liege, Tour de Pathologie, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Liège, BelgiumAbstract: In Europe, the alternative centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology is widely used in cervical screening. Turbitec® (Labonord SAS, Templemars, France is a centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology using an alcoholic fixative fluid, Easyfix® (Labonord. It is now well accepted that the association of liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus test is indissociable of cervical screening. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that Easyfix alcoholic fluid is reliable to perform Hybrid Capture® 2 (QIAGEN SAS, Courtaboeuf, France. In this study, 75 patients with colposcopy for cervical lesions served as gold standard. A sample was collected, at random, for Easyfix fixative cytological fluid and for Digene Cervical Sampler (QIAGEN. The results of Hybrid Capture 2 (with relative light unit >1 showed no statistical difference, a positive Spearman’s correlation (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001, and a kappa value of 0.87 (excellent agreement between the two fluids. It was concluded that Easyfix is accurate to use in human papillomavirus tests with Hybrid Capture 2.Keywords: human papillomavirus, hybrid capture 2, Turbitec®, cervix cytology, liquid-based cytology

  14. Thyroid nodules with highly suspicious ultrasonographic features, but with benign cytology on two occasions: is malignancy still possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Calsolari, Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    There is no information about the frequency of malignancy specifically in the case of thyroid nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, but with two fine needle aspiration (FNA) showing benign cytology. This was the objective of the study. Subjects and methods: We report the results of 105 patients with thyroid nodules considered 'highly suspicious' according to the ultrasonographic classification of American Thyroid Association, in whom FNA revealed benign cytology on two occasions (interval of 6 months). Results: Thyroidectomy was performed in 11 cases due to desire of the patient or significant growth of the nodule. In these patients, cytology continued to be benign in 9, was non-diagnostic in 1, and suspicious in 1. Histology revealed papillary carcinoma in only one nodule. In patients in whom a third FNA was obtained for this study (n = 94), cytology continued to be benign in 86, became non-diagnostic in 5, indeterminate in 2, and suspicious in 1. The last 8 patients (with non-benign cytology) were submitted to thyroidectomy and histology revealed malignancy in only one nodule. Conclusion: The rate of malignancy found here for nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, even after two FNA showing benign cytology, was 2%. We believe that in these cases, the continuation of follow-up consisting of ultrasound at intervals of 2 years may still be adequate. (author)

  15. Thyroid nodules with highly suspicious ultrasonographic features, but with benign cytology on two occasions: is malignancy still possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Calsolari, Maria Regina, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    There is no information about the frequency of malignancy specifically in the case of thyroid nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, but with two fine needle aspiration (FNA) showing benign cytology. This was the objective of the study. Subjects and methods: We report the results of 105 patients with thyroid nodules considered 'highly suspicious' according to the ultrasonographic classification of American Thyroid Association, in whom FNA revealed benign cytology on two occasions (interval of 6 months). Results: Thyroidectomy was performed in 11 cases due to desire of the patient or significant growth of the nodule. In these patients, cytology continued to be benign in 9, was non-diagnostic in 1, and suspicious in 1. Histology revealed papillary carcinoma in only one nodule. In patients in whom a third FNA was obtained for this study (n = 94), cytology continued to be benign in 86, became non-diagnostic in 5, indeterminate in 2, and suspicious in 1. The last 8 patients (with non-benign cytology) were submitted to thyroidectomy and histology revealed malignancy in only one nodule. Conclusion: The rate of malignancy found here for nodules with highly suspicious sonographic features, even after two FNA showing benign cytology, was 2%. We believe that in these cases, the continuation of follow-up consisting of ultrasound at intervals of 2 years may still be adequate. (author)

  16. World wide web-based cytological analysis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiya, Kiyotada; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kumagai, Yukie; Himeji, Yukari; Kobayashi, Takako; Iwai, Muneo; Watanabe, Jun

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that the low level of consistency of diagnosis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H) in uterine cervical cancer screening using the Bethesda System, indicating the necessity of a large-scale survey. We presented cases cytologically judged as ASC-H on our website and invited our members to give their opinions regarding the diagnosis by voting online. The Web voting results were analyzed and ASC-H was cytologically investigated. Virtual slides of atypical cells in cytology preparations of 53 cases were prepared and presented on a website. ASC-H cases were divided into 42 cases sampled by brush scraping and 11 cases sampled by cotton swab scraping. Fifty-three cases cytologically judged as ASC-H were classified into benign and CIN2/3, and their patterns of arrangement of atypical cells and 8 cytological parameters were morphologically investigated. The frequency of ASC-H diagnosis in the Web votes was low: 29.2% for brush-scraped and 26.2% for cotton swab-scraped cases. Three-dimensionality, coarse chromatin and irregular nuclei were significantly different between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. Web-based surveys showed the difference of cytological findings between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. To increase interobserver consistency, it may be useful to share information online, which avoids geographical and temporal limitations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Tuberculous mastitis diagnosed on cytology - case report of a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Tushar Kanti Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous mastititis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian subcontinent. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a very essential diagnostic tool when other routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in reaching to the conclusion. Tuberculosis (TB of the breast is an uncommon presentation of TB even in countries where the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB is high. Radiological imaging is not diagnostic.

  18. The value of exfoliative cytology in the diagnostic of oral mucosa changes in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirescu, Ştefan Claudiu; Păiş, Rodica; Stănoiu, Bogdan Petre; Di Natale, Luca; Şovrea, Alina Simona

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we performed microscopic qualitative analyses of the oral epithelium cytological smears in potential early phase of diabetes and in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients versus a healthy control group. The cytological assessment of the oral changes was realized on superficial and profound smears, from jugal and ventral tongue mucosa and it was based on the comparison between three staining methods [Papanicolaou, APT (polychrome tannin blue)-Dragan and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE)]. Cytological changes of oral cells population were correlated with the type, duration and complications of diabetes. Oral flora was also evaluated. Irrespective the staining used, we found a clear dividing line between the control group and the real diabetic patients. In all diabetes cases (independently of the type of smear, harvest site, clinical form of disorder and present complications), cells presented alterations both at the level of cytoplasm and nucleus. Dyschromasia, cytolysis, different degrees of fatty degenerescence, binucleated cells, hyperchromasia, nuclear enlargement with modified nuclear÷cytoplasmic ratio, were the most frequent findings. There were no discrepancies in the cellular aspects of type 1 or 2 diabetic patients' smears or between the control group and the potential prediabetic status patients. Findings were interpreted as oral epithelium reactive changes induced by the disease. We concluded that exfoliative cytology alone is of low value as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM); it detects the reactive changes induced by the disease, but it makes no differences between DM types or degree of severity and does not allow by qualitative analysis alone to detect abnormalities in early diabetes.

  19. [Pathogenetic relationship between pterygium and dry eye syndrome (clinical and cytological study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraevskiĭ, A V; Trishkin, K S

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in patients with initial primary pterygium for determination of a possible pathogenetic role of dry eye syndrome in the development of pterygium. 30 patients with initial primary pterygium; besides conventional ophthalmic assessment, cytological examination of bulbar conjunctiva was performed in all cases. Signs of dry eye syndrome, of similar severity in both eyes, were found in 100% of patients. Dry eye can be one of the precipitating factors of primary pterygium.

  20. Cytological evidence of chromosomal rearrangement in the second meiotic division after exposure to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemere, G. (Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Orvosbiologiai Intezet)

    1982-01-01

    Metaphase II cells with unequal dyad-arms and obvious X/autosomal rearrangements were found after an exposure to X-rays (2 Gy) of male mice at different stages of meiosis (pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis) with a frequency of 0.2, 1.26 and 0.6%, respectively, giving a direct cytological evidence of structural chromosomal rearrangements in metaphase II cells, partly with autosomal and partly with X/autosomal partners.

  1. Bayesian network modelling on data from fine needle aspiration cytology examination for breast cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Zhai, Jia; Maguire, Liam; Li, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zeng, Jinshu; Liu, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    The paper employed Bayesian network (BN) modelling approach to discover causal dependencies among different data features of Breast Cancer Wisconsin Dataset (BCWD) derived from openly sourced UCI repository. K2 learning algorithm and k-fold cross validation were used to construct and optimize BN structure. Compared to Na‹ve Bayes (NB), the obtained BN presented better performance for breast cancer diagnosis based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) examination. It also showed that, amon...

  2. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FENSPIRIDE USAGE IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mezentseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytological investigation of exudates, obtained during tympanostomies, showed the predomination of inflammatory-regenerative cytograms types when using Fenspiride (Eurespal in treatment of secretory stage of chronic exudative otitis media. Received data confirm, that treatment with this drug shortens the course of exudative otitis media and contributes to more rapid change from destructive to reparative stage of inflammation, which prevents the development of adhesive process in the middle ear.

  3. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FENSPIRIDE USAGE IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    O. Yu. Mezentseva; F. N. Zavjyalov; A. A. Vorobjeva; L. P. Popova; M. V. Rodionova

    2012-01-01

    The cytological investigation of exudates, obtained during tympanostomies, showed the predomination of inflammatory-regenerative cytograms types when using Fenspiride (Eurespal) in treatment of secretory stage of chronic exudative otitis media. Received data confirm, that treatment with this drug shortens the course of exudative otitis media and contributes to more rapid change from destructive to reparative stage of inflammation, which prevents the development of adhesive process in the midd...

  4. Value of conventional cytology in the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Pereira de Barcellos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To verify the value of conventional cytology for the diagnosis of macroscopic le- sions of the anal canal and to describe the limitations of the samples. Method: We evaluated 395 conventional cytology samples obtained by brushing the anal canal of patients (predominantly male, HIV-positive and compared them to the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal observed under anorectal examination. Results: Of the total, 91.6% of samples were classified as adequate. Cellular elements repre- sentative of the anal transformation zone were observed in 63.5% of samples. Sensitivity in the presence or absence of cellularity was 80% and 31%, respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the feasibility of using conventional anal cytology in outpatients. Resumo: Objetivo: verificar o valor da citologia convencional no diagnóstico de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal e descrever as limitações das amostras obtidas. Método: avaliamos 395 exames citológicos convencionais obtidos por escovado do canal anal de pacientes predominantemente do sexo masculino, soropositivos para HIV, e com- paramos com a presença de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal constatadas ao exame proctológico. Resultado: o percentual de amostras adequadas foi de 91,6%, e os elementos celulares re- presentativos da zona de transformação anal foram observados em 63,5% das amostras. Encontramos sensibilidade de 80% e 31% na presença ou ausência desta celularidade, res- pectivamente. Conclusão: O estudo demonstra a possibilidade de utilização da citologia anal convencional no rastreio de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal em pacientes ambulatoriais. Keywords: HPV Prevention of anal neoplasia Conventional cytology, Palavras-chave: HPV Prevenção de neoplasia anal Citologia convencional

  5. Prognostic value of Ki67 analysed by cytology or histology in primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephanie; Stålhammar, Gustav; Darai-Ramqvist, Eva; Rantalainen, Mattias; Tobin, Nicholas P; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan

    2018-03-27

    The accuracy of biomarker assessment in breast pathology is vital for therapy decisions. The therapy predictive and prognostic biomarkers oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2 and Ki67 may act as surrogates to gene expression profiling of breast cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate the concordance of consecutive biomarker assessment by immunocytochemistry on preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology versus immunohistochemistry (IHC) on the corresponding resected breast tumours. Further, to investigate the concordance with molecular subtype and correlation to stage and outcome. Two retrospective cohorts comprising 385 breast tumours with clinicopathological data including gene expression-based subtype and up to 10-year overall survival data were evaluated. In both cohorts, we identified a substantial variation in Ki67 index between cytology and histology and a switch between low and high proliferation within the same tumour in 121/360 cases. ER evaluations were discordant in only 1.5% of the tumours. From cohort 2, gene expression data with PAM50 subtype were used to correlate surrogate subtypes. IHC-based surrogate classification could identify the correct molecular subtype in 60% and 64% of patients by cytology (n=63) and surgical resections (n=73), respectively. Furthermore, high Ki67 in surgical resections but not in cytology was associated with poor overall survival and higher probability for axillary lymph node metastasis. This study shows considerable differences in the prognostic value of Ki67 but not ER in breast cancer depending on the diagnostic method. Furthermore, our findings show that both methods are insufficient in predicting true molecular subtypes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Fine needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: correlations between cytology and gistology, technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fedotov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative preoperative cytological and postoperative histological investigation of 3714 patients with thyroid nodules are presented. The causes of discrepancies are discussed and measures of their diminution are proposed. Great value of fine needle biopsy to differ thyroid nodules but follicular neoplasia into benign and malignant are determined. Its sensitivity in our clinics is 98.7% and specificity – 100%. Necessity of the of the second FNA if the first one is non informative is established.

  7. Cytological evidence of chromosomal rearrangement in the second meiotic division after exposure to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szemere, G.

    1982-01-01

    Metaphase II cells with unequal dyad-arms and obvious X/autosomal rearrangements were found after an exposure to X-rays (2 Gy) of male mice at different stages of meiosis (pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis) with a frequency of 0.2, 1.26 and 0.6%, respectively, giving a direct cytological evidence of structural chromosomal rearrangements in metaphase II cells, partly with autosomal and partly with X/autosomal partners. (author)

  8. Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

    1981-10-01

    Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix.A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without.

  9. Identification of Cytological Features Distinguishing Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma from Reactive Lymphoid Proliferation Using Thyroid Liquid-Based Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayana; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Ito, Aki; Takada, Nami; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kuma, Seiji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify cytological differences between mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L) and nonneoplastic lymphocytes using thyroid liquid-based cytology (LBC). Study Design We observed LBC and conventional specimens from 35 MALT-L cases, 3 diffuse large B-cell cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases, and 44 prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration cases. Results In MALT-L cases, the incidence of lymphoglandular bodies in the LBC specimens was lower than that in the conventional specimens (p 10% of the lymphoid cells in LBC specimens. Two cases with prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration also exhibited these findings. In LBC specimens, swollen naked nuclei with less punctate chromatin patterns and thin nuclear margins were observed in 92.1% of lymphoma and 20.5% of prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration. Elongated nuclei were significantly more apparent in thyroid lymphoma than in prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration (p < 0.001), with a significantly higher incidence in LBC specimens than in conventional specimens (p < 0.001). Conclusions Lymphoglandular bodies are not reliable markers for lymphoma diagnosis using LBC specimens. Large, swollen naked, and elongated nuclei are useful in distinguishing thyroid lymphoma from nonneoplastic lymphocytes in LBC specimens. PMID:29597203

  10. Identification of Cytological Features Distinguishing Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma from Reactive Lymphoid Proliferation Using Thyroid Liquid-Based Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayana; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Ito, Aki; Takada, Nami; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kuma, Seiji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2018-01-01

    To identify cytological differences between mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L) and nonneoplastic lymphocytes using thyroid liquid-based cytology (LBC). We observed LBC and conventional specimens from 35 MALT-L cases, 3 diffuse large B-cell cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases, and 44 prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration cases. In MALT-L cases, the incidence of lymphoglandular bodies in the LBC specimens was lower than that in the conventional specimens (p 10% of the lymphoid cells in LBC specimens. Two cases with prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration also exhibited these findings. In LBC specimens, swollen naked nuclei with less punctate chromatin patterns and thin nuclear margins were observed in 92.1% of lymphoma and 20.5% of prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration. Elongated nuclei were significantly more apparent in thyroid lymphoma than in prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration (p < 0.001), with a significantly higher incidence in LBC specimens than in conventional specimens (p < 0.001). Lymphoglandular bodies are not reliable markers for lymphoma diagnosis using LBC specimens. Large, swollen naked, and elongated nuclei are useful in distinguishing thyroid lymphoma from nonneoplastic lymphocytes in LBC specimens. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basell.

  11. Analysis of false positive and false negative cytological diagnosis of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Awtif A.; Mansoor, I.

    2001-01-01

    To study the reasons for interpretive errors in false negative and false positive diagnosis of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology material. We reviewed only those cases in which cytohistological discrepancies were found, where the cytologic material was abnormal and to some extent misinterpreted or both. There was only one false negative case (false negative fraction 0.32%) proved histologically as ductal carcinoma and four false positive cases (false positive fraction 1.2%); 2 fibroadenoma; 1 fibrocystic disease; and 1 stromal fibrosis. Smears of the two false positive fibroadenoma cases showed very high cellularity, overcrowded clusters and frequent stripped nuclei. The fibrocystic case showed tight clusters of apocrine cells and sheets of loosely aggregated macrophages that were over interpreted. Smears of the false negative ductal carcinoma was hypocellular overall, and the cells showed minimal nuclear pleomorphism. Overcrowded clusters and hypercellular smears should be carefully assessed for uniformity of cells and detailed nuclear and cytomorphological features. If the full-blown malignant cytomorphological changes are not visible, a diagnosis of suspicious or inconclusive should be made and frozen section recommended before surgery. Hypocellularity and relatively nuclear monomorphism are the reasons for failure to diagnose malignant breast lesions. Careful attention should be paid to extreme nuclear monomorphism and absence of naked bipolar cells. A cytologically atypical or suspicious diagnosis together with positive radiological and clinical findings should suggest a diagnosis of malignancy. (author)

  12. The effectiveness of the liquid-based preparation method in cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Asuman; Uyaroğlu, Mehmet Ali; Nart, Deniz; Veral, Ali; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül

    2013-01-01

    Since malignant cells were first detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), numerous methods have been used for CSF examination. The cytocentrifugation and liquid-based cytology (LBC) methods are two of these. We aimed to investigate whether the results from the LBC method were different from the results of the cytological diagnosis of the CSF materials that were prepared using the cytocentrifugation method. A retrospective analysis was conducted using the pathological records of 3,491 (cytocentrifugation on 1,306 and LBC on 2,185) cytological specimens of CSF which were diagnosed over a 4-year period between January 2007 and December 2011. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the results of the LBC and cytocentrifugation methods. While there was a noticeable decrease in nondiagnostic diagnosis and a slight decrease in suspicious diagnosis, there was an increase in malignant and benign diagnosis with the LBC method in comparison to the centrifugation method. Statistically, the decrease in nondiagnostic diagnosis was considered significant (p advantages, especially in pathology departments where materials come from far away and large volumes are examined. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Cytological Findings of Malignant and Benign Head and Neck Masses in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Yılmaz

    2018-04-11

    There are no up-to-date records on head and neck masses (HNMs) in Somalia. This cytological study is the first to demonstrate the benefits and findings of fine-needle aspiration cytology in evaluating HNMs in the adult population of Somalia. A total of 116 aspiration samples were taken from different levels of the neck region, except for the thyroid. Cases were classified as salivary gland, lymph node, or soft tissue/cystic lesions. They were classified according to age, gender, and cytological diagnosis. Patients included 54 (46.6%) males and 62 (53.4%) females, with a mean age of 40.6 years. Seventy-two patients (62.1%) had benign lesions, while 44 (37.9%) had malignant lesions. Necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis (n = 51, 70.8% of the benign findings) and lymph node metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma (n = 13, 29.5% of the malignant findings) were the most frequent findings. Fine-needle aspiration is a useful procedure in the diagnosis of neck masses. It is a cheap and easy guiding method for diagnosing granulomatous lymphadenitis and advanced-stage metastatic cancers, which are common in this country. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells from liquid-based cytology samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Padraig; Traynor, Damien; Bonnier, Franck; Lyng, Fiona M.; O'Leary, John J.; Martin, Cara M.

    2017-10-01

    It is widely accepted that cervical screening has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer worldwide. The primary screening test for cervical cancer is the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, which has extremely variable specificity and sensitivity. There is an unmet clinical need for methods to aid clinicians in the early detection of cervical precancer. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free objective method that can provide a biochemical fingerprint of a given sample. Compared with studies on infrared spectroscopy, relatively few Raman spectroscopy studies have been carried out to date on cervical cytology. The aim of this study was to define the Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells present in liquid-based cytology Pap test specimens and to compare the signature of high-grade dysplastic cells to each of the normal cell types. Raman spectra were recorded from single exfoliated cells and subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. The study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can identify biochemical signatures associated with the most common cell types seen in liquid-based cytology samples; superficial, intermediate, and parabasal cells. In addition, biochemical changes associated with high-grade dysplasia could be identified suggesting that Raman spectroscopy could be used to aid current cervical screening tests.

  15. Histological and cytological studies on radiosensitivity of cervical carcinoma according to histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Kudo, Ryuichi

    1983-01-01

    Morphological investigation were made on the radiosensitivity, according to the histological types; 1 keratinizing(K), 2 large cell nonkeratinizing(LNK), and 3 small cell nonkeratinizing(S) type. The result obtained are as follows. 1) Histological and cytological estimation of irradiated effects were examined at the 7th day after 10 Gray test-irradiation: (i) Histological studies were done with the biopsy specimens (76 cases): There were significance differences among 3 histological types (LNK>K>S, P S, K>S, P<0.05). (iii) There was a correlation between the histological and cytological irradiation effects. 2) DNA histogram patterns were also examined spectrophotometrically. It seemed that the patterns after test-irradiation were broad and these peaks were situated rather to high ploidy in histologically and cytologically highly effective cases. 3) Early ultrastructural findings after test-irradiation were as follows: (i) appearance of intra-nuclear ''pseudoinclusion'', (ii) swelling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and so on. Although these characteristics presented the same sequence of events without regard to their histological types, they were not synchronized. It seemed that they appeared earlier after test-irradiation in histologically high-sensitivity cases than in low-sensitivity cases. (author)

  16. Cytology evaluation for brushing in biliary and pancreatic stenosis during endoscopic cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Mario H; Castano, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Oscar A; Velez, Alejandro; Munera, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    No surgical pathologic confirmation of malignant bile duct strictures is desirable for defining subsequent treatment and prognosis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is frequently performed in patients suspected of having pancreaticobiliary obstruction, but there exists no standardized method or instruments for defining benign or malignant nature of obstructing lesions by ERCP. We prospectively evaluated the yields of endoscopic retrograde brush cytology for the diagnosis of malignant bile and pancreatic duct strictures. Fluoroscopically guided endobiliary brush cytology was performed during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 29 consecutive patients, 20 with malignant strictures and 9 with benign stricture. A single pathologist classified the results of these studies as positive, or negative for malignancy. The sensitivities of the procedure were 69%. Specificity proved excellent, 100%. Two major complications that occurred in the same patient were acute pancreatitis in a patient with chronic pancreatitis and bleeding from pancreatic duct. Both were managed medically and improved. This study indicates that endoscopic retrograde brush cytology alone may be sufficient in daily practice, to differentiate against benign and malignant biliary or pancreatic stenosis

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation on cytological and physiological function of two cultivar of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbalaii, S.G.; Majd, F.; Fahimii, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An investigation was performed in cytogenetic lab. of Nuclear Agriculture- Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 2004-5.In this research the effect of gamma irradiation on cytological and physiological function of two cultivars of barley were examined. For this aim cytological and physiological sensitivity of two cultivars (30109, 30130) were assessed by different gamma radiation doses (50,150,250,350,450 Gy).By cytological studies in addition to defining the karyotype, the rate of chromosomal aberrations due to the effect of irradiation was studied and it was observed that the chromosomal aberrations increased by increasing the rate of irradiation. In 350 and 450 Gy were observed more different forms of chromosomal damage such as ring and dicentric chromosome, deletion and translocation than the other dose. The results showed that by increasing gamma ray dose, the growth rate, root and shoot length of two cultivars were decreased, and germination percentage had no significant difference.This work suggested that the increasing of chromosomal aberrations, so decrease mean value of growth rate. (author)

  18. Molecular typing of lung adenocarcinoma on cytological samples using a multigene next generation sequencing panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Scarpa

    Full Text Available Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%. In 24/36 cases (67% at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16% and 10/36 (28% cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25% showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy.

  19. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of postirradiation sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, with immunocytochemical confirmation

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    Silverman, J.F.; Lannin, D.L.; Larkin, E.W.; Feldman, P.; Frable, W.J. (East Carolina Univ. School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Postirradiation sarcomas are an unusual but well-recognized late effect of cancer therapy. In this article, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) series of four cases is presented. There were three female patients and one male patient, with an age range of 28-55 yr (mean, 41). Two of the patients were irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma while the other two received irradiation for malignant lymphoma. The time interval to the development of the postirradiation sarcoma ranged from 10 to greater than 20 yr. There were a postirradiation synovial sarcoma of the buttock region, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone (femur), and rhabdomyosarcoma and angiosarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A spectrum of cytologic findings was encountered, reflecting the specific types of sarcomas. Immunocytochemical studies performed on the aspirated material from the angiosarcoma demonstrated the utility of immunoperoxidase stains for ULEX europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) and, to a lesser degree, factor VIII-related antigen antibody, confirming the vascular nature of this malignancy. The FNA findings from all four cases demonstrated cytologic features that allowed recognition of this unusual complication of irradiation treatment. This article confirms the utility of FNA cytology in following patients with previous malignancies and differentiating a postirradiation sarcoma from recurrent carcinoma.

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of postirradiation sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, with immunocytochemical confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, J.F.; Lannin, D.L.; Larkin, E.W.; Feldman, P.; Frable, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Postirradiation sarcomas are an unusual but well-recognized late effect of cancer therapy. In this article, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) series of four cases is presented. There were three female patients and one male patient, with an age range of 28-55 yr (mean, 41). Two of the patients were irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma while the other two received irradiation for malignant lymphoma. The time interval to the development of the postirradiation sarcoma ranged from 10 to greater than 20 yr. There were a postirradiation synovial sarcoma of the buttock region, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone (femur), and rhabdomyosarcoma and angiosarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A spectrum of cytologic findings was encountered, reflecting the specific types of sarcomas. Immunocytochemical studies performed on the aspirated material from the angiosarcoma demonstrated the utility of immunoperoxidase stains for ULEX europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) and, to a lesser degree, factor VIII-related antigen antibody, confirming the vascular nature of this malignancy. The FNA findings from all four cases demonstrated cytologic features that allowed recognition of this unusual complication of irradiation treatment. This article confirms the utility of FNA cytology in following patients with previous malignancies and differentiating a postirradiation sarcoma from recurrent carcinoma

  1. CYTOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MALE BREAST LESIONS IN GREATER GWALIOR : A FIVE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Fine needle aspiration cytology is an effective modality for diagnosis of breast lesions. Usually male breast lesions are benign and affect the young male. Most common lesion is gynaecomastia. Male breast cancer accounts for a small proportion of breast cancers. Male breast cancer usually presents at an advanced age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the nature of male breast lesions and to determine the cytomorphologic patterns of these lesions. MET HODS: five year retrospective study was conducted in our institution and in that 112 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the palpable breast lump after thorough physical examination. The cytological diagnosis was classified as benign, inf lammatory, malignant and others. RESULTS: In 112 male patients diagnosed with breast lesions, the most common lesion was gynecomastia (103/112, 91.9%, followed by breast cancer (6/112, 5.4%, inflammatory (2/112, 1.8% and apocrine metaplasia (01/112, 0.9 %. Gynecomastia was commonly found in male patients less than 40 years of age, while breast cancer is seen in male patients over 40 years of age

  2. Removing defocused objects from single focal plane scans of cytological slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Virtual microscopy and automated processing of cytological slides are more challenging compared to histological slides. Since cytological slides exhibit a three-dimensional surface and the required microscope objectives with high resolution have a low depth of field, these cannot capture all objects of a single field of view in focus. One solution would be to scan multiple focal planes; however, the increase in processing time and storage requirements are often prohibitive for clinical routine. Materials and Methods: In this paper, we show that it is a reasonable trade-off to scan a single focal plane and automatically reject defocused objects from the analysis. To this end, we have developed machine learning solutions for the automated identification of defocused objects. Our approach includes creating novel features, systematically optimizing their parameters, selecting adequate classifier algorithms, and identifying the correct decision boundary between focused and defocused objects. We validated our approach for computer-assisted DNA image cytometry. Results and Conclusions: We reach an overall sensitivity of 96.08% and a specificity of 99.63% for identifying defocused objects. Applied on ninety cytological slides, the developed classifiers automatically removed 2.50% of the objects acquired during scanning, which otherwise would have interfered the examination. Even if not all objects are acquired in focus, computer-assisted DNA image cytometry still identified more diagnostically or prognostically relevant objects compared to manual DNA image cytometry. At the same time, the workload for the expert is reduced dramatically.

  3. Tularemia in differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy: cytologic features of tularemia lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoc, Fatma; Koseoglu, Resid Dogan; Koc, Sema; Gurbuzler, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia can cause cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the first step in the workup for cervical lymphadenopathy; however, little has been published regarding the cytomorphological features of tularemia lymphadenitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FNA cytology of tularemia lymphadenitis. Review of medical records identified 36 patients with serologically proven tularemia, and who had undergone lymph node FNA. In each case, the original May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained FNA smears from enlarged cervical lymph node were reevaluated. Suppuration and cytolysis were frequent cytological findings. Twenty-three (63.8%) of the 36 cases were assessed as suppurative inflammation. In 10 of these cases (27.8% of the total), cytolysis was prominent. In 7 cases (19.4%) the smears featured microgranulomas as well as suppuration, and 2 of these (5.6%) also featured giant cells. In 1 case (2.8%), there was caseous necrosis. In 2 cases (5.6%), the cytopathological findings were consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Three aspirates (8.3%) were inadequate for evaluation. Cytopathological findings on FNA of tularemia lymphadenitis are nonspecific; however, in regions where tularemia is endemic, this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for suppurative lymphadenitis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Identification of components of fibroadenoma in cytology preparations using texture analysis: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Gupta, R

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the utility of image analysis using textural parameters obtained from a co-occurrence matrix in differentiating the three components of fibroadenoma of the breast, in fine needle aspirate smears. Sixty cases of histologically proven fibroadenoma were included in this study. Of these, 40 cases were used as a training set and 20 cases were taken as a test set for the discriminant analysis. Digital images were acquired from cytological preparations of all the cases and three components of fibroadenoma (namely, monolayered cell clusters, stromal fragments and background with bare nuclei) were selected for image analysis. A co-occurrence matrix was generated and a texture parameter vector (sum mean, energy, entropy, contrast, cluster tendency and homogeneity) was calculated for each pixel. The percentage of pixels correctly classified to a component of fibroadenoma on discriminant analysis was noted. The textural parameters, when considered in isolation, showed considerable overlap in their values of the three cytological components of fibroadenoma. However, the stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that all six textural parameters contributed significantly to the discriminant functions. Discriminant analysis using all the six parameters showed that the numbers of pixels correctly classified in training and tests sets were 96.7% and 93.0%, respectively. Textural analysis using a co-occurrence matrix appears to be useful in differentiating the three cytological components of fibroadenoma. These results could further be utilized in developing algorithms for image segmentation and automated diagnosis, but need to be confirmed in further studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Cytological studies of esophageal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma receiving radiation and chemotherapy

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    Takeda, T; Nakano, N; Asakawa, H [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1982-10-01

    The cytology of the endoscopic biopsy materials from 85 cases of esophageal cancer were analyzed for effects of the combined radiotherapy with Bleomycin. Cancer cells were remarkably decreased in number after the combination therapy. Unaffected cancer cells declined to negligible levels in 64 of 79 esophageal cancer cases irradiated more than 6,000 rad. Out of 42 gastric cancer cases treated with only anticancer drugs, 37 cases exhibited cytologic changes in the smears of biopsied materials. About the remnant 5 cases, cancer cells showed partially cytoplasmic swelling, nuclear enlargement and nuclear abnormal stain. The smears of the biopsy and resected specimens from 64 gastric cancer cases with radiation and chemotherapy were cytologically discussed. The combination therapy increased the amount of both necrotic materials and neutrophils in the smears. The cytoplasms of treated cancer cells were swollen, vacuolated and stained abnormally. The nuclei of cancer cells became enlarged, multiple, piknotic and/or stained pale. Nuclear swelling was more prominent in cancer cells of differentiated adenocarcinomas. Cancer cells were decreased in number almost in inverse proportion to irradiation dose. Unaffected cancer cells were disappeared in 13 of 24 cases irradiated more than 6,000 rad, in 7 of 35 cases irradiated in the range 3,000 to 6,000 rad, in none of 5 cases irradiated less than 3,000 rad.

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology of IgG4-related disease: A potential diagnostic pitfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajwant; Mitra, Suvradeep; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Das, Ashim; Nahar Saikia, Uma; Dey, Pranab

    2017-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a tumefactive fibro-inflammatory lesion that can affect any organ system in the body. Till date, no cytological data on IgG4-RD are available and this is the first study depicting the cytopathology features of IgG4-RD. To describe the cytopathological features and potential diagnostic errors of IgG4-RD. The cytological features of 10 histopathology proven IgG4-RD cases (11 samples) were retrospectively reviewed along with corresponding histopathology. The cellularity of the cytology smears was low (36.4%) to moderate (45.4%) to high (18.1%). The low cellularity correlated well with the pattern C in histopathology (predominant fibrosis pattern). The non-epithelial background showed a preponderance of lymphocytes along with polymorphs and spindle-shaped fibroblasts. Most of these cases showed the presence of plasma cells and eosinophils. Epithelial atypia was seen in 18.2% cases. The causes of misdiagnosis were low cellularity, epithelial atypia, and non-representative background. The important diagnostic clues to suspect a diagnosis of IgG4-RD include low cellularity despite adequate effort, inflammatory background rich in lymphocytes and spindle cells admixed with a few plasma cells and eosinophils along with radiological features and raised serum IgG4 Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:14-21. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cytological analysis of atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance using the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiya, Kiyotada; Abe, Ichinosuke; Ambo, Junichi; Iwai, Muneo; Okusawa, Estuko; Asanuma, Kyousuke; Watanabe, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The low-level consistency of the cytodiagnosis of uterine cervical atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) employing the Bethesda System has been reported, suggesting the necessity of a wide survey. We presented cases judged as ASC-US on the Web and analyzed the voting results to investigate ASC-US cytologically. Cytology samples from 129 patients diagnosed with ASC-US were used. Images of several atypical cells observed in these cases were presented on the Web. The study, based on the voting results, was presented and opinions were exchanged at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Clinical Cytology. The final diagnosis of ASC-US was benign lesions in 76 cases and low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 44, but no definite diagnosis could be made for the remaining 9. The total number of votes was 17,884 with a 36.5% consistency of cases judged as ASC-US. Benign cases were divided into 6 categories. Four categories not corresponding to the features of koilocytosis and small abnormal keratinized cells were judged as negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy at a high rate. A Web-based survey would be useful which could be viewed at any time and thereby facilitate the sharing of cases to increase consistency. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Malignant pleural effusion from papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by pleural effusion cytology: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmas, Konstantinos; Tsonou, Anna; Mitropoulou, Georgia; Salemi, Eufrosyni; Kazi, Danai; Theofanopoulou, Ageliki

    2018-02-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is by far the most common thyroid malignancy (over 85%) of all the thyroid cancers. It has excellent prognosis and 10-year survival rate in most of the cases (95%). Most of the tumors are indolent and do not recur or metastasize after removal. However, widespread metastases to lung, skeleton, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs may be observed. In rare instances, this disease may metastasize to the pleura and manifest as a malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and portend poor prognosis. This article reports the cytomorphologic and immunocytochemical findings of a female patient with a symptomatic pleural effusion resulting from PTC metastatic to the pleura. Pleural fluid cytology revealed abundant papillary clusters with relatively nuclear pleomorphism, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear grooves, small and distinct nucleoli as well as small discrete vacuoles. Psammoma bodies were not seen. Immunocytochemical staining was positive for TGB, EMA, Ber-EP4, CK19, and negative for TTF-1. Metastasis of PTC to pleural fluid is extremely rare and diagnosing the disease by cytology is challenging and requires medical expertise as well as knowledge of clinical context and immunocytochemical staining. Additionally, a cytologic diagnosis of MPE due to PTC provides important treatment information and plays an important role in prognosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Image superresolution of cytology images using wavelet based patch search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Telecytology is a new research area that holds the potential of significantly reducing the number of deaths due to cervical cancer in developing countries. This work presents a novel super-resolution technique that couples high and low frequency information in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of cervical image transmission. The proposed approach starts by decomposing into wavelets the high resolution images and transmitting only the lower frequency coefficients. The transmitted coefficients are used to reconstruct an image of the original size. Additional details are added by iteratively replacing patches of the wavelet reconstructed image with equivalent high resolution patches from a previously acquired image database. Finally, the original transmitted low frequency coefficients are used to correct the final image. Results show a higher signal to noise ratio in the proposed method over simply discarding high frequency wavelet coefficients or replacing directly down-sampled patches from the image-database.

  10. Frequency of unsatisfactory cervical cytology smears in cancer screening of Japanese women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satoyo; Terasawa, Teruhiko; Katayama, Takafumi; Sasaki, Seiju; Hoshi, Keika; Hamashima, Chisato

    2018-04-01

    The Bethesda system (TBS) has been used for cervical cytological diagnosis in Japan since 2008. Evaluation of specimen adequacy is the most important aspect of quality assurance and for precise diagnosis in TBS. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to assess the unsatisfactory specimen rate in the primary cervical cancer screening setting in Japan. Ovid Medline and Ichushi-Web databases were searched from inception through to May 2017. Prospective and retrospective studies that reported the proportion of unsatisfactory specimens in healthy asymptomatic Japanese women in a cervical cancer screening program were eligible for inclusion; 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The random-effects model meta-analysis calculated summary estimates of the unsatisfactory rate of 0.60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-1.96%; I 2 = 99%) for conventional cytology and 0.04% (95% CI, 0.00-0.35%; I 2 = 99%) for liquid-based cytology (LBC). However, comparative results between conventional and liquid-based cytology, based on four direct and nine comparative studies, showed no significant difference (summary odds ratio = 3.5 × 10 -2 favoring LBC [95% CI, 6.9 × 10 -4 -1.7]; I 2 = 98%). In the subgroup analyses and meta-regressions, use of non-cotton devices for conventional cytology and use of a particular platform for LBC were associated with lower unsatisfactory rates. Meta-regression also suggested chronological improvement in unsatisfactory rates for both tests. In Japanese cervical cancer screening programs, conventional cytology remains prevalent. Future research needs to focus on evaluating the impact of screening programs using LBC by comparing the accuracy, performance, and cost-effectiveness with conventional cytology in the Japanese population. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vincent M; Metcalf, Cecily; French, Martyn A; McCloskey, Jenny C

    2010-09-01

    The level of agreement between anal cytology and histopathology is not clear with only a few studies evaluating the reliability of anal specimen reporting. Australian data in relation to this are limited. The results of paired anal cytology and histopathology specimens received between 2002 and 2008 from patients who were referred within the sexual health clinic were retrieved from the anatomical pathology database. A total of 248 paired samples from 154 (21 females, 133 males) participants were extracted. Concurrent high risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) DNA assay and HIV status for the study group were also collected. Data were tabulated according to reported grade of squamous abnormality based on the Bethesda system. Using the biopsy result as the gold standard the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for cytology were calculated and the association between grade of abnormality, HIV status and hrHPV infection estimated. Concordance between cytology and histology showed that in 204 (85%) paired samples both tests were categorised as abnormal (Kappa statistic 0.73, P = 0.013). The cytology result showed a sensitivity of 96%, specificity 14%, PPV 89% and NPV 31% when compared with histopathology. HrHPV assay was positive in 192 (80%) samples. High-grade squamous abnormalities were reported in biopsy specimens from 60% (n = 42/67) of HIV-positive subjects and 25% (n = 22/87) of HIV-negative subjects. HIV-positive individuals were more likely to be hrHPV positive, odds ratio (OR) 6.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.69 to 14.34], when compared with HIV-negative subjects. Anal cytology is highly sensitive for the detection of abnormal squamous cells. While cytology has low specificity for predicting the grade of abnormality compared with biopsy outcome, its application as a screening method in asymptomatic at risk populations warrants further study.

  12. Accuracy of Cytology for Diagnosis of Lipomatous Tumors: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography Findings in 175 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einarsdottir, H.; Skoog, L.; Soederlund, V.; Bauer, H.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnostic work-up of lipomatous tumors of the extremities and trunk, and to identify specific radiological features that could aid in the preoperative evaluation. Material and Methods: 175 patients with subfascial lipomatous tumors who had undergone preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and fine-needle aspiration cytology were studied. The percentage of fat within the lesion was visually graded from the images as: none, 1-75%, 75-95%, or 95-100%. The histological and cytological diagnoses were compared and in discordant cases the radiological images were re-reviewed. Results: There was cytological and histological concordance in 96% of lipomas and in 85% of atypical lipomatous tumors (ALT) and liposarcomas. Most discordant cases exhibited 1-75% fat. Radiological review suggested that cytological sampling problems due to tumor heterogeneity were the main cause of diagnostic difficulties. The majority of tumors with less than 75% fat were liposarcomas, and in no liposarcoma was the fat content higher than 75%. Both ALT and lipoma were found in the 95-100% group. Conclusion: Cytology can be highly accurate in the diagnosis of lipomatous tumors, including ALT; however, critical comparison with the radiological findings increases diagnostic security. In tumors with fat content visually assessed as less than 75% of the tumor volume, liposarcoma is the most likely diagnosis and a cytological diagnosis of ALT or lipoma should be questioned. In lesions with 75-95% fat, liposarcoma is unlikely, but FNAC is still indicated for safety. In lesions with 95-100% fat, FNAC is only indicated if the differentiation between lipoma and ALT influences the treatment strategy

  13. Usefulness of transpapillary bile duct brushing cytology and forceps biopsy for improved diagnosis in patients with biliary strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yasuhiro; Ohara, Hirotaka; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ando, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Takada, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hajime; Ogawa, Kanto; Sano, Hitoshi; Togawa, Shozo; Naito, Itaru; Hirai, Masaaki; Ueno, Koichiro; Ban, Tessin; Miyabe, Katuyuki; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Norihiro; Akita, Shinji; Gotoh, Kazuo; Joh, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    Transpapillary bile duct brushing cytology and/or forceps biopsy was performed in the presence of an indwelling guidewire in patients with biliary stricture, and the treatment time, overall diagnosis rate, diagnosis rate of each disease, complications, and influences on subsequent biliary drainage were investigated. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, brushing cytology was performed, followed by forceps biopsy. In patients with obstructive jaundice, endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) was subsequently performed. To investigate the influences of bile duct brushing cytology and forceps biopsy on EBD, patients who underwent subsequent EBD by plastic stent were compared with patients who underwent EBD alone. The samples for cytology were collected successfully in all cases, and the sensitivity for malignancy/benignity, specificity, and accuracy were 71.6%, 100%, and 75.0%, respectively. The biopsy sampling was successful in 51 patients, and samples applicable to the evaluation were collected in all 51 patients. The sensitivity for malignancy/benignity, specificity, and accuracy were 65.2%, 100%, and 68.6%, respectively. Combination of the two procedures increased the sensitivity and accuracy to 73.5% and 76.6%, respectively. The time required for cytology and biopsy was 11.7 min, which is relatively short. Cytology and biopsy did not affect drainage. Regarding accidents, bile duct perforation occurred during biopsy in one patient (1.9%), but was rapidly improved by endoscopic biliary drainage. Transpapillary brushing cytology and forceps biopsy could be performed in a short time. The diagnosis rate was high, and the incidence of complication was low, having no influence on subsequent biliary drainage.

  14. [Effectiveness of human papillomavirus genotyping for detection of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia compared to anal cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Juan Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; de la Torre-Lima, Javier; Palma, Fermín; Redondo, Maximino; de Troya-Martín, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) -with an aetiological based on high-risk types of human papillomavirus- is increasing in some high-risk groups. Screening for HGAIN includes routine anal cytology and, more recently, HPV genotyping. The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and HPV genotyping for the detection of HGAIN. This is a study to determine the correlation of cytological and microbiological findings with anal biopsy findings in a cohort of patients at high risk of developing AIN referred to the department of sexually transmitted infections of the Hospital Costa del Sol, Spain, between January 2008 and December 2014. Of the 151 patients subjected to screening, a total of 92 patients, all of them with the result of three screening test (anal cytology, genotyping and biopsy) were included in the study. Just under two-thirds (62%) of them were HIV-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology to detect HGAIN were 52.8 and 85.7%, respectively (k: 0.328), and 78 and 62.8% to detect two or more HPV oncogenic genotypes (k: 0.417). The detection of oncogenic HPV genotypes allowed the identification of 23 new cases of HGAIN that had been underdiagnosed with anal cytology, with 14 cases containing at least three high-risk genotypes. Anal cytology did not show enough sensitivity in HGAIN screening. HPV genotyping has shown to be a useful tool to detect HGAIN cases, although it could lead to an over-diagnosis as a solitary screening procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER ANTIGEN FOR DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER TUMOR;A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH URINARY CYTOLOGY

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    K. Radkhah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystoscopy and urinary cytology are currently the basis for diagnosis and ‎follow-up of bladder tumors. Research to find a sensitive and specific tumor ‎marker for diagnosis of bladder tumor is actively underway, however, due to low sensitivity ‎and high cost of cytology. This cross-sectional study was performed in 65 patients to evaluate whether urinary bladder ‎cancer (UBC antigen level can predict the presence of active bladder tumor. In patients with ‎inactive tumor, UBC antigen level was determined in addition to standard cystoscopy ‎and cytology for follow-up. Patients with active tumor were ‎subjected to standard treatment and UBC antigen level determination. UBC antigen ‎ levels were measured by ELISA, using monoclonal antibodies ‎specific for UBC antigen. As a control group, UBC antigen level ‎was also determined in 65 persons who had been referred for urinalysis for other reasons. ‎UBC antigen level more than 1 μg/L which was regarded as ‎positive was found in 49.4% of the patients. In control group, 96.9% had UBC antigen < 1μg/L‎. Mean UBC antigen level in patients was ‎3.77 μg/L while it was 0.508 μg/L in controls (P < 0.0001. Sensitivity of ‎UBC antigen was 53.3% and its specificity was 40%. Sensitivity and specificity of urinary cytology was 17.3% and 88.2%, respectively. This difference was statistically ‎significant (P < 0.001. UBC antigen is more sensitive than urinary cytology, although cytology still ‎retains its priority in specificity. It is not yet recommended to replace UBC antigen for ‎cytology due to its low specificity and not favorable sensitivity.

  16. Adenocarcinoma predominant pattern subtyping and nuclear grading in cytology: Is there a role in prognostication of advanced pulmonary adenocarcinomas?

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    Nambirajan, A; Kaur, H; Jangra, K; Kaur, K; Madan, K; Mathur, S R; Iyer, V K; Jain, D

    2018-04-01

    Primary lung adenocarcinomas (ADs) show varied architectural patterns, and pattern-based subtyping of ADs is currently recommended due to prognostic implications. Predicting AD patterns on cytology is challenging; however, cytological nuclear features appear to correlate with histological grade and survival in early stage lung ADs. The feasibility and value of AD pattern prediction and nuclear grading on cytology in advanced lung ADs is not known. We aimed to predict patterns and analyse nuclear features on cytology and evaluate their role in prognostication. One-hundred patients of Stage III/IV lung AD with available matched cytology and histology samples were included. Cyto-patterns based on cell arrangement patterns (flat sheets vs three-dimensional clusters vs papillae) and cyto-nuclear score based on nuclear features (size, shape, contour), nucleoli (macronucleoli vs prominent vs inconspicuous), and nuclear chromatin were determined, and correlated with predominant histological-pattern observed on the matched small biopsy and outcome. Higher cyto-nuclear scores were observed with high-grade histo-patterns (solid, micropapillary and cribriform), while the predicted cyto-patterns did not correspond to the predominant pattern on histology in 77% cases. Highest cyto-histo agreement was observed for solid pattern (72%). High grade histo-patterns and cyto-nuclear scores > 3 showed a trend towards inferior survival (not significant). Nuclear grade scoring on cytology is simple to perform, and is predictive of high grade patterns. Its inclusion in routine reporting of cytology samples of lung ADs may be valuable. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Interobserver reproducibility and accuracy of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology in cervical cancer screening.

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    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Fetterman, Barbara; Tokugawa, Diane; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Wood, Shannon N; Stiemerling, Eric; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Kinney, Walter

    2014-12-01

    Dual-stain cytology for p16 and Ki-67 has been proposed as a biomarker in cervical cancer screening. The authors evaluated the reproducibility and accuracy of dual-stain cytology among 10 newly trained evaluators. In total, 480 p16/Ki-67-stained slides from human papillomavirus-positive women were evaluated in masked fashion by 10 evaluators. None of the evaluators had previous experience with p16 or p16/Ki-67 cytology. All participants underwent p16/Ki-67 training and subsequent proficiency testing. Reproducibility of dual-stain cytology was measured using the percentage agreement, individual and aggregate κ values, as well as McNemar statistics. Clinical performance for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) was evaluated for each individual evaluator and for all evaluators combined compared with the reference evaluation by a cytotechnologist who had extensive experience with dual-stain cytology. The percentage agreement of individual evaluators with the reference evaluation ranged from 83% to 91%, and the κ values ranged from 0.65 to 0.81. The combined κ value was 0.71 for all evaluators and 0.73 for cytotechnologists. The average sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CIN2+ among novice evaluators was 82% and 64%, respectively; whereas the reference evaluation had 84% sensitivity and 63% specificity, respectively. Agreement on dual-stain positivity increased with greater numbers of p16/Ki-67-positive cells on the slides. Good to excellent reproducibility of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology was observed with almost identical clinical performance of novice evaluators compared with reference evaluations. The current findings suggest that p16/Ki-67 dual-stain evaluation can be implemented in routine cytology practice with limited training. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  18. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

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    Jyotsna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  19. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in children with superficial lymphadenopathy

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    F. De Corti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric population Fine-Needle Aspiration Citology (FNAC is slowly gaining acceptance in clinical management of Superficial Lymphadenopathy (SL. Our experience adds some data about the usefulness of this technique in diagnosing the cause of a SL and therefore guiding further treatment. Patients and Methods: 238 FNAC were performed in 217 patients with SL, observed at our Institution from 2002 to 2006. The neck was the most frequent localization. The results were available within few hours. In cases of granulomatous findings, the samples were processed for microbiological and PCR test, in order to identify Mycobacteria. Results: 174 were reactive lesions, 38 granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 24 malignant lesions, 2 specimens inadequate for diagnosis. Among the 174 reactive SL, 22 required an incisional biopsy after 1 month follow-up. Among the granulomatous lymphadenopathies, 13 children with Cat-Scratch Disease recovered, 25 with Mycobacteria infection underwent surgical excision. For 24 malignant lesions, the diagnosis was confirmed by further biopsy. Two false negative and no false positive were detected (sensitivity 92%, specificity 100%. No complications were encountered. Conclusions: In our experience FNAC, performed by experienced cytopathologist, has revealed to be a fast, safe, non invasive and inexpensive method to achieve diagnosis in persistent SL. The use of FNAC gave us the possibility to select patients for further investigation and/or surgical treatment. Incisional biopsy remains necessary to confirm the diagnosis in case of malignancy or doubtful lesions.

  20. Association of human papillomavirus infection and abnormal anal cytology among HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China.

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    Yu Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. METHODS: HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs were collected for examining cytology and HPV genotypes. RESULTS: Ninety-five eligible participants with complete questionnaire and laboratory data were included in the analyses. Thirty six of them (37.9% showed abnormal anal cytology as follows: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US in 19 (20.0%, atypical squamous cells but cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H in 1 (1.1%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL in 15 (15.8%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 1 (1.1%. HPV6 (20.0%, HPV16 (10.9%, HPV56 (10.9%, HPV52 (9.1% and HPV39 (9.1% were observed most frequently among those with normal anal cytology, while different distribution was found in the ones with abnormal anal cytology as HPV6 (19.4%, HPV16 (19.4%, HPV45 (16.7%, HPV52 (16.7% and HPV18 (11.1%. In addition, HPV16, HPV45, HPV52 and HPV18 were the most frequent high-risk types in patients with abnormal anal cytology. HPV multiplicity was found to be significantly related to the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology (p for trend = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology was observed among HIV-infected MSM in China. Infection of multiple HPV types or high-risk types was found to be associated with an increased risk of abnormal anal cytology.

  1. Triage of Women with Low-Grade Cervical Lesions - HPV mRNA Testing versus Repeat Cytology

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    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Arbyn, Marc; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve

    2011-01-01

    Background In Norway, women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are followed up after six months in order to decide whether they should undergo further follow-up or be referred back to the screening interval of three years. A high specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the triage test is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Materials and Methods At the University Hospital of North Norway, repeat cytology and the HPV mRNA test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, are used in triage of women with ASC-US and LSIL. In this study, women with LSIL cytology in the period 2005–2008 were included (n = 522). Two triage methods were evaluated in two separate groups: repeat cytology only (n = 225) and HPV mRNA testing in addition to repeat cytology (n = 297). Histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was used as the study endpoint. Results Of 522 women with LSIL, 207 had biopsies and 125 of them had CIN2+. The sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology (ASC-US or worse) were 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72.1, 92.2) and 54.4 % (95% CI: 46.9, 61.9), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV mRNA test were 94.2% (95% CI: 88.7, 99.7) and 86.0% (95% CI: 81.5, 90.5), respectively. The PPV of repeat cytology was 38.4% (95% CI: 29.9, 46.9) compared to 67.0% (95% CI: 57.7, 76.4) of the HPV mRNA test. Conclusion HPV mRNA testing was more sensitive and specific than repeat cytology in triage of women with LSIL cytology. In addition, the HPV mRNA test showed higher PPV. These data indicate that the HPV mRNA test is a better triage test for women with LSIL than repeat cytology. PMID:21918682

  2. Association of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Abnormal Anal Cytology among HIV-Infected MSM in Beijing, China

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    Zhang, Zhihui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Feng; Gao, Cong; Li, Mufei; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. Methods HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs were collected for examining cytology and HPV genotypes. Results Ninety-five eligible participants with complete questionnaire and laboratory data were included in the analyses. Thirty six of them (37.9%) showed abnormal anal cytology as follows: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in 19 (20.0%), atypical squamous cells but cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) in 1 (1.1%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in 15 (15.8%), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 1 (1.1%). HPV6 (20.0%), HPV16 (10.9%), HPV56 (10.9%), HPV52 (9.1%) and HPV39 (9.1%) were observed most frequently among those with normal anal cytology, while different distribution was found in the ones with abnormal anal cytology as HPV6 (19.4%), HPV16 (19.4%), HPV45 (16.7%), HPV52 (16.7%) and HPV18 (11.1%). In addition, HPV16, HPV45, HPV52 and HPV18 were the most frequent high-risk types in patients with abnormal anal cytology. HPV multiplicity was found to be significantly related to the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology (p for trend = 0.04). Conclusions High prevalence of HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology was observed among HIV-infected MSM in China. Infection of multiple HPV types or high-risk types was found to be associated with an increased risk of abnormal anal cytology. PMID:22558293

  3. Assessment of reliability of endometrial brush cytology to determine the etiology of abnormal uterine bleeding and postmenopausal bleeding

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    Erhan Yavuz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate diagnostic efficacy of endometrial cytologic sampling for detection of endometrial pathologies (endometrial hyperplasias and cancers,by comparing endometrial full curettage and endometrial cytologic smear pathologic results performed in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Materials and Methods: Totally 109 reproductive and postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding who applied our clinic between January 2005-June 2010 were included in the study.After measurement of endometrial thickness by transvaginal ultrasound, patients were treated initialy with endometrial cytologic sampling using endometrial brush then endometrial full curettage using sharp curette.Pathology and cytology reports were evaluated retrospectively. Results: The most frequent diagnoses in endometrial cytologic specimens obtained by endometrial brush was nondiagnostic with a rate of 73.7%(n: 42 and 53.8%(n: 28 in postmenopausal women and reproductive period women, respectively.When all patients were analysed together, diagnosis was nondiagnostic in 64.2%(n: 70 (38.5% postmenopausal,25.7% premenopausalof endometrial cytologic samples.Cytologic assessment was resulted as sufficient in only 35.8% (n: 39 of cases.Endometrial full curettage pathologic diagnoses were resulted as insufficient in 56.1%(n: 32of postmenopausal patients and 9.6%(n: 5 of reproductive period cases.The second most frequent diagnosis was endometrial polyp in 13(22.8% patients in postmenopausal period, whereas the most frequent diagnoses in reproductive period were reported as endometrial polyp in 18(34.6% and secretory endometrium in 12(23.1% patients. When full curettage was considered as golden standard method with respect to sample sufficiency;the sensitivity of endometrial cytologic evaluation in postmenopausal patients with regard to sample sufficiency was found as 36%, spesificity 81.3%, positive predictive value 60.0%, negative predictive value 61.9%; the values

  4. Cancer Risk Associated with Nuclear Atypia in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Valderrabano, Pablo; Khazai, Laila; Thompson, Zachary J; Sharpe, Susan C; Tarasova, Valentina D; Otto, Kristen J; Hallanger-Johnson, Julie E; Wadsworth, J Trad; Wenig, Bruce M; Chung, Christine H; Centeno, Barbara A; McIver, Bryan

    2018-02-01

    Indeterminate categories of thyroid cytopathology (categories B-III and B-IV of the Bethesda system) are integrated by a heterogeneous spectrum of cytological scenarios that are generally clustered for analysis and management recommendations. It has been suggested that aspirates exhibiting nuclear atypia have a higher risk of malignancy. This study aimed to assess whether cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with nuclear atypia have a significantly higher cancer risk than those without nuclear atypia. On June 30, 2016, PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles in English or Spanish using a search strategy developed by an endocrinologist and a librarian. Case reports were excluded, and no date limits were used. The references of all included studies were also screened for relevant missing studies. Studies were included if the prevalences of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with histological confirmation with and without nuclear atypia were reported. Studies were excluded if they had: (i) nodules suspicious for malignancy; (ii) nodules with non-indeterminate (B-III or B-IV) cytology on repeated biopsy, if performed; (iii) nodules not consecutively evaluated; or (iv) cohorts overlapping with another larger series. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the studies. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. Summary data were extracted from published reports by one investigator and independently reviewed by another. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was explored using subgroup analysis and mixed-effect model meta-regression. The odds ratio for malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with nuclear atypia over cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules without nuclear atypia was calculated. Of 2571 retrieved studies, 20 were eligible. The meta-analysis was conducted on summary data of 3532 cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules: 1162 with and 2370

  5. p16/Ki-67 Dual Stain Cytology for Detection of Cervical Precancer in HPV-Positive Women.

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    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark; Wood, Shannon N; Stiemerling, Eric; Tokugawa, Diane; Bodelon, Clara; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Kinney, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical cancer screening requires triage markers to decide who should be referred to colposcopy. p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology has been proposed as a biomarker for cervical precancers. We evaluated the dual stain in a large population of HPV-positive women. One thousand five hundred and nine HPV-positive women screened with HPV/cytology cotesting at Kaiser Permanente California were enrolled into a prospective observational study in 2012. Dual stain cytology was performed on residual Surepath material, and slides were evaluated for dual stain-positive cells. Disease endpoints were ascertained from the clinical database at KPNC. We evaluated the clinical performance of the assay among all HPV-positive women and among HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. We used internal benchmarks for clinical management to evaluate the clinical relevance of the dual stain assay. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the dual stain compared with Pap cytology. All statistical tests were two-sided. The dual stain had lower positivity (45.9%) compared with cytology at an ASC-US threshold (53.4%). For detection of CIN2+, the dual stain had similar sensitivity (83.4% vs 76.6%, P = .1), and statistically higher specificity (58.9% vs 49.6%, P < .001), PPV (21.0% vs 16.6%, P < .001), and NPV (96.4% vs 94.2%, P = .01) compared with cytology. Similar patterns were observed for CIN3+. Women with a positive test had high enough risk for referral to colposcopy, while the risk for women with negative tests was below a one-year return threshold based on current US management guidelines. Dual stain cytology showed good risk stratification for all HPV-positive women and for HPV-positive women with normal cytology. Additional follow-up is needed to determine how long dual stain negative women remain at low risk of precancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a

  6. Use of fine needle aspirate from peripheral nerves of pure-neural leprosy for cytology and PCR to confirm the diagnosis: A pilot study

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    Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of pure neural leprosy (PNL remained subjective because of over-dependence of clinical expertise and a lack of simple yet reliable diagnostic tool. The criteria for diagnosis, proposed by Jardim et al., are not routinely done by clinicians in developing country as it involves invasive nerve biopsy and sophisticated anti-PGL-1 detection. We conducted a study using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC coupled with Ziehl Neelsen staining (ZN staining and Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR specific for M. leprae for an objective diagnosis of pure neural leprosy (PNL, which may be simpler and yet reliable. Aim: The aim of the study is to couple FNAC with ZN staining and multiplex PCR to diagnose pure neural leprosy patients rapidly, in simpler and yet reliable way. Methods: Thirteen patients of PNL as diagnosed by two independent consultants were included as case, and 5 patients other than PNL were taken as control in the study. Fine needle aspiration was done on the affected nerve, and aspirates were evaluated for cytology, ZN staining and multiplex- PCR. Results: Out of the 13 cases where fine needle aspiration was done, M. leprae could be elicited in the nerve tissue aspirates in 5 cases (38.4% with the help of conventional acid-fast staining and 11 cases (84.6% with the help of multiplex PCR. On cytological examination of the aspirates, only 3 (23% cases showed specific epithelioid cells, whereas 8 (61.5% cases showed non-specific inflammation, and 2 (15.3% cases had no inflammatory cells. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that in the field of laboratory diagnosis of PNL cases, FNAC in combination with ZN staining for acid-fast bacilli (AFB and Multiplex-PCR can provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis for the majority of PNL cases. FNAC is a less-invasive, outdoor-based and simpler technique than invasive nerve biopsy procedure. Thus, this study may enlighten the future path for easy and reliable diagnosis of

  7. Is Imprint Cytology Useful to Diagnose Malignancy for Brenner Tumors? A Case Series at a Single Institute.

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    Minato, Junko; Tokunaga, Hideki; Okamoto, Satoshi; Shibuya, Yusuke; Niikura, Hitoshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cytological features of Brenner tumors according to tumor grade using imprint cytology. Between 2004 and 2015, intraoperative imprint cytology was performed on 8 patients with Brenner tumors suspected to be malignant neoplasmas on gross examination because of their large size and solid part. These consisted of 1 benign, 3 borderline, and 4 malignant tumors. In patients with benign and borderline tumors, naked nucleus-like stromal cells and tumor cells in a sheet-like arrangement were observed against a clear background. The nuclei were round to oval-shaped with finely granular chromatin patterns and small nucleoli. Papillary cell clusters and high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios were only observed in 1 borderline case. In cases with malignancy, the background was necrotic. The tumor cells occurred in large papillary clusters. The nuclei showed a high degree of nuclear atypia. Nuclear grooves were present in 6 of our 8 cases and they were scant in the malignant cases. Imprint cytology of Brenner tumors provided no characteristic findings to enable a definitive distinction of benign versus borderline tumors, but it enabled discrimination between malignant and other tumors. Imprint cytology can facilitate intraoperative diagnosis and aid in selecting the appropriate surgical procedure. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): comparative evaluation of testicular reproductive status by endoscopic, histologic, and cytologic examination.

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    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status.

  9. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with myoepithelial anaplasia: report of a case with cytologic findings of a rare variant.

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    Suzuki, Takashi; Murata, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is usually a low grade malignancy with rare mortality. Rare aggressive variants of EMC, dedifferentiated EMC and EMC with myoepithelial anaplasia have been reported. An 81-year-old man presented with EMC of the parotid gland showing the classical type at the time of initial presentation and a high grade type with myoepithelial anaplasia at recurrence after 10 years. We compared the histologic and cytologic findings of the initial and recurrent tumors. Aspiration cytology of the initial tumor was typical of classical EMC, represented by a biphasic pattern composed of sheetlike and tubular clusters. In contrast, cytologic specimens of the recurrent tumor, which had a focally biphasic pattern similar to that of the initial tumor, also had many isolated or discohesive piled-up clusters of spindle and polygonal cells with nuclear atypia. The cytologic findings of the recurrent tumor were consistent with a rare variant of EMC with myoepithelial anaplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the cytologic finding of an EMC with myoepithelial anaplasia.

  10. Assessment of Lung Epithelial Cytological Changes Associated with Air Pollution in Hail Industrial Area in Saudi Arabia

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    Fawaz D. Alshammari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the lung epithelial atypical changes (if any, which might be associated with continuous exposure to air pollution resulting from motor vehicles maintenance. Methodology: This is a case control study, investigated 250 participants by cytological methods. Of the 250 participants, 200 were cases exposed to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution and 50 were controls (non-exposed. Early morning expectorated sputum specimen was obtained and cytologically assessed. Results: Cytological atypia was identified in 7 (3.5% out of the 200 cases and could not be identified in 193 (96.5% cases, whereas, in the control group, cytological atypia was not found. The risk of cytological atypia, which is associated with exposure to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution, the 95% confidence interval (95% CI and relative risk (RR; RR=3.9 (0.2199 to 69.7010, P=0.3529. Metaplasia was identified among 26 (13% cases and 2/50 (4% in the controls. The risk of metaplasia that is associated with exposure to vehicle maintenance emissions air pollution, the 95% CI and RR=3.5 (0.8218 to 15.649, P=0.0893. Conclusion: The exposure to vehicle maintenance air pollution increases the risk of lung epithelial atypical changes, which may develop in to precancerous and cancerous changes.

  11. High-risk human papilloma virus prevalence and its relation with abnormal cervical cytology among Turkish women.

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    Özcan, E S; Taşkin, S; Ortaç, F

    2011-10-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) prevalence among Turkish women. Cervical samples were collected from 501 women for cytological screening and hrHPV testing by Digene Hybrid Capture 2. hrHPV prevalence and its relation with cytological results and epidemiologic data were analysed by SPSS. The prevalence of hrHPV was 4.2% (21 of the 501 women). Women with abnormal cytological screening results have significantly higher risk of hrHPV positivity compared with women with normal cytological results (19% vs 3.5%) (p ≤ 0.01). The incidence of HPV infection was only associated with the number of sexual partners, but there was no association with age, contraception methods or age at the first sexual intercourse. The prevalence of hrHPV among histological-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2 and normal cases were found as 37.5%, 25% and 25%, respectively. The prevalence of cervical hrHPV infection is 4.2% in our population and this rate seems lower than reported rates from other regions. According to further studies with a larger sample size, reflex cytology based on hrHPV positivity should be considered for our national cervical cancer screening programme.

  12. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial

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    Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24 510 women (age range: 20–64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women. PMID:18392052

  13. Fluorescence cytology with 5-aminolevulinic acid in EUS-guided FNA as a method for differentiating between malignant and benign lesions (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kato, Kota; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kaibori, Masaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) has been increasingly performed to obtain specimens for the pathological evaluation of patients with GI and pancreaticobiliary masses as well as lymphadenopathies of unknown origin. Photodynamic diagnosis by using 5-aminolebulinic acid (ALA) has been reported to be useful for enabling the visual differentiation between malignant and normal tissue in various cancers. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA. A prospective study. A single center. A total of 28 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the pathological diagnosis of a pancreaticobiliary mass lesion or intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Patients were orally administered ALA 3 to 6 hours before EUS-FNA. The sample was obtained via EUS-FNA for fluorescence cytology and conventional cytology. A single gastroenterologist performed the fluorescence cytology by using fluorescence microscopy after the procedure, independently of the conventional cytology by pathologists. The accuracy of fluorescence cytology with ALA in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions by comparing the results of fluorescence cytology with the final diagnosis. Of the 28 patients included in the study, 22 were considered as having malignant lesions and 6 patients as having benign lesions. Fluorescence cytology could correctly discriminate between benign and malignant lesions in all patients. Therefore, both the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence cytology were 100% in our study. Fluorescence cytology was performed by only 1 gastroenterologist with a small number of patients. Fluorescence cytology with ALA in EUS-FNA may be an effective and simple method for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tele-cytology: An innovative approach for cervical cancer screening in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Badaya, Sorabh

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma cervix remains a leading cause of cancer mortality among women in countries lacking any screening program. The existing screening policy and approach via conventional cytology centered mainly in Tertiary Care Center, is totally unaffordable to Indian women, especially in the remote areas. This suggests the need of depolarizing the resources via generating the near real time modalities which could be used at the door step of the needy ones. For any screening modality to be effective it should be adequately sensitive, specific, reproducible, cheap, simple, affordable, and the most important is should be real time to ensure wide coverage and curtail loss to follow-up. Incorporating telecytology as a screening tool could make the dream come true. Telecytology is the interpretation of cytology material at a distance using digital images. Use of mobile telecytology unit housed in a van carrying satellite equipment and the automated image capturing systems is the central theme behind this idea. The imaging equipment would be carrying out the imaging of Papanicolaou smears prepared at the screening site and sending the images to the central laboratories situated at some tertiary care level. This concept could overcome the hindrance of trained cytology infrastructure in the resource poor settings and could provide an efficient and economical way of screening patients. There is possibility that the designed approach may not detect the entire women positive for the disease but if the desired objective was to diagnose as many cases as possible in resource poor setting, then this process offers an advantage over no screening at all.

  15. Cytological profile of antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors and synthetic peptide MciZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Araujo-Bazan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites. FtsZ inhibitors lead to long undivided cells, impair the normal assembly of FtsZ into the midcell Z-rings, induce aberrant ring distributions, punctate FtsZ foci, membrane spots and also modify nucleoid length. Quantitative analysis of cell and nucleoid length combined, or the Z-ring distribution, allows categorizing FtsZ inhibitors and to distinguish them from antibiotics with other mechanisms of action, which should be useful for identifying new antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors. Biochemical assays of FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity combined explain the cellular effects of the FtsZ polymer stabilizing agent PC190723 and its fragments. MciZ is a 40-aminoacid endogenous inhibitor of cell division normally expressed during sporulation in B. subtilis. Using FtsZ cytological profiling we have determined that exogenous synthetic MciZ is an effective inhibitor of B. subtilis cell division, Z-ring formation and localization. This finding supports our cell-based approach to screen for FtsZ inhibitors and opens new possibilities for peptide inhibitors of bacterial cell division.

  16. Impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors: review article

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    Jeison de Nadai Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology (IC has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient’s eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless, it should be considered that IC may be less helpful if the results conflict with the clinical picture or if the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and results are negative. In such cases, surgical biopsy is required for accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of IC for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject.

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: How much should the surgeon read from Fine needle aspiration cytology reports?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Dilip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During routine fine needle aspiration cytodiagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, a number of cases are diagnosed as suspicious; or it is suggested that PTC or a neoplasm be ruled out by histopathology. Since these diagnostic labels are likely to put the clinicians in a difficult situation while planning the management, this study aims to find out how much the surgeon should read from these reports. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups. Group A included 38 cases diagnosed as PTC or suspicious of PTC. Group B included 40 cases in which it was suggested that PTC/a neoplasm to be ruled out and non-neoplastic lesions with one or more cytologic features of PTC. The two groups were compared with clinical, imaging and cytomorphologic features. Results: A significant difference was observed with respect to age between Group A and Group B (P<0.001. The frequency of the following five cytologic features was significantly higher in Group A: papillary formation (P<0.001, psammoma bodies (P=0.054, fine nuclear chromatin (P=0.010, frequent nuclear grooves (P<0.001 and intra-nuclear cytoplasmic inclusion (P<0.001. Three or more of the five cytologic features were also reported in significantly higher number of Group A cases (P<0.001. Majority (81.8% of the cases with subsequent histology in Group A were confirmed as PTC as opposed to 7.7% in Group B (P<0.001. Conclusions: Thus, cases with definitive cytodiagnosis of PTC and suggestive of PTC (Group A should be taken much more seriously by the surgeons as compared to Group B cases.

  18. Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Martín; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; del Carmen González-Ramírez, Imelda; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Flores-Hernández, Lorena; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer presents as nodules. Thyroid nodules are frequent, but only 5-30% are malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported. Some factors can be associated with malignancy. Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy. We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm. From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology. Of these, 75 were surgically treated. Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases. Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis. Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma. Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions. Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66). Fifty percent of males showed malignancy vs. 37.7% of females (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that size and gender, but not age, are associated with cytological pattern. Ultrasonographic characteristics may be useful discriminating patients with a higher risk of malignancy. FNAB is a useful tool for initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, but clinical evaluation can enhance predictive value.

  19. HPV-testing versus HPV-cytology co-testing to predict the outcome after conization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Laerke Valsøe; Andersen, Sisse Josephine; Hariri, Jalil

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing alone as a prognostic tool to predict recurrent disease within a three-year follow-up period after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 + . Retrospectively, 128 women with histologically verified CIN2 + who had a conization performed at Southern Jutland Hospital in Denmark between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 were included. Histology, cytology and HPV test results were obtained for a three-year follow-up period. 4.7% (6/128) of the cases developed recurrent disease during follow-up. Of the cases without free margins, recurrent dysplasia was detected normal in 10.4% (5/48), whereas in the group with free margins it was 1.3% (1/80). The post-conization HPV test was negative in 67.2% (86/128) and Pap smear normal in 93.7% (120/128). Combining resection margins, cytology and HPV had sensitivity for prediction of recurrent dysplasia of 100%. Specificity was 45.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) 8.5% and negative predictive value (NPV) 100%. Using HPV test alone as a predictor of recurrent dysplasia gave a sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity 69.7%, PPV 11.9% and NPV 98.8%. Combining resection margin and HPV test had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 45.9%, PPV 8.3% and NPV 100%. HPV test at six months control post-conization gave an NPV of 98.8% and can be used as a solitary test to identify women at risk for recurrent disease three years after treatment for precursor lesions. Using both resection margin and HPV test had a sensitivity of 100% and NPV 100%. Adding cytology did not increase the predictive value. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Revaluation of breast cytology with pathologist on-site of lesions with suspicious sonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuelacapalbo@tiscalinet.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Sajadidehkordi, Farideh, E-mail: faridehit@yahoo.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Colombi, Claudio; Ticha, Vladimira; Moretti, Angela, E-mail: info.radiologia@sancarlo.mi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, 20153 Milano (Italy); Peli, Michela, E-mail: peli.michela@gmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Cosentino, Maria, E-mail: maria-cosentino@tiscali.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Lovisatti, Maria, E-mail: marialovisatti@hotmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Berti, Elisabetta, E-mail: eliberti@hotmail.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Anatomia Patologica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, Milano 20153 (Italy); Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: info.radiologia@sancarlo.mi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, 20153 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: Evaluating correlation estimation between diagnostic ultrasound (U.S.) of breast lesions and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and the correlation between cytology and histology (I) of these lesions undergo surgery. Materials and methods: In 2010 we performed 1589 ultrasound breast. We identified 210 suspicious lesions to be subjected to FNAC, which was performed with pathologist on site, and extemporaneous analysis of the sample to assess their appropriateness. We classified the lesions in 5 ultrasound (U) classes according to the criteria defined by Echographic BIRADS Lexicon. The results of cytology were classified in 5 classes (C) according to the guidelines of F.O.N.Ca.M. Then we evaluated the diagnostic correlation between U.S. and FNAC, and between FNAC and Histology. Results: The distribution of lesions in U classes was: 57U2, 55U3, 36U4 and 62U5. The diagnostic concordance between U and FNAC was 96.7%, with a sensitivity of 98%, specificity 93%, negative and positive predictive value respectively of 94.9% and 97.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 96.6%. The 98 patients with C4-C5 lesions were subjected to surgery and the histology confirmed high-grade malignancy of lesions with a concordance of 99.7%. Conclusions: Having achieved high diagnostic concordance between U and FNAC, and then between FNAC and histology, we may say that the FNAC, less invasive and traumatic for the patient than needle biopsy (CB), may be still a valid method when performed with pathologist on-site to assess the adequacy of the sample taken.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid and evaluation of discordant cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    The main role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) lies in differentiating between a malignant and benign thyroid nodule. It greatly influences the treatment decision. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the cytology–histopathology correlation and to analyze the cause of diagnostic errors with an eventual aim to improve diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study comparing cytology and corresponding histopathology report in 724 thyroid cases. The statistical analysis included false positive rate, false negative rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy. Results On cytological examination, 635/724 were reported as benign, 68 malignant and 21 suspicious. On histopathological examination, 626/635 cases were confirmed as benign but there were 9 discordant cases. Among the other cases histopathology diagnosis of malignancy matched in 66/68 and 11/21 cases. Diagnosis correlated in 703/724 cases (97%) [p < 0.001]. False positive and false negative rates were 1.9% and 10.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 89.5% and 98%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 84.6% and negative predictive value was 98.6%. Accuracy of FNA was 97%. Conclusion In spite of high accuracy of FNAC in differentiating between a benign and malignant lesion, certain pitfalls should be kept in mind. The common false negative diagnoses were follicular pattern cases which constitute a ‘gray zone’, cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and papillary micro carcinoma. The reason for false positive diagnoses was the occurrence of nuclear features characteristic of PTC in other thyroid lesions. Awareness of pathologist regarding these pitfalls can minimize false negative/positive diagnoses

  2. Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report with liquid based and conventional smear cytology

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    Bilic Masha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare neoplasm confined to the meninges without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be used as a therapeutic modality. Herein, we describe the first report of cytologic findings of a case of this neoplasm with shunt-related peritoneal metastasis. Case presentation A 19-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of severe headaches. He had bilateral papilledema on physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was negative. Four months later a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Shortly thereafter, he was diagnosed with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis based on the biopsy of an intradural extramedullary lesion adjacent to the lumbar spinal cord at a referral cancer center. The histology featured an infiltrating growth pattern of pleomorphic astrocytes with diffuse positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein. A couple of months later he presented at our institution with ascites and an anterior peritoneal mass. Repeat cerebrospinal fluid cytology and fine needle aspiration of the mass confirmed disseminated gliomatosis. Cytologic characteristics included clusters of anaplastic cells of variable size, high nuclear to cytoplasm ratio and scant to moderate cytoplasm. Occasional single bizarre multinucleated cells were seen with eccentric "partial wreath-like" nuclei, clumped chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Patient expired 13 months after initial presentation. Conclusion Disseminated primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic aseptic meningitis and in the presence of a peritoneal tumor in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Immunocytochemistry may be of diagnostic value.

  3. A molecular perspective on a complex polymorphic inversion system with cytological evidence of multiply reused breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orengo, D J; Puerma, E; Papaceit, M; Segarra, C; Aguadé, M

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequence comparison across the Drosophila genus revealed that some fixed inversion breakpoints had been multiply reused at this long timescale. Cytological studies of Drosophila inversion polymorphism had previously shown that, also at this shorter timescale, some breakpoints had been multiply reused. The paucity of molecularly characterized polymorphic inversion breakpoints has so far precluded contrasting whether cytologically shared breakpoints of these relatively young inversions are actually reused at the molecular level. The E chromosome of Drosophila subobscura stands out because it presents several inversion complexes. This is the case of the E1+2+9+3 arrangement that originated from the ancestral Est arrangement through the sequential accumulation of four inversions (E1, E2, E9 and E3) sharing some breakpoints. We recently identified the breakpoints of inversions E1 and E2, which allowed establishing reuse at the molecular level of the cytologically shared breakpoint of these inversions. Here, we identified and sequenced the breakpoints of inversions E9 and E3, because they share breakpoints at sections 58D and 64C with those of inversions E1 and E2. This has allowed establishing that E9 and E3 originated through the staggered-break mechanism. Most importantly, sequence comparison has revealed the multiple reuse at the molecular level of the proximal breakpoint (section 58D), which would have been used at least by inversions E2, E9 and E3. In contrast, the distal breakpoint (section 64C) might have been only reused once by inversions E1 and E2, because the distal E3 breakpoint is displaced >70 kb from the other breakpoint limits.

  4. Nuclear characteristics of the endometrial cytology: liquid-based versus conventional preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Yanoh, Kenji; Kawanishi, Namiki; Kobayashi, Tadao K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of liquid-based cytologic preparation (LP) compared with conventional preparation (CP) for the assessment of nuclear findings in endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) which may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma in EGBD cases. The material consists of cytologic smears including 20 cases of proliferative endometrium (PE), 20 cases of EGBD, and 20 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade1 (G1) for which histopathological diagnosis was obtained by endometrial curettage at the JA Suzuka General Hospital. Nuclear findings were examined in PE cells, EGBD-stromal cells, EGBD-metaplastic cells, and G1 cells, respectively. It was examined about the following items; (1) nuclear shape; (2) A long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; (3) an area of cell nuclei; (4) overlapping nuclei. Results are as follows: (1) nuclear shape; as for the reniform shape of EGBD-stromal cells and spindle shape of EGBD-metaplastic cells, the ratio of the LP method was a higher value than the CP method. (2) The long axis and area of cell nuclei; LP in all groups was a recognizable tendency for nuclear shrinkage. (3) The long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; only EGBD-metaplastic cells recognize a significant difference between CP and LP. (4) Overlapping nuclei; LP was a higher value in comparison with CP in the other groups except PE cells, and the degree of overlapping nuclei was enhanced about three times. Therefore, although a cell of LP has a shrinking tendency, (1) it is excellent that LP preserves a characteristic of nuclear shape than CP; (2) a cellular characteristic becomes clearer, because three-dimensional architecture of LP is preserved of than CP. As for the standard preparation method for endometrial cytology samples, we considered that a concrete introduction of the LP method poses no problems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cytologic atypia in the contralateral unaffecte