WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycle initiative afc-1d

  1. Initial and transition cycle development for KALIMER uranium fueled core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Ji; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Chang Kue

    1998-01-01

    An economic and safe equilibrium Uranium metallic fuelled core having been established, strategic loading schemes for initial and transition cycles to early reach target equilibrium cycles are suggested for U-U and U-Pu transition cycles. An iterative method to find initial core enrichment splits is developed. With non-uniform feed enrichments at the initial core adopted, this iterative method shows KALIMER can reach Uranium equilibrium cycles just after 4 reloads, keeping feed enrichment unchanged from cycle 2. Recycling of self-generated Pu is not sufficient to make KALIMER a pure Pu equilibrium core even after 56 reloads. equilibrium cycles are suggested for U-U and U-Pu transition cycles. An iterative method to find initial core enrichment splits is developed. With non-uniform feed enrichments at the initial core adopted, this iterative method shows KALIMER can reach Uranium equilibrium cycles just after 4 reloads, keeping feed enrichment unchanged from cycle 2. Recycling of self-generated Pu is not sufficient to make KALIMER a pure Pu equilibrium core even after 56 reloads

  2. A new MCM modification cycle regulates DNA replication initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-03-01

    The MCM DNA helicase is a central regulatory target during genome replication. MCM is kept inactive during G1, and it initiates replication after being activated in S phase. During this transition, the only known chemical change to MCM is the gain of multisite phosphorylation that promotes cofactor recruitment. Because replication initiation is intimately linked to multiple biological cues, additional changes to MCM can provide further regulatory points. Here, we describe a yeast MCM SUMOylation cycle that regulates replication. MCM subunits undergo SUMOylation upon loading at origins in G1 before MCM phosphorylation. MCM SUMOylation levels then decline as MCM phosphorylation levels rise, thus suggesting an inhibitory role of MCM SUMOylation during replication. Indeed, increasing MCM SUMOylation impairs replication initiation, partly through promoting the recruitment of a phosphatase that decreases MCM phosphorylation and activation. We propose that MCM SUMOylation counterbalances kinase-based regulation, thus ensuring accurate control of replication initiation.

  3. Objectives, Strategies, and Challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Brent Dixon; David Shropshire; Robert Hill; Roald Wigeland; Erich Schneider; J. D. Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper will summarize the objectives, strategies, and key chemical separation challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The major objectives are as follows: Waste management--defer the need for a second geologic repository for a century or more, Proliferation resistance--be more resistant than the existing PUREX separation technology or uranium enrichment, Energy sustainability--turn waste management liabilities into energy source assets to ensure that uranium ore resources do not become a constraint on nuclear power, and Systematic, safe, and economic management of the entire fuel cycle. There are four major strategies for the disposal of civilian spent fuel: Once-through--direct disposal of all discharged nuclear fuel, Limited recycle--recycle transuranic elements once and then direct disposal, Continuous recycle--recycle transuranic elements repeatedly, and Sustained recycle--same as continuous except previously discarded depleted uranium is also recycled. The key chemical separation challenges stem from the fact that the components of spent nuclear fuel vary greatly in their influence on achieving program objectives. Most options separate uranium to reduce the weight and volume of waste and the number and cost of waste packages that require geologic disposal. Separated uranium can also be used as reactor fuel. Most options provide means to recycle transuranic (TRU) elements--plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), curium (Cm). Plutonium must be recycled to obtain repository, proliferation, and energy recovery benefits. U.S. non-proliferation policy forbids separation of plutonium by itself; therefore, one or more of the other transuranic elements must be kept with the plutonium; neptunium is considered the easiest option. Recycling neptunium also provides repository benefits. Americium recycling is also required to obtain repository benefits. At the present time, curium recycle provides relatively little benefit; indeed, recycling

  4. Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is initiated in the third cell cycle of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anne Sørig; Avery, Birthe; Dieleman, Steph J.

    2006-01-01

    Transcription from the embryos own ribosomal genes is initiated in most species at the same time as the maternal-embryonic transition. Recently data have indicated that a minor activation may take place during the third embryonic cell cycle in the bovine, one cell cycle before the major activation...

  5. Influence of the crystalline orientations on microcrack initiation in low-cycle fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, P. [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ECLille, LML, F-59650 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, UMR 8579 (France); Aubin, V., E-mail: veronique.aubin@ecp.fr [ECP, MSSMat, F-92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); CNRS, UMR 8107, UMR 8579 (France); Alvarez-Armas, I.; Armas, A. [IFIR, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina)

    2013-06-20

    Present study aims at analyzing the crack initiation in an austenitic stainless steel in low-cycle fatigue. A fatigue test was carried out using a polished specimen. The surface of the specimen was observed in situ during the fatigue test, in order to establish the time of slip activity or crack initiation. After a number of cycles sufficient to initiate small cracks, the test was stopped and the surface observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electron backscattered diffraction technique (EBSD) was used to identify the orientations of surface grains in the central zone of the fatigue specimen. Crack-initiation sites and slip systems associated to the initiated microcracks were identified. The criterion of the maximum Schmid factor explains two-thirds of the cracks initiated in slip systems; however if the favorably oriented slip band with respect to this criterion makes an angle of around 45° to the loading direction, a crack may initiate in another slip system.

  6. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    for analysing flow cytometry data and marker frequency analysis, we show that the small chromosome II is replicated late in the C period of the cell cycle, where most of chromosome I has been replicated. Owing to the delay in initiation of chromosome II, the two chromosomes terminate replication...... at approximately the same time and the average number of replication origins per cell is higher for chromosome I than for chromosome II. Analysis of cell-cycle parameters shows that chromosome replication and segregation is exceptionally fast in V. cholerae. The divided genome and delayed replication of chromosome...... II may reduce the metabolic burden and complexity of chromosome replication by postponing DNA synthesis to the last part of the cell cycle and reducing the need for overlapping replication cycles during rapid proliferation...

  7. New techniques for designing the initial and reload cores with constant long cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jun; Levine, Samuel; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New techniques for designing the initial and reload cores with constant long cycle lengths are developed. • Core loading pattern (LP) calculations and comparisons have been made on two different designs. • Results show that significant savings in fuel costs can be accrued if a non-low leakage LP design strategy is enacted. - Abstract: Several utilities have increased the output power of their nuclear power plant to increase their income and profit. Thus, the utility increases the power density of the reactor, which has other consequences. One consequence is to increase the depletion of the fuel assemblies (FAs) and reduce the end-of-cycle (EOC) sum of fissionable nuclides in each FA, ∑_E_O_C. The power density and the ∑_E_O_C remaining in the FAs at EOC must be sufficiently large in many FAs when designing the loading pattern, LP, for the first and reload cycles to maintain constant cycle lengths at minimum fuel cost. Also of importance is the cycle length as well as several other factors. In fact, the most important result of this study is to understand that the ∑_E_O_Cs in the FAs must be such that in the next cycle they can sustain the energy during depletion to prevent too much power shifting to the fresh FAs and, thus, sending the maximum peak pin power, PPP_m_a_x, above its constraint. This paper presents new methods for designing the LPs for the initial and follow on cycles to minimize the fuel costs. Studsvik’s CMS code system provides a 1000 MWe LP design in their sample inputs, which is applied in this study. The first 3 cycles of this core are analyzed to minimize fuel costs, and all three cycles have the same cycle length of ∼650 days. Cycle 1 is designed to allow many used FAs to be loaded into cycles 2 and 3 to reduce their fuel costs. This could not be achieved if cycle 1 was a low leakage LP (Shi et al., 2015). Significant fuel cost savings are achieved when the new designs are applied to the higher leakage LP designs

  8. Characterisation of cyclists’ willingness to pay for green initiatives at Africa’s largest cycle tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Argus Pick n Pay Cycle Tour is a major event on the road cycling calendar. The majority of cyclists travel significant distances and participation produces a substantial carbon footprint. This paper examines participants’ willingness to pay to offset their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to the literature by linking willingness to pay to attitudes towards or beliefs (green views about the initiatives in place, to ensure a greener cycle tour. Factor analysis is used to identify different types of cyclists, based on their green views: those with green money, those who prefer green products and the “re-cyclers”. The results of the regression analysis reveal that socio-demographic variables and the right attitude towards the environment are significant predictors of stated willingness to pay for climate change mitigation.

  9. The Chinese initial public offering market : underpricing, duration to listing and hot issue cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    This thesis conducts three empirical studies on the Chinese A-share initial public offering (IPO) market, specifically, underpricing and short-run underperformance, duration from offering to listing and hot and cold issuing cycles. Before the empirical analysis, the literature is reviewed associated with these three topics. In addition, this thesis presents an overview of the Chinese IPO market which is found to undergo an experiment period from 1984 to 1990, a transition period from 1991 to ...

  10. Initial high anti-emetic efficacy of granisetron with dexamethasone is not maintained over repeated cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R.; van den Berg, H.; Burghouts, J.; Nortier, J.; Slee, P.; Rodenburg, C.; Keizer, J.; Fonteyn, M.; Verweij, J.; Wils, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have reported previously that the anti-emetic efficacy of single agent 5HT3 antagonists is not maintained when analysed with the measurement of cumulative probabilities. Presently, the most effective anti-emetic regimen is a combination of a 5HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone. We, therefore, assessed the sustainment of efficacy of such a combination in 125 patients, scheduled to receive cisplatin > or = 70 mg m(-2) either alone or in combination with other cytotoxic drugs. Anti-emetic therapy was initiated with 10 mg of dexamethasone and 3 mg of granisetron intravenously, before cisplatin. On days 1-6, patients received 8 mg of dexamethasone and 1 mg of granisetron twice daily by oral administration. Protection was assessed during all cycles and calculated based on cumulative probability analyses using the method of Kaplan-Meier and a model for transitional probabilities. Irrespective of the type of analysis used, the anti-emetic efficacy of granisetron/dexamethasone decreased over cycles. The initial complete acute emesis protection rate of 66% decreased to 30% according to the method of Kaplan-Meier and to 39% using the model for transitional probabilities. For delayed emesis, the initial complete protection rate of 52% decreased to 21% (Kaplan-Meier) and to 43% (transitional probabilities). In addition, we observed that protection failure in the delayed emesis period adversely influenced the acute emesis protection in the next cycle. We conclude that the anti-emetic efficacy of a 5HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone is not maintained over multiple cycles of highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and that the acute emesis protection is adversely influenced by protection failure in the delayed emesis phase. PMID:9652766

  11. Low-cycle fatigue of welded joints: coupled initiation propagation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi, Yazid; Recho, Naman; Matheron, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the low-cycle fatigue (LC) design of welded structures, the aim being the critical analysis of the rule used in the RCC-MR [Design and construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands, AFCEN, 1993], for the design and construction of fast breeder reactors. The study takes into account the evolution of the material behavior laws and damage accumulation during the fatigue loading. The adopted model consists of analyzing separately the behavior and the damage evolutions. It allows us to determine the damage ratio corresponding to initiation and propagation of a significant crack in order to determine the life duration. This model suggests the existence of a threshold level of loading, above which micro-cracks initiate. The initiation fatigue life can then be neglected below the threshold level. This work shows also that the RCC-MR rules are valid below this threshold load level

  12. Flexible fuel cycle initiative for the transition period from current reactors to next generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junichi; Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Kuniyoshi; Kawamura, Fumio; Shiina, Kouji; Sasahira, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A sustainable electricity supply by fast breeder reactors (FBRs) is essential to ensure energy security and prevent global warming. Transition from light water reactors (LWRs) to FBRs and establishment of an FBR cycle are indispensable, which requires plutonium (Pu) for the introduction of FBRs. The authors propose advanced system called 'Flexible Fuel Cycle Initiative (FFCI)' which can respond flexibly the future expected technical and social uncertainties, can hold no surplus Pu, and can achieve an economical FBR cycle. In the new concept of FFCI, 2nd LWR reprocessing which would succeed Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant is a simple facility to carry out only uranium (U) removal and residual 'recycle material' is stored or utilized. According to FBRs introduction status, recycle material is immediately treated in an FBR reprocessing to fabricate FBR fuel or temporarily stored for the utilization in FBRs at necessary timing. FFCI has high flexibility by having several options for future uncertainties by the introduction of recycle material as a buffer material between LWR and FBR cycles. (author)

  13. Initial concepts on energetics and mass releases during nonnuclear explosive events in fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, M.A.; Mishima, J.

    1986-09-01

    Non-nuclear explosions are one of the initiating events (accidents) considered in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission study of formal methods for estimating the airborne release of radionuclides from fuel cycle facilities. Methods currently available to estimate the energetics and mass airborne release from the four types of non-nuclear explosive events (fast and slow physical explosions and fast and slow chemical explosions) are reviewed. The likelihood that fast physical explosions will occur in fuel cycle facilities appears to be remote and this type of explosion is not considered. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow physical and fast chemical explosions are available. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow chemical explosions are less well defined

  14. The DnaA Cycle in Escherichia coli: Activation, Function and Inactivation of the Initiator Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Katayama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the mechanisms of the initiator protein DnaA in replication initiation and its regulation in Escherichia coli. The chromosomal origin (oriC DNA is unwound by the replication initiation complex to allow loading of DnaB helicases and replisome formation. The initiation complex consists of the DnaA protein, DnaA-initiator-associating protein DiaA, integration host factor (IHF, and oriC, which contains a duplex-unwinding element (DUE and a DnaA-oligomerization region (DOR containing DnaA-binding sites (DnaA boxes and a single IHF-binding site that induces sharp DNA bending. DiaA binds to DnaA and stimulates DnaA assembly at the DOR. DnaA binds tightly to ATP and ADP. ATP-DnaA constructs functionally different sub-complexes at DOR, and the DUE-proximal DnaA sub-complex contains IHF and promotes DUE unwinding. The first part of this review presents the structures and mechanisms of oriC-DnaA complexes involved in the regulation of replication initiation. During the cell cycle, the level of ATP-DnaA level, the active form for initiation, is strictly regulated by multiple systems, resulting in timely replication initiation. After initiation, regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA intervenes to reduce ATP-DnaA level by hydrolyzing the DnaA-bound ATP to ADP to yield ADP-DnaA, the inactive form. RIDA involves the binding of the DNA polymerase clamp on newly synthesized DNA to the DnaA-inactivator Hda protein. In datA-dependent DnaA-ATP hydrolysis (DDAH, binding of IHF at the chromosomal locus datA, which contains a cluster of DnaA boxes, results in further hydrolysis of DnaA-bound ATP. SeqA protein inhibits untimely initiation at oriC by binding to newly synthesized oriC DNA and represses dnaA transcription in a cell cycle dependent manner. To reinitiate DNA replication, ADP-DnaA forms oligomers at DnaA-reactivating sequences (DARS1 and DARS2, resulting in the dissociation of ADP and the release of nucleotide-free apo-DnaA, which then

  15. Study of crack initiation in low-cycle fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, P.

    2011-03-01

    The material studied is an austenitic stainless steel, that is widely used in nuclear equipment for its very high corrosion resistance combined to good mechanical properties. Although crack initiation is proved to play an important role in fatigue, its mechanisms have not been fully understood. Some crack initiation criteria based on physical mechanisms of plastic deformation have been defined. However, these criteria are not easy to use and valid, as they need local variables at the grain scale. The present study aims at establishing a crack initiation criterion in low-cycle fatigue, which should be usable under variable amplitude loading conditions. Tension-compression fatigue tests were first carried out to characterize the mechanical behavior of the stainless steel AISI 316L. The mechanical behavior was simulated using a self-consistent model using a crystalline plastic law based on dislocation densities. The evolution of surface damage was observed during a fatigue test using an in situ optical microscopic device. Cracks were analyzed after 2000 cycles and their crystallographic characteristics calculated. As surface grains exhibit larger strain because they are less constraint by neighbor grains, a specific numerical frame is necessary to determine stress state in surface grains. A localization law specific to surface grains under cyclic loading was identified from finite element simulations. The proposed form needs an intergranular accommodation variable, on the pattern of the localization law of Cailletaud-Pilvin. Stress-strain state in surface grains was simulated. Potential indicators for crack initiation were then compared on a same experimental data base. Indicators based on the equivalent plastic strain were found to be suitable indicators of fatigue damage. (author)

  16. Determination of a Wear Initiation Cycle by using a Contact Resistance Measurement in Nuclear Fuel Fretting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fretting, the improving of the contact condition with a modified spring shape is a useful method for increasing the wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod. This is because the fretting wear resistance between the fuel rod and grid spring is mainly affected by the grid spring shape rather than the environment, the contact modes, etc. In addition, the wear resistance is affected by the wear debris behavior between contact surfaces. So, it is expected that the wear initiation of each spring shape should be determined in order to evaluate a wear resistance. However, it is almost impossible to measure the wear behavior in contact surfaces on a real time basis because the contact surfaces are always hidden. Besides, the results of the worn surface observation after the fretting wear tests are restricted to archive the information on the wear debris behavior and the formation mechanism of the wear scar. In order to evaluate the wear behavior during the fretting wear tests, it is proposed that the contact resistance measurement is a useful method for examining the wear initiation cycle and modes. Generally, fretting wear damages are rapidly progressed by a localized plastic deformation between the contact surfaces, crack initiation and fracture of the deformed surface with a strain hardening difference between a surface and a subsurface and finally a detachment of wear debris. After this, wear debris is easily oxidized by frictional heat, test environment, etc. At this time, a small amount of electric current applied between the contact surfaces will be influenced by the wear debris, which could be an obstacle to an electric current flow. So, it is possible to archive the information on the wear behavior by measuring the contact resistance. In order to determine the wear initiation cycle during the fretting wear tests, in this study, fretting wear tests have been performed by applying a constant electric current in room temperature air

  17. Crack initiation and propagation in welded joints of turbine and boiler steels during low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Sandstroem, R.; Linde, L.; Henderson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests have been performed at 300 and 565 degrees C on welded joints and on microstructures to be found in or near welded joints in a low alloy ferritic steel 0.5 Cr, 0.5 Mo, 0.25 V. The difference in lifetimes between the 300 degrees C and 565 degrees C tests was small comparing the same microstructures and strain ranges, although the stress amplitude was greater at 300 degrees C. Under constant stress conditions the fatigue life depended on the fatigue life of the parent metal but under constant strain conditions the lifetime was governed by that of the bainitic structures. Strain controlled LCF tests have been performed at 750 degrees C on welded joints in the austenitic steel AISI 316 and on different parent and weld metals used in these joints. In continuously cycled samples all cracks were transgranular and initiated at the surface; hold-time samples displayed internally initiated intergranular cracking in the weld metal. Under constant strain conditions the 316 parent and weld metals exhibited similar lifetimes. When considering a constant stress situation the strength of the microsturctures decreased in the following order: Sanicro weld metal, cold deformed parent metal, undeformed parent metal and weld metal (K.A.E.)

  18. Integrated safeguards testing laboratories in support of the advanced fuel cycle initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Peter A.; Demuth, Scott F.; Klasky, Kristen L.; Lee, Haeok; Miller, Michael C.; Sprinkle, James K.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Williams, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    A key enabler for advanced fuel cycle safeguards research and technology development for programs such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is access to facilities and nuclear materials. This access is necessary in many cases in order to ensure that advanced safeguards techniques and technologies meet the measurement needs for which they were designed. One such crucial facility is a hot cell based laboratory which would allow developers from universities, national laboratories, and commercial companies to perform iterative research and development of advanced safeguards instrumentation under realistic operating conditions but not be subject to production schedule limitations. The need for such a facility arises from the requirement to accurately measure minor actinide and/or fission product bearing nuclear materials that cannot be adequately shielded in glove boxes. With the contraction of the DOE nuclear complex following the end of the cold war, many suitable facilities at DOE sites are increasingly costly to operate and are being evaluated for closure. A hot cell based laboratory that allowed developers to install and remove instrumentation from the hot cell would allow for both risk mitigation and performance optimization of the instrumentation prior to fielding equipment in facilities where maintenance and repair of the instrumentation is difficult or impossible. These benefits are accomplished by providing developers the opportunity to iterate between testing the performance of the instrumentation by measuring realistic types and amounts of nuclear material, and adjusting and refining the instrumentation based on the results of these measurements. In this paper, we review the requirements for such a facility using the Wing 9 hot cells in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility as a model for such a facility and describe recent use of these hot cells in support of AFCI.

  19. Integrated safeguards testing laboratories in support of the advanced fuel cycle initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Demuth, Scott F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klasky, Kristen L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Haeok [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sprinkle, James K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Bradley [DOE, NE

    2009-01-01

    A key enabler for advanced fuel cycle safeguards research and technology development for programs such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is access to facilities and nuclear materials. This access is necessary in many cases in order to ensure that advanced safeguards techniques and technologies meet the measurement needs for which they were designed. One such crucial facility is a hot cell based laboratory which would allow developers from universities, national laboratories, and commercial companies to perform iterative research and development of advanced safeguards instrumentation under realistic operating conditions but not be subject to production schedule limitations. The need for such a facility arises from the requirement to accurately measure minor actinide and/or fission product bearing nuclear materials that cannot be adequately shielded in glove boxes. With the contraction of the DOE nuclear complex following the end of the cold war, many suitable facilities at DOE sites are increasingly costly to operate and are being evaluated for closure. A hot cell based laboratory that allowed developers to install and remove instrumentation from the hot cell would allow for both risk mitigation and performance optimization of the instrumentation prior to fielding equipment in facilities where maintenance and repair of the instrumentation is difficult or impossible. These benefits are accomplished by providing developers the opportunity to iterate between testing the performance of the instrumentation by measuring realistic types and amounts of nuclear material, and adjusting and refining the instrumentation based on the results of these measurements. In this paper, we review the requirements for such a facility using the Wing 9 hot cells in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility as a model for such a facility and describe recent use of these hot cells in support of AFCI.

  20. LCIA framework and cross-cutting issues guidance within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing needs for decision support and advances in scientific knowledge within life cycle assessment (LCA) led to substantial efforts to provide global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators under the auspices of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Init...

  1. Initializing carbon cycle predictions from the Community Land Model by assimilating global biomass observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A. M.; Hoar, T. J.; Smith, W. K.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The locations and longevity of terrestrial carbon sinks remain uncertain, however it is clear that in order to predict long-term climate changes the role of the biosphere in surface energy and carbon balance must be understood and incorporated into earth system models (ESMs). Aboveground biomass, the amount of carbon stored in vegetation, is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, representing the balance of uptake through gross primary productivity (GPP), losses from respiration, senescence and mortality over hundreds of years. The best predictions of current and future land-atmosphere fluxes are likely from the integration of process-based knowledge contained in models and information from observations of changes in carbon stocks using data assimilation (DA). By exploiting long times series, it is possible to accurately detect variability and change in carbon cycle dynamics through monitoring ecosystem states, for example biomass derived from vegetation optical depth (VOD), and use this information to initialize models before making predictions. To make maximum use of information about the current state of global ecosystems when using models we have developed a system that combines the Community Land Model (CLM) with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a community tool for ensemble DA. This DA system is highly innovative in its complexity, completeness and capabilities. Here we described a series of activities, using both Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) and real observations, that have allowed us to quantify the potential impact of assimilating VOD data into CLM-DART on future land-atmosphere fluxes. VOD data are particularly suitable to use in this activity due to their long temporal coverage and appropriate scale when combined with CLM, but their absolute values rely on many assumptions. Therefore, we have had to assess the implications of the VOD retrieval algorithms, with an emphasis on detecting uncertainty due to

  2. Initiating events study of the first extraction cycle process in a model reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renze; Zhang, Jian Gang; Zhuang, Dajie; Feng, Zong Yang [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Definition and grouping of initiating events (IEs) are important basics for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). An IE in a spent fuel reprocessing plant (SFRP) is an event that probably leads to the release of dangerous material to jeopardize workers, public and environment. The main difference between SFRPs and nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that hazard materials spread diffusely in a SFRP and radioactive material is just one kind of hazard material. Since the research on IEs for NPPs is in-depth around the world, there are several general methods to identify IEs: reference of lists in existence, review of experience feedback, qualitative analysis method, and deductive analysis method. While failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important qualitative analysis method, master logic diagram (MLD) method is the deductive analysis method. IE identification in SFRPs should be consulted with the experience of NPPs, however the differences between SFRPs and NPPs should be considered seriously. The plutonium uranium reduction extraction (Purex) process is adopted by the technics in a model reprocessing plant. The first extraction cycle (FEC) is the pivotal process in the Purex process. Whether the FEC can function safely and steadily would directly influence the production process of the whole plant-production quality. Important facilities of the FEC are installed in the equipment cells (ECs). In this work, IEs in the FEC process were identified and categorized by FMEA and MLD two methods, based on the fact that ECs are containments in the plant. The results show that only two ECs in the FEC do not need to be concerned particularly with safety problems, and criticality, fire and red oil explosion are IEs which should be emphatically analyzed. The results are accordant with the references.

  3. Very High Cycle Fatigue Crack Initiation Mechanism in Nugget Zone of AA 7075 Friction Stir Welded Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high cycle fatigue behavior of nugget zone in AA 7075 friction stir welded joint was experimentally investigated using ultrasonic fatigue testing system (20 kHz to clarify the crack initiation mechanism. It was found that the fatigue strength of nugget zone decreased continuously even beyond 107 cycles with no traditional fatigue limits. Fatigue cracks initiated from the welding defects located at the bottom side of the friction stir weld. Moreover, a special semicircular zone could be characterized around the crack initiation site, of which the stress intensity factor approximately equaled the threshold of fatigue crack propagation rate. Finally, a simplified model was proposed to estimate the fatigue life by correlating the welding defect size and applied stress. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Experimental investigation of crack initiation in face-centered cubic materials in the high and very high cycle fatigue regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Materials in many modern small-scale applications are under complex cyclic stress states and undergo up to 10{sup 9} cycles. Fatigue mechanisms limit their lifetime and lead to failure. Therefore, the Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF) regime needs to be studied. This thesis investigates the fatigue mechanisms and crack initiation of nickel, aluminum and copper on a small-scale in the VHCF regime by means of innovative fatigue experimentation. Firstly, the development and implementation of a novel custom-built resonant fatigue setup showed that the resonant frequency of bending micro-samples changes with increasing cycle number due to the accumulating fatigue damage. Then, additional insights on early damage formation have been explored. Mechanisms, prior to crack initiation, such as slip band formation at a state where it appears in only a few grains, have been observed. Cyclic hardening, vacancy formation and oxidation formation may be considered as possible explanations for early fatigue mechanisms. In addition, the new experimental setup can be used to define parameters needed for crack initiation models. Finally, these crack initiation processes have been experimentally examined for pure aluminum and pure copper.

  5. The potential role of ribosomal protein S5 on cell cycle arrest and initiation of murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matragkou, Christina N; Papachristou, Eleni T; Tezias, Sotirios S; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Choli-Papadopoulou, Theodora; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S

    2008-07-01

    Evidence now exists to indicate that some ribosomal proteins besides being structural components of the ribosomal subunits are involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and apoptosis. As we have shown earlier, initiation of erythroid differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells is associated with transcriptional inactivation of genes encoding ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins S5 (RPS5) and L35a. In this study, we extended these observations and investigated whether transfection of MEL cells with RPS5 cDNA affects the onset of initiation of erythroid maturation and their entrance in cell cycle arrest. Stably transfected MEL cloned cells (MEL-C14 and MEL-C56) were established and assessed for their capacity to produce RPS5 RNA transcript and its translated product. The impact of RPS5 cDNA transfection on the RPS5 gene expression patterns and the accumulation of RPS5 protein in inducible transfected MEL cells were correlated with their ability to: (a) initiate differentiation, (b) enter cell cycle arrest at G(1)/G(0) phase, and (c) modulate the level of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. The data presented indicate that deregulation of RPS5 gene expression (constitutive expression) affects RPS5 protein level and delays both the onset of initiation of erythroid maturation and entrance in cell cycle arrest in inducer-treated MEL cells. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study

  7. Effect of main inclusions on crack initiation in bearing steel in the very high cycle fatigue regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Bao, Yan-ping; Gan, Peng; Wang, Min; He, Jin-shan

    2018-06-01

    This work aims to investigate the effect of main inclusions on crack initiation in bearing steel in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime. The size and type of inclusions in the steel were quantitatively analyzed, and VHCF tests were performed. Some fatigue cracks were found to be initiated in the gaps between inclusions (Al2O3, MgO-Al2O3) and the matrix, while other cracks originated from the interior of inclusions (TiN, MnS). To explain the related mechanism, the tessellated stresses between inclusions and the matrix were calculated and compared with the yield stress of the matrix. Results revealed that the inclusions could be classified into two types under VHCF; of these two, only one type could be regarded as holes. Findings in this research provide a better understanding of how inclusions affect the high cycle fatigue properties of bearing steel.

  8. Design for life-cycle profit with simultaneous consideration of initial manufacturing and end-of-life remanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minjung; Kim, Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Remanufacturing is emerging as a promising solution for achieving green, profitable businesses. This article considers a manufacturer that produces new products and also remanufactured versions of the new products that become available at the end of their life cycle. For such a manufacturer, design decisions at the initial design stage determine both the current profit from manufacturing and future profit from remanufacturing. To maximize the total profit, design decisions must carefully consider both ends of product life cycle, i.e. manufacturing and end-of-life stages. This article proposes a decision-support model for the life-cycle design using mixed-integer nonlinear programming. With an aim to maximize the total life-cycle profit, the proposed model searches for an (at least locally) optimal product design (i.e. design specifications and the selling price) for the new and remanufactured products. It optimizes both the initial design and design upgrades at the end-of-life stage and also provides corresponding production strategies, including production quantities and take-back rate. The model is extended to a multi-objective model that maximizes both economic profit and environmental-impact saving. To illustrate, the developed model is demonstrated with an example of a desktop computer.

  9. The phenotypic spectrum of organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders Part 1: the initial presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölker, Stefan; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Cazorla, Angeles Garcia; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Lund, Allan M.; Burlina, Alberto B.; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Wijburg, Frits A.; Teles, Elisa Leão; Zeman, Jiri; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Barić, Ivo; Karall, Daniela; Augoustides-Savvopoulou, Persephone; Aksglaede, Lise; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Avram, Paula; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Chabrol, Brigitte; Chakrapani, Anupam; Chapman, Kimberly; I Saladelafont, Elisenda Cortès; Couce, Maria L.; de Meirleir, Linda; Dobbelaere, Dries; Dvorakova, Veronika; Furlan, Francesca; Gleich, Florian; Gradowska, Wanda; Grünewald, Stephanie; Jalan, Anil; Häberle, Johannes; Haege, Gisela; Lachmann, Robin; Laemmle, Alexander; Langereis, Eveline; de Lonlay, Pascale; Martinelli, Diego; Matsumoto, Shirou; Mühlhausen, Chris; de Baulny, Hélène Ogier; Ortez, Carlos; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Ramadža, Danijela Petković; Rodrigues, Esmeralda; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Sokal, Etienne; Staufner, Christian; Summar, Marshall L.; Thompson, Nicholas; Vara, Roshni; Pinera, Inmaculada Vives; Walter, John H.; Williams, Monique; Burgard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical presentation of patients with organic acidurias (OAD) and urea cycle disorders (UCD) is variable; symptoms are often non-specific. Aims/methods To improve the knowledge about OAD and UCD the E-IMD consortium established a web-based patient registry. Results We registered 795

  10. Formation of stress/strain cycles for analytical assessment of fatigue crack initiation and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkinov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses standard techniques for setting up cycles of stresses, strains and stress intensity factors (SIF) for use in analysing the fatigue characteristics of crack-free components or the fatigue crack growth if crack-like flaws are present. A number of improved techniques are proposed. An enhanced procedure for analytical description of true metal stress-strain curves, covering plastic effects, is presented. This procedure involves standard physical and mechanical properties of the metal in question, such as ultimate stress, yield stress and elasticity modulus. It is emphasized that the currently practiced rain-flow method of design cycle formation, which is effective for an actual (truly known) cyclic loading history, is not suitable for a projected (anticipated) history, as it leaves out of account possible variations in the sequence of operating conditions. Improved techniques for establishing design stress/strain and SIF cycles are described, which make allowance for the most unfavourable sequence of events in the projected loading history. The paper points to a basic difference in the methods of design cycle formation, employed in assessment of the current condition of a component (with the actual history accounted for) and in estimation of the residual lifetime or life extension (for a projected history). (authors)

  11. The LCIA midpoint-damage framework of the UNEP/SETAC life cycle initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolliet, O; Muller-Wenk, R; Bare, J; Brent, A; Goedkoop, M; Heijungs, R; Itsubo, N; Pena, C; Pennington, D; Potting, J; Rebitzer, G; Stewart, M; de Haes, HU; Weidema, B

    2004-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods can be grouped into two families: classical methods determining impact category indicators at an intermediate position of the impact pathways (e.g. ozone depletion potentials) and damage-oriented methods aiming at more easily

  12. The LCIA midpoint-damage framework of the UNEP/SETAC life cycle initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Müller-Wenk, Ruedi; Bare, Jane; Brent, Alan; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Itsubo, Norihiro; Peña, Claudia; Pennington, David; Potting, José; Rebitzer, Gerald; Stewart, Mary; De Haes, Helias A Udo; Weidema, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods can be grouped into two families: classical methods determining impact category indicators at an intermediate position of the impact pathways (e.g. ozone depletion potentials) and damag e-oriented methods aiming at more easily

  13. Analysis of fatigue crack initiation in cycled austempered ductile cast irons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrenec, Martin; Beran, Přemysl; Dluhoš, J.; Zouhar, Michal; Ševčík, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 2337-2346 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [ Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2371; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Low cycle fatigue * ADI * Finite element modelling * Neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue , Friction Mechanics

  14. Timing of initiation of macronuclear DNA synthesis is set during the preceding cell cycle in Paramecium tetraurelia: analysis of the effects of abrupt changes in nutrient level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, A.S.L.; Berger, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    In many eukaryotic organisms, initiation of DNA synthesis is associated with a major control point within the cell cycle and reflects the commitment of the cell to the DNA replication-division portion of the cell cycle. In paramecium, the timing of DNA synthesis initiation is established prior to fission during the preceding cell cycle. DNA synthesis normally starts at 0.25 in the cell cycle. When dividing cells are subjected to abrupt nutrient shift-up by transfer from a chemostat culture to medium with excess food, or shift-down from a well-fed culture to exhausted medium, DNA synthesis initiation in the post-shift cell cycle occurs at 0.25 of the parental cell cycle and not at either 0.25 in the post-shift cell cycle or at 0.25 in the equilibrium cell cycle produced under the post-shift conditions. The long delay prior to initiation of DNA synthesis following nutritional shift-up is not a consequence of continued slow growth because the rate of protein synthesis increases rapidly to the normal level after shift-up. Analysis of the relation between increase in cell mass and initiation of DNA synthesis following nutritional shifts indicates that increase in cell mass, per se, is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for initiation of DNA synthesis, in spite of the strong association between accumulation of cell mass and initiation of DNA synthesis in cells growing under steady-state conditions

  15. DNA Amplification by Breakage/Fusion/Bridge Cycles Initiated by Spontaneous Telomere Loss in a Human Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony W.l. Lo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of genomic instability is an important step in generatingthe multiple genetic changes required for cancer. One consequence of genomic instability is the overexpression of oncogenes due to gene amplification. One mechanism for gene amplification is the breakagelfusionlbridge (B/F/Bcyclethatinvolvesthe repeated fusion and breakage of chromosomes following the loss of a telomere. B/F/B cycles have been associated with low-copy gene amplification in human cancer cells, and have been proposed to be an initiating event in high-copy gene amplification. We have found that spontaneous telomere loss on a marker chromosome 16 in a human tumor cell line results in sister chromatid fusion and prolonged periods of chromosome instability. The high rate of anaphase bridges involving chromosome 16 demonstrates that this instability results from B/F/B cycles. The amplification of subtelomeric DNA on the marker chromosome provides conclusive evidence that B/F/B cycles initiated by spontaneous telomere loss are a mechanism for gene amplification in human cancer cells.

  16. [Sea urchin embryo, DNA-damaged cell cycle checkpoint and the mechanisms initiating cancer development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellé, Robert; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Morales, Julia; Cosson, Bertrand; Cormier, Patrick; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile

    2007-01-01

    Cell division is an essential process for heredity, maintenance and evolution of the whole living kingdom. Sea urchin early development represents an excellent experimental model for the analysis of cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms since embryonic cells contain a functional DNA-damage checkpoint and since the whole sea urchin genome is sequenced. The DNA-damaged checkpoint is responsible for an arrest in the cell cycle when DNA is damaged or incorrectly replicated, for activation of the DNA repair mechanism, and for commitment to cell death by apoptosis in the case of failure to repair. New insights in cancer biology lead to two fundamental concepts about the very first origin of cancerogenesis. Cancers result from dysfunction of DNA-damaged checkpoints and cancers appear as a result of normal stem cell (NCS) transformation into a cancer stem cell (CSC). The second aspect suggests a new definition of "cancer", since CSC can be detected well before any clinical evidence. Since early development starts from the zygote, which is a primary stem cell, sea urchin early development allows analysis of the early steps of the cancerization process. Although sea urchins do not develop cancers, the model is alternative and complementary to stem cells which are not easy to isolate, do not divide in a short time and do not divide synchronously. In the field of toxicology and incidence on human health, the sea urchin experimental model allows assessment of cancer risk from single or combined molecules long before any epidemiologic evidence is available. Sea urchin embryos were used to test the worldwide used pesticide Roundup that contains glyphosate as the active herbicide agent; it was shown to activate the DNA-damage checkpoint of the first cell cycle of development. The model therefore allows considerable increase in risk evaluation of new products in the field of cancer and offers a tool for the discovery of molecular markers for early diagnostic in cancer biology

  17. Very high cycle fatigue crack initiation in electroplated Ni films under extreme stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, E.K.; Pierron, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization technique based on kilohertz micro-resonators is presented to investigate the very high cycle fatigue behavior of 20 μm thick electroplated Ni films with a columnar microstructure (grain diameter less than 2 μm). The films exhibit superior fatigue resistance due to the extreme stress gradients at the surface. The effects of stress amplitude and environment on the formation of fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks are discussed based on scanning electron microscopy and the tracking of the specimens’ resonant frequency.

  18. Performance degradation and microstructure changes in freeze-thaw cycling for PEMFC MEAs with various initial microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Yeop; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Cho, EunAe; Lee, Kug-Seung; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Jang, Jong Hyun [Fuel Cell Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, In Chul [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 446-912 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    When the temperature of a fuel cell vehicle is repeatedly reduced to subzero temperatures, volume changes by water/ice transformations and frost heave mechanism can cause microstructural changes in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA), and a resultant permanent decrease in the performance of fuel cell stacks. In this study, five MEAs manufactured by different methods, were tested under repeated freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles between -20 C and 10 C, and the variations in their electrochemical and microstructural characteristics were analyzed according to the initial microstructures. When the MEAs were prepared by spraying catalyst inks on polymer membranes, no significant microstructural changes were observed. In the case of two supplied MEAs, void formations at the electrolyte/electrode interface or vertical cracks within the catalyst layers were observed after 120 F-T cycles. Void formation seems to be responsible for performance degradation as a result of ohmic loss, but the effect of cracks in the catalyst layers was not confirmed. In 120 F-T cycles, activation overpotentials and concentration overpotentials did not increase significantly for any of the MEAs, even although gradual decreases in the electrochemically active surface area of the platinum catalysts and changes in the porous structure were observed. (author)

  19. Abscisic Acid Participates in the Control of Cell Cycle Initiation Through Heme Homeostasis in the Unicellular Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Ando, Hiroyuki; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-05-01

    ABA is a phytohormone that is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses and other environmental changes, inducing various physiological responses. While ABA has been found in unicellular photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae, its function in these organisms is poorly understood. Here, we found that ABA accumulated in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae under conditions of salt stress and that the cell cycle G1/S transition was inhibited when ABA was added to the culture medium. A gene encoding heme-scavenging tryptophan-rich sensory protein-related protein (CmTSPO; CMS231C) was positively regulated by ABA, as in Arabidopsis, and CmTSPO bound heme in vitro. The intracellular content of total heme was increased by addition of ABA, but unfettered heme decreased, presumably due to scavenging by CmTSPO. The inhibition of DNA replication by ABA was negated by addition of heme to the culture medium. Thus, we propose a regulatory role for ABA and heme in algal cell cycle initiation. Finally, we found that a C. merolae mutant that is defective in ABA production was more susceptible to salt stress, indicating the importance of ABA to stress resistance in red algae. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    of issues across contract boundaries is a more difficult matter. This aspect, one of a seamless systems approach to the treatment of tank wastes at the Hanford site, is the focus of the Optimization Studies. This ''big O''Optimization of Life-Cycle operations is what is meant when the term ''optimization'' is used on the River Protection Project and initiatives cited in this paper. From the early contractor centric methods and processes used to move toward an integrated solution, through extensive partnering approaches, to the current quality initiatives with multi-organizational participation, significant progress is being made towards achieving the goal of truly integrated life-cycle optimization for the Department of Energy's River Protection Project and Waste Treatment Plant

  1. Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light Water Reactor/Fast Burner Reactor Fuel Cycles Proposed as Part of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kent Alan; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based 'static equilibrium' economic analysis was performed for three nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, each designed for 100 GWe-years of electrical generation annually: (1) a 'once-through' fuel cycle based on 100% LWRs fueled by standard UO2 fuel assemblies with all used fuel destined for geologic repository emplacement, (2) a 'single-tier recycle' scenario involving multiple fast burner reactors (37% of generation) accepting actinides (Pu,Np,Am,Cm) from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled LWR fleet (63% of generation), and (3) a 'two-tier' 'thermal+fast' recycle scenario where co-extracted U,Pu from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled part of the LWR fleet (66% of generation) is recycled once as full-core LWR MOX fuel (8% of generation), with the LWR MOX used fuel being reprocessed and all actinide products from both UO2 and MOX used fuel reprocessing being introduced into the closed fast burner reactor (26% of generation) fuel cycle. The latter two 'closed' fuel cycles, which involve symbiotic use of both thermal and fast reactors, have the advantages of lower natural uranium requirements per kilowatt-hour generated and less geologic repository space per kilowatt-hour as compared to the 'once-through' cycle. The overall fuel cycle cost in terms of $ per megawatt-hr of generation, however, for the closed cycles is 15% (single tier) to 29% (two-tier) higher than for the once-through cycle, based on 'expected values' from an uncertainty analysis using triangular distributions for the unit costs for each required step of the fuel cycle. (The fuel cycle cost does not include the levelized reactor life cycle costs.) Since fuel cycle costs are a relatively small percentage (10 to 20%) of the overall busbar cost (LUEC or 'levelized unit electricity cost') of nuclear power generation, this fuel cycle cost increase should not have a highly deleterious effect on the competitiveness of nuclear power. If the reactor life cycle

  2. CD274 promotes cell cycle entry of leukemia-initiating cells through JNK/Cyclin D2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Fang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD274 (programmed death ligand 1, also known as B7H1 is expressed in both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies and is of critical importance for the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance by inhibiting T cell function via its receptor, programmed death 1 (PD-1. Increasing evidence indicates that functional monoclonal antibodies of CD274 may potently enhance the antitumor effect in many cancers. However, the role of CD274 in leukemia-initiating cells (LICs remains largely unknown. Methods We established an MLL-AF9-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML model with wild-type (WT and CD274-null mice to elucidate the role of CD274 in the cell fates of LICs, including self-renewal, differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. RNA sequencing was performed to reveal the potential downstream targets, the results of which were further validated both in vitro and in vivo. Results In silico analysis indicated that CD274 level was inversely correlated with the overall survival of AML patients. In Mac-1+/c-Kit+ mouse LICs, CD274 was expressed at a much higher level than in the normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. The survival of the mice with CD274-null leukemia cells was dramatically extended during the serial transplantation compared with that of their WT counterparts. CD274 deletion led to a significant decrease in LIC frequency and arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, CD274 is not required for the maintenance of HSC pool as shown in our previous study. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the levels of both phospho-JNK and Cyclin D2 were strikingly downregulated in CD274-null LICs. The overexpression of Cyclin D2 fully rescued the loss of function of CD274. Moreover, CD274 was directly associated with JNK and enhanced the downstream signaling to increase the Cyclin D2 level, promoting leukemia development. Conclusions The surface immune molecule CD274 plays a critical role in the proliferation of LICs

  3. The advanced fuel cycle initiative: the future path for advanced spent fuel treatment and transmutation research in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested over USD 100 million in transmutation research and development over the past three years. The programme has evolved from an accelerator based transmutation programme to a multi-tier reactor and accelerator based programme. These changes have resulted in a significant re-focus of the research and development programme as well as a name change to reflect the new direction. The Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) programme is now renamed the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Research completed by the AAA programme in Fiscal Year 2002 points to a multi-phased AFCI Programme consisting of two elements that would be conducted in parallel as part of an integrated research effort: an intermediate-term technology element (AFCI Series One), which emphasises advanced technical enhancements to the current commercial nuclear power infrastructure; and a long term technology element (AFCI Series Two), which will require the introduction of next-generation nuclear energy systems to reduce the toxicity of nuclear waste. (author)

  4. Proposed chemical plant initiated accident scenarios in a sulphur-iodine cycle plant coupled to a pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.R.; Revankar, S.T.; Seker, V.; Downar, Th.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the sulphur-iodine (S-I) cycle nuclear hydrogen generation scheme the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). Thus, any accident which occurs in the chemical plant must feedback to the nuclear reactor. There are many different types of accidents which can occur in a chemical plant. These accidents include intra-reactor piping failure, inter-reactor piping failure, reaction chamber failure and heat exchanger failure. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, any of these accidents induce a loss-of-heat-sink accident in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, several chemical plant initiated accident scenarios are presented. The following accident scenarios are proposed: i) failure of the Bunsen chemical reactor; ii) product flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iii) reactant flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iv) rupture of a reaction chamber. Qualitative analysis of these accident scenarios indicates that each result in either partial or total loss of heat sink accidents for the nuclear reactor. These scenarios are reduced to two types: i) discharge rate limited accidents; ii) discontinuous reaction chamber accidents. A discharge rate limited rupture of the SO 3 decomposition section of the SI cycle is proposed and modelled. Since SO 3 decomposition occurs in the gaseous phase, critical flow out of the rupture is calculated assuming ideal gas behaviour. The accident scenario is modelled using a fully transient control volume model of the S-I cycle coupled to a THERMIX model of a 268 MW pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR-268) and a point kinetics model. The Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot source model for choked gas flows from a pressurised chamber was utilised as a discharge rate model. A discharge coefficient of 0.62 was assumed. Feedback due to the rupture is observed in the nuclear

  5. Sources and mobility of carbonate melts beneath cratons, with implications for deep carbon cycling, metasomatism and rift initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Romer, Rolf L.; Stracke, Andreas; Steenfelt, Agnete; Smart, Katie A.; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2017-05-01

    Kimberlite and carbonatite magmas that intrude cratonic lithosphere are among the deepest probes of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Their co-existence on thick continental shields is commonly attributed to continuous partial melting sequences of carbonated peridotite at >150 km depths, possibly as deep as the mantle transition zone. At Tikiusaaq on the North Atlantic craton in West Greenland, approximately 160 Ma old ultrafresh kimberlite dykes and carbonatite sheets provide a rare opportunity to study the origin and evolution of carbonate-rich melts beneath cratons. Although their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-Li isotopic compositions suggest a common convecting upper mantle source that includes depleted and recycled oceanic crust components (e.g., negative ΔεHf coupled with > + 5 ‰ δ7Li), incompatible trace element modelling identifies only the kimberlites as near-primary low-degree partial melts (0.05-3%) of carbonated peridotite. In contrast, the trace element systematics of the carbonatites are difficult to reproduce by partial melting of carbonated peridotite, and the heavy carbon isotopic signatures (-3.6 to - 2.4 ‰ δ13C for carbonatites versus -5.7 to - 3.6 ‰ δ13C for kimberlites) require open-system fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Given that the oxidation state of Earth's mantle at >150 km depth is too reduced to enable larger volumes of 'pure' carbonate melt to migrate, it is reasonable to speculate that percolating near-solidus melts of carbonated peridotite must be silicate-dominated with only dilute carbonate contents, similar to the Tikiusaaq kimberlite compositions (e.g., 16-33 wt.% SiO2). This concept is supported by our findings from the North Atlantic craton where kimberlite and other deeply derived carbonated silicate melts, such as aillikites, exsolve their carbonate components within the shallow lithosphere en route to the Earth's surface, thereby producing carbonatite magmas. The relative abundances of trace elements of such highly

  6. Diel cycling of zinc in a stream impacted by acid rock drainage: Initial results from a new in situ Zn analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.P.; Nimick, D.A.; Gammons, C.H.; Wanty, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that many trace metals undergo dramatic diel (24-h) cycles in near neutral pH streams with metal concentrations reproducibly changing up to 500% during the diel period (Nimick et al., 2003). To examine diel zinc cycles in streams affected by acid rock drainage, we have developed a novel instrument, the Zn-DigiScan, to continuously monitor in situ zinc concentrations in near real-time. Initial results from a 3-day deployment at Fisher Creek, Montana have demonstrated the ability of the Zn-DigiScan to record diel Zn cycling at levels below 100 ??g/l. Longer deployments of this instrument could be used to examine the effects of episodic events such as rainstorms and snowmelt pulses on zinc loading in streams affected by acid rock drainage. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  7. Promoter binding, initiation, and elongation by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. A single-molecule view of the transcription cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gary M; Baumann, Christoph G; Quinn, Diana M; Molloy, Justin E; Hoggett, James G

    2004-01-30

    A single-molecule transcription assay has been developed that allows, for the first time, the direct observation of promoter binding, initiation, and elongation by a single RNA polymerase (RNAP) molecule in real-time. To promote DNA binding and transcription initiation, a DNA molecule tethered between two optically trapped beads was held near a third immobile surface bead sparsely coated with RNAP. By driving the optical trap holding the upstream bead with a triangular oscillation while measuring the position of both trapped beads, we observed the onset of promoter binding, promoter escape (productive initiation), and processive elongation by individual RNAP molecules. After DNA template release, transcription re-initiation on the same DNA template is possible; thus, multiple enzymatic turnovers by an individual RNAP molecule can be observed. Using bacteriophage T7 RNAP, a commonly used RNAP paradigm, we observed the association and dissociation (k(off)= 2.9 s(-1)) of T7 RNAP and promoter DNA, the transition to the elongation mode (k(for) = 0.36 s(-1)), and the processive synthesis (k(pol) = 43 nt s(-1)) and release of a gene-length RNA transcript ( approximately 1200 nt). The transition from initiation to elongation is much longer than the mean lifetime of the binary T7 RNAP-promoter DNA complex (k(off) > k(for)), identifying a rate-limiting step between promoter DNA binding and promoter escape.

  8. Addressing Opioid-Associated Constipation Using Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Scores and Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Varinder; Haider, Sajjad; Sasapu, Appalanaidu; Mehta, Paulette; Arnaoutakis, Konstantinos; Makhoul, Issam

    2017-01-01

    Using the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, an affiliate program of ASCO, we outlined opioid-associated constipation (OAC) as a subject in need of quality improvement (QI) in our fellowship program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System. We initiated a fellow-led QI project to advance the quality of patient care and provide a valuable avenue for QI training of young physicians. Fellows organized meetings with all stakeholders, addressed the scope of the problem, and devised strategies for OAC management. Monthly meetings were organized using Plan-Do-Study-Act principles. Mandatory check boxes were inserted into our electronic medical record templates to remind all physicians to identify patients on opioid medications and assess and address OAC. Final chart audit and patient satisfaction surveys were performed 6 months after project initiation. Assessment of OAC improved from 52% at baseline to 92% ( P < .003). This improvement corresponded with high patient satisfaction scores, with 90% of surveyed patients reporting adequate management of their constipation. In this QI initiative, we showed that participation in ASCO's Quality Oncology Practice Initiative helps identify areas in need of QI, and such fellow-led QI projects can serve as models for QI training of young physicians.

  9. An initial study on modeling the global thermal and fast reactor fuel cycle mass flow using Vensim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinton, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    This study concentrated on modeling the construction and decommissioning rates of five major facilities comprising the nuclear fuel cycle: (1) current LWRs with a 60-year service life, (2) new LWRs burning MOX fuel, (3) new LWRs to replace units in the current fleet, (4) new FRs to be added to the fleet, and (5) new spent fuel reprocessing facilities. This is a mass flow mode starting from uranium ore and following it to spent forms. The visual dynamic modeling program Vensim was used to create a system of equations and variables to track the mass flows from enrichment, fabrication, burn-up, and the back-end of the fuel cycle. The scenarios considered provide estimates of the uranium ore requirements, quantities of LLW and HLW production, and the number of reprocessing facilities necessary to reduce recently reported levels of spent fuel inventory. Preliminary results indicate that the entire national spent fuel inventory produced in the next 100 years can be reprocessed with a reprocessing plant built every 11 years (small capacity) or even as low as every 23 years (large capacity). (authors)

  10. Engineering product storage under the advanced fuel cycle initiative. Part I: An iterative thermal transport modeling scheme for high-heat-generating radioactive storage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an integrated nuclear fuel cycle technology under its Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Under the AFCI, waste minimization is stressed. Engineered product storage materials will be required to store concentrated radioactive cesium, strontium, americium, and curium for periods of tens to hundreds of years. The fabrication of such engineered products has some precedence but the concept is largely novel. We thus present a theoretical model used to calculate the maximum radial dimensions of right cylinder storage forms under several scenarios. Maximum dimensions are small, comparable to nuclear fuel pins in some cases, to avoid centerline melting temperatures; this highlights the need for a careful strategy for engineered product storage fabrication and storage

  11. Strain localization and fatigue crack initiation in ultrafine-grained copper in high- and giga-cycle region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Navrátilová, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, JAN (2014), s. 202-208 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2001; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * Strain localization * Stability of ultrafine-grained structure * UFG Cu Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  12. The complexity of simplifications in the teaching of mechanics at the university initial cycle: the case of the treatment of pulleys in textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Giorgi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on mechanics textbooks widely used in physics courses of the university initial cycle of scientific and technological careers that form part of Spanish-speaking universities. Through a content analysis, we investigated the explanations given by the authors of the textbooks about the "simplifying" hypotheses adopted to address the study of the behavior of pulleys in the initial mechanics topics. Those consist in considering pulleys massless and frictionless. On the other hand, we analyzed if these assumptions are reconsidered in the study of solids in rotation. We concluded  that, although simplifying assumptions are included in teaching to facilitate the understanding of physics phenomena by students, they are not always clarifying, leading to hinder, rather than simplify, the conceptualization applied to the behavior of physical systems when they study from textbooks. Issues that could be useful to teachers are warned.

  13. NASA's Carbon Cycle OSSE Initiative - Informing future space-based observing strategies through advanced modeling and data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, L.; Sellers, P. J.; Schimel, D.; Moore, B., III; O'Dell, C.; Crowell, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are critically needed to improve understanding of the contemporary carbon budget and carbon-climate feedbacks. Though current carbon observing satellites have provided valuable data in regions not covered by surface in situ measurements, limited sampling of key regions and small but spatially coherent biases have limited the ability to estimate fluxes at the time and space scales needed for improved process-level understanding and informed decision-making. Next generation satellites will improve coverage in data sparse regions, either through use of active remote sensing, a geostationary vantage point, or increased swath width, but all techniques have limitations. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these approaches and their synergism have not previously been examined. To address these needs, a significant subset of the US carbon modeling community has come together with support from NASA to conduct a series of coordinated observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs), with close collaboration in framing the experiments and in analyzing the results. Here, we report on the initial phase of this initiative, which focused on creating realistic, physically consistent synthetic CO2 and CH4 observational datasets for use in inversion and signal detection experiments. These datasets have been created using NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS) to represent the current state of atmospheric carbon as well as best available estimates of expected flux changes. Scenarios represented include changes in urban emissions, release of permafrost soil carbon, changes in carbon uptake in tropical and mid-latitude forests, changes in the Southern Ocean sink, and changes in both anthropogenic and natural methane emissions. This GEOS carbon `nature run' was sampled by instrument simulators representing the most prominent observing strategies with a focus on consistently representing the impacts of

  14. Chlorine as a primary radical: evaluation of methods to understand its role in initiation of oxidative cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. J.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Edwards, P. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Mielke, L. H.; Osthoff, H. D.; Tsai, C.; Pikelnaya, O.; Stutz, J.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Griffith, S.; Dusanter, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Flynn, J.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Brown, S. S.

    2014-04-01

    atoms do play an important role in photochemistry there, constituting 9% of the primary radical source. Furthermore, Cl-VOC reactivity differs from that of OH, being more than an order of magnitude larger and dominated by VOCs, such as alkanes, that are less reactive toward OH. Primary Cl is also slightly more effective as a radical source than primary OH due to its greater propensity to initiate radical propagation chains via VOC reactions relative to chain termination via reaction with nitrogen oxides.

  15. The massless spring modelling: difficulties of students in its conceptualization and treatment in physics textbooks used at the university initial cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Giorgi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Physics teaching, especially when the topics of Mechanics are addressed, there are several situations about masses linked by springs, in which springs are considered to have negligible mass with simplifying purposes. We present a study on the conceptualizations, from the dynamic and energetic points of view, achieved by university students who study scientific and technological careers, about this modelling. From the unpromising results obtained, we inquired, about the treatment of this idealization in Physics textbooks frequently used in the initial cycle, in which we researched if the physical consequences of considering springs massless are properly explained by the authors. From the results achieved we consider that establishing links between this idealization, and applying laws and physical principles when addressing problem situations may not be immediate for students; and, on the other hand, we found that not all the authors presented sufficient explanations about this simplifying assumption. Recommendations for teachers are mentioned.

  16. One carbon cycle: Impacts of model integration, ecosystem process detail, model resolution, and initialization data, on projections of future climate mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; le page, Y.; Patel, P. L.; Chini, L. P.; Sahajpal, R.; Dubayah, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J.; Janetos, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) simulate the interactions between human and natural systems at a global scale, representing a broad suite of phenomena across the global economy, energy system, land-use, and carbon cycling. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink as a substantial contribution to restrain the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, however most IAMs rely on simplified regional representations of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. We developed the new Integrated Ecosystem Demography (iED) to increase terrestrial ecosystem process detail, resolution, and the utilization of remote sensing in integrated assessments. iED brings together state-of-the-art models of human society (GCAM), spatial land-use patterns (GLM) and terrestrial ecosystems (ED) in a fully coupled framework. The major innovative feature of iED is a consistent, process-based representation of ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle throughout the human, terrestrial, land-use, and atmospheric components. One of the most challenging aspects of ecosystem modeling is to provide accurate initialization of land surface conditions to reflect non-equilibrium conditions, i.e., the actual successional state of the forest. As all plants in ED have an explicit height, it is one of the few ecosystem models that can be initialized directly with vegetation height data. Previous work has demonstrated that ecosystem model resolution and initialization data quality have a large effect on flux predictions at continental scales. Here we use a factorial modeling experiment to quantify the impacts of model integration, process detail, model resolution, and initialization data on projections of

  17. Statistical investigation of the crack initiation lives of piping structural welded joint in low cycle fatigue test of 240 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun

    1999-01-01

    A statistical investigation into the fitting of four possible fatigue assumed distributions (three parameter Weibull, two parameter Weibull, lognormal and extreme maximum value distributions) for the crack initiation lives of piping structural welded joint in low cycle fatigue test of 240 degree C is performed by linear regression and least squares methods. The results reveal that the three parameters Weibull distribution may give misleading results in fatigue reliability analysis because the shape parameter is often less than 1. This means that the failure rate decreases with fatigue cycling which is contrary to the general understanding of the behaviour of welded joint. Reliability analyses may also affected by the slightly nonconservative evaluations in tail regions of this distribution. The other three distributions are slightly poor in the total fit effects, but they can be safety assumed in reliability analyses due to the non-conservative evaluations in tail regions mostly and the consistency with the fatigue physics of the structural behaviour of welded joint in the range of engineering practice. In addition, the extreme maximum value distribution is in good consists with the general physical understanding of the structural behaviour of welded joint

  18. Initial estimates of the economical attractiveness of a nuclear closed Brayton combined cycle operating with firebrick resistance-heated energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chavagnat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage (FIRES concept developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology aims to enhance profitability of the nuclear power industry in the next decades. Studies carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology already provide estimates of the potential revenue from FIRES system when it is applied to industrial heat supply, the likely first application. Here, we investigate the possibility of operating a power plant (PP with a fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor and a closed Brayton cycle. This variant offers features such as enhanced nuclear safety as well as flexibility in design of the PP but also radically changes the way of operating the PP. This exploratory study provides estimates of the revenue generated by FIRES in addition to the nominal revenue of the stand-alone fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor, which are useful for defining an initial design. The electricity price data is based on the day-ahead markets of Germany/Austria and the United States (Iowa. The proposed method derives from the equation of revenue introduced in this study and involves simple computations using MatLab to compute the estimates. Results show variable economic potential depending on the host grid but stress a high profitability in both regions. Keywords: Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage, Nuclear Power Plant, Revenue Estimate, Storage System

  19. A framework of initiatives for successful application of life cycle costing (LCC in industrialised building system (IBS in Malaysian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin Siti Mazzuana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialised Building System (IBS contributes a great shift in sustainable construction and benefits the society. Previous studies have proven in general that one of the hindrances in promoting sustainable in IBS, is a high cost for any pre-cast material specifically thus effected the overall cost. The introduction of Life Cycle Costing (LCC leads into providing a better and comprehensive cost estimation, including projecting actual cost to operate the building, hence providing a better baseline for decision making. The lacking application of LCC in IBS is still in trivial impact, therefore, this paper presents a framework which produced by expressing the successful initiatives of LCC and IBS in Malaysia construction industry. The framework developed based on findings from the extensive literature reviews, 164 responded questionnaires, and 19 expert opinions, which has three sections: Strategy Development, System Development and the last part is Decision Level. Aspects of objectivity, practicality, reliability, completeness that were likely to be implemented in the Malaysian construction industry were used. There are significant opinions on the usefulness and completeness of the proposed framework in providing a comprehensive cost estimates which helps much in deciding to carry out IBS or remain with a traditional construction method.

  20. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  1. Gravity wave life cycle (GW-LCYCLE): Initial results from a coordinated field program to trace gravity waves from the troposphere to the MLT-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus

    Gravity waves (GW) play an important role in the coupling between the troposphere and the middle atmosphere (˜10 - 120 km). GWs couple different atmospheric regions both in the vertical as well as in the horizontal directions by means of momentum and energy transport. Notably, this coupling is effective both from the troposphere upwards, and also in the opposite direction by indirect effects on circulation patterns. While the importance of GW for understanding atmospheric structure, dynamics and climate is now widely recognized, surprisingly little is still known about the details of the GW life cycle, i.e., the processes of GW excitation, propagation and dissipation. To address this issue a coordinated field program - named GW-LCYCLE - has been established in which ground based observations with radars, lidars and airglow imagers are combined with airborne observations, balloon soundings, and modelling to trace GWs from their source in the troposphere to their area of dissipation in the middle atmosphere. Within GW-LCYCLE an initial field campaign was conducted in December 2013 in Northern Scandinavia. The research aircraft DLR-FALCON was deployed to Kiruna, Sweden, from where several flights (with a total of 25 flight hours) were conducted to study mountain wave generation by flow over the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The FALCON was equipped with a downward looking wind lidar operating at a wavelength of 2 mum as well as with an in-flight system to measure winds, temperatures and pressures and with several in-situ instruments to detect wave signatures in trace gases like H _{2}O, CO _{2}, CO, CH _{4}, N _{2}O, HNO _{3} and SO _{2}. Ground based observations of winds and temperatures from the troposphere to the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT-) region were conducted from Kiruna as well as from Andenes, Norway. These measurements were augmented by balloon soundings from the same places as well as from Sodankylä in Finland. Coordinated observations were

  2. Studying Microbial Mat Functioning Amidst "Unexpected Diversity": Methodological Approaches and Initial Results from Metatranscriptomes of Mats Over Diel cycles, iTags from Long Term Manipulations, and Biogeochemical Cycling in Simplified Microbial Mats Constructed from Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, B.; Bebout, L. E.; Detweiler, A. M.; Everroad, R. C.; Lee, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial mats are famously amongst the most diverse microbial ecosystems on Earth, inhabiting some of the most inclement environments known, including hypersaline, dry, hot, cold, nutrient poor, and high UV environments. The high microbial diversity of microbial mats makes studies of microbial ecology notably difficult. To address this challenge, we have been using a combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, iTags and culture-based simplified microbial mats to study biogeochemical cycling (H2 production, N2 fixation, and fermentation) in microbial mats collected from Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California. Metatranscriptomes of microbial mats incubated over a diel cycle have revealed that a number of gene systems activate only during the day in Cyanobacteria, while the remaining appear to be constitutive. The dominant cyanobacterium in the mat (Microcoleus chthonoplastes) expresses several pathways for nitrogen scavenging undocumented in cultured strains, as well as the expression of two starch storage and utilization cycles. Community composition shifts in response to long term manipulations of mats were assessed using iTags. Changes in community diversity were observed as hydrogen fluxes increased in response to a lowering of sulfate concentrations. To produce simplified microbial mats, we have isolated members of 13 of the 15 top taxa from our iTag libraries into culture. Simplified microbial mats and simple co-cultures and consortia constructed from these isolates reproduce many of the natural patterns of biogeochemical cycling in the parent natural microbial mats, but against a background of far lower overall diversity, simplifying studies of changes in gene expression (over the short term), interactions between community members, and community composition changes (over the longer term), in response to environmental forcing.

  3. Evaluation of a minimally invasive procedure for sacroiliac joint fusion – an in vitro biomechanical analysis of initial and cycled properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey DP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Derek P Lindsey,1 Luis Perez-Orribo,2 Nestor Rodriguez-Martinez,2 Phillip M Reyes,2 Anna Newcomb,2 Alexandria Cable,2 Grace Hickam,2 Scott A Yerby,1 Neil R Crawford21SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA; 2Spinal Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAIntroduction: Sacroiliac (SI joint pain has become a recognized factor in low back pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a minimally invasive surgical SI joint fusion procedure on the in vitro biomechanics of the SI joint before and after cyclic loading.Methods: Seven cadaveric specimens were tested under the following conditions: intact, posterior ligaments (PL and pubic symphysis (PS cut, treated (three implants placed, and after 5,000 cycles of flexion–extension. The range of motion (ROM in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was determined with an applied 7.5 N • m moment using an optoelectronic system. Results for each ROM were compared using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA with a Holm–Šidák post-hoc test.Results: Placement of three fusion devices decreased the flexion–extension ROM. Lateral bending and axial rotation were not significantly altered. All PL/PS cut and post-cyclic ROMs were larger than in the intact condition. The 5,000 cycles of flexion–extension did not lead to a significant increase in any ROMs.Discussion: In the current model, placement of three 7.0 mm iFuse Implants significantly decreased the flexion–extension ROM. Joint ROM was not increased by 5,000 flexion–extension cycles.Keywords: biomechanics, iliosacral, arthrodesis, cadaver

  4. Classroom Observations: Documenting Shifts in Instruction for Districtwide Improvement. Formative Evaluation Cycle Report for the Math in Common Initiative, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rebecca R.; Seago, Nanette M.; Burr, Elizabeth; Broek, Marie; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Math in Common® (MiC) is a five-year initiative that supports a formal network of 10 California school districts as they implement the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSS-M) across grades K-8. This research brief explores how best to select or develop and use classroom observation systems in order to document instructional shifts and…

  5. UV-B inhibition of hypocotyl growth in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is a consequence of cell cycle arrest initiated by photodimer accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biever, Jessica J.; Brinkman, Doug; Gardner, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important constituent of sunlight that determines plant morphology and growth. It induces photomorphogenic responses but also causes damage to DNA. Arabidopsis mutants of the endonucleases that function in nucleotide excision repair, xpf-3 and uvr1-1, showed hypersensitivity to UV-B (280–320nm) in terms of inhibition of hypocotyl growth. SOG1 is a transcription factor that functions in the DNA damage signalling response after γ-irradiation. xpf mutants that carry the sog1-1 mutation showed hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B irradiation similar to the wild type. A DNA replication inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU), also inhibited hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings, but xpf-3 was not hypersensitive to HU. UV-B irradiation induced accumulation of the G2/M-specific cell cycle reporter construct CYCB1;1-GUS in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings that was consistent with the expected accumulation of photodimers and coincided with the time course of hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B treatment. Etiolated mutants of UVR8, a recently described UV-B photoreceptor gene, irradiated with UV-B showed inhibition of hypocotyl growth that was not different from that of the wild type, but they lacked UV-B-specific expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), as expected from previous reports. CHS expression after UV-B irradiation was not different in xpf-3 compared with the wild type, nor was it altered after HU treatment. These results suggest that hypocotyl growth inhibition by UV-B light in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, a photomorphogenic response, is dictated by signals originating from UV-B absorption by DNA that lead to cell cycle arrest. This process occurs distinct from UVR8 and its signalling pathway responsible for CHS induction. PMID:24591052

  6. p-Benzoquinone initiates non-invasive urothelial cancer through aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, MAP kinase activation and cell cycle deregulation: Prevention by vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjini Ganguly

    Full Text Available According to WHO classification system, non-invasive urothelial carcinoma represents urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS and dysplasia. Dysplastic urothelium often progresses to CIS that further advances to urothelial carcinoma (UC. The strongest risk factor for UC is cigarette smoking. However, the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS-induced UC is poorly understood. Earlier we had shown that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ, a major toxic quinone derived from p-benzosemiquinone of CS in vivo, is a causative factor for various CS-induced diseases. Here, using a guinea pig model we showed that prolonged treatment with p-BQ led to non-invasive UC, specifically carcinoma in situ (CIS of the renal pelvis and dysplasia in the ureter and bladder. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis were p-BQ-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis that were later suppressed and followed by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, aberrant phosphorylation of intracellular tyrosine residues, activation of MAP kinase pathway and persistent growth signaling. This was accompanied by deregulation of cell cycle as shown by marked decrease in the expression of p21waf1/cip1 and cyclin D1 proteins as well as hyperphosphorylation of pRb. UC has been characterised by histopathology and immunohistochemistry showing aberrant CK20, increased Ki-67, and marked p53 nuclear immunopositivity with uniformly negative labelling of CD44. Oral supplementation of vitamin C (30 mg/kg body weight/day prevented CIS of the renal pelvis and dysplasia in the ureter and bladder. Since majority of non-invasive UC progresses to invasive cancer with increased risk of mortality, our preclinical study might help to devise effective strategies for early intervention of the disease. Abbreviations: Bax, Bcl-2, CS, DNPH, GAPDH, IARC, p-BQ, p-BSQ, PAHs, PBS, ROS, SDS PAGE, TUNEL, WHO, UC, CIS, EGFR, MAPK, Keywords: p-Benzoquinone, Carcinoma in situ, Dysplasia, Aberrant EGFR activation, Cell cycle deregulation

  7. CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WHO TRAIN SPORTS SWIMMING AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION (IN ANNUAL TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Eider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This is an empirical article aiming at defining the changes of motor fitness in children practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Proper selection of candidates to practice certain sports is a very complex process. One needs to select from the very large population of children, girls and boys, characterized by certain features, including somatic and motor features, which developed in a longstanding process of training, will lead them to become champions. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to define the changes of motor fitness in girls’ practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Material and Methods: The subjects to the research were 85 girls aged 7 (1st year of primary school, including 36 girls in swimming group and 49 girls in control group. 36 of them belonged to swimmers’ group- all girls were members of the Municipal Swimming Club in Szczecin. Control group consisted of 49 girls, who attended the same elementary schools. The examinations were carried out twice in the 2009-2010 academic year. The most reliable and accurate indirect test- EUROFIT Test Battery-was used. Results : The research revealed changes in both groups (Sw, C in terms of all eight tests. Examination II proved statistically significant improvement of results in both groups (Sw, C in comparison to Examination I. The dynamics of changes in general balance, flexibility, static force, functional force, running agility, was bigger in the girls who practiced swimming. As the speed of movement of upper limb, explosive force and thorax force are concerned; the differences of results in both examinations were similar in both groups (swimming group and control group. Progressive changes in motor fitness of the examined groups are a positive phenomenon in the development of child’s young organism. Conclusions: Swimming training significantly affected the dynamics of

  8. Morphological indicators of initial reproductive commitment in Mustelus schmitti (Springer 1939 (Chondrichthyes, Triakidae: folliculogenesis and ovarian structure over the life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Galíndez

    Full Text Available This work provides information about the sexual commitment and the folliculogenesis of the gatuzo, Mustelus schmitti. A total of 112 females of all maturity stages were fished in the Bahía Blanca estuary, between 2009 and 2010. The oogonia were present throughout the life cycle of the animals. The folliculogenesis follows a pattern similar to other elasmobranchs. The granulosa layer keeps monolayered throughout the folliculogenesis, but with two cell types in the vitellogenic follicle. The zona pellucida forms in the primordial follicles. The thecal system shows a connective inner layer and a glandular outer sheath. The microscopic beginning of the sexual commitment, indicated by the vitello hoarding, takes place in follicles from 500 micrometres, while the macroscopic evidence appears in follicles of 2500-3000 micrometres. The results presented in this study suggest that the fishery pressure may affect a susceptible range of sizes of the species, not previously considered and provides a biological framework for the development of fisheries policy.

  9. In situ observation of initial rust formation process on carbon steel under Na2SO4 and NaCl solution films with wet/dry cycles using synchrotron radiation X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M.; Konishi, H.; Kozakura, T.; Mizuki, J.; Uchida, H.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of steel proceeds under thin electrolyte film formed by rain and dew condensation followed by wet and dry cycles. It is said that rust layer formed on steel as a result of atmospheric corrosion strongly affects the corrosion behavior of steel. The effect of environmental corrosiveness on the formation process and structure of the rust layer is, however, not clear to date. In this study, in situ observation of the rusting process of a carbon steel covered with a thin film of Na 2 SO 4 or NaCl solution was performed under a wet/dry repeating condition by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy with white X-rays obtained from synchrotron radiation. The present in situ experiments successfully detected initial process of the rust formation. In the early cycles, the rust constituents were not well crystallized yet, but the presence of Fe(OH) 2 and Fe(OH) 3 was confirmed. In the subsequent cycles, two different solutions resulted in difference in preferential phase of the rust constituents. α-FeOOH was preferentially formed in the case of the Na 2 SO 4 solution film, whereas β-FeOOH appeared only under the NaCl solution film

  10. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  11. NATO Initiatives to Improve Life Cycle Costing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    There is a long and documented history of both cost growth and estimating optimism within military programmes. This is particularly the case for multi-national programmes. The NATO ALP-10 –Guidance on Integrated Logistics Support for multi-national equipment projects (ILS) dated June 1990 (Reference

  12. 4-Repeat Tauopathy Neuroimaging Initiative - Cycle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD); Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS); Cortical-basal Ganglionic Degeneration (CBGD); Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP); Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia (nfvPPA); Oligosymptomatic/Variant Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (o/vPSP)

  13. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  14. Calculation of the fuel composition and the thermo-neutronic parameters of the Bushehr’s VVER-1000 reactor during the initial startup and the first cycle using the WIMSD5-B, CITATION-LDI2 and WERL codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, Yashar; Pazirandeh, Ali; Ghofrani, Mohammad B.; Sadighi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper, the changes of the thermo-neutronic parameters of a VVER 1000 reactor were studied during the first cycle. ► The coupling of neutronic and thermo-hydraulic codes was utilized. ► A computational program (WERL code) was designed to calculate the temperature distribution of the reactor core. ► To estimate the concentration of the released gaseous fission products, the Weisman model was used. ► The results of this study enjoyed the desirable accuracy. - Abstract: In this paper, the concentrations of fission products and fuel isotopes as well as the changes of the thermo-neutronic parameters of the Bushehr’s VVER-1000 reactor were studied during the initial startup and the first cycle. In order to perform the time-dependent cell calculations and obtain the concentration of fuel elements, the WIMSD5-B code was used. Besides, by utilizing the CITATION-LDI2 code, the effective multiplication factor and the thermal power distribution of the reactor were calculated. A computer program (WERL code) was designed in order to perform accurate calculation of the temperature distribution of the reactor core. For this purpose, the Ross–Stoute, Weisman, and Lee–Kesler models were used for calculating of the gap conductance coefficient, fission gas release and gap pressure, respectively. The results demonstrated that in designing the startup process, in addition to the role considered for overcoming the power defects and in preparing the required conditions for performing the safety-assurance tests, the flattening of the reactor’s power must be taken into account. Comparison between the results of this modeling and the final safety analysis report of this reactor showed that the results presented in this paper are satisfactorily accurate

  15. IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation

  16. Port Radium start to finish life cycle: a case study on Canada's historic radium/uranium mine, initial operation and closure, concerns of the aboriginal Dene people, subsequent assessments, remediation - 59332

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatzka, Gerd; Brown, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper provides a life study cycle case study on the historic Port Radium mine. In addition to the history of operations, it discusses the unique and successful approach used to identify the key issues and concerns associated with the former radium, uranium and silver mining property and the program activities undertaken to define the remedial issues and options that ultimately lead to the development of a preferred remedial plan. The Port Radium Mine site, situated approximately 275 km north of Yellowknife on the east shore of Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, was operated almost continuously between 1932 and 1982, initially for recovery of radium and uranium and subsequently for recovery of silver. Tailings production equalled an estimated 900, 000 tons from uranium ore processing and 800, 000 tons from silver processing operations. While the site was decommissioned at mine closure, site investigations were undertaken to address concerns expressed by residents of the community of Deline about residual contamination at the site and exposure of Deline residents as traditional land users and to identify residual environmental and safety issues based on current closure standards. Assessment of past radiation exposures of worker based on past practices associated with ore handling and concentrate shipping were also addressed. The paper provides insights into the approach and activities undertaken over a seven (7) year period that ultimately concluded with the final decommissioning of the site in 2007 and post remedial actions being carried out under the long term care and maintenance program. (authors)

  17. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  18. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  19. The economics of thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and thorium fuel cycles are discussed. The thorium cycles are initiated by using either enriched uranium or plutonium. Subsequent thorium cycles utilize recycled uranium-233 and, where necessary, either uranium-235 or plutonium as topping. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which thorium cycles are economically attractive. (auth)

  20. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  1. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  2. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  3. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  4. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  5. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  6. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  7. Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life-cycle inventory (UPLCI)—CO2PE! initiative (cooperative effort on process emissions in manufacturing). Part 1: Methodology description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Overcash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    the provision of high-quality data for LCA studies of products using these unit process datasets for the manufacturing processes, as well as the in-depth analysis of individual manufacturing unit processes.In addition, the accruing availability of data for a range of similar machines (same process, different......This report proposes a life-cycle analysis (LCA)-oriented methodology for systematic inventory analysis of the use phase of manufacturing unit processes providing unit process datasets to be used in life-cycle inventory (LCI) databases and libraries. The methodology has been developed...... and resource efficiency improvements of the manufacturing unit process. To ensure optimal reproducibility and applicability, documentation guidelines for data and metadata are included in both approaches. Guidance on definition of functional unit and reference flow as well as on determination of system...

  8. Complex Biological Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: I. The essential roles of modifications in the c-Myc, TP53/p53, p27 and hTERT modules in Cancer Initiation and Progression

    CERN Document Server

    Prisecaru, V I

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to the integration of results from a modular, complex biological systems analysis of nonlinear dynamics in cell cycling network transformations that are leading to carcinogenesis is proposed. Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected biomolecules in the intercellular, membrane, cytosolic, nuclear and nucleolar compartments that form numerous inter-related pathways referred to as networks. One such network module contains the cell cyclins whose functions are essential to cell cycling and division. Cyclins are proteins that also link to several critical pro-apoptotic and other cell cycling/division components, such as: c-Myc, p27, the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and its product-- the p53 protein with key roles in controlling DNA repair, inducing apoptosis and activating p21 (which can depress cell cyclins if activated), mdm2(with its biosynthesis activated by p53 and also, in its turn, inhibiting p53), p21, the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen(T- antigen),Rb,Bax, Ba...

  9. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  10. Cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappernman, J.G.; Albertson, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  11. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...... methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel...

  12. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  13. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  14. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  15. Quadratic reactivity fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    For educational purposes it is highly desirable to provide simple yet realistic models for fuel cycle and fuel economy. In particular, a lumped model without recourse to detailed spatial calculations would be very helpful in providing the student with a proper understanding of the purposes of fuel cycle calculations. A teaching model for fuel cycle studies based on a lumped model assuming the summability of partial reactivities with a linear dependence of reactivity usefully illustrates fuel utilization concepts. The linear burnup model does not satisfactorily represent natural enrichment reactors. A better model, showing the trend of initial plutonium production before subsequent fuel burnup and fission product generation, is a quadratic fit. The study of M-batch cycles, reloading 1/Mth of the core at end of cycle, is now complicated by nonlinear equations. A complete account of the asymptotic cycle for any order of M-batch refueling can be given and compared with the linear model. A complete account of the transient cycle can be obtained readily in the two-batch model and this exact solution would be useful in verifying numerical marching models. It is convenient to treat the parabolic fit rho = 1 - tau 2 as a special case of the general quadratic fit rho = 1 - C/sub tau/ - (1 - C)tau 2 in suitably normalized reactivity and cycle time units. The parabolic results are given in this paper

  16. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  17. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... that take place over the weeks in your cycle. Want to know what happens on each day ...

  18. Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life cycle inventory (UPLCI) CO2PE! initiative (cooperative effort on process emissions in manufacturing). Part 2: case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Overcash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    industrial data and engineering calculations for energy use and material loss. This approach is illustrated by means of a case study of a drilling process.The in-depth approach, which leads to more accurate LCI data as well as the identification of potential for environmental improvements...... for environmental improvement based on the in-depth analysis of individual manufacturing unit processes. Two case studies illustrate the applicability of the methodology.......This report presents two case studies, one for both the screening approach and the in-depth approach, demonstrating the application of the life cycle assessment-oriented methodology for systematic inventory analysis of the machine tool use phase of manufacturing unit processes, which has been...

  19. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  20. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  1. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS

  2. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  3. Creative Writing and the Water Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rich; Virmani, Jyotika; Kusek, Kristen M.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the story "The Life of a Drop of Water" to initiate a creative writing activity and teach about the water cycle. Attempts to stimulate students' understanding of a scientific concept by using their imaginations. (YDS)

  4. Nonproliferation characteristics of advanced fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiatives and safeguards methods and systems. Alternative cycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products

  5. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Laurence F.; Preston, J.; Sweder, G.; Anderson, T.; Janson, S.; Humberstone, M.; MConn, J.; Clark, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development

  6. Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The next major step in Argonne's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program

  7. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  8. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A

    2018-04-01

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.

  9. Mole sieve cycle optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Maturing gas basins and declining reservoirs have prompted the search for energy and cost reduction initiatives to maintain operation sustainability. This paper discusses the development of an algorithm to improve the efficiency of the Brazeau mole sieve dehydration system. Details of the operating unit and an outline of the system were provided, as well as an operator interface. The main objectives of the research were to reduce the number of corresponding regeneration cycles; reduce annual energy requirements; and extend the life of the dessicant. Reductions were anticipated at 35 per cent, leading towards fuel savings of $45,000 a year, and carbon dioxide reductions of 670 tonnes a year. However, significant barriers were also noted, including operations, maintenance and equipment replacement issues. Equations of state were used to estimate vapor pressure or water content in gases. Approximate water content was measured with gas flow rate. The resulting algorithm was implemented using a basic best fit curve generated for one variable with a correction factor applied as a second variable. Data books were provided to present water content of hydrocarbon gas, with implementation procedures. Benefits of the new system included longer service life and reduced chemical and outside service costs, and reduced lost production during sieve changes. Additional benefits included enhanced distributed computing system (DCS) interfaces within plant operations; extension of the adsorption cycle via the functionality of the algorithm; and the fact that during a plant upset, the algorithm froze cycle sequencing and eliminated the possibility of switching the beds and repeating regeneration. The improved system resulted in savings of $87,000. tabs, figs.

  10. The centriole duplication cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Stearns, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of cilia and flagella. Defects in centriole structure, function and number are associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, brain diseases and ciliopathies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how new centrioles are assembled and how centriole number is controlled. We propose a general model for centriole duplication control in which cooperative binding of duplication factors defines a centriole ‘origin of duplication’ that initiates duplication, and passage through mitosis effects changes that license the centriole for a new round of duplication in the next cell cycle. We also focus on variations on the general theme in which many centrioles are created in a single cell cycle, including the specialized structures associated with these variations, the deuterosome in animal cells and the blepharoplast in lower plant cells. PMID:25047614

  11. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  12. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  13. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  14. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  15. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  16. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  17. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  18. Introducing advanced nuclear fuel cycles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, M.F.

    1978-05-01

    The ability of several different advanced fuel cycles to provide energy for a range of energy growth scenarios has been examined for a few special situations of interest in Canada. Plutonium generated from the CANDU-PHW operating on natural uranium is used to initiate advanced fuel cycles in the year 2000. The four fuel cycles compared are: 1) natural uranium in the CANDU-PHW; 2) high burnup thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 3) self-sufficient thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 4) plutonium-uranium cycle in a fast breeder reactor. The general features of the results are quite clear. While any plutonium generated prior to the introduction of the advanced fuel cycle remains, system requirements for natural uranium for each of the advanced fuel cycles are the same and are governed by the rate at which plants operating on natural uranium can be retired. When the accumulated plutonium inventory has been entirely used, natural uranium is again required to provide inventory for the advanced fuel cycle reactors. The time interval during which no uranium is required varies only from about 25 to 40 years for both thorium cycles, depending primarily on the energy growth rate. The breeder does not require the entire plutonium inventory produced and so would call for less processing of fuel from the PHW reactors. (author)

  19. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  20. Proliferation in cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In the contracting phase with w≅0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w≅0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative University Fellowship Program. Final Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    2004-2011 Final Report for AFCI University Fellowship Program. The goal of this effort was to be supportive of university students and university programs - particularly those students and programs that will help to strengthen the development of nuclear-related fields. The program also supported the stability of the nuclear infrastructure and developed research partnerships that are helping to enlarge the national nuclear science technology base. In this fellowship program, the U.S. Department of Energy sought master's degree students in nuclear, mechanical, or chemical engineering, engineering/applied physics, physics, chemistry, radiochemistry, or fields of science and engineering applicable to the AFCI/Gen IV/GNEP missions in order to meet future U.S. nuclear program needs. The fellowship program identified candidates and selected full time students of high-caliber who were taking nuclear courses as part of their degree programs. The DOE Academic Program Managers encouraged fellows to pursue summer internships at national laboratories and supported the students with appropriate information so that both the fellows and the nation's nuclear energy objectives were successful.

  2. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  3. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  4. Thorium fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Breza, J.; Necas, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the thorium fuel cycle management. Description of the thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycle benefits and challenges as well as thorium fuel calculations performed by the computer code HELIOS are presented.

  5. Chords in longest cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord.......If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord....

  6. Denatured fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the denatured fuel concept and discusses the characteristics of fuel cycles based on the concept. The proliferation resistance of denatured fuel cycles, the reactor types they involve, and the limitations they place on energy generation potential are discussed. The paper concludes with some remarks on the outlook for such cycles

  7. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2018-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision...

  8. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  9. NICMOS Cycles 13 and 14 Calibration Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Santiago; Bergeron, Eddie; de Jong, Roeof; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Mobasher, Bahram; Noll, Keith; Schultz, Al; Wiklind, Tommy; Xu, Chun

    2005-11-01

    This document summarizes the NICMOS Calibration Plans for Cycles 13 and 14. These plans complement the SMOV3b, the Cycle 10 (interim), and the Cycles 11 and 12 (regular) calibration programs executed after the installation of the NICMOS Cooling System (NCS).. These previous programs have shown that the instrument is very stable, which has motivated a further reduction in the frequency of the monitoring programs for Cycle 13. In addition, for Cycle 14 some of these programs were slightly modified to account for 2 Gyro HST operations. The special calibrations on Cycle 13 were focussed on a follow up of the spectroscopic recalibration initiated in Cycle 12. This program led to the discovery of a possible count rate non-linearity, which has triggered a special program for Cycle 13 and a number of subsequent tests and calibrations during Cycle 14. At the time of writing this is a very active area of research. We also briefly comment on other calibrations defined to address other specific issues like: the autoreset test, the SPAR sequences tests, and the low-frequency flat residual for NIC1. The calibration programs for the 2-Gyro campaigns are not included here, since they have been described somewhere else. Further details and updates on specific programs can be found via the NICMOS web site.

  10. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  11. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  12. Nuclear materials facility safety initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Nelson, P.; Roundhill, M.; Jardine, L.J.; Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M.; Khromov, V.V.; Kruchkov, E.; Bolyatko, V.; Kazanskij, Yu.; Vorobeva, I.; Lash, T.R.; Newton, D.; Harris, B.

    2000-01-01

    Safety in any facility in the nuclear fuel cycle is a fundamental goal. However, it is recognized that, for example, should an accident occur in either the U.S. or Russia, the results could seriously delay joint activities to store and disposition weapons fissile materials in both countries. To address this, plans are underway jointly to develop a nuclear materials facility safety initiative. The focus of the initiative would be to share expertise which would lead in improvements in safety and safe practices in the nuclear fuel cycle.The program has two components. The first is a lab-to-lab initiative. The second involves university-to-university collaboration.The lab-to-lab and university-to-university programs will contribute to increased safety in facilities dealing with nuclear materials and related processes. These programs will support important bilateral initiatives, develop the next generation of scientists and engineers which will deal with these challenges, and foster the development of a safety culture

  13. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  14. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has a consistent need for radioisotope power systems (RPS) to enable robotic scientific missions for planetary exploration that has been present for over four decades and will continue into the foreseeable future, as documented in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Study Report. As RPS have evolved throughout the years, there has also grown a desire for more efficient power systems, allowing NASA to serve as good stewards of the limited plutonium-238 (238Pu), while also supporting the ever-present need to minimize mass and potential impacts to the desired science measurements. In fact, the recent Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) released in April 2015 resulted in several key conclusion regarding RPS, including affirmation that RPS will be necessary well into the 2030s (at least) and that 238Pu is indeed a precious resource requiring efficient utilization and preservation. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) combine a Stirling cycle engine powered by a radioisotope heater unit into a single generator system. Stirling engine technology has been under development at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE) since the 1970's. The most recent design, the 238Pu-fueled Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was offered as part of the NASA Discovery 2010 Announcement of Opportunity (AO). The Step-2 selections for this AO included two ASRG-enabled concepts, the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) and the Comet Hopper (CHopper), although the only non-nuclear concept, InSight, was ultimately chosen. The DOE's ASRG contract was terminated in 2013. Given that SRGs utilize significantly less 238Pu than traditional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) - approximately one quarter of the nuclear fuel, to produce similar electrical power output - they provide a technology worthy of consideration for meeting the aforementioned NASA objectives. NASA's RPS Program Office has recently investigated a new Stirling to

  15. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the end of February 1980, the two-years work on the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was finished in Vienna with a plenary meeting. INFCE is likely to have been a unique event in the history of international meetings: It was ni diplomatic negotiation meeting, but a techno-analytical investigation in which the participants tenaciously shuggled for many of the formulations. Starting point had been a meeting initiated by President Carter in Washington in Oct. 1979 after the World Economy Summit Meeting in London. The results of the investigation are presented here in a brief and popular form. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Outsourcing Innovation in Product Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsiao-Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this quality-ladder product-cycles model, a southern firm can undertake innovation by collaborating with a northern firm through R&D outsourcing. Generally, I find that the initial steady-state scale of R&D outsourcing and the fraction of innovative tasks undertaken by southern labor through R&D outsourcing critically affect the results of comparative statics. Particularly, the friendly policy to promote R&D outsourcing may be beneficial for both of the North and the South only if the scal...

  17. The Krebs Uric Acid Cycle: A Forgotten Krebs Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Jack G

    2018-05-25

    Hans Kornberg wrote a paper entitled 'Krebs and his trinity of cycles' commenting that every school biology student knows of the Krebs cycle, but few know that Krebs discovered two other cycles. These are (i) the ornithine cycle (urea cycle), (ii) the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid or TCA cycle), and (iii) the glyoxylate cycle that was described by Krebs and Kornberg. Ironically, Kornberg, codiscoverer of the 'glyoxylate cycle', overlooked a fourth Krebs cycle - (iv) the uric acid cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  19. International Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-01-01

    Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two ...

  20. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  1. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  2. Measuring Business Cycle Time.

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, James H

    1987-01-01

    The business cycle analysis of Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell and the National Bureau of Economic Research presumed that aggregate economic variables evolve on a time scale defined by business cycle turning points rather than by months or quarters. Do macroeconomic variables appear to evolve on an economic rather than a calendar time scale? Evidence presented here suggests that they do. However, the estimated economic time scales are only weakly related to business cycle time scales, ...

  3. Thorium cycles and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes several prevalent misconceptions about nuclear fuel cycles that breed fissile uranium-233 from thorium. Its main conclusions are: U-233, despite the gamma radioactivity of associated isotopes, is a rather attractive material for making fission bombs, and is a credible material for subnational as well as national groups to use for this purpose; (2) pure thorium cycles, which in effect merely substitute U-233 for Pu, would take many decades and much U to establish, and offer no significant safeguards advantage over Pu, cycles; (3) denatured Th-U cycles, which dilute the U-233 with inert U-238 to a level not directly usable in bombs, are not an effective safeguard even against subnational bomb-making; (4) several other features of mixed Th-U cycles are rather unattractive from a safeguards point of view; (5) thus, Th cycles of any kind are not a technical fix for proliferation (national or subnational) and, though probably more safeguardable than Pu cycles, are less so than once-through U cycles that entail no reprocessing; (6) while thorium cycles have some potential technical advantages, including flexibility, they cannot provide major savings in nuclear fuel resources compared to simpler ways of saving neutrons and U; and (7) while advocates of nuclear power may find Th cycles worth exploring, such cycles do not differ fundamentally from U cycles in any of the respects--including safeguards and fuel resources--that are relevant to the broader nuclear debate, and should not be euphorically embraced as if they did

  4. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  5. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  6. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Joseph; Muehlegger, Erich; Samphantharak, Krislert

    2010-01-01

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  7. Homogeneous Thorium Fuel Cycles in Candu Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R.; Magill, M. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    The CANDU{sup R} reactor has an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility, as a consequence of its fuel-channel design, excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, and simple fuel bundle [1]. These features facilitate the introduction and full exploitation of thorium fuel cycles in Candu reactors in an evolutionary fashion. Because thorium itself does not contain a fissile isotope, neutrons must be provided by adding a fissile material, either within or outside of the thorium-based fuel. Those same Candu features that provide fuel-cycle flexibility also make possible many thorium fuel-cycle options. Various thorium fuel cycles can be categorized by the type and geometry of the added fissile material. The simplest of these fuel cycles are based on homogeneous thorium fuel designs, where the fissile material is mixed uniformly with the fertile thorium. These fuel cycles can be competitive in resource utilization with the best uranium-based fuel cycles, while building up a 'mine' of U-233 in the spent fuel, for possible recycle in thermal reactors. When U-233 is recycled from the spent fuel, thorium-based fuel cycles in Candu reactors can provide substantial improvements in the efficiency of energy production from existing fissile resources. The fissile component driving the initial fuel could be enriched uranium, plutonium, or uranium-233. Many different thorium fuel cycle options have been studied at AECL [2,3]. This paper presents the results of recent homogeneous thorium fuel cycle calculations using plutonium and enriched uranium as driver fuels, with and without U-233 recycle. High and low burnup cases have been investigated for both the once-through and U-233 recycle cases. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). 1. Boczar, P.G. 'Candu Fuel-Cycle Vision', Presented at IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on 'Fuel Cycle Options for LWRs and HWRs', 1998 April 28 - May 01, also Atomic Energy

  8. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  12. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  13. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  14. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  15. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the third phase of an LCA study, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) where the life cycle inventory’s information on elementary flows is translated into environmental impact scores. In contrast to the three other LCA phases, LCIA is in practice largely automated...

  16. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  17. Universal cycle periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cycles in historical economic data. The literature on stochastic and deterministic cycles in variables such as the consumer price index, employment, interest rates, commodity prices, and GDP is huge and scattered, but our meta-analysis reveals various communalities. Our

  18. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractEconomic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of

  19. Revenue-cycle redesign: honing the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForge, Richard W; Tureaud, Johnny S

    2003-01-01

    To minimize claim denials and ensure optimum payment for delivered services, many hospitals must fundamentally change their approach to managing the revenue cycle. The revenue cycle should be conceptualized as a continuum rather than as a set of isolated events, such as submitting bills or collecting payment. Cross-functional teams composed of representatives from clinical and financial areas should be created to systematically address recurrent breakdowns detected in the revenue cycle. PFS staff should be better compensated based on their value to revenue-cycle performance and receive adequate training on data collection and billing requirements to ensure the submission of clean claims. Medical-necessity screening software tools should be used at initial patient-access points to help identify scheduled services not covered by Medicare.

  20. The glacial cycles and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Müller, R A

    2004-01-01

    The cause of the glacial cycles remains a mystery. The origin is widely accepted to be astronomical since paleoclimatic archives contain strong spectral components that match the frequencies of Earth's orbital modulation. Milankovitch insolation theory contains similar frequencies and has become established as the standard model of the glacial cycles. However, high precision paleoclimatic data have revealed serious discrepancies with the Milankovitch model that fundamentally challenge its validity and re-open the question of what causes the glacial cycles. We propose here that the ice ages are initially driven not by insolation cycles but by cosmic ray changes, probably through their effect on clouds. This conclusion is based on a wide range of evidence, including results presented here on speleothem growth in caves in Austria and Oman, and on a record of cosmic ray flux over the past 220 kyr obtained from the 10Be composition of deep-ocean sediments.

  1. IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D.; Herceg, J.E.; Holtz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. (author)

  2. IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D.; Herceg, J.E.; Holtz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ηCQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  4. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  5. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  6. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  7. International Business Cycle Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I extend the business cycle accounting method a la Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) to a two-country international business cycle model and quantify the effect of the disturbances in relevant markets on the business cycle correlation between Japan and the US over the 1980-2008 period. This paper finds that disturbances in the labor market and production efficiency are important in accounting for the recent increase in the cross-country output correlation. If international fina...

  8. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  10. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Mercedes L.; Martins Cecilia E.; Pérez-Dueñas Belén; Gómez-López Lilian; Murgui Empar; Fons Carmen; García-Cazorla Ángels; Artuch Rafael M D; Jara Fernando; Arranz José Antonio; Häberle Johannes; Briones Paz; Campistol Jaume M D; Pineda Mercè; Vilaseca María Antònia Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation attention deficit hyper...

  11. Cost estimation and management over the life cycle of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates whether all expected costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in initial, normal and fi nal cost estimates, and whether these costs are managed throughout a project's life cycle since there is not enough emphasis on the accurate estimation of costs and their management ...

  12. STUDYING BUSINESS CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Servetnyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper researches business cycles synchronization. The fluctuations in post-Soviet countries are considered. The study examines different measures of synchronization in groups of countries according to some criteria.

  13. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive owing to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Rapidly increasing uranium prices, public reluctance for widespread Pu recycling and expected delays for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, particularly with re-fabrication by remote handling of 233 U, are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu recycling. To divert from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems worth while intensifying future efforts for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGRs are particularly promising for economic application. However, further research and development activities should not concentrate on this reactor type alone. Light- and heavy-water-moderated reactors, and even future fast breeders, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  14. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  15. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  16. Cycles in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  17. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  18. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  19. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  20. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  1. International Real Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Mario J. Crucini

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a non-technical review of research developments in the international real business cycle literature. International business cycle facts are summarize with particular attention to the sources of output variance from the expenditure side of the NIPA and the production side, using a familiar neoclassical production function. Theoretical developments focus on the how consumption smoothing and investment dynamics shape the current account; the search for sources and propagation mecha...

  2. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  3. Hat cycle dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trucco, A.; Corallo, C.; Pini Prato, A.; Porro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Among the innovative cycle recently proposed in literature, the Humid Air Turbine Cycle - Hat better seems to fulfil the main energy market requirements of today: High efficiency in a large power ranger, low pollution, low specific capital cost. The previous results of an analysis at partial load and transient conditions are here presented, where the Hat plant has been simulated using the original model implemented in LEGO environment [it

  4. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  5. Mathematics and computational methods development in U.S. department of energy-sponsored research (nuclear energy research initiative and nuclear engineering education research). 5. Analysis of Angular V-Cycle Multigrid Formulation for Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Shielding Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukboyaci, Vefa; Haghighat, Alireza

    2001-01-01

    We have developed new angular multigrid formulations, including the Simplified Angular Multigrid (SAM), Nested Iteration (NI), and V-Cycle schemes, that are compatible with the parallel environment and the adaptive differencing strategy of the PENTRAN three-dimensional parallel S N code. Using the Fourier analysis method for an infinite, homogenous medium, we have investigated the effectiveness of the V-Cycle scheme for different problem parameters including scattering ratio, spatial differencing weights, quadrature order, and mesh size. We have further investigated the effectiveness of the new schemes for practical shielding applications such as the Kobayashi benchmark problem and the boiling water reactor core shroud problem. In this paper, we summarize the angular V-Cycle scheme implemented in the PENTRAN code, the Fourier Analysis of the V-Cycle scheme, and results of convergence analysis of the V-Cycle scheme using different problem parameters. The theoretical analysis reveals that the V-Cycle scheme is effective for a large range of scattering ratios and is insensitive to mesh size. Besides the theoretical analysis, we have applied the new angular multigrid schemes to shielding problems. In comparison to the standard PCR formulation, combinations of the new angular multigrid schemes and PCR (e.g., SAM+V-Cycle+PCR) have proved to be very effective for scattering ratios in a range of 0.6 to 0.9. (authors)

  6. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  7. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. Thorium fuel cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-07-01

    Systems analysis of the thorium cycle, a nuclear fuel cycle accomplished by using thorium, is reported in this paper. Following a brief review on the history of the thorium cycle development, analysis is made on the three functions of the thorium cycle; (1) auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle to save uranium consumption, (2) thermal breeder system to exert full capacity of the thorium resource, (3) symbiotic system to utilize special features of /sup 233/U and neutron sources. The effects of the thorium loading in LWR (Light Water Reactor), HWR (Heavy Water Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) are considered for the function of auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle. Analysis is made to find how much uranium is saved by /sup 233/U recycling and how the decrease in Pu production influences the introduction of FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor). Study on thermal breeder system is carried out in the case of MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor). Under a certain amount of fissile material supply, the potential system expansion rate of MSBR, which is determined by fissile material balance, is superior to that of FBR because of the smaller specific fissile inventory of MSBR. For symbiotic system, three cases are treated; i) nuclear heat supply system using HTGR, ii) denatured fuel supply system for nonproliferation purpose, and iii) hybrid system utilizing neutron sources other than fission reactor.

  9. Cycles and Common Cycles in Property and Related Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Peijie Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines cycles and common cycles in the property market and the economy. While focusing on common cycles, the study also incorporates common trends in the meantime, so it covers the whole spectrum of dynamic analysis. It has been found that property shares common cycles, particularly with those sectors that are the user markets of property. The mechanisms of common cycles and the relative magnitudes of cycles of the sectors related to property are discussed to shed light on proper...

  10. Monte Carlo reactor calculation with substantially reduced number of cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Joo, H. G.; Lee, D.; Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation scheme that substantially reduces the number of cycles is introduced with the aid of coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation. First, it is confirmed in terms of pin power errors that using extremely many particles resulting in short active cycles is beneficial even in the conventional MC scheme although wasted operations in inactive cycles cannot be reduced with more particles. A CMFD-assisted MC scheme is introduced as an effort to reduce the number of inactive cycles and the fast convergence behavior and reduced inter-cycle effect of the CMFD assisted MC calculation is investigated in detail. As a practical means of providing a good initial fission source distribution, an assembly based few-group condensation and homogenization scheme is introduced and it is shown that efficient MC eigenvalue calculations with fewer than 20 total cycles (including inactive cycles) are possible for large power reactor problems. (authors)

  11. Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Dixon, Brent W.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Shropshire, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe 'lessons learned' from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the 'so what' question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.

  12. Multiparameter Cell Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, James W; Sramkoski, R Michael; Stefan, Tammy; Woost, Philip G

    2018-01-01

    Cell cycle cytometry and analysis are essential tools for studying cells of model organisms and natural populations (e.g., bone marrow). Methods have not changed much for many years. The simplest and most common protocol is DNA content analysis, which is extensively published and reviewed. The next most common protocol, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine S phase labeling detected by specific antibodies, is also well published and reviewed. More recently, S phase labeling using 5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and a chemical reaction to label substituted DNA has been established as a basic, reliable protocol. Multiple antibody labeling to detect epitopes on cell cycle regulated proteins, which is what this chapter is about, is the most complex of these cytometric cell cycle assays, requiring knowledge of the chemistry of fixation, the biochemistry of antibody-antigen reactions, and spectral compensation. However, because this knowledge is relatively well presented methodologically in many papers and reviews, this chapter will present a minimal Methods section for one mammalian cell type and an extended Notes section, focusing on aspects that are problematic or not well described in the literature. Most of the presented work involves how to segment the data to produce a complete, progressive, and compartmentalized cell cycle analysis from early G1 to late mitosis (telophase). A more recent development, using fluorescent proteins fused with proteins or peptides that are degraded by ubiquitination during specific periods of the cell cycle, termed "Fucci" (fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators) provide an analysis similar in concept to multiple antibody labeling, except in this case cells can be analyzed while living and transgenic organisms can be created to perform cell cycle analysis ex or in vivo (Sakaue-Sawano et al., Cell 132:487-498, 2007). This technology will not be discussed.

  13. CRISPR-mediated control of the bacterial initiation of replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiktor, J.M.; Lesterlin, Christian; Sherratt, David J.; Dekker, C.

    2016-01-01

    Programmable control of the cell cycle has been shown to be a powerful tool in cell-biology studies. Here, we develop a novel system for controlling the bacterial cell cycle, based on binding of CRISPR/dCas9 to the origin-of-replication locus. Initiation of replication of bacterial chromosomes is

  14. Sustainability of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    ⇒ The IAEA’s International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was established in 2000. ⇒ INPRO cooperates with Member States to ensure that sustainable nuclear energy is available to help meet the energy needs of the 21st century. ⇒ INPRO is part of the integrated services of the IAEA provided to Member States considering initial development or expansion of nuclear energy programmes. ⇒ INPRO Methodology for nuclear energy system assessment - a comprehensive set of internationally agreed basic principles, requirements and criteria in the important areas of economics, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment and infrastructure. ⇒ Meeting the INPRO criteria in all of the areas ensures sustainability of nuclear energy system and its high potential to meet growing energy demand throughout the present century

  15. Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek to advance a political ecology more sensitive to non-human actions, these same accounts often do not address the robust account of non-human agency in the historical record. Evidence is presented regarding water’s agency amongst late 19th and early 20th century architects of key water management norms in the United States. This evidence troubles accounts of the hydrosocial cycle that critique the US experience and suggests new directions for rethinking the role of historical and institutional norms in water policy.

  16. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  17. Fuel cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-07-01

    In NPT safeguards the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied at present to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle. There is a continuing interest and activity on the part of the IAEA in new NPT safeguards approaches that more directly address a State's nuclear activities as a whole. This fuel cycle based safeguards system is expected to a) provide a statement of findings for the entire State rather than only for individual facilities; b) allocate inspection efforts so as to reflect more realistically the different categories of nuclear materials in the different parts of the fuel cycle and c) provide more timely and better coordinated information on the inputs, outputs and inventories of nuclear materials in a State. (orig./RF) [de

  18. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  19. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  20. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  1. Theory of limit cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yan-Qian; Lo, Chi Y

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades the theory of limit cycles, especially for quadratic differential systems, has progressed dramatically in China as well as in other countries. This monograph, updating the 1964 first edition, includes these recent developments, as revised by eight of the author's colleagues in their own areas of expertise. The first part of the book deals with limit cycles of general plane stationary systems, including their existence, nonexistence, stability, and uniqueness. The second section discusses the global topological structure of limit cycles and phase-portraits of quadratic systems. Finally, the last section collects important results that could not be included under the subject matter of the previous two sections or that have appeared in the literature very recently. The book as a whole serves as a reference for college seniors, graduate students, and researchers in mathematics and physics.

  2. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive due to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Although the uranium ore as well as the separative work requirements are usually lower for any thorium-based fuel cycle in comparison to present uranium-plutonium fuel cycles of thermal water reactors, interest by nuclear industry has hitherto been marginal. Fast increasing uranium prices, public reluctance against widespread Pu-recycling and expected retardations for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, it could be learned in the meantime that problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, but particularly with a remote refabrication of 233 U are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu-recycling. This may not only be due to psychological constraints but be based upon technological as well as economical facts, which have been mostly neglected up till now. In order to diversify from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems to be worthwhile to greatly intensify efforts in the future for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGR's are particularly promising for economic application. However, further R and D activites should not be solely focussed on this reactor type alone. Light and heavy-water moderated reactors, as well as even fast breeders later on, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art of Th/ 233 U-recycling technology and the efforts still necessary to demonstrate this technology all the way through to its industrial application

  3. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mercedes; Martins, Cecilia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Gómez-López, Lilian; Murgui, Empar; Fons, Carmen; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Jara, Fernando; Arranz, José A; Häberle, Johannes; Briones, Paz; Campistol, Jaume; Pineda, Mercedes; Vilaseca, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium). Generally, these clinical pictures did not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Conversely, dietary treatment improved the symptoms. Regarding biochemical data, 2 patients showed normal ammonium but high glutamine levels. This study highlights the fact that neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental findings are common among the initial symptomatology of late-onset urea cycle disorders. The authors recommend that unexplained or nonresponsive neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms appearing during childhood or adolescence be followed by a study of ammonia and amino acid plasmatic levels to rule out a urea cycle disorder.

  4. Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dioxin Exposure Initiative (DEI) is no longer active. This page contains a summary of the dioxin exposure initiative with illustrations, contact and background information.Originally supported by scientist Matthew Lorber, who retired in Mar 2017.

  5. European nuclear education initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Whatever option regarding their future nuclear energy development is chosen by European Union Member States, the availability of a sufficient number of well trained and experienced staff is key for the responsible use of nuclear energy. This is true in all areas including design, construction, operation, decommissioning, fuel cycle and waste management as well as radiation protection. Given the high average age of existing experts leading to a significant retirement induce a real risk of the loss of nuclear competencies in the coming years. Therefore the demand of hiring skilled employees is rising. The challenge of ensuring a sufficient number of qualified staff in the nuclear sector has been acknowledged widely among the different stakeholders, in particular the nuclear industry, national regulatory authorities and Technical Support Organisations (TSOs). Already the EURATOM Treaty refers explicitly to the obligation for the Commission to carry out training actions. Recently initiatives have been launched at EU level to facilitate and strengthen the efforts of national stakeholders. The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association aims at preservation and further development of expertise in the nuclear field by higher education and training. The goal of the European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy (ENELA) is to educate future leaders in the nuclear field to ensure the further development of sustainable European nuclear energy solutions The European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) is a platform operated by the European Commission for a broad discussion on the opportunities and risks of nuclear energy. The nuclear programs under investigation in the Joint Research Center (JRC) are increasingly contributing to Education and Training (E and T) initiatives, promoting a better cooperation between key players and universities as well as operators and regulatory bodies in order to mutually optimise their training programmes. Another objective is to increase

  6. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  7. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    A precondition for environmentally conscious management is the awareness of the environmental impact potentials created by an industrial company. There is an obvious need for management tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criteria into the industrial decision making...... processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...... of the complete set of environmental objects in an industrial manufacturing company....

  8. Carbon cycle makeover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    remaining in sediments after respiration leave a residual of oxygen in the atmosphere. The source of oxygen to the atmosphere represented by organic matter burial is balanced by oxygen sinks associated with rock weathering and chemical reaction with volcanic gases. This is the long-term carbon and oxygen...... geochemical cycle. But Earth is an old planet, and oxygen levels have changed through time (2). On page 540 of this issue, Schrag et al. (3) challenge the most commonly used geochemical approach to assess long-term changes in the coupled oxygen and carbon cycles....

  9. Resurrecting Equilibria Through Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Richard C.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Bunzel, Helle

    equilibria because they asymptotically violate some economic restriction of the model. The literature has always ruled out such paths. This paper studies a pure-exchange monetary overlapping generations economy in which real balances cycle forever between momentary equilibrium points. The novelty is to show...... that segments of the offer curve that have been previously ignored, can in fact be used to produce asymptotically valid cyclical paths. Indeed, a cycle can bestow dynamic validity on momentary equilibrium points that had erstwhile been classified as dynamically invalid....

  10. 24-month fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, R.G.; Sipes, D.E.; Beall, R.H.; Donovan, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four month reload cycles can potentially lessen total power generation costs. While 24-month cores increase purchased fuel costs, the longer cycles reduce the number of refueling outages and thus enhance plant availability; men-rem exposure to site personnel and other costs associated with reload core design and licensing are also reduced. At dual unit sites an operational advantage can be realized by refueling each plant alternately on a 1-year offset basis. This results in a single outage per site per year which can be scheduled for off-peak periods or when replacement power costs are low

  11. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  12. GNPS 18-months fuel cycles core thermal hydraulic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changwen; Zhou Zhou

    2002-01-01

    GNPS begins to implement the 18-month fuel cycles from the initial annual reload at cycle 9, thus the initial core thermal hydraulic design is not valid any more. The new critical heat flux (CHF) correlation, FC, which is developed by Framatome, is used in the design, and the generalized statistical methodology (GSM) instead of the initial deterministic methodology is used to determine the DNBR design limit. As the AFA 2G and AFA 3G are mixed loaded in the transition cycle, it will result that the minimum DNBR in the mixed core is less than that of AFA 3G homogenous core, the envelop mixed core DNBR penalty is given. Consequently the core physical limit for mixed core and equilibrium cycles, and the new over temperature ΔT overpower ΔT are determined

  13. Tall Buildings Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative 2017 TBI Guidelines Version 2.03 Now Available Screen Shot 2017-10-10 at 3.05.10 PM PEER has just initiative to develop design criteria that will ensure safe and usable tall buildings following future earthquakes. Download the primary product of this initiative: Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design

  14. Vitrified/warmed single blastocyst transfer in preimplantation genetic diagnosis/preimplantation genetic screening cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Li, Rong; Lian, Ying; Chen, Lixue; Shi, Xiaodan; Qiao, Jie; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the single blastocyst transfer in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles. 80 PGD/PGS cycles undergoing blastocyst biopsy were studied. There were 88 warming cycles during the study period. Only one warmed blastocyst was transferred per cycle. The outcomes were followed up to the infants were born. The embryo implantation rate was 54.55% (48/88). The clinical pregnancy rate was 54.55% (48/88) per transfer cycle and 60% (48/80) per initial PGD/PGS cycle. There was no multi-pregnant in this study. The live birth rate was 42.05% (37/88) per transfer cycle and 46.25% (37/80) per initial PGD/PGS cycle. In PGD/PGS cycles, single blastocyst transfer reduces the multiple pregnancy rate without affecting the clinical outcomes.

  15. Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION): A Tool for Analyzing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Shropshire, David E.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Yacout, A.M.; Schweitzer, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that are intended to work together. To support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system such as how the system would respond to each technological change, a series of which moves the fuel cycle from where it is to a postulated future state. The system analysis working group of the United States research program on advanced fuel cycles (formerly called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION. For example, VISION users can now change yearly the selection of separation or reactor technologies, the performance characteristics of those technologies, and/or the routing of material among separation and reactor types - with the model still operating on a PC in <5 min.

  16. Synergistic fuel cycles of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Dastur, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Good neutron economy is the basis of the fuel cycle flexibility in the CANDU reactor. This paper describes the fuel cycle options available to the CANDU owner with special emphasis on resource conservation and waste management. CANDU fuel cycles with low initial fissile content operate with relatively high conversion ratio. The natural uranium cycle provides over 55 % of energy from the plutonium that is created during fuel life. Resource utilization is over 7 MWd/kg NU. This can be improved by slight enrichment (between 0.9 and 1.2 wt % U235) of the fuel. Resource utilization increases to 11 MWd/kg NU with the Slightly Enriched Uranium cycle. Thorium based cycles in CANDU operate at near-breeder efficiency. Obey provide attractive options when used with natural uranium or separated (reactor grade and weapons grade) plutonium as driver fuels. In the latter case, the energy from the U233 plus the initial plutonium content amounts to 3.4 GW(th).d/kg Pu-fissile. The same utilization is expected from the use of FBR plutonium in a CANDU thorium cycle. Extension of natural resource is achieved by the use of spent fuels in CANDU. The LWR/CANDU Tandem cycle leads to an additional 77 % of energy through the use of reprocessed LWR fuel (which has a fissile content of 1.6 wt %) in CANDU. Dry reprocessing of LWR fuel with the OREOX process (a more safeguardable alternative to the PUREX process) provides an additional 50 % energy. Uranium recovered (RU) from separation of plutonium contained in spent LWR fuel provides an additional 15 MWd/kg RU. CANDU's low fissile requirement provides the possibility, through the use of non-fertile targets, of extracting energy from the minor actinides contained in spent fuel. In addition to the resource utilization advantage described above, there is a corresponding reduction in waste arisings with such cycles. This is especially significant when separated plutonium is available as a fissile resource. (author)

  17. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  18. Entrepreneurship and the business cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koellinger, Philipp D.; Thurik, A. Roy

    2012-01-01

    We find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972 to 2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment cycle. We

  19. Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...

  20. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  1. Deuterium in atmospheric cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, M.C.

    Interest of the study concerning the deuterium content variation (HDO) in the atmospheric water. Standards and measurement methods. Molecule HDO cycle in the atmospheric water. Application to the study of hail-generating cumulus-nimbus and of the mantle of snow [fr

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  3. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Moltesen, Andreas; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    of different sources. The output is a compiled inventory of elementary flows that is used as basis of the subsequent life cycle impact assessment phase. This chapter teaches how to carry out this task through six steps: (1) identifying processes for the LCI model of the product system; (2) planning...

  4. Fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of co-locating and integrating fuel cycle facilities at one site is discussed. This concept offers considerable advantages, especially in minimizing the amount of radioactive material to be transported on public roads. Safeguards and physical protection as relating to such an integrated system of facilities are analysed in detail, also industrial and commercial questions. An overall risk-benefit evaluation turns out to be in favour of fuel cycle centres. These centres seem to be specifically attractive with regard to the back end of the fuel cycle, including on-site disposal of radioactive wastes. The respective German approach is presented as an example. Special emphasis is given to the site selection procedures in this case. Time scale and cost for the implementation of this concept are important factors to be looked at. Since participation of governmental institutions in these centres seems to be indispensable their respective roles as compared to industry must be clearly defined. The idea of adjusting fuel cycle centres to regional rather than national use might be an attractive option, depending on the specific parameters in the region, though results of existing multinational ventures are inconclusive in this respect. Major difficulties might be expected e.g. because of different national safety regulations and standards as well as commercial conditions among partner countries. Public acceptance in the host country seems to be another stumbling block for the realization of this type of multinational facilities

  5. Life Cycle Collection Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle collection management is a way of taking a long-term approach to the responsible stewardship of the British Library's collections and is one of the Library's strategic strands. It defines the different stages in a collection item's existence over time. These stages range from selection and acquisitions processing, cataloguing and press marking, through to preventive conservation, storage and retrieval. Life cycle collection management seeks to identify the costs of each stage in order to show the economic interdependencies between the phases over time. It thereby aims to demonstrate the long-term consequences of what the library takes into its collections, by making explicit the financial and other implications of decisions made at the beginning of the life cycle for the next 100 plus years. This paper describes the work over the past year at the British Library on this complex and complicated subject. It presents the emerging findings and suggests how it can be used for practical reasons (by individual curators and selectors and for economic, governance and political purposes. The paper describes the next steps in the project, for example, on a predictive data model. The British Library is seeking to benchmark itself against comparable organisations in this area. It intends to work with others on specific comparison for example, of life cycle costing of electronic and paper journals, as a prelude to eliding digital and 'traditional' formats.

  6. Boundedly rational credit cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, María

    1996-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary model of a credit market. We show that the economy exhibits credit cycles. The model predicts dynamics which are consistent with some evidence about the Great Depression. Real shocks trigger episodes of credit--crunch which are observed in the process of adjustment towards the post shock equilibrium.

  7. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  8. Mosquito Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  9. Reasoning with Causal Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2017-01-01

    This article assesses how people reason with categories whose features are related in causal cycles. Whereas models based on causal graphical models (CGMs) have enjoyed success modeling category-based judgments as well as a number of other cognitive phenomena, CGMs are only able to represent causal structures that are acyclic. A number of new…

  10. Skills, sunspots and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper explores the ability of a class of one-sector,multi-input models to generate indeterminate equilibrium paths, andendogenous cycles, without relying on factors' hoarding. The modelpresents a novel theoretical economic mechanism that supportssunspot-driven expansions without requiring...

  11. WLTP Random Cycle Generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, D.G.; Balau, A.E.; Wilkins, S.; Ligterink, N.; Cuelenaere, R.

    2015-01-01

    European light duty vehicle emission legislation is gradually shifting the focus from test procedures with merely static test cycles, towards procedures including Real Driving Emissions (RDE), as they are a mean to achieve the European (NOx) emission reduction target. Hence a RDE trip must represent

  12. WLTP random cycle generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, D.G.; Balau, A.E.; Wilkins, S.; Ligterink, N.; Cuelenaere, R.

    2015-01-01

    European light duty vehicle emission legislation is gradually shifting the focus from test procedures with merely static test cycles, towards procedures including Real Driving Emissions (RDE), as they are a mean to achieve the European (NOx) emission reduction target. Hence a RDE trip must represent

  13. Combined-cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as tougher emissions standards take hold throughout the industrialized world, manufacturers such as GE, Siemens, Foster Wheeler, and Asea Brown Boveri are designing advanced combined-cycle equipment that offers improved environmental performance without sacrificing power efficiency

  14. ITER fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Dinner, P.; Yoshida, H.

    1991-01-01

    Resulting from the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) by the parties involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, this document summarizes the design requirements and the Conceptual Design Descriptions for each of the principal subsystems and design options of the ITER Fuel Cycle conceptual design. The ITER Fuel Cycle system provides for the handling of all tritiated water and gas mixtures on ITER. The system is subdivided into subsystems for fuelling, primary (torus) vacuum pumping, fuel processing, blanket tritium recovery, and common processes (including isotopic separation, fuel management and storage, and processes for detritiation of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes). After an introduction describing system function and conceptual design procedure, a summary of the design is presented including a discussion of scope and main parameters, and the fuel design options for fuelling, plasma chamber vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary and common processes. Design requirements are defined and design descriptions are given for the various subsystems (fuelling, plasma vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary/common processes). The document ends with sections on fuel cycle design integration, fuel cycle building layout, safety considerations, a summary of the research and development programme, costing, and conclusions. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  16. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  17. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  18. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  19. Universality, marginal operators, and limit cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.; Wilson, Kenneth G.

    2004-01-01

    The universality of renormalization-group limit-cycle behavior is illustrated with a simple discrete Hamiltonian model. A nonperturbative renormalization-group equation for the model is soluble analytically at criticality and exhibits one marginal operator (made necessary by the limit cycle) and an infinite set of irrelevant operators. Relevant operators are absent. The model exhibits an infinite series of bound-state energy eigenvalues. This infinite series approaches an exact geometric series as the eigenvalues approach zero--also a consequence of the limit cycle. Wegner's eigenvalues for irrelevant operators are calculated generically for all choices of parameters in the model. We show that Wegner's eigenvalues are independent of location on the limit cycle, in contrast with Wegner's operators themselves, which vary depending on their location on the limit cycle. An example is then used to illustrate numerically how one can tune the initial Hamiltonian to eliminate the first two irrelevant operators. After tuning, the Hamiltonian's bound-state eigenvalues converge much more quickly than otherwise to an exact geometric series

  20. Subsurface crack initiation and propagation mechanisms in gigacycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhiyong; Wagner, Daniele; Bathias, Claude; Paris, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    In the very high cycle regime (N f > 10 7 cycles) cracks can nucleate on inclusions, 'supergrains' and pores, which leads to fish-eye propagation around the defect. The initiation from an inclusion or other defect is almost equal to the total crack growth lifetime, perhaps much more than 99% of this lifetime in many cases. Integration of the Paris law allows one to predict the number of cycles to crack initiation. A cyclic plastic zone around the crack exists, and recording the surface temperature of the sample during the test may allow one to follow crack propagation and determine the number of cycles to crack initiation. A thermo-mechanical model has been developed. In this study several fish-eyes from various materials have been observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the fractographic results analyzed as they related to the mechanical and thermo-mechanical models.

  1. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles activities in IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawada, H.P.; Ganguly, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Of late several developments in reprocessing areas along with advances in fuel design and robotics have led to immense interest in partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The R and D efforts in the P and T area are being paid increased attention as potential answers to ever-growing issues threatening sustainability, environmental protection and non-proliferation. Any fuel cycle studies that integrate partitioning and transmutation are also known as ''advanced fuel cycles'' (AFC), that could incinerate plutonium and minor actinide (MA) elements (namely Am, Np, Cm, etc.) which are the main contributors to long-term radiotoxicity. The R and D efforts in developing these innovative fuel cycles as well as reactors are being co-ordinated by international initiatives such as Innovative Nuclear Power Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GENP). For these advanced nuclear fuel cycle schemes to take shape, the development of liquid-metal-cooled reactor fuel cycles would be the most essential step for implementation of P and T. Some member states are also evaluating other concepts involving the use of thorium fuel cycle or inert-matrix fuel or coated particle fuel. Advanced fuel cycle involving novel partitioning methods such as pyrochemical separation methods to recover the transuranic elements are being developed by some member states which would form a critical stage of P and T. However, methods that can achieve a very high reduction (>99.5%) of MA and long-lived fission products in the waste streams after partitioning must be achieved to realize the goal of an improved protection of the environment. In addition, the development of MA-based fuel is also an essential and crucial step for transmutation of these transuranic elements. The presentation intends to describe progress of the IAEA activities encompassing the following subject-areas: minimization of

  2. Low cycle fatigue: high cycle fatigue damage accumulation in a 304L austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehericy, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of a Low Cycle Fatigue pre-damage on the subsequent fatigue limit of a 304L stainless steel. The effects of hardening and severe roughness (grinding) have also been investigated. In a first set of tests, the evolution of the surface damage induced by the different LCF pre-cycling was characterized. This has permitted to identify mechanisms and kinetics of damage in the plastic domain for different surface conditions. Then, pre-damaged samples were tested in the High Cycle Fatigue domain in order to establish the fatigue limits associated with each level of pre-damage. Results evidence that, in the case of polished samples, an important number of cycles is required to initiate surface cracks ant then to affect the fatigue limit of the material but, in the case of ground samples, a few number of cycles is sufficient to initiate cracks and to critically decrease the fatigue limit. The fatigue limit of pre-damaged samples can be estimated using the stress intensity factor threshold. Moreover, this detrimental effect of severe surface conditions is enhanced when fatigue tests are performed under a positive mean stress (author)

  3. The uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, A.; Allardice, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    All power-producing systems have an associated fuel cycle covering the history of the fuel from its source to its eventual sink. Most, if not all, of the processes of extraction, preparation, generation, reprocessing, waste treatment and transportation are involved. With thermal nuclear reactors more than one fuel cycle is possible, however it is probable that the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle will become predominant; in this cycle the fuel is mined, usually enriched, fabricated, used and then reprocessed. The useful components of the fuel, the uranium and the plutonium, are then available for further use, the waste products are treated and disposed of safely. This particular thermal reactor fuel cycle is essential if the fast breeder reactor (FBR) using plutonium as its major fuel is to be used in a power-producing system, because it provides the necessary initial plutonium to get the system started. In this paper the authors only consider the FBR using plutonium as its major fuel, at present it is the type envisaged in all, current national plans for FBR power systems. The corresponding fuel cycle, the uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle, is basically the same as the thermal reactor fuel cycle - the fuel is used and then reprocessed to separate the useful components from the waste products, the useful uranium and plutonium are used again and the waste disposed of safely. However the details of the cycle are significantly different from those of the thermal reactor cycle. (Auth.)

  4. Riding the cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G. [Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The current state of the Canadian oil and natural gas industry is reviewed as part of a discussion of economic cycles focusing in particular on the most recent cycle and the impact it has had on the industry. The review of the state of the industry includes discussion of production, exports, commodity prices, the stimulating effect of price increases on the number of oil and natural gas wells drilled, drilling rig operating days. Also discussed are the effect of foreign exchange rates, capital spending, industry financial performance in terms of return on capital employed, the impact of oil and gas prices on Alberta provincial revenues, estimates of Canada's ultimate crude oil and natural gas resources potential, pipelines and pipeline proposals for northern gas, and projection of crude oil and natural gas production in Canada to 2010.

  5. Fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gerhard J.

    1990-01-01

    TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

  6. Riding the cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, G.

    2001-01-01

    The current state of the Canadian oil and natural gas industry is reviewed as part of a discussion of economic cycles focusing in particular on the most recent cycle and the impact it has had on the industry. The review of the state of the industry includes discussion of production, exports, commodity prices, the stimulating effect of price increases on the number of oil and natural gas wells drilled, drilling rig operating days. Also discussed are the effect of foreign exchange rates, capital spending, industry financial performance in terms of return on capital employed, the impact of oil and gas prices on Alberta provincial revenues, estimates of Canada's ultimate crude oil and natural gas resources potential, pipelines and pipeline proposals for northern gas, and projection of crude oil and natural gas production in Canada to 2010

  7. Alternative nuclear fuel cycle arrangements for proliferation resistance: an overview of regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    President Carter proposed the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation to analyze various alternative fuel cycles which could minimize the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. DOE also initiated the Non-Proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. In response to GAO contentions that NRC was not sufficiently involved in these two assessments, a NRC study was initiated, with emphasis on legal and institutional factors. Objectives were to examine multinational fuel cycle facilities, potential effects on the US/IAEA agreement, development of an algorithm for ranking potential fuel cycles, and potential licensing of candidate fuel cycles. This anthology represents the products of this study which has been conducted between 1979 and 1981

  8. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  9. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  10. Stirling cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  11. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing.

  13. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  14. HCl removal using cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Wenjing; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles is used to remove HCl. • The optimum temperature for HCl removal of cycled carbide slag is 700 °C. • The presence of CO 2 restrains HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • CO 2 capture conditions have important effects on HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • HCl removal capacity of carbide slag drops with cycle number rising from 1 to 50. - Abstract: The carbide slag is an industrial waste from chlor-alkali plants, which can be used to capture CO 2 in the calcium looping cycles, i.e. carbonation/calcination cycles. In this work, the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping cycles for CO 2 capture was proposed to remove HCl in the flue gas from the biomass-fired and RDFs-fired boilers. The effects of chlorination temperature, HCl concentration, particle size, presence of CO 2 , presence of O 2 , cycle number and CO 2 capture conditions in calcium looping cycles on the HCl removal behavior of the carbide slag experienced carbonation/calcination cycles were investigated in a triple fixed-bed reactor. The chlorination product of the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping after absorbing HCl is not CaCl 2 but CaClOH. The optimum temperature for HCl removal of the cycled carbide slag from the carbonation/calcination cycles is 700 °C. The chlorination conversion of the cycled carbide slag increases with increasing the HCl concentration. The cycled carbide slag with larger particle size exhibits a lower chlorination conversion. The presence of CO 2 decreases the chlorination conversions of the cycled carbide slag and the presence of O 2 has a trifling impact. The chlorination conversion of the carbide slag experienced 1 carbonation/calcination cycle is higher than that of the uncycled calcined sorbent. As the number of carbonation/calcination cycles increases from 1 to 50, the chlorination conversion of carbide slag drops gradually. The high calcination temperature and high CO 2

  15. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  16. The urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. International Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two directions. One strand of the literature examines the idea of common exogenous shocks that affect economies simultaneously. In addition to that economic interdependencies such as trade in goods and services or capital account transactions may serve as the channels through which disturbances spill over across countries.The observed degree of output co movement reflects both the nature of the shocks that have occurred and the degree of economic interdependence. In the periods when common shocks prevail level of synchronization is usually higher than in times of transmission dominance.

  18. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycoberry, C.; Rougeau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive implementation of some key nuclear fuel cycle capecities in a country corresponds to a strategy for the acquisition of an independant energy source, France, Japan, and some European countries are engaged in such strategic programs. In France, COGEMA, the nuclear fuel company, has now completed the industrial demonstration of the closed fuel cycle. Its experience covers every step of the front-end and of the back-end: transportation of spent fuels, storage, reprocessing, wastes conditioning. The La Hague reprocessing plant smooth operation, as well as the large investment program under active progress can testify of full mastering of this industry. Together with other French and European companies, COGEMA is engaged in the recycling industry, both for uranium through conversion of uranyl nitrate for its further reeichment, and for plutonium through MOX fuel fabrication. Reprocessing and recycling offer the optimum solution for a complete, economic, safe and future-oriented fuel cycle, hence contributing to the necessary development of nuclear energy. (author)

  19. Risk estimation for LCF crack initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Sebastian; Rollmann, Georg; Gottschalk, Hanno; Krause, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    An accurate risk assessment for fatigue damage is of vital importance for the design and service of today's turbomachinery components. We present an approach for quantifying the probability of crack initiation due to surface driven low-cycle fatigue (LCF). This approach is based on the theory of failure-time processes and takes inhomogeneous stress fields and size effects into account. The method has been implemented as a finite-element postprocessor which uses quadrature formulae of higher o...

  20. Tritium fuel cycle modeling and tritium breeding analysis for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Pan, Lei; Lv, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems was developed. • The mean residence time method applied to tritium fuel cycle calculation was updated. • Tritium fuel cycle analysis for CFETR was carried out. - Abstract: Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is a critical goal for fusion reactor operated on the D–T fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle models were developed to describe the characteristic parameters of the various elements of the tritium cycle as a tool for evaluating the tritium breeding requirements. In this paper, a modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems and an updated mean residence time calculation method was developed based on ITER tritium model. The tritium inventory in fueling system and in plasma, supposed to be important for part of the initial startup tritium inventory, was considered in the updated mean residence time method. Based on the model, the tritium fuel cycle analysis of CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) was carried out. The most important two parameters, the minimum initial startup tritium inventory (I{sub m}) and the minimum tritium breeding ratio (TBR{sub req}) were calculated. The tritium inventories in steady state and tritium release of subsystems were obtained.

  1. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33

  2. How well can business cycle accounting account for business cycles?

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2012-01-01

    The business cycle accounting method introduced by Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) is a useful tool to decompose business cycle fluctuations into their contributing factors. However, the model estimated by the maximum likelihood method cannot replicate business cycle moments computed from data. Moment-based estimation might be an attractive alternative if the purpose of the research is to study business cycle properties such as volatility, persistence and cross-correlation of variables inst...

  3. AC Initiation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ac initiation system is described which uses three ac transmission signals interlocked for safety by frequency, phase, and power discrimination...The ac initiation system is pre-armed by the application of two ac signals have the proper phases, and activates a load when an ac power signal of the proper frequency and power level is applied. (Author)

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  5. Alternative ORC bottoming cycles FOR combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Sanchez, D.; Munoz, J.M.; Sanchez, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, low temperature Organic Rankine Cycles are studied as bottoming cycle in medium and large scale combined cycle power plants. The analysis aims to show the interest of using these alternative cycles with high efficiency heavy duty gas turbines, for example recuperative gas turbines with lower gas turbine exhaust temperatures than in conventional combined cycle gas turbines. The following organic fluids have been considered: R113, R245, isobutene, toluene, cyclohexane and isopentane. Competitive results have been obtained for toluene and cyclohexane ORC combined cycles, with reasonably high global efficiencies. The paper is structured in four main parts. A review of combined cycle and ORC cycle technologies is presented, followed by a thermodynamic analysis of combined cycles with commercial gas turbines and ORC low temperature bottoming cycles. Then, a parametric optimization of an ORC combined cycle plant is performed in order to achieve a better integration between these two technologies. Finally, some economic considerations related to the use of ORC in combined cycles are discussed.

  6. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  7. The next generation safeguards initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobey, William

    2008-01-01

    NGSI or the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is designed to revitalize the U.S. safeguards technical base, as well as invest in human resources, and to mobilize our primary asset - the U.S. National Laboratories - as well as industry and academia to restore capabilities. While NGSI is a U.S. effort it is intended to serve as a catalyst for a much broader commitment to international safeguards in partnership with the IAEA and other countries. Initiatives over the last years include such as the Proliferation Security Initiative, UN Security Council Resolution 1540, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and initiatives of the G-8 and NSG to discourage the spread of enrichment and reprocessing. NGSI augments this agenda by providing a means to strengthen the technical and political underpinnings of IAEA safeguards. Priorities and envisioned activities under NGSI are the following. (1) Cooperation with IAEA and others to promote universal adoption of safeguards agreements and the Additional Protocol including greater information sharing between member states and the IAEA, investigation of weaponization and procurement activities, and options to strengthen the state-level approach to safeguards. (2) NGSI anticipates the deployment of new types of reactors and fuel cycle facilities, as well as the need to use limited safeguards resources effectively and efficiently, especially in plants that pose the largest burden specifically complex, bulk-handling facilities. (3) NGSI will encourage a generational improvement in current safeguards technologies including improvement of precision and speed of nuclear measurements, performance of real-time process monitoring and surveillance in unattended mode, enabling in-field, pre-screening and analysis of nuclear and environmental samples, and collection, integration, analysis and archiving safeguards-relevant information from all available sources.(4) NGSI will address human capital management. Training and

  8. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centers study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.; Catlin, R.G.; Meckoni, V.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of regional fuel cycle centers (RFCC) has attracted wide interest. The concept was endorsed by many countries in discussions at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Accordingly, in 1975, the IAEA initiated a detailed study of the RFCC concept. The Agency study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle because that is the portion which is currently problematic. The study covers transport, storage, processing and recycle activities starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. A detailed evaluation of the specific features of large regional fuel cycle centers established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller dispersed fuel cycle facilities set up on a national basis has been carried out. The methodology for assessment of alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytic system has been developed to carry out such evaluations including appropriate sensitivity analysis. Studies in related areas on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, materials control and other essential aspects have also been made. The material developed during the course of this Study would enable any group of interested Member States to examine and work out alternative strategies pertinent to their present and projected nuclear fuel cycle needs, as well as evolve institutional, legal and other appropriate frameworks or agreements for the establishment of fuel cycle centers on a multinational cooperative basis

  9. The Life Cycle of Centrioles

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, E.; Stearns, T.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles organize the centrosome and nucleate the ciliary axoneme, and the centriole life cycle has many parallels to the chromosome cycle. The centriole cycle in animals begins at fertilization with the contribution of two centrioles by the male gamete. In the ensuing cell cycles, the duplication of centrioles is controlled temporally, spatially, and numerically. As a consequence of the duplication mechanism, the two centrioles in a typical interphase cell are of different ages and have di...

  10. DETECTING ALIEN LIMIT CYCLES NEAR A HAMILTONIAN 2-SADDLE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    LUCA, Stijn; DUMORTIER, Freddy; Caubergh, M.; Roussarie, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at providing and example of a cubic Hamiltonian 2-saddle cycle that after bifurcation can give rise to an alien limit cycle; this is a limit cycle that is not controlled by a zero of the related Abelian integral. To guarantee the existence of an alien limit cycle one can verify generic conditions on the Abelian integral and on the transition map associated to the connections of the 2-saddle cycle. In this paper, a general method is developed to compute the first and second der...

  11. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  12. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  13. Cycle 7 outage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadeken, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    The scheduled 58-day refueling outage in preparation for the seventh operating cycle of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was successfully completed three days ahead of schedule. The planning and execution of the outage was greatly aided by Project/2 automated scheduling capabilities. For example, the use of ''maintenance windows'' and resource loading capabilities was particularly effective. The value of the planning process was demonstrated by the smooth transition into the outage phase after an early shutdown and set the stage for our best outage to date

  14. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  15. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  16. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Judson, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities for closing the fuel cycle in today's nuclear climate in the US are compared with those envisioned in 1977. Reprocessing, the fast breeder reactor program, and the uranium supply are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the nuclear world is less healthy and less stable than the one previously envisioned and that the major task before the international nuclear community is to develop technologies, institutions, and accepted procedures that will allow to economically provide the huge store of energy from reprocessing and the breeder that it appears the world will desperately need

  17. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort [es

  19. Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972-2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment

  20. 1996 environmental initiatives report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Progress by Consumers Gas in addressing environmental challenges were reviewed. Proposed environmental initiatives for the next fiscal year and beyond were introduced. Proposed initiatives were placed into three priority categories, high, medium or low, which together with the environmental management framework form the the utility's overall environmental agenda. High on the list of environmental priorities for the company are atmospheric air emissions, planning and construction practices, energy conservation and efficiency, environmental compliance, and methane emissions. The present state of the initiatives by the various company divisions and regions, compiled from the respective business plans, were reported. 21 figs

  1. Culture in cycles: considering H.T. Odum's 'information cycle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    'Culture' remains a conundrum in anthropology. When recast in the mold of 'information cycles,' culture is transformed. New fault lines appear. Information is splintered into parallel or nested forms. Dynamics becomes cycling. Energy is essential. And culture has function in a directional universe. The 'information cycle' is the crowning component of H.T. Odum's theory of general systems. What follows is an application of the information cycle to the cultural domains of discourse, social media, ritual, education, journalism, technology, academia, and law, which were never attempted by Odum. In information cycles, cultural information is perpetuated - maintained against Second Law depreciation. Conclusions are that culture is in fact a nested hierarchy of cultural forms. Each scale of information production is semi-autonomous, with its own evolutionary dynamics of production and selection in an information cycle. Simultaneously, each information cycle is channeled or entrained by its larger scale of information and ultimately human-ecosystem structuring.

  2. Cycling with an amputation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Bryce

    2016-10-01

    Cycling with any form of limb amputation has progressed from an activity of leisure or rehabilitation to elite level competition as part of the Paralympic Games programme. While it is often proposed that research into sport with an amputation can be extremely limited, this study intended to identify the volume, type and historical strategy in this area. This study comprises a documented systematic literature review of cycling undertaken with any form of limb amputation. This study used four online search engines to identify relevant peer-reviewed literature. These included SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus and MEDLINE. Google Scholar was also used as a secondary source. The initial results were then subjected to a set of pre-defined inclusion criteria. The resulting publications were then analysed for content and thematic commonality. The review identified 20 articles which met pre-defined inclusion criteria. The identified peer-reviewed publications were dated from the period 2004 to 2014. Three clear themes emerged from the historical research. There was both a paucity of peer-reviewed literature with respect to cycling with an amputation and the design of adaptive or assistive technology to replace limb loss. However, publications have been rising substantially over the last 5 years. This review study established the historical strategy and content of cycling with an amputation and identified the existing research themes. This will assist in summarising the current level of knowledge and help signpost such work in the future. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  3. Modelling the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korla, Kalyani; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2014-01-01

    The Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation are the two most important sets of reactions in a eukaryotic cell that meet the major part of the total energy demands of a cell. In this paper, we present a computer simulation of the coupled reactions using open source tools for simulation. We also show that it is possible to model the Krebs cycle with a simple black box with a few inputs and outputs. However, the kinetics of the internal processes has been modelled using numerical tools. We also show that the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation together can be combined in a similar fashion - a black box with a few inputs and outputs. The Octave script is flexible and customisable for any chosen set-up for this model. In several cases, we had no explicit idea of the underlying reaction mechanism and the rate determining steps involved, and we have used the stoichiometric equations that can be easily changed as and when more detailed information is obtained. The script includes the feedback regulation of the various enzymes of the Krebs cycle. For the electron transport chain, the pH gradient across the membrane is an essential regulator of the kinetics and this has been modelled empirically but fully consistent with experimental results. The initial conditions can be very easily changed and the simulation is potentially very useful in a number of cases of clinical importance.

  4. The sunspot cycle revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The set of sunspot numbers observed since the invention of the telescope is one of the most studied time series in astronomy and yet it is also one of the most complex. Fourteen frequencies are found in the yearly mean sunspot numbers from 1700 to 2011using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and prewhitening. All of the frequencies corresponding to shorter term periods can be matched with simple algebraic combinations of the frequency of the main 11-year period and the frequencies of the longer term periods in the periodogram. This is exactly what can be expected from amplitude and phase modulation of an 11.12-year periodicity by longer term variations. Similar, though not identical, results are obtained after correcting the sunspot number series as proposed by Svalgaard. On looking separately at the amplitude and phase modulation a clear relationship is found between the two modulations although this relationship has broken down for the last four solar cycles. The phase modulation implies that there is a definite underlying period for the solar cycle. Such a clock mechanism does seem to be a possibility in models of the solar dynamo incorporating a conveyor-belt-like meridional circulation between high polar latitudes and the equator.

  5. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  6. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  7. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  8. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte...... Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo...... synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle...

  9. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Ginzburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016 to be of extraordinarily low amplitude.

  10. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  11. Research Programs & Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH develops international initiatives and collaborates with other NCI divisions, NCI-designated Cancer Centers, and other countries to support cancer control planning, encourage capacity building, and support cancer research and research networks.

  12. Nursing Home Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses quality...

  13. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  14. Global Methane Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Methane Initiative promotes cost-effective, near-term methane recovery through partnerships between developed and developing countries, with participation from the private sector, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations.

  15. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  16. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  17. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  18. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  19. About the RAS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Initiative, a "hub and spoke" model, connects researchers to better understand and target the more than 30% of cancers driven by mutations in RAS genes. Includes oversight and contact information.

  20. The Yekaterinburg headache initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Olesen, Jes; Osipova, Vera V

    2013-01-01

    for a demonstrational interventional project in Russia, undertaken within the Global Campaign against Headache. The initiative proposes three actions: 1) raise awareness of need for improvement; 2) design and implement a three-tier model (from primary care to a single highly specialized centre with academic affiliation......) for efficient and equitable delivery of headache-related health care; 3) develop a range of educational initiatives aimed at primary-care physicians, non-specialist neurologists, pharmacists and the general public to support the second action. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We set these proposals in a context...... of a health-care needs assessment, and as a model for all Russia. We present and discuss early progress of the initiative, justify the investment of resources required for implementation and call for the political support that full implementation requires. The more that the Yekaterinburg headache initiative...

  1. The RAS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  2. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  3. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  4. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.; Amundson, P.I.; Goin, R.W.; Webster, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  5. Ammonia-water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Hanliang; Ma Changwen; Wu Shaorong

    1997-01-01

    On characteristics of heating source and cooling source in nuclear heating reactor cooperation, the authors advance a new kind of power cycle in which a multicomponent mixture as the work fluid, ammonia-water Rankine cycle, describe its running principle, and compare it with steam Rankine cycle in the same situation. The result is that: the new kind of power cycle, ammonia-water Rankine cycle has higher electricity efficiency; it suits for the situation of heating source and cooling source which offered by nuclear heating reactor cooperation. For low temperature heating source, it maybe has a widely application

  6. A microcomputer program for coupled cycle burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Downar, T.J.; Taylor, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    A program, designated BRACC (Burnup, Reactivity, And Cycle Coupling), has been developed for fuel management scoping calculations, and coded in the BASIC language in an interactive format for use with microcomputers. BRACC estimates batch and cycle burnups for sequential reloads for a variety of initial core conditions, and permits the user to specify either reload batch properties (enrichment, burnable poison reactivity) or the target cycle burnup. Most important fuel management tactics (out-in or low-leakage loading, coastdown, variation in number of assemblies charged) can be simulated

  7. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown

  8. Cycling infrastructure for reducing cycling injuries in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Caroline A; Smith, Sherie; Watson, Michael C; Parkin, John; Coupland, Carol; Miller, Philip; Kendrick, Denise; McClintock, Hugh

    2015-12-10

    Cycling is an attractive form of transport. It is beneficial to the individual as a form of physical activity that may fit more readily into an individual's daily routine, such as for cycling to work and to the shops, than other physical activities such as visiting a gym. Cycling is also beneficial to the wider community and the environment as a result of fewer motorised journeys. Cyclists are seen as vulnerable road users who are frequently in close proximity to larger and faster motorised vehicles. Cycling infrastructure aims to make cycling both more convenient and safer for cyclists. This review is needed to guide transport planning. To:1. evaluate the effects of different types of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists, by type of infrastructure;2. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing the severity of cycling injuries in cyclists;3. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists with respect to age, sex and social group. We ran the most recent search on 2nd March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase Classic + Embase(OvidSP), PubMed and 10 other databases. We searched websites, handsearched conference proceedings, screened reference lists of included studies and previously published reviews and contacted relevant organisations. We included randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series studies which evaluated the effect of cycling infrastructure (such as cycle lanes, tracks or paths, speed management, roundabout design) on cyclist injury or collision rates. Studies had to include a comparator, that is, either no infrastructure or a different type of infrastructure. We excluded studies that assessed collisions that occurred as a result of competitive cycling. Two review authors examined the titles and

  9. Effect of variable load on crack initiation microalloyed steel S 690-QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burzić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of damage in the form of initiation and growth of micro-cracks is the first stage of destruction that ends when the merger microcracks form macro cracks. Cracks formed in the cycle number N =104 - 105 are the result of low cycle fatigue. From the need to evaluate low cycle fatigue life was carried out to investigate the low cycle fatigue microalloyed high-strength steel S690QL in the heat-treated.

  10. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks...... in the surface environment and recycled back into the mantle In the third manuscript we investigate the carbon cycle components, which have maintained the carbon isotope composition of the mantle constant through time. Assuming constant organic ratio of the total carbon burial (f), we show that increased.......1‰) and metacarbonate ( -6.1 ± 0.1‰ to +1.5 ± 0.0‰) rocks from the ~3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt as resulting from the Rayleigh distillation process, which affected the ultramafic reservoir with initial δ13C between -2‰ and 0‰. Due to its high primary δ13C signature, carbon in the Isuan magnesite was most likely...

  11. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-01-01

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia

  12. US activities on fuel cycle transition scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Countries with active nuclear programmes typically have as a goal transition to a closed fuel cycle. A closed fuel cycle enables long-term sustainability, provides waste management benefits, and as a system, can reduce overall proliferation risk. This transition will take many decades, thus the study of the actual transition is an important topic. The United States systems analysis activities as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) provide the integrating analyses for the fuel cycle programme, and recent activities are focusing on transition options, and specifically, the dynamics of the transition. The United States is still studying both one-tier (recycling in fast reactors only) and two-tier (recycling in both thermal and fast reactors) systems, and the systems analysis activities provide insight into the trade-offs associated with the systems, and variations of each. Most recently, a series of sensitivity studies have been completed which provide insight into the behaviour of a transition system. These studies evaluate the impact of changing various parameters in the fuel cycle system, and provide insight into how the system will change as parameters change. Because these deployment analyses look at the development of nuclear energy systems over a long period of time, it is very unlikely that we will accurately predict the system's characteristics over time (for example, growth in electricity demand, how quickly nuclear reactors will be deployed, how many fast rectors versus thermal reactors, the conversion ratio of the fast reactors, etc.). How the system will develop will depend on a variety of factors, ranging from political to technical, rational to irrational. Because we cannot accurately predict the future, we need to understand how things could change, and what impact those changes have. Analyses of future fuel cycle systems require a number of assumptions. These include growth rates for nuclear energy, general architecture of fuel cycle

  13. LIFE CYCLE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Sennik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a generalization of the theoretical propositions related to the life cycle of information systems. There was given the definition of the life cycle, specify which items you should include every step of the cycle. Describes the methodology division of the life cycle on the main stage, including methodology Rational Unified Process. The description of the fundamental standards in this area. Special attention was paid to the work of the basic life cycle models. It was carried out their comparative characteristics. On the basis of the theoretical propositions, it was concluded that the preferred model of the life cycle for the corporate network is a spiral model and the use of international standards in the life cycle saves a lot of effort, time and material resources.

  14. The supercontinent cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nance, R.D.; Worsley, T.R.; Moody, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This paper discusses a new theory of plate tectonics which proposes that Pangaea was only the most recent in a series of supercontinents that have been breaking up and reassembling every 500 million years or so. The cycle, driven by heat percolating up from the mantle, splits continents and drives interrelated processes that shape the earth's geology and climate and play a role in biological evolution. The framework of the supercontinent theory makes it possible to understand the timing of changes in sea level that have taken place in the past 570 million years, and also helps to explain periods of intense mountain building, episodes of glaciation, and changes in the nature of life on the earth.

  15. The nuclear power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years after the first nuclear reactor come on-line, nuclear power is fourth among the world's primary energy sources, after oil, coal and gas. In 2002, there were 441 reactors in operation worldwide. The United States led the world with 104 reactors and an installed capacity of 100,000 MWe, or more than one fourth of global capacity. Electricity from nuclear energy represents 78% of the production in France, 57% in Belgium, 46% in Sweden, 40% in Switzerland, 39% in South Korea, 34% in Japan, 30% in Germany, 30% in Finland, 26% in Spain, 22% in Great Britain, 20% in the United States and 16% in Russia. Worldwide, 32 reactors are under construction, including 21 in Asia. This information document presents the Areva activities in the nuclear power cycle: the nuclear fuel, the nuclear reactors, the spent fuel reprocessing and recycling and nuclear cleanup and dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  16. CANDU advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.B.

    1986-03-01

    This report is based on informal lectures and presentations made on CANDU Advanced Fuel Cycles over the past year or so, and discusses the future role of CANDU in the changing environment for the Canadian and international nuclear power industry. The changing perspectives of the past decade lead to the conclusion that a significant future market for a CANDU advanced thermal reactor will exist for many decades. Such a reactor could operate in a stand-alone strategy or integrate with a mixed CANDU-LWR or CANDU-FBR strategy. The consistent design focus of CANDU on enhanced efficiency of resource utilization combined with a simple technology to achieve economic targets, will provide sufficient flexibility to maintain CANDU as a viable power producer for both the medium- and long-term future

  17. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Robert Stowers [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  18. The planning cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William

    2005-01-01

    Information technology planning can be described as a continuous cyclical process composed of three phases whose primary purpose is optimum allocation of scarce resources. In the assessment phase, planners assess user needs, environmental factors, business objectives, and IT infrastructure needs to develop IT projects that address needs in each of these areas. A major goal of this phase is to develop a broad IT inventory. The prioritization phase seeks to ensure optimum allocation of scarce resources by prioritizing ITprojects based on: Costs--total life cycle costs. Benefits--both quantitative and non-quantitative, including support for the organization's strategic business objectives. Risks--subjective assessments of technological and non-technological risks. Implementation requirements--time and personnel requirements to implement the system. The scheduling phase incorporates sequencing considerations, personnel availability, and budgetary constraints to produce an IT plan in which project priorities are adjusted to meet organizational realities.

  19. Variable cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A.P.; Sprunger, E.V.

    1980-09-16

    A variable cycle turboshaft engine includes a remote fan system and respective high and low pressure systems for selectively driving the fan system in such a manner as to provide VTOL takeoff capability and minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC) at cruise and loiter conditions. For takeoff the fan system is primarily driven by the relatively large low pressure system whose combustor receives the motive fluid from a core bypass duct and, for cruise and loiter conditions, the fan system is driven by both a relatively small high pressure core and the low pressure system with its combustor inoperative. A mixer is disposed downstream of the high pressure system for mixing the relatively cold air from the bypass duct and the relatively hot air from the core prior to its flow to the low pressure turbine.

  20. HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In the spring of 1987, the HTGR fuel cycle project has been existing for ten years, and for this reason a status seminar has been held on May 12, 1987 in the Juelich Nuclear Research Center, that gathered the participants in this project for a discussion on the state of the art in HTGR fuel element development, graphite development, and waste management. The papers present an overview of work performed so far and an outlook on future tasks and goals, and on taking stock one can say that the project has been very successful so far: The HTGR fuel element now available meets highest requirements and forms the basis of today's HTGR safety philosophy; research work on graphite behaviour in a high-temperature reactor has led to complete knowledge of the temperature or neutron-induced effects, and with the concept of direct ultimate waste disposal, the waste management problem has found a feasible solution. (orig./GL) [de

  1. The uranium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    In identifying uranium provinces, and, more importantly, mineralized zones within these provinces, it is of paramount importance to attempt to trace the geochemical behaviour of an element through all stages of Earth's evolution. Aspects that need to be addressed in this regard include solar abundance levels and fractionation processes during accretion, changing patterns of crustal evolution, effects of an evolving atmosphere, and the weathering cycle. Abundance patterns and partition coefficients of some of the siderophile elements in mantle rocks lend support to a multistage accretionary process. Lack of a terrestrial record in the first 500 Ma necessitates that lunar models be invoked, which suggests that early fractionation of a mafic/ultramafic magma resulted in an anorthositic crust. Fractionation of the mantle and transfer of materials to the upper levels must be central to any model invoked for development of the crust. Given high heat flow conditions in the early Archaean it would seem inescapable that the process of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics was an ongoing process. If the plate tectonic model is taken back to 3500 Ma, and assuming current speading rates, then about half of the mantle has passed through the irreversible differentiation cycle. Arguments in support of recycled material must be balanced against mantle metasomatism effects. With the associated advent of partial melting of the mantle material a partitioning of minor and trace elements into the melt fraction would take place. The early primitive mafic and ultramafic komatiites exemplify this feature by concentrating U and Th by a factor of 5 compared to chondritic abundances. It is of tantamount importance to understand the generation of the magmas in order to predict which are the 'fertile' bodies in terms of radioelement concentrations. In that the granitoid magmas image their source compositions, the association of high radioelements will primarily be source-dependent. Uranium

  2. The Hamburg oceanic carbon cycle circulation model. Cycle 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.; Heinze, C.

    1992-02-01

    The carbon cycle model calculates the prognostic fields of oceanic geochemical carbon cycle tracers making use of a 'frozen' velocity field provided by a run of the LSG oceanic circulation model (see the corresponding manual, LSG=Large Scale Geostrophic). The carbon cycle model includes a crude approximation of interactions between sediment and bottom layer water. A simple (meridionally diffusive) one layer atmosphere model allows to calculate the CO 2 airborne fraction resulting from the oceanic biogeochemical interactions. (orig.)

  3. Fuel Cycle Requirements Code (FLYER). Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, E.H.; Goode, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Planning for, and the analysis of, the fuel requirements of the nuclear industry requires the ability to evaluate contingencies in many areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. The areas of nuclear fuel utilization, both uranium and plutonium, and of separative work requirements are of particular interest. The Fuel Cycle Requirements (FLYER) model has been developed to provide a flexible, easily managed tool for obtaining a comprehensive analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. The model allows analysis of the interactions among the nuclear capacity growth rate, reactor technology and mix, and uranium and plutonium recycling capabilities. The model was initially developed as a means of analyzing nuclear growth contingencies with particular emphasis on the uranium feed and separative work requirements. It served to provide the planning group with analyses similar to the OPA's NUFUEL code which has only recently become available for general use. The model has recently been modified to account for some features of the fuel cycle in a more explicit manner than the NUFUEL code. For instance, the uranium requirements for all reactors installed in a given year are calculated for the total lifetime of those reactors. These values are cumulated in order to indicate the total uranium committed for reactors installed by any given year of the campaign. Similarly, the interactions in the back end of the fuel cycle are handled specifically, such as, the impacts resulting from limitations on the industrial capacity for reprocessing and mixed oxide fabrication of both light water reactor and breeder fuels. The principal features of the modified FLYER code are presented in summary form

  4. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  5. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  6. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies--once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors achieves several recycling objectives; fast nuclear reactors achieve all of them

  7. Biomechanics of knee rehabilitation with cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, W D; Blackburn, T A

    1980-01-01

    The bicycle provides quadriceps rehabilitation while controlling the stresses to the knee ligaments. With pedaling on the bicycle, forces are applied to the anterior cruciate ligament, the capsular ligaments, and the posterior structures of the knee joint as the tibial plateau is posteriorly tilted. The knee muscles can modify their forces. Therefore, by controlling the mode of cycling with varying seat heights and pedal positions, the ligaments can be relieved from these forces during the initial stages of the rehabilitative process. An exercise program can then be designed to apply controlled stress to these structures to enhance the healing and recovery processes.

  8. Creeping of hysteresis cycles; Reptation des cycles d'hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de Grenoble, 38 (France)

    1959-07-01

    Creeping consists of a kind of progressive translation of dissymmetric ferromagnetic hysteresis cycles as a function of the order number of the cycle. It is interpreted here by means of a probable coupling field, the existence of which is connected to a statistical conception of the distribution of the elementary regions. (author) [French] La reptation consiste en une sorte de translation progressive des cycles d'hysteresis ferromagnetiques dissymetriques en fonction du numero d'ordre du cycle. L'auteur l'interprete au moyen d'un champ aleatoire de couplage dont l'existence est liee a une conception statistique de la distribution des domaines elementaires. (auteur)

  9. RCRA facility stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The RCRA Facility Stabilization Initiative was developed as a means of implementing the Corrective Action Program's management goals recommended by the RIS for stabilizing actual or imminent releases from solid waste management units that threaten human health and the environment. The overall goal of stabilization is to, as situations warrant, control or abate threats to human health and/or the environment from releases at RCRA facilities, and/or to prevent or minimize the further spread of contamination while long-term remedies are pursued. The Stabilization initiative is a management philosophy and should not be confused with stabilization technologies

  10. In anticipation of cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunches, Joseph; van der Linden, Ronald; Lundstedt, Henrik

    Anxious eyes are watching for the beginnings of new solar cycle 24. The watchers are many; scientists, engineers, academics, forecasters, end users. Their needs however vary, from the attraction of a better understanding of our nearest star, to how its increase in luminosity will affect particular aspects such as satellite orbits or the strength of the episodic storms that are most likely to occur during the height of the cycle. The first sign, however fleeting, occurred in January, 2008, when an ephemeral new cycle spot was numbered by NOAA as 10981. It was gone quickly but did mark the possible beginning of the new cycle. There has been great debate among solar physicists on how strong cycle 24 will be; and when it will start, reach maximum, and decline. This talk will give the status of the efforts to predict cycle 24, and the most recent projections.

  11. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark....... PATIENT(S): Two hundred ninety-five couples who were planning their first pregnancy were followed up from the discontinuation of birth control until a pregnancy was recognized within six menstrual cycles. Early embryonal losses were detected by changes in urinary hCG levels. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The probability of pregnancy occurring within one menstrual cycle (fecundity). RESULT(S): In women who had a cycle length that differed by >10 days from the usual cycle length, fecundity was approximately 25% that of women who had no variation (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval...

  12. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the more traditional analysis of the nitrogen cycle itself and the role of humans in its alteration.The universe is ˜15 Gyr old. Even after its formation, there was still a period when nitrogen did not exist. It took ˜300 thousand years after the big bang for the Universe to cool enough to create atoms; hydrogen and helium formed first. Nitrogen was formed in the stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. When a star's helium mass becomes great enough to reach the necessary pressure and temperature, helium begins to fuse into still heavier elements, including nitrogen.Approximately 10 Gyr elapsed before Earth was formed (˜4.5 Ga (billion years ago)) by the accumulation of pre-assembled materials in a multistage process. Assuming that N2 was the predominate nitrogen species in these materials and given that the temperature of space is -270 °C, N2 was probably a solid when the Earth was formed since its boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) are -196 °C and -210 °C, respectively. Towards the end of the accumulation period, temperatures were probably high enough for significant melting of some of the accumulated material. The volcanic gases emitted by the resulting volcanism strongly influenced the surface environment. Nitrogen was converted from a solid to a gas and emitted as N2. Carbon and sulfur were probably emitted as CO and H2S (Holland, 1984). N2 is still the most common nitrogen volcanic gas emitted today at a rate of ˜2 TgN yr-1 (Jaffee, 1992).Once emitted, the gases either remained in the atmosphere or were deposited to the Earth's surface, thus continuing the process of biogeochemical cycling. The rate of

  13. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of KOH concentration on the cycle life of a sintered-type nickel electrode were studied in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell at 23 C using an accelerated 45-min cycle regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. The cycle life improved greatly as the KOH concentration decreased, although the initial capacity of the cell decreased slightly. The cycle life improved by a factor of two or more when the KOH concentration was reduced from 36 to 31 percent and by a similar factor from reductions of 31 to 26 percent. For many applications, this life improvement may outweigh the initial capacity decrease.

  14. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

    2010-09-01

    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  15. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  16. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  17. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  18. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  19. Safe Cycling Network : developing a system for assessing the safety of cycling infrastructure. Report on behalf of the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Dijkstra, A. & Petegem, J.W.H. van

    2015-01-01

    ANWB has initiated a project to improve the safety of the cycling infrastructure in the Netherlands — and, in the longer term, also in other countries: the Safe Cycling Network project. This project was inspired in part by the international European Road Assessment Programme (EuroRAP/iRAP). The

  20. The international surface temperature initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  1. The life cycle of centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, E; Stearns, T

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles organize the centrosome and nucleate the ciliary axoneme, and the centriole life cycle has many parallels to the chromosome cycle. The centriole cycle in animals begins at fertilization with the contribution of two centrioles by the male gamete. In the ensuing cell cycles, the duplication of centrioles is controlled temporally, spatially, and numerically. As a consequence of the duplication mechanism, the two centrioles in a typical interphase cell are of different ages and have different functions. Here, we discuss how new centrioles are assembled, what mechanisms limit centriole number, and the consequences of the inherent asymmetry of centriole duplication and segregation.

  2. Next generation initiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tom; Derber, John; Zupanski, Milija; Cohn, Steve; Verlinde, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional data assimilation strategies can generally be classified as either current or next generation, depending upon whether they are used operationally or not. Current-generation data-assimilation techniques are those that are presently used routinely in operational-forecasting or research applications. They can be classified into the following categories: intermittent assimilation, Newtonian relaxation, and physical initialization. It should be noted that these techniques are the subject of continued research, and their improvement will parallel the development of next generation techniques described by the other speakers. Next generation assimilation techniques are those that are under development but are not yet used operationally. Most of these procedures are derived from control theory or variational methods and primarily represent continuous assimilation approaches, in which the data and model dynamics are 'fitted' to each other in an optimal way. Another 'next generation' category is the initialization of convective-scale models. Intermittent assimilation systems use an objective analysis to combine all observations within a time window that is centered on the analysis time. Continuous first-generation assimilation systems are usually based on the Newtonian-relaxation or 'nudging' techniques. Physical initialization procedures generally involve the use of standard or nonstandard data to force some physical process in the model during an assimilation period. Under the topic of next-generation assimilation techniques, variational approaches are currently being actively developed. Variational approaches seek to minimize a cost or penalty function which measures a model's fit to observations, background fields and other imposed constraints. Alternatively, the Kalman filter technique, which is also under investigation as a data assimilation procedure for numerical weather prediction, can yield acceptable initial conditions for mesoscale models. The

  3. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  6. The closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  7. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B.B.; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel

  8. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  9. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  10. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  11. Moving towards sustainable thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, B.; Hamilton, H.

    2011-01-01

    The CANDU reactor has an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility as a consequence of its fuel-channel design, excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, and simple fuel bundle design. These features facilitate the introduction and full exploitation of thorium fuel cycles in CANDU reactors in an evolutionary fashion. Thoria (ThO 2 ) based fuel offers both fuel performance and safety advantages over urania (UO 2 ) based fuel, due its higher thermal conductivity which results in lower fuel-operating temperatures at similar linear element powers. Thoria fuel has demonstrated lower fission gas release than UO 2 under similar operating powers during test irradiations. In addition, thoria has a higher melting point than urania and is far less reactive in hypothetical accident scenarios owing to the fact that it has only one oxidation state. This paper examines one possible strategy for the introduction of thorium fuel cycles into CANDU reactors. In the short term, the initial fissile material would be provided in a heterogeneous bundle of low-enriched uranium and thorium. The medium term scenario uses homogeneous Pu/Th bundles in the CANDU reactor, further increasing the energy derived from the thorium. In the long term, the full energy potential from thorium would be realized through the recycle of the U-233 in the used fuel. With U-233 recycle in CANDU reactors, plutonium would then only be required to top up the fissile content to achieve the desired burnup. (author)

  12. Funding Initiatives | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Funding Initiatives ... The Fellowship Scheme for Women Scientists for societal programmes is initiative of the ... at a young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.

  13. Preliminary investigation study of code of developed country for developing Korean fuel cycle code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il; Lee, Ho Hee; Cho, Dong Keun; Park, Chang Je

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop Korean fuel cycle code, the analyses has been performed with the fuel cycle codes which are used in advanced country. Also, recommendations were proposed for future development. The fuel cycle codes are AS FLOOWS: VISTA which has been developed by IAEA, DANESS code which developed by ANL and LISTO, and VISION developed by INL for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) system analysis. The recommended items were proposed for software, program scheme, material flow model, isotope decay model, environmental impact analysis model, and economics analysis model. The described things will be used for development of Korean nuclear fuel cycle code in future

  14. An introduction to Life-cycle Thinking and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    This booklet descibes how enterprises can begin developing cleaner products based on a life-cycle perspective. It focuses on a simple approach to preventive environmental initiatives, where enterprises can begin at a level that matches their ambitions and their preconditions. The report is aimed...... at enterprises that, irregardless of size or sector, are interested in reducing environmental impacts from their products....

  15. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how...

  16. Initial management of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinusas, K; Gagliardi, A

    2001-09-15

    Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding. Postpartum care practices that improve breastfeeding rates include rooming-in, anticipatory guidance about breastfeeding problems and the avoidance of formula supplementation and pacifiers.

  17. Self-initiated expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – As it has been suggested that adult third-culture kids may be more culturally adaptable than others, they have been labelled “the ideal” expatriates. In this article, we explore the adjustment of self-initiated expatriate academics in Hong Kong, comparing adult third-culture kids...... with adult mono-culture kids. Design/methodology/approach – We use survey results from 267 self-initiated expatriate academics in Hong Kong. Findings – Exploratory results show that adult third-culture kids had a higher extent of general adjustment. No significant results were found in relation...... to interaction adjustment and job adjustment. We also found that recent expatriate experiences generally had a positive association with the adjustment of adult mono-culture kids, but this association only existed in terms of general adjustment for adult third-culture kids. Originality/value – Once corroborated...

  18. INITIAL TRAINING OF RESEARCHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Cruz-Pallares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The document presents results of a research that used as strategy a complementary training project with thirty-three students of a Bachelors Degree in Primary School 1997(DPS,1997 of an Education Faculty for the initial training of investigators, applied by four teachers members of the academic research group in Mexico; that develops through process of action research methodology. Highlighted in results is the strengthening of the competition of reading, understanding and writing scientific texts, which is analogous to the first feature of the graduate profile called intellectual skills. Among the conclusions it is emphasized that the initial training of teachers in a task that is quite interesting, challenging and complex, as is the educational complex phenomenon.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  20. Hamiltonian cycles in polyhedral maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition for existence of a contractible, non-separating and non-contractible separating Hamiltonian cycle in the edge graph of polyhedral maps on surfaces.We also present algorithms to construct such cycles whenever it exists where one of them is linear time and another is ...

  1. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle

  2. Drought and ecosystem carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, M.K. van der; Dolman, A.J.; Ciais, P.; Eglin, T.; Gobron, N.; Law, B.E.; Meir, P.; Peters, P.; Philips, O.L.; Reichstein, M.; Chen, T.; Dekker, S.C.; Doubkova, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Jung, M.; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Jeu, R.A.M. de; Kruijt, B.; Ohta, T.; Rebel, K.T.; Plummer, S.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Sitch, S.; Teuling, A.J.; Werf, G.R. van der; Wang, G.

    2011-01-01

    Drought as an intermittent disturbance of the water cycle interacts with the carbon cycle differently than the ‘gradual’ climate change. During drought plants respond physiologically and structurally to prevent excessive water loss according to species-specific water use strategies. This has

  3. Economic growth and business cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on economic growth and business cycles. The main focus is on the interaction between economic growth and the cycle: is cyclical variability good or bad for the long-run rate of economic growth? The introduction aims to provide some empirical evidence for an

  4. Variations on the Zilch Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, P.-M.; Tanoue, C. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Thermo dynamic cycles in introductory physics courses are usually made up from a small number of permutations of isothermal, adiabatic, and constant-pressure and volume quasistatic strokes, with the working fluid usually being an ideal gas. Among them we find the Carnot, Stirling, Otto, Diesel, and Joule-Brayton cycles; in more advanced courses,…

  5. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urea cycle disorders. Donate Now To End Urea Cycle Disorders © 2005-2017 NUCDF. All rights reserved. This site may be freely linked to but not copied or duplicated in any fashion without the Foundation's consent. Make A Donation in ...

  6. The water cycle for kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neno, Stephanie; Morgan, Jim; Zonolli, Gabriele; Perlman, Howard; Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have created a water-cycle diagram for use in elementary and middle schools. The diagram is available in many languages. This diagram is part of the USGS's Water Science School, in which the water cycle is described in detail.

  7. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  9. Effect of wetting-drying cycles on soil desiccation cracking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Chao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding the desiccation cracking process is essential in analysing drought effects on soil hydraulic and mechanical properties through consideration of the atmosphere-ground interaction. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the consequence of wetting-drying cycles on the initiation and propagation characteristics of desiccation cracks on soil surface. Initially saturated slurry specimens were prepared and subjected to five subsequent wetting-drying cycles. Image processing technique was employed to quantitatively analyze the morphology characteristics of crack patterns formed during each drying path. The results show that the desiccation cracking behaviour of soil is significantly affected by the wetting-drying cycles. Before the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the surface crack ratio and the average crack width increases while the average clod area decreases with increasing the number of wetting-drying cycles. The number of intersections and crack segments per unit area reaches the peak values after the second wetting-drying cycle. After the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the effect of increasing wetting-drying cycles on crack patterns is insignificant. Moreover, it is observed that the applied wetting-drying cycles are accompanied by a continual reconstruction of soil structure. The initial homogenous slurry structure is completely replaced with aggregated structure after the third cycles, and a significant increase in the inter-aggregate porosity can be observed.

  10. Some alternatives to the mixed oxide fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Eschbach, E.A.; Goldsmith, S.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Widrig, R.D.

    1977-02-01

    While on initial examination each of the six fuel cycle concepts (tandem cycle, extended burnup, fuel rejuvenation, coprocessing, partial reprocessing, and thorium) described in the report may have some potential for improving safeguards, none of the six appears to have any other major or compelling advantages over the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle. Compared to the MOX cycle, all but coprocessing appear to have major disadvantages, including severe cost penalties. Three of the concepts-tandem, extended burnup, and rejuvenation--share the basic problems of the throwaway cycle (GESMO Alternative 6): without reprocessing, high-level waste volumes and costs are substantially increased, and overall uranium utilization decreases for three reasons. First, the parasitic fission products left in the fuel absorb neutrons in later irradiation steps reducing the overall neutronic efficiencies of these cycles. Second, discarded fuel still has sufficient fissile values to warrant recycle. Third, perhaps most important, the plutonium needed for breeder start-up will not be available; without the breeder, uranium utilization would drop by about a factor of sixty. Two of the concepts--coprocessing and partial reprocessing--involve variations of the basic MOX fuel cycle's chemical reprocessing step to make plutonium diversion potentially more difficult. These concepts could be used with the MOX fuel cycle or in conjunction with the tandem, extended burnup and rejuvenation concepts to eliminate some of the problems with those cycles. But in so doing, the basic impetus for those cycles--elimination of reprocessing for safeguards purposes--no longer exists. Of all the concepts considered, only coprocessing--and particularly the ''master blend'' version--appears to have sufficient promise to warrant a more detailed study. The master blend concept could possibly make plutonium diversion more difficult with minimal impact on the reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication operations

  11. Brucella abortus Cell Cycle and Infection Are Coordinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Xavier; Crosson, Sean; Matroule, Jean-Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens. The recent development of methods and genetically engineered strains allowed the description of cell-cycle progression of Brucella abortus, including unipolar growth and the ordered initiation of chromosomal replication. B. abortus cell-cycle progression is coordinated with intracellular trafficking in the endosomal compartments. Bacteria are first blocked at the G1 stage, growth and chromosome replication being resumed shortly before reaching the intracellular proliferation compartment. The control mechanisms of cell cycle are similar to those reported for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, and they are crucial for survival in the host cell. The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  13. The evolution and future of Earth's nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Donald E; Glazer, Alexander N; Falkowski, Paul G

    2010-10-08

    Atmospheric reactions and slow geological processes controlled Earth's earliest nitrogen cycle, and by ~2.7 billion years ago, a linked suite of microbial processes evolved to form the modern nitrogen cycle with robust natural feedbacks and controls. Over the past century, however, the development of new agricultural practices to satisfy a growing global demand for food has drastically disrupted the nitrogen cycle. This has led to extensive eutrophication of fresh waters and coastal zones as well as increased inventories of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Microbial processes will ultimately restore balance to the nitrogen cycle, but the damage done by humans to the nitrogen economy of the planet will persist for decades, possibly centuries, if active intervention and careful management strategies are not initiated.

  14. Advanced fuel cycles options for LWRs and IMF benchmark definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breza, J.; Darilek, P.; Necas, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, different advanced nuclear fuel cycles including thorium-based fuel and inert-matrix fuel are examined under light water reactor conditions, especially VVER-440, and compared. Two investigated thorium based fuels include one solely plutonium-thorium based fuel and the second one plutonium-thorium based fuel with initial uranium content. Both of them are used to carry and burn or transmute plutonium created in the classical UOX cycle. The inert-matrix fuel consist of plutonium and minor actinides separated from spent UOX fuel fixed in Yttria-stabilised zirconia matrix. The article shows analysed fuel cycles and their short description. The conclusion is concentrated on the rate of Pu transmutation and Pu with minor actinides cumulating in the spent advanced thorium fuel and its comparison to UOX open fuel cycle. Definition of IMF benchmark based on presented scenario is given. (authors)

  15. The Evolution and Future of Earth's Nitrogen Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Glazer, Alexander N.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    , the development of new agricultural practices to satisfy a growing global demand for food has drastically disrupted the nitrogen cycle. This has led to extensive eutrophication of fresh waters and coastal zones as well as increased inventories of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Microbial processes......Atmospheric reactions and slow geological processes controlled Earth's earliest nitrogen cycle, and by similar to 2.7 billion years ago, a linked suite of microbial processes evolved to form the modern nitrogen cycle with robust natural feedbacks and controls. Over the past century, however...... will ultimately restore balance to the nitrogen cycle, but the damage done by humans to the nitrogen economy of the planet will persist for decades, possibly centuries, if active intervention and careful management strategies are not initiated....

  16. Analysis of possible fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Kessler, G.; Engelmann, P.; Maerkl, H.; Stoll, W.

    1978-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important fuel cycles. A rough analysis of fuel cycles is attempted under the aspects of proliferation, status of technical feasibility, resource conservation and waste management and the most important criteria for such an analysis are discussed. Among the multitude of potential combinations of fuel cycles and types of reactors only a few have reached a level of technical feasibility which would make them eligible for commercial implementation within the next decade. However, if, for instance, the higher proliferation resistance of a specific fuel cycle is to be utilized to diminish the worldwide proliferation hazard, that cycle would first of all have to be introduced on an industrial scale as quickly as possible. The analysis shows that the reduction of the bazard of worldwide proliferation will continue to be the objective primarily of international agreements and measures taken in the political realm. (orig.) [de

  17. Fuel cycle optimization in PWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Lobo, P.D. de; Amorim, E.S. do.

    1979-08-01

    Neutronics aspects of a reactor core throughout its cycle were investigated in a search for increasing in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes content in the cycle discharged disposal. The effects due to design modifications introduced at burnup levels near the end-of-cycle, in an equilibrium cycle condition, have indicated the possibility of a better in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes existing in the cycle discharged disposal. The potential benefits are significant to warranty an examination of the mechanical and thermal hydraulic involved. At convenient burnup levels, change in H 2 O/UO 2 volume ratio were introduced allowing an intense depletion of the residual fissile isotopes existing in assemblies with high exposures levels. (Author) [pt

  18. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC

  19. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  20. Solar Proton Events in Six Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaly, Ishkov

    Based on materials the catalogs of solar proton events (SPE) in 1955 ‒ 2010 and list SPE for the current 24 solar cycle (SC) are examined confirmed SPE with E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 proton cm-2 s ster-1 (pfu) from Švestka and Simon’s (1955 - 1969) and 5 volumes Logachev’s (1970 - 2006) Catalogs of SPE. Historically thus it was formed, that the measurements of the proton fluxes began in the epoch “increased” solar activity (SC 18 ‒ 22), and includes transition period of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction from epoch “increased” to the epoch “lowered” solar activity (22 ‒ 23 SC). In current 24 SC ‒ first SC of the incipient epoch of “lowered” SA ‒ SPE realize under the new conditions, to that of previously not observed. As showed a study of five solar cycles with the reliable measurements of E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 pfu (1964 - 2013): ‒ a quantity of SPEs remained approximately identical in SC 20, 21, somewhat decreased in the initial solar cycle of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (22), but it returned to the same quantity in, the base for the period of reconstruction, SC 23. ‒ Into the first 5 years of the each solar cycle development the rate of the proton generation events noticeably increased in 22 cycles of solar activity and returned to the average in cycles 23 and 24. ‒ Extreme solar flare events are achieved, as a rule, in the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (August - September 1859; June 1991; October ‒ November 2003.), it is confirmed also for SPE: the extreme fluxes of solar protons (S4) except one (August 1972) were occurred in period of perestroika (SC 22 and 23). This can speak, that inside the epochs SA, when the generation of magnetic field in the convective zone works in the steady-state regime, extreme SPE are improbable. ‒ The largest in the fluxes of protons (S3, S4) occur in the complexes of the active regions flare events, where magnetic field more

  1. Out-of-core nuclear fuel cycle economic optimization for nonequilibrium cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology and associated computer code was developed to determine near-optimum out-of-core fuel management strategies. The code, named OCEON (Out-of-Core Economic OptimizationN), identified feed-region sizes and enrichments, and partially burned fuel-reload strategies for each cycle of a multi-cycle planning horizon, subject to cycle-energy requirements and constraints on feed enrichments, discharge burnups, and the moderator temperature coefficient. A zero-dimensional reactor physics model, enhanced by a linear reactivity model to provide batch power shares, performs the initial feed enrichment, burnup and constraint evaluations, while a two-dimensional, nodal code is used to refine the calculations for the final solutions. The economic calculations are performed rapidly using an annuity-factor-based model. Use of Monte Carlo integer programming to select the optimum solutions allows for the determination of a family of near-optimum solutions, from which engineering judgment may be used to select an appropriate strategy. Results from various nonequilibrium cycle energy requirement cases typically show a large number of low-cost solutions near the optimum. This confirms that the Monte Carlo integer programming approach of generating a family of solutions will be most useful for selecting optimum strategies when other considerations, such as incore loading pattern concerns, must be addressed

  2. Out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for nonequilibrium cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, S.A.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for determining the family of near-optimum fuel management schemes that minimize the levelized fuel cycle costs of a light water reactor over a multicycle planning horizon. Feed batch enrichments and sizes, burned batches to reinsert, and burnable poison loadings are determined for each cycle in the planning horizon. Flexibility in the methodology includes the capability to assess the economic benefits of various partially burned bath reload strategies as well as the effects of using split feed enrichments and enrichment palettes. Constraint limitations are imposed on feed enrichments, discharge burnups, moderator temperature coefficient, and cycle energy requirements

  3. PO2 cycling reduces diaphragm fatigue by attenuating ROS formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Diaz, Philip T; Chien, Michael T; Roberts, William J; Kishek, Juliana; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr) followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr), can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe) was used to monitor muscular ROS production in real time with confocal microscopy during a lower PO2 condition. In the control group with no PO2 cycling, intracellular ROS formation did not appear during the first 15 min of the low PO2 period. However, after 20 min of low PO2, ROS levels increased significantly by ∼30% compared to baseline, and this increase continued until the end of the 30 min low PO2 condition. Conversely, muscles treated with PO2 cycling showed a complete absence of enhanced fluorescence emission throughout the entire low PO2 period. Furthermore, PO2 cycling-treated diaphragm exhibited increased fatigue resistance during prolonged low PO2 period compared to control. Thus, our data suggest that PO2 cycling mitigates diaphragm fatigue during prolonged low PO2. Although the exact mechanism for this protection remains to be elucidated, it is likely that through limiting excessive ROS levels, PO2 cycling initiates ROS-related antioxidant defenses.

  4. An entropy flow optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter proposes a new method of analyzing thermodynamic cycles based on a continuous distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle. The method gives the optimum distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle by specifying the mass flow to be expanded at each temperature. The result is used to select a cycle configuration with discrete expansions and to initialize the independent variables for final optimization. Topics considered include the continuous precooling model, the results for ideal gas, the results for real gas, and the application to the design of a saturated vapor compression (SVC) cycle. The optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles starts with the minimization of the generated entropy in a cycle model with continuous precooling. The pressure ratio, the pressure level and the distribution of the heat exchange are selected based on the results of the continuous precooling analysis. It is concluded that the technique incorporates the non-ideal behavior of helium in the procedure and allows the trade-off between heat exchange area and losses to be determined

  5. Use of non-proliferation fuel cycles in the HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, A.M.; Merrill, M.H.; Dahlberg, R.C.

    1978-10-01

    All high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) built or designed to date utilize a uranium-thorium fuel cycle (HEU/Th) in which fully-enriched uranium (93% U-235) is the initial fuel and thorium is the fertile material. The U-233 produced from the thorium is recycled in subsequent loadings to reduce U-235 makeup requirements. However, the recent interest in proliferation-proof fuel cycles for fission reactors has prompted a review and evaluation of possible alternate cycles in the HTGR. This report discusses these alternate fuel cycles, defines those considered usable in an HTGR core, summarizes their advantages and disadvantages, and briefly describes the effect on core design of the most important cycles. Examples from design studies are also given. These studies show that the flexibility afforded by the HTGR coated-particle fuel design allows a variety of alternative cycles, each having special advantages and attractions under different circumstances. Moreover, these alternate cycles can all use the same fuel block, core layout, control scheme, and basic fuel zoning concept

  6. Equilibrium transuranic management scheme for diverse fuel cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Jason; Lee, John C.

    2008-01-01

    A key issue cited in the U.S. Department of Energy's report to Congress (2003) on the research path for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is an accurate estimation of life cycle costs for the construction, operation, decontamination and decommissioning of all fuel cycle facilities. In this report we discuss the methodology and validation of a fuel cycle model based on equilibrium operation. We apply our model to a diverse set of advanced reactors and fuel types in order to determine the most effective transmuting system while simultaneously minimizing fuel cycle costs. Our analysis shows that a nearly instant equilibrium modeling of fuel cycle scenarios can accurately approximate the detailed complex dynamic models developed by national laboratories. Our analysis also shows that the cost of transmuting Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from a UO 2 fueled Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is minimized by utilizing the thorium cycle in sodium cooled fast reactors and is near the cost for long term repository storage of SNF at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  7. Has accession to the EU affected business cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis EVANGELOPOULOS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes to explain the relationship between EU accession and the length of business cycles, focusing specifically on whether participation in a multinational organization has, or has not, altered the length of the cycle. Employing a sample of nine EU countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK we focused initially on annual data for per capita growth in GDP over a period of 59 years (1950-2008. For each country the sample was divided into two parts, one covering the period preceding accession to the EU and one is covering the accession year and succeeding years. Then, eliminating the background noise with the use of a periodogram, we proceeded to examine their spectral density plots. The results indicated that in the first years following accession, the countries tended to experience shorter cycles than they had previously. In the second phase the cycles were of the same duration as previous cycles. Finally, after a period of some years, the length of the cycles increased, as suggested by the J-shaped curve. This J-shaped growth curve applies for the countries that have joined the EU, strongly suggesting a causal relationship between accession to the EU and these specific characterristics of the curve. We cross-checked with a set of four non-EU member countries (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and found no change in the length of the business cycle in these countries.

  8. PO2 cycling reduces diaphragm fatigue by attenuating ROS formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo

    Full Text Available Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr, can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe was used to monitor muscular ROS production in real time with confocal microscopy during a lower PO2 condition. In the control group with no PO2 cycling, intracellular ROS formation did not appear during the first 15 min of the low PO2 period. However, after 20 min of low PO2, ROS levels increased significantly by ∼30% compared to baseline, and this increase continued until the end of the 30 min low PO2 condition. Conversely, muscles treated with PO2 cycling showed a complete absence of enhanced fluorescence emission throughout the entire low PO2 period. Furthermore, PO2 cycling-treated diaphragm exhibited increased fatigue resistance during prolonged low PO2 period compared to control. Thus, our data suggest that PO2 cycling mitigates diaphragm fatigue during prolonged low PO2. Although the exact mechanism for this protection remains to be elucidated, it is likely that through limiting excessive ROS levels, PO2 cycling initiates ROS-related antioxidant defenses.

  9. Physics characteristics of CANDU cores with advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The current generation of CANDU reactors, of which some 20 GWE are either in operations or under construction worldwide, have been designed specifically for the natural uranium fuel cycle. The CANDU concept, due to its D 2 O coolant and moderator, on-power refuelling and low absorption structural materials, makes the most effective utilization of mined uranium of all currently commercialized reactors. An economic fuel cycle cost is also achieved through the use of natural uranium and a simple fuel bundle design. Total unit energy costs are achieved that allow this reactor concept to effectively compete with other reactor types and other forms of energy production. There are, however, other fuel cycles that could be introduced into this reactor type. These include the slightly enriched uranium fuel cycle, fuel cycles in which plutonium is recycled with uranium, and the thorium cycle in which U-233 is recycled. There is also a special range of fuel cycles that could utilize the spent fuel from LWR's. Two specific variants are a fuel cycle that only utilizes the spent uranium, and a fuel cycle in which both the uranium and plutonium are recycled into a CANDU. For the main part these fuel cycles are characterized by a higher initial enrichment, and hence discharge burnup, than the natural uranium cycle. For these fuel cycles the main design features of both the reactor and fuel bundle would be retained. Recently a detailed study of the use in a CANDU of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuel from an LWR has been undertaken by AECL. This study illustrates many of the generic technical issues associated with the use of Advanced Fuel Cycles. This paper will report the main findings of this evaluation, including the power distribution in the reactor and fuel bundle, the choice of fuel management scheme, and the impact on the control and safety characteristics of the reactor. These studies have not identified any aspects that significantly impact upon the introduction of

  10. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  11. Finding time for KPI initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfskill, Sandra J

    2007-12-01

    To develop a KPI reporting program for your revenue cycle, strategies for success include: carefully forming a small team to develop and report KPIs; targeting a maximum of two new, significant financial KPIs and two process KPIs per segment of the revenue cycle every six to 12 months; ensuring that the KPIs reported answer critical questions about revenue cycle performance; regularly sharing KPI results with staff.

  12. The life cycles of six multi-center adaptive clinical trials focused on neurological emergencies developed for the Advancing Regulatory Science initiative of the National Institutes of Health and US Food and Drug Administration: Case studies from the Adaptive Designs Accelerating Promising Treatments Into Trials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Mawocha, Samkeliso; Legocki, Laurie J; Barsan, William G; Lewis, Roger J; Berry, Donald A; Meurer, William J

    2017-01-01

    in the process appears to be associated with improved attitudes towards adaptive designs over the life cycle of clinical trial development.

  13. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  14. UNLV Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechanova, Anthony E.; Johnson, Allen; O' Toole, Brendan; Trabia, Mohamed; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-25

    Evaluation of the Crack growth rate (CGR) of Alloy 617 and Alloy 276 under constant K at ambient temperature has been completed. Creep deformation of Alloy 230 at different temperature range and load level has been completed and heat to heat variation has been noticed. Creep deformation study of Alloy 276 has been completed under an applied initial stress level of 10% of yield stress at 950ºC. The grain size evaluation of the tested creep specimens of Alloy 276 has been completed.

  15. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  16. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  17. Initiation of slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise).

  18. Initiating statistical maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin; Tuomi, Vesa; Rowley, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980 s maintenance optimization has been centered around various formulations of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). Several such optimization techniques have been implemented at the Bruce Nuclear Station. Further cost refinement of the Station preventive maintenance strategy includes evaluation of statistical optimization techniques. A review of successful pilot efforts in this direction is provided as well as initial work with graphical analysis. The present situation reguarding data sourcing, the principle impediment to use of stochastic methods in previous years, is discussed. The use of Crowe/AMSAA (Army Materials Systems Analysis Activity) plots is demonstrated from the point of view of justifying expenditures in optimization efforts. (author)

  19. Cycling biomechanics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak Timmer, C A

    1991-01-01

    Submitted in partial fulfillment for a Master of Science degree at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Health Related Professions, Pittsburgh, PA 1.5213 This review of current literature on cycling biomechanics emphasizes lower extremity muscle actions and joint excursions, seat height, pedal position, pedaling rate, force application, and pedaling symmetry. Guidelines are discussed for optimal seat height, pedal position, and pedaling rate. Force application in the power and recovery phases of cycling and the relationship of force application to pedaling symmetry are discussed. The need for a biomechanical approach to cycling exists since a great deal of the literature is primarily physiologic in nature. The purpose of this review is to make cyclists and their advisors aware of the biomechanics of cycling and guidelines to follow. This approach is also important because cycling is a very common form of exercise prescribed by physical therapists for clinic or home programs. Biomechanical aspects of cycling should be considered by cyclists at any level of participation and by physical therapists in order for goal-oriented, efficient cycling to occur. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991;14(3):106-113.

  20. Cell Cycle Control by PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andrew; Hou, Sheng-Qi; Shen, Wen H

    2017-07-21

    Continuous and error-free chromosome inheritance through the cell cycle is essential for genomic stability and tumor suppression. However, accumulation of aberrant genetic materials often causes the cell cycle to go awry, leading to malignant transformation. In response to genotoxic stress, cells employ diverse adaptive mechanisms to halt or exit the cell cycle temporarily or permanently. The intrinsic machinery of cycling, resting, and exiting shapes the cellular response to extrinsic stimuli, whereas prevalent disruption of the cell cycle machinery in tumor cells often confers resistance to anticancer therapy. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor and a guardian of the genome that is frequently mutated or deleted in human cancer. Moreover, it is increasingly evident that PTEN deficiency disrupts the fundamental processes of genetic transmission. Cells lacking PTEN exhibit cell cycle deregulation and cell fate reprogramming. Here, we review the role of PTEN in regulating the key processes in and out of cell cycle to optimize genomic integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. When Product Life Cycle Meets Customer Activity Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing companies have traditionally focused their efforts on designing, developing and producing products to offer on the market. Today global competition and demands for greater company responsibility of products throughout their entire life cycle are driving manufacturing companies to sh...

  2. Fuel cycle economics of HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.

    1975-06-15

    The High Temperature Reactor commands a unique fuel cycle flexibility and alternative options are open to the utilities. The reference thorium reactor operating in the U-233 recycle mode is 10 to 20% cheaper than the low-enriched reactor; however, the thorium cycle depends on the supply of 93% enriched uranium and the availability of reprocessing and refabrication facilities to utilize its bred fissile material. The economic landscape towards the end of the 20th Century will presumably be dominated by pronounced increases in the costs of natural resources. In the case of nuclear energy, resource considerations are reflected in the price of uranium, which is expected Lo have reached 50 $/lbm U3O8 in the early 1990s and around 100 $/lbm U3O8 around 2010. In this economic environment the fuel cycle advantage of the thorium system amounts to some 20% and is capable of absorbing substantial expenses in bringing about the closing of the out-of-pile cycle. A most attractive aspect of the HTR fuel cycle flexibility is for the utility to start operating the reactor on the low enriched uranium cycle and at a later date switch over to the thorium cycle as this becomes economically more and more attractive. The incentive amounts to some 50 M$ in terms of present worth money at the time of decision making, assumed to take place 10 years after start-up. The closing of the thorium cycle is of paramount importance and a step to realize this objective lies in simplifying the head-end reprocessing technology by abandoning the segregation concept of feed and breed coated particles in the reference cycle. A one-coated-particle scheme in which all discharged uranium isotopes are recycled in mixed oxide particles is feasible and suffers a very minor economic penalty only.

  3. The LHCb Starterkit initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of high-energy physicists use and produce software every day. Software skills are usually acquired on the go and dedicated training courses are rare. The LHCb Starterkit is a new training format for getting LHCb collaborators started in effectively using software to perform their research. The initiative, combining courses and online tutorials, focuses on teaching basic skills for research computing, as well as LHCb software specifics. Unlike traditional tutorials we focus on starting with basics, performing all the material live, with a high degree of interactivity, giving priority to understanding the tools as opposed to handing out recipes that work “as if by magic”. The LHCb Starterkit was started by young members of the collaboration inspired by the principles of Software Carpentry, and the material is created in a collaborative fashion using the tools we teach. Three successful entry-level workshops, as well as two advanced ones, have taken place since the start of the initiative i...

  4. Combat Wound Initiative program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  5. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  6. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.D.; Hanson, G.E.; Coleman, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Various economics and political pressures have shaped the evolution of nuclear fuel cycles over the past 10 to 15 yr. Future trends will no doubt be similarly driven. This paper discusses the influences that long cycles, high discharge burnups, fuel reliability, and costs will have on the future nuclear cycle. Maintaining the economic viability of nuclear generation is a key issue facing many utilities. Nuclear fuel has been a tremendous bargain for utilities, helping to offset major increases in operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenses. An important factor in reducing O ampersand M costs is increasing capacity factor by eliminating outages

  7. The fuel cycle scoping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, G.D.; Malone, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was created to fill the need for a scoping tool which provides the utilities with the ability to quickly evaluate alternative fuel management strategies, tails assay choices, fuel fabrication quotes, fuel financing alternatives, fuel cycle schedules, and other fuel cycle perturbations. The FCSS was specifically designed for PC's that support dBASE-III(TM), a relational data base software system by Ashton-Tate. However, knowledge of dBASE-III is not necessary in order to utilize the FCSS. The FCSS is menu driven and can be utilized as a teaching tool as well as a scoping tool

  8. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  9. Solar cycles and climate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, V.F.

    1990-01-01

    Climate oscillations with 100-, 200- and 300-year periods are positively correlated with solar activity oscillations: the higher is solar activity the warmer is climate. According to geological data (varved clays) it is determined, that length of cycles has decreased from 23.4 up to 11 years during latter 2.5 billion years. 12-year cycles occurred during the great glaciation periods, while 10-year cycles occurred during interglaciation periods. It is suggested, that these oscillations are related with variations of the solar activity and luminescence

  10. BWROPT: A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottinger, Keith E.; Maldonado, G. Ivan, E-mail: Ivan.Maldonado@utk.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization algorithm is presented. • New fuel inventory and core loading pattern determination. • The parallel simulated annealing algorithm was used for the optimization. • Variable sampling probabilities were compared to constant sampling probabilities. - Abstract: A new computer code for performing BWR in-core and out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for multiple cycles simultaneously has been developed. Parallel simulated annealing (PSA) is used to optimize the new fuel inventory and placement of new and reload fuel for each cycle considered. Several algorithm improvements were implemented and evaluated. The most significant of these are variable sampling probabilities and sampling new fuel types from an ordered array. A heuristic control rod pattern (CRP) search algorithm was also implemented, which is useful for single CRP determinations, however, this feature requires significant computational resources and is currently not practical for use in a full multi-cycle optimization. The PSA algorithm was demonstrated to be capable of significant objective function reduction and finding candidate loading patterns without constraint violations. The use of variable sampling probabilities was shown to reduce runtime while producing better results compared to using constant sampling probabilities. Sampling new fuel types from an ordered array was shown to have a mixed effect compared to random new fuel type sampling, whereby using both random and ordered sampling produced better results but required longer runtimes.

  11. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.

  12. The Analysis of Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) Economic Breakpoints in the Life Cycle of Major Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, George

    2002-01-01

    ...). Application of SBA initiatives relies upon the use of modeling and simulation, among other methods, to effectively use scarce resources funds, manpower, equipment in the life cycle of major programs...

  13. A life cycle greenhouse gas inventory of a tree production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa Kendall; E. Gregory McPherson

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThis study provides a detailed, process-based life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory of an ornamental tree production system for urban forestry. The success of large-scale tree planting initiatives for climate protection depends on projects being net sinks for CO2 over their entire life cycle....

  14. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  15. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  16. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Traverso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is nowadays accepted by all stakeholders as a guiding principle for both public policy making and corporate strategies. However, the biggest challenge for most organizations remains in the real and substantial implementation of the sustainability concept. The core of the implementation challenge is the question, how sustainability performance can be measured, especially for products and processes. This paper explores the current status of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA for products and processes. For the environmental dimension well established tools like Life Cycle Assessment are available. For the economic and social dimension, there is still need for consistent and robust indicators and methods. In addition to measuring the individual sustainability dimensions, another challenge is a comprehensive, yet understandable presentation of the results. The “Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard” and the “Life Cycle Sustainability Triangle” are presented as examples for communication tools for both experts and non expert stakeholders.

  17. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  18. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  19. Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle

  20. EPA Nonregulatory Nonroad Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA nonregulatory, nonroad duty cycles for equipment such as agricultural tractors, backhoe loaders,crawlers tractors, excavators, arc welding skid steer loaders, and wheel loaders. Also,test procedures, laboratory methods, and emissions for this equipmen

  1. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  2. Rapid Cycling Genomic Selection in a Multiparental Tropical Maize Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuecai; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Burgueño, Juan; Olsen, Michael; Buckler, Edward; Atlin, Gary; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Vargas, Mateo; San Vicente, Félix; Crossa, José

    2017-07-05

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS) for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice, and self-pollinated once, to form the cycle 0 (C 0 ) training population. A total of 1000 ear-to-row C 0 families was genotyped with 955,690 genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers; their testcrosses were phenotyped at four optimal locations in Mexico to form the training population. Individuals from families with the best plant types, maturity, and grain yield were selected and intermated to form RCGS cycle 1 (C 1 ). Predictions of the genotyped individuals forming cycle C 1 were made, and the best predicted grain yielders were selected as parents of C 2 ; this was repeated for more cycles (C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 ), thereby achieving two cycles per year. Multi-environment trials of individuals from populations C 0, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 , together with four benchmark checks were evaluated at two locations in Mexico. Results indicated that realized grain yield from C 1 to C 4 reached 0.225 ton ha -1 per cycle, which is equivalent to 0.100 ton ha -1  yr -1 over a 4.5-yr breeding period from the initial cross to the last cycle. Compared with the original 18 parents used to form cycle 0 (C 0 ), genetic diversity narrowed only slightly during the last GS cycles (C 3 and C 4 ). Results indicate that, in tropical maize multi-parental breeding populations, RCGS can be an effective breeding strategy for simultaneously conserving genetic diversity and achieving high genetic gains in a short period of time. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  3. Using mental mapping to unpack perceived cycling risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Richard; Rau, Henrike; Fahy, Frances; Sheahan, Jerome; Clifford, Eoghan

    2016-03-01

    Cycling is the most energy-efficient mode of transport and can bring extensive environmental, social and economic benefits. Research has highlighted negative perceptions of safety as a major barrier to the growth of cycling. Understanding these perceptions through the application of novel place-sensitive methodological tools such as mental mapping could inform measures to increase cyclist numbers and consequently improve cyclist safety. Key steps to achieving this include: (a) the design of infrastructure to reduce actual risks and (b) targeted work on improving safety perceptions among current and future cyclists. This study combines mental mapping, a stated-preference survey and a transport infrastructure inventory to unpack perceptions of cycling risk and to reveal both overlaps and discrepancies between perceived and actual characteristics of the physical environment. Participants translate mentally mapped cycle routes onto hard-copy base-maps, colour-coding road sections according to risk, while a transport infrastructure inventory captures the objective cycling environment. These qualitative and quantitative data are matched using Geographic Information Systems and exported to statistical analysis software to model the individual and (infra)structural determinants of perceived cycling risk. This method was applied to cycling conditions in Galway City (Ireland). Participants' (n=104) mental maps delivered data-rich perceived safety observations (n=484) and initial comparison with locations of cycling collisions suggests some alignment between perception and reality, particularly relating to danger at roundabouts. Attributing individual and (infra)structural characteristics to each observation, a Generalised Linear Mixed Model statistical analysis identified segregated infrastructure, road width, the number of vehicles as well as gender and cycling experience as significant, and interactions were found between individual and infrastructural variables. The paper

  4. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  5. Evaluation Program initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Department of Energy's (DOE) safeguards and security community with some insights on an important management initiative by the Office of Security Evaluations (OSE). The paper will present the ''what, where, who, when, and why'' of a new Evaluation Program. The Evaluation Program will be comprised of a continuing series of regular and special evaluations of DOE safeguards and security programs and policies. The evaluations will be integrative and ''crosscutting,'' i.e. will extend across DOE organizational lines. Evaluations will be offered as positive advisories to DOE managers with safeguards and security responsibilities and will not be rated. They will complement the ongoing OSE Inspection Program of inspections conducted by OSE's Inspection Division. The purpose for the evaluations is to establish an accurate and current assessment of the effectiveness and status of safeguards and security programs and policies and to provide DOE managers with required information on program and policy effectiveness

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  7. The climate technology initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Adam [International Energy Agency, Climate Technology Initiative, Paris (France)

    2000-12-01

    The CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) aims to promote those technologies which cause the minimum of harm to the environment: reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and supporting those countries most vulnerable to climate change are priorities. A strong case for cogeneration is made and it is pointed out that both the European Union and the USA aim to double their cogeneration capacity by 2010. The CTI holds training courses and seminars all over the world where the barriers to the expansion of climate-friendly technology are discussed. The article also mentions the CTI Co-operation Technology Implementation Plan, research and development, its website and search engine, its presence at all UNFCCC events and its awards programme.

  8. The climate technology initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Adam

    2000-01-01

    The CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) aims to promote those technologies which cause the minimum of harm to the environment: reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and supporting those countries most vulnerable to climate change are priorities. A strong case for cogeneration is made and it is pointed out that both the European Union and the USA aim to double their cogeneration capacity by 2010. The CTI holds training courses and seminars all over the world where the barriers to the expansion of climate-friendly technology are discussed. The article also mentions the CTI Co-operation Technology Implementation Plan, research and development, its website and search engine, its presence at all UNFCCC events and its awards programme

  9. Initial brain aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten; Yokota, Takashi; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Brain aging is accompanied by declining mitochondrial respiration. We hypothesized that mitochondrial morphology and dynamics would reflect this decline. Using hippocampus and frontal cortex of a segmental progeroid mouse model lacking Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSB(m/m)) and C57Bl/6 (WT......) controls and comparing young (2-5 months) to middle-aged mice (13-14 months), we found that complex I-linked state 3 respiration (CI) was reduced at middle age in CSB(m/m) hippocampus, but not in CSB(m/m) cortex or WT brain. In hippocampus of both genotypes, mitochondrial size heterogeneity increased....... Mitochondrial DNA content was lower, and hypoxia-induced factor 1α mRNA was greater at both ages in CSB(m/m) compared to WT brain. Our findings show that decreased CI and increased mitochondrial size heterogeneity are highly associated and point to declining mitochondrial quality control as an initial event...

  10. Materials Genome Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) project element is a cross-Center effort that is focused on the integration of computational tools to simulate manufacturing processes and materials behavior. These computational simulations will be utilized to gain understanding of processes and materials behavior to accelerate process development and certification to more efficiently integrate new materials in existing NASA projects and to lead to the design of new materials for improved performance. This NASA effort looks to collaborate with efforts at other government agencies and universities working under the national MGI. MGI plans to develop integrated computational/experimental/ processing methodologies for accelerating discovery and insertion of materials to satisfy NASA's unique mission demands. The challenges include validated design tools that incorporate materials properties, processes, and design requirements; and materials process control to rapidly mature emerging manufacturing methods and develop certified manufacturing processes

  11. The Ombudperson Initiative Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Laura Stewart

    Following many discussions that took place at some of the ATLAS Women's Network lunch gatherings, a few ATLAS women joined forces with similarly concerned CERN staff women to form a small group last Fall to discuss the need for a CERN-wide Ombudsperson. This has since evolved into the Ombudsperson Initiative Group (OIG) currently composed of the following members: Barbro Asman, Stockholm University; Pierre Charrue, CERN AB; Anna Cook, CERN IT; Catherine Delamare, CERN and IT Ombudsperson; Paula Eerola, Lund University; Pauline Gagnon, Indiana University; Eugenia Hatziangeli, CERN AB; Doreen Klem, CERN IT; Bertrand Nicquevert, CERN TS and Laura Stewart, CERN AT. On June 12, members of the OIG met with representatives of Human Resources (HR) and the Equal Opportunity Advisory Panel (EOAP) to discuss the proposal drafted by the OIG. The meeting was very positive. Everybody agreed that the current procedures at CERN applicable in the event of conflict required a thorough review, and that a professionnally trai...

  12. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  13. The Enzyme Function Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2011-11-22

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.

  14. Green Power Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Patrick Barry [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  15. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 1--Thermodynamic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. The efficiency advantages of thermodynamic detonative combustion cycle over Humphrey combustion cycle at constant volume and Brayton combustion cycle at constant pressure were demonstrated. An ideal Ficket-Jacobs detonation cycle, and…

  16. On acyclicity of games with cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Gurvich, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study restricted improvement cycles (ri-cycles) in finite positional n-person games with perfect information modeled by directed graphs (di-graphs) that may contain directed cycles (di-cycles). We assume that all these di-cycles form one outcome c, for example, a draw. We obtain criteria...

  17. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  18. Business Cycle Theory and Econometrics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Allan W; Smith, Gregor W

    1995-01-01

    We outline in turn criticisms made by econometricians of the methods used in empirical business-cycle research and then criticisms made by business-cycle researchers of some methods used by econometricians. The aim is to clarify and in some cases correct these criticisms. Overall there is no conflict in using rigourous statistical procedures to study modern dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models. We also provide a concise bibliography of recent research on statistical methods for busin...

  19. Advertising and Business Cycle Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto Molinari; Francesco Turino

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence of quarterly U.S. aggregate advertising expenditures, showing that advertising has a well defined pattern over the Business Cycle. To understand this pattern we develop a general equilibrium model where targeted advertising increases the marginal utility of the advertised good. Advertising intensity is endogenously determined by profit maximizing firms. We embed this assumption into an otherwise standard model of business cycle with monopolistic comp...

  20. Rapsodie: A closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levallet, E.H.; Costa, L.; Mougniot, J.C.; Robin, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Fortissimo Version of the core of the RAPSODIE fast reactor produces 40 MWTh. Since its start up in May 1970 in the CEN-CADARACHE its availability has stayed around 85%. Some of the mixed oxyde fuel pins UO 2 - 30% PuO 2 have already reached 150.000 MWd/t. The reprocessing is done in the pilot plant located in the La Hague Center and the plutonium obtained has already been re-used in the reactor. The Rapsodie-Fortissimo cycle is therefore now a closed cycle. This cycle is quite representative of fast reactor cycle characteristics and thus provides a remarkable research and development tool for the study of fabrication, in-reactor performances, transport, storage and reprocessing. These studies concern in particular the evolution of fission products and heavy isotopes content in fuel which controls both reprocessing schemes and intensity of emitted radiations. A program for the analysis of irradiated fuel has been developed either using samples collected all along the cycle, or following the actual reprocessing subassemblies. A set of basic data and calculation models has been established with two objectives: to give a better interpretation of the experimental program on one hand, and to extrapolate these results to the fuel cycle of fast reactors in general on the other hand. The first results have been quite encouraging up to now [fr

  1. Cycle bases to the rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, Roland; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.

    2017-12-01

    Cycle bases of graph theory are introduced for the analysis of transition data deposited in line-by-line rovibronic spectroscopic databases. The principal advantage of using cycle bases is that outlier transitions -almost always present in spectroscopic databases built from experimental data originating from many different sources- can be detected and identified straightforwardly and automatically. The data available for six water isotopologues, H216O, H217O, H218O, HD16O, HD17O, and HD18O, in the HITRAN2012 and GEISA2015 databases are used to demonstrate the utility of cycle-basis-based outlier-detection approaches. The spectroscopic databases appear to be sufficiently complete so that the great majority of the entries of the minimum cycle basis have the minimum possible length of four. More than 2000 transition conflicts have been identified for the isotopologue H216O in the HITRAN2012 database, the seven common conflict types are discussed. It is recommended to employ cycle bases, and especially a minimum cycle basis, for the analysis of transitions deposited in high-resolution spectroscopic databases.

  2. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  3. Optimization of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.W.; Balu, K.; Boczar, P.G.; Krebs, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle can be optimized subject to a wide range of criteria. Prime amongst these are economics, sustainability of resources, environmental aspects, and proliferation-resistance of the fuel cycle. Other specific national objectives will also be important. These criteria, and their relative importance, will vary from country to country, and with time. There is no single fuel cycle strategy that is optimal for all countries. Within the short term, the industry is attached to dominant thermal reactor technologies, which themselves have two main variants, a cycle closed by reprocessing of spent fuel and subsequent recycling and a once through one where spent fuel is stored in advance of geological disposal. However, even with current technologies, much can be done to optimize the fuel cycles to meet the relevant criteria. In the long term, resource sustainability can be assured for centuries through the use of fast breeder reactors, supporting high-conversion thermal reactors, possibly also utilizing the thorium cycle. These must, however, meet the other key criteria by being both economic and safe. (author)

  4. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Olson, W. S.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  5. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  6. Validity of single-cycle objective functions for multicycle reload design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropaczek, D.J.; McElroy, J.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Beyond the equilibrium cycle scoping calculations used for determining numbers of feed assemblies and enrichment estimates, multicycle reload design currently consists of stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns, typically extending over a short-term planning horizon of perhaps three reload cycles. Particularly in transition cycles, however, optimizing a loading pattern over a single cycle for a stated objective, such as minimum core leakage, may have an adverse impact on subsequent cycles. The penalties paid may be in the form of reduced thermal margin or an increase in feed enrichment due to insufficient reactivity carryover from the open-quotes optimizedclose quotes cycle. In view of current practices, a study was performed that examined the behavior of the loading pattern as a function of the objective functions selected as implemented in the stagewise optimization of single-cycle core loading patterns from initial transition cycle through equilibrium using the FORMOSA-P code. The objective functions studied were region average discharge burnup maximization (with enrichment search) and feed enrichment minimization. It is noted at the beginning that the maximization of region average discharge has no meaning for the equilibrium cycle because region average discharge burnup is explicitly set by the feed size and cycle length independent of the loading pattern. In the nonequilibrium cycle, however, it was reasoned that this objective would provide the maximum reactivity carryover throughout the transition and thus have a direct effect on minimizing the multicycle levelized fuel cost

  7. Very high cycle fatigue testing of concrete using ultrasonic cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, Ulrike; Schuller, Reinhard; Fitzka, Michael; Mayer, Herwig [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Physics and Materials Science; Denk, Andreas; Strauss, Alfred [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-01

    The ultrasonic fatigue testing method has been further developed to perform cyclic compression tests with concrete. Cylindrical specimens vibrate in resonance at a frequency of approximately 20 kHz with superimposed compressive static loads. The high testing frequency allows time-saving investigations in the very high cycle fatigue regime. Fatigue tests were carried out on ''Concrete 1'' (compressive strength f{sub c} = 80 MPa) and ''Concrete 2'' (f{sub c} = 107 MPa) under purely compressive loading conditions. Experiments at maximum compressive stresses of 0.44 f{sub c} (Concrete 1) and 0.38 f{sub c} (Concrete 2) delivered specimen failures above 109 cycles, indicating that no fatigue limit exists for concrete below one billion load cycles. Resonance frequency, power required to resonate the specimen and second order harmonics of the vibration are used to monitor fatigue damage in situ. Specimens were scanned by X-ray computed tomography prior to and after testing. Fatigue cracks were produced by ultrasonic cycling in the very high cycle fatigue regime at interfaces of grains as well as in cement. The possibilities as well as limitations of ultrasonic fatigue testing of concrete are discussed.

  8. Initial Egyptian ECMO experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Abdelbary

    2016-04-01

    Results: A total of twelve patients received ECMO between January 2014 and June 2015. The mean age was 35.9 years. (range 13–65 years, 8 males, with VV ECMO in 10 patients, and VA ECMO in 2 patients. Out of ten patients of VV ECMO, one had H1N1 pneumonia, one had advanced vasculitic lung, four had bacterial pneumonia, two traumatic lung contusions and one with organophosphorus poisoning, and one undiagnosed etiology leading to severe ARDS. Lung injury score range was 3–3.8, PaO2/FiO2 (20–76 mechanical ventilation duration before ECMO 1–14 days, Femoro-jugular cannulation in 7 patients and femoro-femoral in 2 patients and femoro-subclavian in 1 patient; all patients were initially sedated and paralyzed for (2–4 days and ventilated on pressure controlled ventilation with Pmax of 25 cm H2O and PEEP of 10 cm H2O. In VA ECMO patients were cannulated percutaneously using femoro-femoral approach. One patient showed no neurologic recovery and died after 24 h, the other had CABG on ECMO however the heart didn’t recover and died after 9 days. Heparin intravenous infusion was used initially in all patients and changed to Bivalirudin in 2 patients due to possible HIT. Pump flow ranged from 2.6 to 6.5 L/min. Average support time was 12 days (range 2–24 days. Seven patients (63.3% were successfully separated from ECMO and survived to hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay ranged from 3 to 42 days, tracheostomy was done percutaneously in 5 patients and surgically in 3. Gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 6 patients, VAP in 7 patients, neurologic complications in 1 patient with complete recovery, cardiac arrhythmias in 3 patients, pneumothorax in 9 patients, and deep venous thrombosis in 2 patients.

  9. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  10. Lessons Learned From Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Dixon, Brent W.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe 'lessons learned' from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the 'so what' question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof

  11. The Sphinx's Riddle: Life and Career Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burack, Elmer H.

    1984-01-01

    Career cycles should be considered apart from life cycles, even though the two are interrelated. This essay examines five theories about life and career cycles, and offers insights into their limitations and potential uses. (JB)

  12. Management Cycle: from Planning to Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kova?i?, Luka; Jakši?, Želimir

    2008-01-01

    The planning process in health care known as management cycle or cycle of organization and management is described. The cycle is divided in four main elements: planning, organization, implementation and evaluation. Each element is defined and described.

  13. TFTR initial operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.M.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) has operated since December 1982 with ohmically heated plasmas. Routine operation with feedback control of plasma current, position and density has been obtained for plasmas with Isub(p) approx.= 800 kA, a = 68 cm, R = 250 cm, and Bsub(t) = 27 kG. A maximum plasma current of 1 MA was achieved with q approx.= 2.5. Energy confinement times of approx. 150 msec were measured for hydrogen and deuterium plasmas with n-barsub(e) approx.= 2 x 10 13 cm -3 , Tsub(e)(O) approx.= 1.5 keV, Tsub(i)(O) approx.= 1.5 keV and Zsub(eff) approx.= 3. The preliminary results suggest a size-cubed scaling from PLT, and are consistent with Alcator C scaling where tau approx. nR 2 a. Initial measurements of plasma disruption characteristics indicate current decay rates of approx. 800 kA in 8 ms which is within the TFTR design requirement of 3 MA in 3 ms. (author)

  14. The new childcare initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    Cigdem Issever

    The ATLAS Women's Network recently sent out a general mailing to all ATLAS and CMS members to announce a new initiative aimed at improving childcare facilities for Users coming to CERN. Several people have expressed the need that CERN should provide or facilitate affordable day care for children of temporary visitors at CERN. The ATLAS Women's Network is now forming a child care task force from concerned people and invites all those interested to join this effort. You can do so by either adding your name to the mailing list cern-users-childcare@cern.ch in Simba or by contacting Cigdem.Issever@cern.NOSPAM.ch and Pauline.Gagnon@cern.NOSPAM.ch. More than 50 people have already joined this effort. Those who have joined the mailing list will soon receive all the details about the next conference call meeting which has been scheduled for Thursday October 25th from 16:30 to 18:00 CERN time. The preliminary agenda is the following: Summary of our first contact of ATLAS and CMS (5 min) Discussion about the co-conv...

  15. AECL's new environmental initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    AECL's research and development expenditures in environmental sciences and waste management technology are about $50 M per year. The main focus of these programs is the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. This research is supplemented by activities in support of laboratory, Environmental Authority and internal waste management requirements, as well as provision of non-nuclear services. AECL intends to become more involved in performing environmental research and development with broader application. The goal is to achieve a relationship with Canadian industry that would involve a substantial portion of AECL's environmental research capabilities. The research directions and priorities of the resulting partnership would be set by the private sector in accordance with their needs and requirements. It is expected that the activities associated with this new environmental initiative will start small and grow in response to perceived needs. AECL is now increasing its non-nuclear research efforts by targeting those markets that appear most attractive. The thrust can be divided into three broad categories: environmental research, environmental services, and environmental products. (Author)

  16. TFTR initial operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.M.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.R.

    1983-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has operated since December 1982 with ohmically heated plasmas. Routine operation with feedback control of plasma current, position, and density has been obtained for plasmas with I/sub p/ approx. = 800 kA, a = 68 cm, R = 250 cm, and B/sub t/ = 27 kG. A maximum plasma current of 1 MA was achieved with q approx. = 2.5. Energy confinement times of approx. 150 msec were measured for hydrogen and deuterium plasmas with anti n/sub e/ approx. = 2 x 10 13 cm -3 , T/sub e/ (0) approx. = 1.5 keV, T/sub i/ (0) approx. = 1.5 keV, and Z/sub eff/ approx. = 3. The preliminary results suggest a size-cubed scaling from PLT and are consistent with Alcator C scaling where tau approx. nR 2 a. Initial measurements of plasma disruption characteristics indicate current decay rates of approx. 800 kA in 8 ms which is within the TFTR design requirement of 3 MA in 3 ms

  17. Framework of Strategic Learning: The PDCA Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Pietrzak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, strategic planning has to be permanent process and organizational learning should support it. Researchers in theories of organizational learning attempt to understand processes, which lead to changes in organizational knowledge, as well as the effects of learning on organizational performance. In traditional approach, the strategy is viewed as one shot event. However, in contemporary turbulent environment this could not be still valid. There is a need of elastic strategic management, which employs organizational learning process. The crucial element of such process is information acquisition, which allows refining the initial version of strategic plan. In this article authors discuss the PDCA cycle as a framework of strategic learning process, including both single-loop and double loop learning. Authors proposed the ideas for further research in area of organizational learning and strategic management.

  18. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    income, and pre-existing housing wealth but also the state of the housing market significantly affect household decisions. Consistently with the data, the model predicts that in good states of housing market cycles (1) homeownership rates increase, (2) households buying homes invest a larger share......In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, labor...

  19. Technology developments for a compound cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobula, George A.; Wintucky, William T.; Castor, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the light weight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hour (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. Results of recent activities in a program to establish the technology base for a CCE are presented. The objective of this program is to research and develop those critical technologies which are necessary for the demonstration of a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990s. A major accomplishment was the initial screening and identification of a lubricant which has potential for meeting the material wear rate limits of the application. An in-situ wear measurement system also was developed to provide accurate, readily obtainable, real time measurements of ring and liner wear. Wear data, from early single cylinder engine tests, are presented to show correlation of the in-situ measurements and the system's utility in determining parametric wear trends. A plan to demonstrate a compound cycle engine by the mid 1990s is included.

  20. [Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.

  1. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  2. Origins of the supercontinent cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Damian Nance

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The supercontinent cycle, by which Earth history is seen as having been punctuated by the episodic assembly and breakup of supercontinents, has influenced the rock record more than any other geologic phenomena, and its recognition is arguably the most important advance in Earth Science since plate tectonics. It documents fundamental aspects of the planet's interior dynamics and has charted the course of Earth's tectonic, climatic and biogeochemical evolution for billions of years. But while the widespread realization of the importance of supercontinents in Earth history is a relatively recent development, the supercontinent cycle was first proposed thirty years ago and episodicity in tectonic processes was recognized long before plate tectonics provided a potential explanation for its occurrence. With interest in the supercontinent cycle gaining momentum and the literature expanding rapidly, it is instructive to recall the historical context from which the concept developed. Here we examine the supercontinent cycle from this perspective by tracing its development from the early recognition of long-term episodicity in tectonic processes, through the identification of tectonic cycles following the advent of plate tectonics, to the first realization that these phenomena were the manifestation of episodic supercontinent assembly and breakup.

  3. Characteristics of fuel cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilina, C.A.; Everette, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Management System started in 1979 to describe and model the existing commercial low-level waste management system. The system description produced is based on the identification of the different elements making up both the fuel and non-fuel cycle and their relationships to each other. A systems model based on the system description can accurately reflect the flow of low-level waste from generator to disposal site and is only limited by the reliability of the information it uses. For both the fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle large quantities of information is required in order to allow the system to operate at its full potential. Work is ongoing to collect this information. Significant progress is being made in the fuel cycle area primarily because the majority of fuel cycle low-level radioactive waste is produced by commercial power reactor plant operations. The Low-Level Waste Management system is only beginning to derive the benefits to be obtained from an accurate low-level waste management information system. As data is verified and analyzed, results on a national as well as individual organization level will be gained. Comparisons to previous studies will be made. Accurate projections of waste volumes and activities to be produced, projected impacts of waste streams of treatment or management changes are only examples of information to be produced. 1 figure, 1 table

  4. DNA replication initiator Cdc6 also regulates ribosomal DNA transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Xu, Xiaowei; Wang, Guopeng; Lu, Guoliang; Xie, Wenbing; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Hongyin; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2016-04-01

    RNA-polymerase-I-dependent ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription is fundamental to rRNA processing, ribosome assembly and protein synthesis. However, how this process is initiated during the cell cycle is not fully understood. By performing a proteomic analysis of transcription factors that bind RNA polymerase I during rDNA transcription initiation, we identified that the DNA replication initiator Cdc6 interacts with RNA polymerase I and its co-factors, and promotes rDNA transcription in G1 phase in an ATPase-activity-dependent manner. We further showed that Cdc6 is targeted to the nucleolus during late mitosis and G1 phase in a manner that is dependent on B23 (also known as nucleophosmin, NPM1), and preferentially binds to the rDNA promoter through its ATP-binding domain. Overexpression of Cdc6 increases rDNA transcription, whereas knockdown of Cdc6 results in a decreased association of both RNA polymerase I and the RNA polymerase I transcription factor RRN3 with rDNA, and a reduction of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, depletion of Cdc6 impairs the interaction between RRN3 and RNA polymerase I. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Cdc6 also serves as a regulator of rDNA transcription initiation, and indicate a mechanism by which initiation of rDNA transcription and DNA replication can be coordinated in cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The MEGAPIE Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Bauer, G.S.; Heusener, G.

    2000-10-01

    MEGAPIE (Megawatt Pilot Experiment) is a joint initiative by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), France, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany, and Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland, to design, build, operate and explore a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target for 1MW of beam power, taking advantage of the existing spallation neutron facility SINQ at PSI. Such a target based on an eutectic mixture with a melting point as low as 125 o C and a boiling point as high as 1670 o C is the preferred concept in several studies aiming at utilising accelerators to drive subcritical assemblies in order to transmute long lived nuclear waste into shorter lived isotopes in an effort to ease problems of long term storage and final disposal. MEGAPIE will be an essential step towards demonstrating the feasibility of the coupling of a high power accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical assembly. It will specifically address one of the most critical issues, namely the behaviour of a liquid metal target under realistic operating conditions. As an intensely instrumented pilot experiment it will provide valuable data for benchmarking of frequently used computer codes and will allow to gain important experience in the safe handling of components that have been irradiated with PbBi. It will be installed at the ring cyclotron at PSI with 590 MeV proton energy and a continuous current of 1.8 mA. The basic concept of the MEGAPIE target as well as the definition of the project phases and of the supporting research and development activities at the participating laboratories are described in the present report

  6. Initial Cladding Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis will be used in

  7. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  8. Closing the fuel cycle: A superior option for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Purushotham, D.S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1999-01-01

    The closed fuel cycle option with reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium (U and Pu) for power generation allows better utilization of the uranium resources. On its part, plutonium is a unique energy source. During the initial years of nuclear fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium for power generation was perceived by many countries to be among the best of long term strategies for the management of spent fuel. But, over the years, some of the countries have taken a position that once-through fuel cycle is both economical and proliferation-resistant. However, such perceptions do vary as a function of economic growth and energy security of a given country. This paper deals with techno-economic perspectives of reprocessing and recycling in the Indian nuclear power programme. Experience of developing Mixed Oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 (MOX) fuel and its actual use in a power reactor (BWR) is presented. The paper further deals with the use of MOX in PHWRs in the future and current thinking, in the Indian context, in respect of advanced fuel cycles for the future. From environmental safety considerations, the separation of long-lived isotopes and minor actinides from high level waste (HLW) would enhance the acceptability of reprocessing and recycle option. The separated actinides are suitable for recycling with MOX fuel. However, the advanced fuel cycles with such recycling of Uranium and transuranium elements call for additional sophisticated fuel cycle activities which are yet to be mastered. India is interested in both uranium and thorium fuel cycles. This paper describes the current status of the Indian nuclear power scenario with reference to the program on reactors, reprocessing and radioactive waste management, plutonium recycle options, thorium-U233 fuel cycle studies and investigations on partitioning of actinides from Purex HLW as relevant to PHWR spent fuels. (author)

  9. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  10. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  11. Identification of Initiating Events for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jintae; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is by far the most advanced reactor of the six Generation IV reactors. The SFR uses liquid sodium as the reactor coolant, which has superior heat transport characteristics. It also allows high power density with low coolant volume fraction and operation at low pressure. In Korea, KAERI has been developing Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) that employs passive safety systems and inherent reactivity feedback effects. In order to prepare for the licensing, it is necessary to assess the safety of the reactor. Thus, the objective of this study is to conduct accident sequence analysis that can contribute to risk assessment. The analysis embraces identification of initiating events and accident sequences development. PGSFR is to test and demonstrate the performance of transuranic (TRU)-containing metal fuel required for a commercial SFR, and to demonstrate the TRU transmutation capability of a burner reactor as a part of an advanced fuel cycle system. Initiating events that can happen in PGSFR were identified through the MLD method. This method presents a model of a plant in terms of individual events and their combinations in a systematic and logical way. The 11 identified initiating events in this study include the events considered in the past analysis that was conducted for PRISM-150.

  12. Identification of Initiating Events for PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jintae; Jae, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is by far the most advanced reactor of the six Generation IV reactors. The SFR uses liquid sodium as the reactor coolant, which has superior heat transport characteristics. It also allows high power density with low coolant volume fraction and operation at low pressure. In Korea, KAERI has been developing Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) that employs passive safety systems and inherent reactivity feedback effects. In order to prepare for the licensing, it is necessary to assess the safety of the reactor. Thus, the objective of this study is to conduct accident sequence analysis that can contribute to risk assessment. The analysis embraces identification of initiating events and accident sequences development. PGSFR is to test and demonstrate the performance of transuranic (TRU)-containing metal fuel required for a commercial SFR, and to demonstrate the TRU transmutation capability of a burner reactor as a part of an advanced fuel cycle system. Initiating events that can happen in PGSFR were identified through the MLD method. This method presents a model of a plant in terms of individual events and their combinations in a systematic and logical way. The 11 identified initiating events in this study include the events considered in the past analysis that was conducted for PRISM-150

  13. Portfolios for determining initial licensure competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2004-02-01

    Because attempts to improve initial licensure examinations have not been grounded in measurement theory, partial and inadequate remedies have led to a cycle of refutations, defenses and political polarization. The author reviewed the psychometric literature, focusing on high-stakes professional decisions. Editorials in the dental literature and position papers of involved organizations often use words from this literature without incorporating its fundamental concepts. The reliability of one-shot initial licensure examinations is estimated to be approximately r = .40, which is a value well under the standard for such tests in other professions. Validity has not been investigated rigorously, but the one-shot format and proposals to remove live patients certainly would reduce validity. The use of portfolios--a small number of evaluations in several realistic task domains--is a viable means of achieving psychometric standards for initial licensure decisions. Boards are charged with making valid and reliable licensure decisions, not with conducting examinations. At a minimum, they must define the competencies of beginning practitioners and establish the psychometric criteria for their decisions (neither of which are done currently). Gathering data then can be delegated to whoever is best qualified to meet these standards.

  14. Assisted Hatching and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection are not Associated with Improved Outcomes in ART Cycles for Diminished Ovarian Reserve: An Analysis of US Cycles from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F.; Owen, Carter; Mainigi, Monica; Senapati, Suneeta; Seifer, David B.; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and assisted hatching (AH) on ART outcomes in cycles with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) as the primary diagnosis. Design Retrospective cohort study of cycles from the SART-CORS database. Setting NA. Patient(s) A total of 422,949 fresh, non-donor, initial ART cycles of which 8,597 were diagnosed with only elevated FSH and 38,926 were diagnosed with only DOR according to the SART DOR categorization. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and clinical pregnancy rates. Result(s) ICSI and AH were associated with diminished odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles (AOR, 95% CI 0.88, 0.81–0.96 for ICSI; AOR, 95% CI 0.77 0.71–0.84 for AH). No association between either ICSI or AH in Elevated FSH only cycles was observed. The combination of ICSI and AH resulted in significantly lower odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles but not in Elevated FSH only cycles. Conclusion(s) In initial ART cycles for which the only indication relates to a diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve, assisted hatching and ICSI are not associated with improved live birth rates. PMID:25086790

  15. Nursing Facility Initiative Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This annual report summarizes impacts from the Initiative to Reduce Avoidable Hospitalizations among Nursing Facility Residents in 2014. This initiative is designed...

  16. National Take-Back Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ...

  17. A Comparison of Single-Cycle Versus Multiple-Cycle Proof Testing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Millwater, H. R.; Russell, D. A.; Millwater, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (SCPT and MCPT) strategies for reusable aerospace propulsion system components are critically evaluated and compared from a rigorous elastic-plastic fracture mechanics perspective. Earlier MCPT studies are briefly reviewed. New J-integral estimation methods for semielliptical surface cracks and cracks at notches are derived and validated. Engineering methods are developed to characterize crack growth rates during elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the tear-fatigue interaction near instability. Surface crack growth experiments are conducted with Inconel 718 to characterize tearing resistance, FCG under small-scale yielding and elastic-plastic conditions, and crack growth during simulated MCPT. Fractography and acoustic emission studies provide additional insight. The relative merits of SCPT and MCPT are directly compared using a probabilistic analysis linked with an elastic-plastic crack growth computer code. The conditional probability of failure in service is computed for a population of components that have survived a previous proof test, based on an assumed distribution of initial crack depths. Parameter studies investigate the influence of proof factor, tearing resistance, crack shape, initial crack depth distribution, and notches on the MCPT versus SCPT comparison. The parameter studies provide a rational basis to formulate conclusions about the relative advantages and disadvantages of SCPT and MCPT. Practical engineering guidelines are proposed to help select the optimum proof test protocol in a given application.

  18. Optimization of preventive maintenance cycle based on experimental feedback in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    The preventive replacement method based on the experimental feedback was introduced. In this method, the initial preventive replacement cycle was acquired by expert votes. The preventive replacement cycle combined with the operation experience of the equipment was gained by means of Bayesian theorem. The Optimized preventive replacement cycle can be acquired by comparing the two probabilities that no fault occurs within the cycle. This method was tested on the switches which were used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the results indicated its validity. (authors)

  19. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without re-enrichment, the plutonium as conventional Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  20. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G

    1998-05-01

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without reenrichment, the plutonium as conventional mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  1. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  2. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  3. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  4. Volatile earliest Triassic sulfur cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    model experiment. Exposure of evaporite deposits having a high δ 34S may account for the source change, with a possible role for the Siberian Traps volcanism by magmatic remobilization of Cambrian rock salt. A high sulfur cycle turnover rate would have left the ocean system vulnerable to development......Marine biodiversity decreases and ecosystem destruction during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) have been linked to widespread marine euxinic conditions. Changes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and marine dissolved sulfate concentrations during...... fractionation and point to a more universal control, i.e., contemporaneous seawater sulfate concentration.The MSR-trend transfer function yielded estimates of seawater sulfate of 0.6-2.8mM for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic, suggesting a balanced oceanic S-cycle with equal S inputs and outputs...

  5. Cell growth and division cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darzynkiewicz, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the cell cycle in its present form was introduced more than three decades ago. Studying incorporation of DNA precursors by autoradiography, these authors observed that DNA synthesis in individual cells was discontinuous and occupied a discrete portion of the cell life (S phase). Mitotic division was seen to occur after a certain period of time following DNA replication. A distinct time interval between mitosis and DNA replication was also apparent. Thus, the cell cycle was subdivided into four consecutive phases, G/sub 1/, S, G/sub 2/, and M. The G/sub 1/ and G/sub 2/ phases represented the ''gaps'' between mitosis and the start of DNA replication, and between the end of DNA replication and the onset of mitosis, respectively. The cell cycle was defined as the interval between the midpoint of mitosis and the midpoint of the subsequent mitosis of the daughter cell(s). The authors' present knowledge on the cell cycle benefited mostly from the development of four different techniques: autoradiography, time-lapse cinematography, cell synchronization and flow cytometry. Of these, autoradiography has been the most extensively used, especially during the past two decades. By providing a means to analyse incorporation of precursors of DNA, RNA or proteins by individual cells and, in combination with various techniques of cell synchronization, autoradiography yielded most of the data fundamental to the current understanding of the cell cycle-related phenomena. Kinetics of cell progression through the cell cycle could be analysed in great detail after development of such sophisticated autoradiographic approaches as measurements of the fraction of labeled mitoses (''FLM curves'') or multiple sequential cell labelling with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-TdR

  6. Partaking in cycling, at what cost? : determinants of cycling expenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibaut, E.; Vos, S.B.; Lagae, W.; Van Puyenbroeck, T.; Scheerder, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the determinants of cycling expenditure by means of a Tobit regression analysis, based on a dataset of 5,157 cyclists. Using a heterodox economic framework, 23 different variables are combined into two commonly used variable groups (socio-demographics, sports intensity variables)

  7. The national geomagnetic initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  8. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  9. Industrial open source solutions for product life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors go through the open source for product life cycle management (PLM and the efforts done from communities such as the open source initiative. The characteristics of the open source solutions are highlighted as well. Next, the authors go through the requirements for PLM. This is an area where more attention has been given as the manufacturers are competing with the quality and life cycle costs of their products. Especially, the need of companies to try to get a strong position in providing services for their products and thus to make themselves less vulnerable to changes in the market has led to high interest in product life cycle simulation. The potential of applying semantic data management to solve these problems discussed in the light of recent developments. In addition, a basic roadmap is presented as to how the above-described problems could be tackled with open software solutions.

  10. Career cycle of general and special school teachers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specificities of general and special school teachers’ work might influence their career differently. The aim of the study was to examine the career cycle of these teachers. A survey was conducted on a sample of 120 teachers from general and 95 from special schools. Five stages of career cycle were discovered: induction, competency building and enthusiasm, career frustration, stagnation, career wind-down. Results indicate that age, gender, intrinsic, and extrinsic factors of career choice can influence teachers’ career cycle. When these factors are controlled, special school teachers experience less enthusiasm and more willingness to retire than general school teachers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47008: Improving the quality and accessibility of education in modernization processes in Serbia i br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in society

  11. Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem

  12. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  13. Citizen participation and citizen initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthoefer, H.

    1977-01-01

    Contents: Social conditions for citizen initiatives - technical change and employment - crisis behaviour - socio-psychological analysis of political planning; legitimation - presentation and criticism - conditions for citizen initiatives coming into being within the field of tension citizen : administration - legal problems of citizen initiatives - environmental protection in the energy discussion; participation; models. (HP) [de

  14. NLM Emergency Access Initiative: FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facebook Visit us on Twitter Visit us on Youtube Emergency Access Initiative Home | Journals | Books | Online Databases | FAQs Take Short Survey FAQ What is the Emergency Access Initiative? The Emergency Access Initiative (EAI) is a collaborative partnership between NLM and participating publishers to

  15. Life Cycle Costing: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pagoropoulos, Aris

    2018-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to life cycle costing (LCC) and how it can be used to support decision-making. It can form the economic pillar in a full life cycle sustainability assessment, but often system delimitations differ depending on the goal and scope of the study. To provide a profound...... as well as guidance on how to collect data to overcome this hurdle. In an illustrative case study on window frames, the eLCC theory is applied and demonstrated with each step along the eLCC procedure described in detail. A final section about advanced LCC introduces how to monetarise externalities and how...

  16. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  17. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...

  18. ITER fuel cycle systems layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-10-01

    The ITER fuel cycle building (FCB) will contain the following systems: fuel purification - permeator based; fuel purification - molecular sieves; impurity treatment; waste water storage and treatment; isotope separation; waste water tritium extraction; tritium extraction from solid breeder; tritium extraction from test modules; tritium storage, shipping and receiving; tritium laboratory; atmosphere detritiation systems; fuel cycle control centre; tritiated equipment maintenance space; control maintenance space; health physics laboratory; access, access control and facilities. The layout of the FCB and the requirements for these systems are described. (10 figs.)

  19. [Menstrual cycle disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, María E; Pipman, Viviana; Arcari, Andrea; Boulgourdjian, Elisabeth; Keselman, Ana; Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Blanco, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The high prevalence of menstrual disorders during the first years after menarche is well recognized. This is usually a cause of concern for parents and patients, and a common reason for visiting the pediatrician. The immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the major cause of these disorders, but there are also some general organic or emotional conditions that may alter the menstrual cycle, which is a sensitive indicator of health. Physiology of the menstrual cycle, its alterations, etiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed in this article.

  20. Ramsey Results for Cycle Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, S.; Joos, F.; Muttel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Let C(G) denote the set of lengths of cycles of a graph G of order n and let (G) over bar denote the complement of G. We show that if n >= 6, then C(G) boolean OR C((G) over bar) contains all odd l with 3......Let C(G) denote the set of lengths of cycles of a graph G of order n and let (G) over bar denote the complement of G. We show that if n >= 6, then C(G) boolean OR C((G) over bar) contains all odd l with 3...